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NATO skywatch

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NATO skywatch
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Skywatch
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Skywatch magazine
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization skywatch
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NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen skywatch
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Airborne Early Warning & Control Force (Geilenkirchen, Germany) ( issuing body )
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Airborne warning and control systems -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Security, International -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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Periodicals -- NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen ( lcsh )
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NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen 16 March 2012 Volume 28, No. 5 OPERATION AFGHAN ASSIST XXX DAYS INDIASRI LANKAAFGHANIST ANNEP AL BHUT AN BANGLADESHB URMA (MYANMAR) VIETNAM CAMBODIA THAILAND LA OS CHINAP AKIST AN INDIA CHINA TURKMENISTAN UZBEKISTAN IRAN KYRGYZST ANKAZAKHST ANUZBEKIST ANT AJIKIST ANMONGOLIA Tongtian HeGhagaraYamunaSutlejNarmadaSonIndusKrishnGodavariMahanadiGangesBrahmaputraIrrawaddyHuang HeHwang HoChang JiangMekong HainanANDAMAN IS.NICOBAR IS.Gt. Nicobar MERGUI ARCHIP. Bunguran LA CCADIVE IS. Dongsha Qundao ARABIAN SEA BA Y OF BENGALINDIAN OCEANBo Hai YELL OW SEA Gulf of Tongkin T en Deg ree Channel Gulf of Thailand SOUTH CHINA SEA Andaman SeaGulf of KachchhGulf of KhambhatGulf of MannarGulf ofMartaban Oz. Issyk Kul' Dzungar ia T ARIM PENDI QING ZANG Annapurna Mt Everest DECCAN C. Comorin Dondra Head T ur f an Depression GOBI Qinghai HuBAYAN HAR SHANORDOS D ABA SHAN RED BASINDALOU SHANDongting Hu Poyang HuPEGU YOMATANEN R.Mouths of the Mekong Mui Bai Bung Chu Yang SinWESTERN GHATSEASTERN GHATS TIEN SHANALTUN SHANKUNLAN SHANHOH XILSHANHIMALAYA GANGDISE SHANNAGA HILLSMouths of the GangesARAKAN YOMAMouths of theIrrawaddyDAWNA RANGEQILIAN SHANHUA SHANPHANOM DANG TANGGULA SHANHENGDUAN SHANBILAUKTAUNG RANGE Bishkek Almaty rmqi Aksu Yumen Hami Yinchuan Qingdao Beijing Dalian Zhengzhou Taiyuan Shijiazhuang Lanzhou Baotou New Delhi Srinagar Hotan Lhasa Xigaze Qamdo Hangzhou Wuhan Chengdu Tianjin Xi'an Mashhad Her at Bukhara Farah Karachi Gwadar Zahedan Jamnagar Bhavnagar Mumbai (Bombay) Tashk ent Mangalore Kozhikode Thiruvananthapuram Ti ruchchirappalli Hubli-Dharwar Coimbatore Jana Trincomalee Kandy Colombo Galle Bassein Tavoy Georgetown Phuket Mergui Sheberghan Mazar-e Sharif Samarkand Dushanbe Qandahar Kabul Quetta Bahawalpur Lahore Islamabad Hyderabad Sukkur Jodhpur Multan Lu c kn ow Thimphu Chongqing Katmandu Jaipur Ajmer Ahmadabad Udaipur Sur at Vadodara Varanasi Allahabad Patna Kanpur Pune Nagpur Hyderabad Solapur Kolhapur Vishakhapatnam Vij ayawada Raipur Cuttack Kolkata (Calcutta) Jamshedpur Dhaka Imphal Gauhati Kunming Guiyang Chennai (Madras) Nellore Kurnool Bangalore Mysore Madurai Chittagong Mandalay Prome Yangon (Rangoon) Henzada Akyab Moulmein Louang Prabang Vientiane Bangkok Phnom Penh Battambang Kampong Cham Can Tho Ho Chi Minh City Nha Trang Hue Da Nang Qui Nhon Nakhon Si Thammar at Songkhla Kota Baharu Haikou Vinh Nakhon Ratchasima Haiphong Hanoi Zhanjiang Nanning Liuzhou Guangzhou Shantou Changsha Fuzhou Nanchang Hengyang Chiang Mai M.Lampang Lu oyang Shanghai Hong Kong Macau 90 85 75 30 25 20 10 110 105 100 95 80 35 15 5 30 25 20 10 35 15 70 90 85 75 110 105 100 95 80 70 65 60 115120125 Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Cancer 40 0 500 1000 Miles 0 500 1000 1500 Kilometres INDIASRI LANKAAFGHANIST ANNEP AL BHUT AN BANGLADESHB URMA (MYANMAR) VIETNAM CAMBODIA THAILAND LA OS CHINAP AKIST AN INDIA CHINA TURKMENISTAN UZBEKISTAN IRAN KYRGYZST ANKAZAKHST ANUZBEKIST ANT AJIKIST ANMONGOLIA Tongtian HeGhagaraYamunaSutlejNarmadaSonIndusKrishnGodavariMahanadiGangesBrahmaputraIrrawaddyHuang HeHwang HoChang JiangMekong HainanANDAMAN IS.NICOBAR IS.Gt. Nicobar MERGUI ARCHIP. Bunguran LA CCADIVE IS. Dongsha Qundao ARABIAN SEA BA Y OF BENGALINDIAN OCEANBo Hai YELL OW SEA Gulf of Tongkin T en Deg ree Channel Gulf of Thailand SOUTH CHINA SEA Andaman SeaGulf of KachchhGulf of KhambhatGulf of MannarGulf ofMartaban Oz. Issyk Kul' Dzungar ia T ARIM PENDI QING ZANG Annapurna Mt Everest DECCAN C. Comorin Dondra Head T ur f an Depression GOBI Qinghai HuBAYAN HAR SHANORDOS D ABA SHAN RED BASINDALOU SHANDongting Hu Poyang HuPEGU YOMATANEN R.Mouths of the Mekong Mui Bai Bung Chu Yang SinWESTERN GHATSEASTERN GHATS TIEN SHANALTUN SHANKUNLAN SHANHOH XILSHANHIMALAYA GANGDISE SHANNAGA HILLSMouths of the GangesARAKAN YOMAMouths of theIrrawaddyDAWNA RANGEQILIAN SHANHUA SHANPHANOM DANG TANGGULA SHANHENGDUAN SHANBILAUKTAUNG RANGE Bishkek Almaty rmqi Aksu Yumen Hami Yinchuan Qingdao Beijing Dalian Zhengzhou Taiyuan Shijiazhuang Lanzhou Baotou New Delhi Srinagar Hotan Lhasa Xigaze Qamdo Hangzhou Wuhan Chengdu Tianjin Xi'an Mashhad Her at Bukhara Farah Karachi Gwadar Zahedan Jamnagar Bhavnagar Mumbai (Bombay) Tashk ent Mangalore Kozhikode Thiruvananthapuram Ti ruchchirappalli Hubli-Dharwar Coimbatore Jana Trincomalee Kandy Colombo Galle Bassein Tavoy Georgetown Phuket Mergui Sheberghan Mazar-e Sharif Samarkand Dushanbe Qandahar Kabul Quetta Bahawalpur Lahore Islamabad Hyderabad Sukkur Jodhpur Multan Lu c kn ow Thimphu Chongqing Katmandu Jaipur Ajmer Ahmadabad Udaipur Sur at Vadodara Varanasi Allahabad Patna Kanpur Pune Nagpur Hyderabad Solapur Kolhapur Vishakhapatnam Vij ayawada Raipur Cuttack Kolkata (Calcutta) Jamshedpur Dhaka Imphal Gauhati Kunming Guiyang Chennai (Madras) Nellore Kurnool Bangalore Mysore Madurai Chittagong Mandalay Prome Yangon (Rangoon) Henzada Akyab Moulmein Louang Prabang Vientiane Bangkok Phnom Penh Battambang Kampong Cham Can Tho Ho Chi Minh City Nha Trang Hue Da Nang Qui Nhon Nakhon Si Thammar at Songkhla Kota Baharu Haikou Vinh Nakhon Ratchasima Haiphong Hanoi Zhanjiang Nanning Liuzhou Guangzhou Shantou Changsha Fuzhou Nanchang Hengyang Chiang Mai M.Lampang Lu oyang Shanghai Hong Kong Macau 90 85 75 30 25 20 10 110 105 100 95 80 35 15 5 30 25 20 10 35 15 70 90 85 75 110 105 100 95 80 70 65 60 115120125 Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Cancer 40 0 500 1000 Miles 0 500 1000 1500 Kilometres OPERATIONAFGHAN ASSIST 1 YEAR 41 DAYSBy Staff Sgt. R. Michael Longoria The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) stopped by the E-3A Component March 6 on NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen, Germany. U.S. Navy Admiral James G. Stavridis met with Component personnel during a short base tour. You are one of the greatest AWACS teams in the world, Admiral Stavridis said. Ive been watching this Component for more than three years and Im always impressed with your accomplishments. After being welcomed by Brig. Gen. Burkhard Potozky, the Component commander, the SACEUR received three short briengs: an introduction to operations, operational impact on the training wing and operational challenges for the logistics wing. Youve been doing a terric job, especially in Libya and Afghanistan, the admiral said. Youve been ying dangerous but effective combat missions in support of NATO operations. The whole alliance appreciates the work you do. The majority of the visit was focused on those who get the mission done. The SACEUR recognized and coined 12 individuals who went above and beyond while contributing to the continued success of NATO and the E-3A Component. Its just extraordinary to see the list of things you all did in Libya and what you continue to do in Afghanistan while in support of the International Security Assistance Force, he said. My biggest reason for coming here today was just to tell you thanks. I wanted to personally thank you for what you do. Admiral Stavridis, the rst Navy admiral to become SACEUR, was appointed to his position July 2009. As the SACEUR, the admiral is one of NATOs two strategic commanders and is the head of Allied Command Operations (ACO). He is responsible to NATOs highest military authority, the Military Committee, and for the conduct of all NATO military operations. His NATO command is exercised from the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) at Casteau, near Mons, Belgium. The SACEUR, traditionally a United States Flag or General ofcer, is dual-hatted as Commander of the US European Command. SACEUR stops by GKPhotos by Andrea HohenforstThe Supreme Allied Commander Europe, U.S. Navy Adm. James G. Stavridis, poses for a photo with members of the E-3A Component in front of an AWACS. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe, U.S. Navy Adm. James G. Stavridis, applauds members of the E-3A Component March 6 on NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe, U.S. Navy Admiral James G. Stavridis, walks into Hangar I with the NAEW&C Force commander and the E-3A Component commander.

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16 March 2012 NATO Skywatch 3 NATO Skywatch is an authorized, unofcial commercial enterprise newspaper published under exclusive written agreement with the NAEW&CF E-3A Component by HOUX DIGIPRINT, Arendstraat 3, 6135 KT Sittard, +31 (0)46 4582111. Opinions expressed by contributors are their Volume 28, No. 5 16 March 2012 own and do not necessarily reect the ofcial views of, or endorsement by, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The appearance of advertising in this publication, including inserts or supplements, does not constitute an endorsement by NATO of the products or services advertised. Submissions are due seven days before publication and may be edited for style and space. Email articles and classied advertisements to pao@e3a.nato.int. For paid advertisements call Hub Durlinger Media at +31 (0) 46 452 9292, cellphone +31 (0)6 5472 6473 or hub@durlingermedia.nl. Articles may be reproduced after permission has been obtained from the editor, provided mention is made of NATO Skywatch. To read the NATO Skywatch online visit www.e3a.nato.int Commander Brig. Gen. Burkhard Pototzky Chief, Public Affairs Lt. Col. Antje Kalka Editor Staff Sgt. R. Michael LongoriaBy Staff Sgt. R. Michael Longoria Stories about tragic events are printed on paper or posted online almost every day. It isnt until those scenarios hit close to home that most people start to take notice. It isnt until it happens to you or someone you know that the severity of the situation can be fully grasped. Senior Master Sgt. Manfred Scholl from the E-3A Component Training Wing had to deal with tragedy head on when he received the extremely sad news that his niece lost three of her six children in a home re. On Jan. 18, a re started on the second oor of a home near the Belgian border in Aachen at about noon while three boys, ages 2, 4 and 5, were playing. The parents were downstairs with their youngest child, a 1 year old boy, and the two eldest children, a girl and a boy, were at school. While the mother and baby were able to escape to safety, the father valiantly tried to rescue his sons. Armed with a re extinguisher, he was unable to reach the second oor. The re was so severe even the re brigade had difculties controlling it when they arrived on scene. Once the ames where extinguished, the three boys were found dead in the completely burnt down house. After the tragedy, many people from the Aachen region donated money and items to support the family. However, the parents and baby are still living in a friends house and the two eldest children are staying with a relative. After learning of this unfortunate incident, Capt. Lutz Paikert, executive aide for the E-3A Component commander, worked to help put together training for Component members and their families. Home is the place where you feel the safest, but your house is also where you are most likely to die in a re, Paikert said. I felt it was extremely important to get that message out there and raise awareness so people can protect their families. In Germany, according to the Component Fire Department, two adults die a week and more than 200 children die a year as a result of residential res. Thirty percent of those res occurred because children had little or no re safety or awareness training, said John Ratzer, deputy re chief. This is why it is so important for children to understand the dangers of re. With this thought in mind, the Fire Department and Medical Squadron will host a Fire Safety Day March 23 to help the education of individuals and raise awareness about re hazards in private homes or apartments. A booth will be set up near the NATEX Retail store from 10 a.m. until 3 p.m. The best thing to do before a re starts is to make sure your family is as prepared as possible, said HermannJosef Kanters, re prevention ofcer. You should make sure your family knows how to prevent a re but also is aware of what to do the moment a re starts, including simple things like what number to call and how to get out of the house. Fire trainers and specialists from the Medical Squadron will also cover other topics including the importance of smoke detectors; what to do in case of a re; how to ght a re; what medical equipment to keep on hand and how to use it; and how to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). I want everybody to take as much as possible from the Components Fire Safety Day, Scholl said. While this incident has brought forth a very difcult time for me and my family, I encourage you all to take this opportunity to learn and raise your awareness about re safety in hopes you can avoid a similar tragedy.Awareness arises from tragedy The crew members, including maintainers, operators and support staff, of the E-3A Components 400th Operation Afghan Assist (OAA) ight pose for a photo March 5 in Mazar-e Sharif, Afghanistan. The Component has been ying OAA in support of the International Security Assistance Force since January 2011.Component completes 400th OAA ightCourtesy photo Graphic by Hay Janssen

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16 March 2012 NATO Skywatch 5 Story and photo by Staff Sgt. R. Michael Longoria Military and civilian personnel assigned to the E-3A Component recognize the importance of clear, understandable communication. With advances in technology and the emergence of internet and social media, how we communicate varies and has evolved over time. Keeping up with these changes is extremely important to ensure continued success in NATO operations. The Integrated Multilink Facility (IMF), a unit mainly sponsored by SHAPE and located at NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen, is instrumental in transitioning NATO ground sites from JTIDS Class-1 equipment to the newer Multi-functional Information Distribution System or MIDS. The new system, required to meet NATO link standards, enhances interoperability between ground and air while providing secure communication, said Maurizio De Odorico, IMF supervisor. Several ground site locations have already been updated, but De Odorico and his team of technicians, under SHAPEs direction and in conjunction with the NAMSA CSI Cell located at NPC Glons Belgium, are striving to get the remaining sites upgraded. The IMF team has already traveled to four ground site locations to do the initial set-up of the new equipment and have plans to visit roughly 10 more locations in the near future. From Norway to Turkey, SHAPE OSD Air C2 is working to ensure all ground sites are ready to go in the shortest time possible, without impacting interoperability between air and ground elements of the NATO Air Defence, De Odorico explained. With the new system in place, adequate training became a must and the IMF personnel were also willing to fulll this need. The main thing for the operators and maintainers of the new system is to understand how the hardware and software work, said Rick Ojeda, IMF instructor. With modern Communication Systems, there is a very thin line separating software from hardware. In 2012, the IMF will conduct six 2-week courses to train nationally selected ground site technicians and operators on the new system. In addition, courses specically tailored to meet national requirements are on the schedule. Instruction methodology encompasses a combination of theory and hands-on work, with comprehensive exercises held as a capstone to the course. Our primary goal is to provide training for all ground site technicians that are switching from the obsolete data-link system to the newer modern equipment, Ojeda said. We teach down to the lowest common denominator. We dont want to send anyone home unless they are procient and comfortable with the new equipment. To guarantee everyone receives adequate training during the transition to MIDS, IMF personnel, directed by SHAPE and with support from NAMSA-LE, updated the facility to mirror the actual setup of a ground site. The course syllabus has been completely re-written and tailored to suit the new equipment and the new training facility. Ojeda explained, We now have an integrated facility with ve work stations for training and testing. It is also capable of performing live-link testing of a major NATO tactical data link. De Odorico stated that setting up this newly congured training facility in less than a year has been an extraordinary achievement. This has been possible thanks to SHAPE and NAMSA-LE believing in the capabilities and potentials of the IMF personnel, De Odorico said. Not to be forgotten is the support provided by BLB Aachen, through our Infrastructure Division and the local BwDLZ, who were pestered with all sorts of last minute requirements for the new set-up. The rst scheduled course was only possible thanks to the dedication and support of the IWINW branch personnel that ensured telephone lines and networks were installed in time. De Odorico also wanted to thank Ojeda and Niels Jensen, an IMF technician and instructor, for playing key roles in the successful completion of the upgraded facility. The dedication and enthusiasm with which they confronted the new challenge deserve special mention, he said. National delegates attending the ACCS Hardware Sub-Committee meeting hosted by the Logistics Wing at the E-3A Component in November 2011 were also impressed by the new set-up and positively commented on the high level of professionalism of IMF personnel, De Odorico added. The ERCS-IMF (ECM Resistant Communications System-IMF) was created in 1987, sponsored mainly by SHAPE OSD Air C2 and located at Geilenkirchen by specic request of the Nations to reduce the in-service costs of the ground terminals by ltering their units prior to sending them to industry. It was later decided the IMF technicians would also perform repairs of the units and provide technical support/training to site personnel. At the time of creation, the IMF acronym stood for Intermediate Maintenance Facility. Although repair of MIDS is being limited to industry, this will not change the important ltering role of the IMF now as the Integrated Multilink Facility.IMF ensures communication success from the ground upRick Ojeda, Integrated Multilink Facility technician and instructor, helps two students with a practical exercise on the new Multi-functional Information Distribution System during a training course on March 1. From E-3A Component Public Affairs It was a rainy day at Camp Marmal in Mazar-e Sharif (MeS), Afghanistan, and the camp was ooded after heavy rainfall. Despite the adverse weather conditions, the rst accommodation container was handed over from the German Ofce for Construction to the NATO AEW&C Force Element with minimal delay. After a thorough check of the rooms and the supplied equipment, the symbolic key was handed over by German Army Capt. Kranig to Italian Air Force Lt. Col. Francesco Candian, the Force Element commander in MeS. Now we have a new place to call home, Candian said. The rst milestone has been nally reached in a lengthy process initiated in May 2011. Completion of the 1.8 million euro project was planned for December 2011, but had to be postponed due to some unforeseeable delays in the production of the necessary 20-foot containers. The rst crew moved into the new accommodation on Feb. 26, after having helped with installing the equipment and cleaning the rooms. A little before the rst batch of accommodation containers was handed over, the second and nal batch was assembled in only one day. It will be handed over, after completion of the interior installation, in March 2012. In the upcoming weeks a satellite dish will be connected to the containers and the nal outer cement work will be completed. The protective concrete T-walls will be stood up, and gravel will be laid out to suppress mud and dirt. Finally, after completion of that work, the Force Element will be allowed the build-up of the recreational tents in the newly named AWACS VILLAGE of Camp Marmal.Home Sweet Home: AWACS Village nears completionCourtesy photoWorkers move newly acquired accommodation containers into place at Camp Marmal in Mazar-e Sharif, Afghanistan.

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6 NATO Skywatch 16 March 2012 By Lt. Col. Antje Kalka What do the Global Positioning System (GPS), the town of Gangelt near our air base and a world map made in 1569 have in common? Well, they all are linked to one name: Gerardus Mercator, whose 500th anniversary was celebrated March 5. Five centuries ago, a poor couple named Kremer (or Cremer) was living in the nearby small town of Gangelt. Hubert was a cobbler and, together with his wife Emerentia, he worked a small piece of land. But the familys income could not provide more than the very basic needs of life a situation suffered by many people of lowly status at that time. Hubert Kremers brother Gisbert, however, had escaped the poverty. He had become a priest in the village of Rupelmonde, close to Antwerp in Flanders (nowadays part of Belgium). During a family visit to Gisbert, Emerentia gave birth to her seventh child in the early morning hours of March 5, 1512. They named the little boy Gerhard (or Geerd). A few weeks later, the couple returned to Gangelt with their little son, back into poverty and the daily struggle to raise a family. In the hope of starting a better life, the Kremer family moved from Gangelt to Rupelmonde some years later. Gisbert, the priest, took care of Gerhard. He sent his six-year old nephew to schools where the boy could study Latin (the language of Europes educated elite), religion and arithmetic. This education promised a career in the Church and therefore a better life for him. In the 16th century it was a common practice that young scholars Latinized their names. So did Gerhard Kremer. When he enrolled in 1530 at the University of Leuven, he called himself Gerardus Mercator Rupelmundanus (Gerard Mercator of Rupelmonde). Mercator is the translation of the German name Kremer into Latin, as they both mean merchant. The University of Leuven was (and still is) a world-famous Catholic university in Flanders, one of the oldest in Europe. Gerardus Mercator took courses in humanities and philosophy but very soon became aware of contradictions between the biblical accounts of creation and the ideas of Aristotle and other philosophers. Such thoughts were dangerous in an epoch when even expressing doubt was close to heresy. In 1532, Mercator left the university with a Masters degree and traveled a lot in Flanders. The prominent geographer Monachus became one of his friends and this friendship fanned Mercators enthusiasm for geography. In 1534, he returned to his alma mater to study mathematics. At the beginning, Gerardus was a lousy mathematician. His background knowledge from school was insufcient to cope with the subject. But Mercator was thinking big. He wanted to become cosmographer, a scientist producing maps to describe the cosmos, both heaven and earth. And he soon overcame the gaps in his mathematical knowledge. His academic teacher Gemma Frisius well understood Mercators desire and deep wish to apply science to geography and astronomy in order to understand the universe. Frisius was convinced that the precise description of phenomena had to be the rst step for a deeper understanding of universal principles. He had, for example, invented a new triangulation technique. This method allows the location of a geographic point to be determined by measuring angles to it from known points. In other words, Frisius had applied a scientic method to solve a practical problem and to achieve a better understanding of the world. Gerardus Mercator was fascinated by the practical application of science. He became an engraver and instrument maker whilst also tutoring students at Leuven. In 1541, Mercator constructed his own terrestrial globe. It was the rst one with compass lines across the oceans, and had been commissioned by the Emperor Charles V. And now Gerardus Mercator had found his ultimate mission: description and illustration of the world. For the rest of his life, he condensed the available scientic knowledge about the universe into maps, globes and scientic instruments. He mapped the world in order to understand not only the world but the whole of creation. Mercators excellent skills in engraving and calligraphy, both of which were essential for the production of globes and maps, soon made him a specialist who was in great demand. His works are famous for their exactitude and their precise details. This was rstly the result of Mercators comprehensive scientic approach and his meticulous search for information. In addition, as an excellent craftsman, Mercator used copper instead of wood to produce printing plates. The slimmer lines of letters engraved in copper allowed him to place much more information on his globes and maps than by using wooden printing plates. Mercator produced his rst map in 1537. It was one of Palestine. No, he had never been there. But he had grown up with the Bible and reproduced the locations of the cities and villages mentioned there on his maps. Mercator had a master plan in mind: He wanted to publish a book which should be in fact a compilation The man who mapped the world 500th anniversary of Gerardus Mercator, pioneer of navigation and famous cartographerBy Capt. Nick Edwards Universal Transverse Mercator uses a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system to give locations on the surface of the Earth. It is only used for horizontal positions, meaning that it does not take elevation into account. It is not a single projection but rather divides the earth into sixty zones, each being a six-degree band of longitude. This method dates back to around 1569, when a Flemish geographer and cartographer by the name of Gerardus Mercator introduced the world to the Mercator projection. This quickly became the standard for nautical navigation because of its ability to represent lines of constant course, which today we call rhumb lines and still use in our mission planning process. His projection eased the workload of navigators worldwide by eliminating the need to try to pinpoint exact locations on curved reference lines; instead we are able to use the UTM grid which by design allows us to nd any location using LAT/LONG or the UTM grid (UTM Universal Transversal Mercator Projection), and the two systems are easily interchangeable. His contribution to the world of navigation would later become one of the founding theories for the modern GPS (Global Positioning System). I think Mercator would be impressed if I had the chance to sit him down in the cockpit of the E-3A. After the initial shock of all the gauges, dials, buttons, switches and the two pilots trying frantically to nd their ight meals, wed lay our charts on the navigators table to review our missions ight path for the day. As the GPS receivers roared into life hed notice the ease of use as we nd our own position on his chart and see the relationship between GPS and his UTM system. Most of the ight would be GPS point to GPS point, but as we entered the mission area we would switch to a mix of GPS and UTM systems to enable us to get the best radar picture for our location. This past week I had the opportunity to plan a few long-range ights for the E-3A, and thanks to Mercator I am able to plan a ight to any part of the world using one chart laid at on a table. If you think this sounds minor, try mission planning on a globe. My NCOs gained a new found respect for Mercator while holding that globe as I tried. Mercator is always onboard E-3A Gerardus Mercator, the worldfamous cartographer, grew up in the Geilenkirchen region. One of his achievements was to bring the magnetic pole down to earth. In the Middle Ages it was said to be located in the universe.

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16 March 2012 NATO Skywatch 7 Story and photo by Lt. Col. Antje Kalka Our neighboring town of Gangelt, Mercators birthplace, is also celebrating his 500th anniversary in 2012. On March 5, the bells of churches in both Gangelt and Rupelmonde were rung to honor the famous cartographer. Gangelt has renamed a square Rupelmonder Platz (at the end of the Lindenstrasse) to commemorate Mercators birthplace. Here, also on March 5, a plaque was unveiled which provides information about Mercators life. On Rupelmonder Platz you will also nd another monument, the Geographical Point (see photo). And on the wall of the Historical Town Hall of Gangelt is a portrait of the towns most famous son. On www.gangelt.de you can nd more information and the yer Mercatorjahr 2012 (only in German) with the schedule of activities such as lectures and concerts. The man who mapped the world of different regional maps, comprising all the geographical knowledge of the 16th century. The idea of the atlas was thus born. However, his rst atlas, Atlas sive Cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi et fabrica gura (Atlas or Cosmographic Reections on the Creation of the World and the Shape of Creations), was only published in 1595 some months after his death. Sixteenth century Flanders saw many conicts between Protestant reformers and Catholic traditionalists. In February 1544, Mercator was imprisoned there after he had corresponded with Protestants and others who had doubts about aspects of Roman Catholic dogma. Together with other offenders, the 27-year -old famous scientist was charged with heresy. In addition, he had made himself suspicious by travelling a lot to collect data for his maps. Some of the other prisoners were burned at the stake or buried alive. But no proof could be found to connect Mercator to them. And, probably more important, the University of Leuven pulled strings to obtain the famous cartographers release. Mercator went back to Leuven and continued his work. But in 1552 he moved to Duisburg in the Duchy of Cleves (now Germany). The Duke of Cleves pursued a policy of religious tolerance, and Mercator probably wanted to live in a more liberal environment of that kind. In addition, Duisburg offered attractive academic prospects: a new university was planned for the town, which is located on the rivers Rhine and Ruhr. Mercator was offered employment by the Duke of Cleves and opened a cartographic workshop. Although the plans for founding a university were scrapped a decade later, Mercator was able to establish himself as the leading European mapmaker. For his maps he used various projections, always with the aim of producing a map that was as close to reality as possible. Mercator became a wealthy man. He and his family (he and his wife Barbara he had married in 1536 and eventually the couple had six children) moved into a large house in the wealthiest quarter of Duisburg. In 1564, the 52-year old Mercator was appointed Court Cosmographer to Duke of Jlich, Cleves and Berg. A new, extremely productive era began, resulting in a new kind of map projection, the Mercator projection. Gerardus had devised a method of projection that simplies navigation. On a Mercator projection map all longitude, latitude and rhomb lines appear as straight lines. The advantage for navigators is that they see their course as a straight line on the map. Mercator published his worldfamous map in 1569. It is an everlasting testament to human scientic brilliance. The title Ad usum navigantium indicates that this map was intended for maritime navigation, but Mercators revolutionary projection method was applicable to all kinds of maps. To this very day, land maps, nautical charts, maps for air travel and for outer space are based on the Mercator projection. Mercator maps enable the exact orientation that is essential for any kind of safe routing. Our E-3A navigators (see Capt. Nick Edwards article) put their trust in Mercators projection too. Satellites and even Mars robots receive their courses instructions in accordance with Mercators technique. Gerardus Mercator died in Duisburg in December 1594. His son Rumold and his grandsons completed his lifelong mission when they published, in 1595, the rst atlas. This compilation with more than 100 maps contained a world map with two hemispheres, as well as maps of Europe, Africa and Asia. In a second edition a map of America was added. The fact that Australia was not mentioned is not a mistake that continent was not yet discovered. What remains to be said after 500 years? Gerardus Mercator was more than a unique geographer, a brilliant scientist, and an inspired craftsman. Mercator represents global thinking. He represents an approach in which curiosity is the predominant mind set. Although Gerardus Mercator was well aware that his modern, scientic and universal thinking challenged traditional views, he lived a life that was just like his projection in straight lines. An impressive document of global thinking: the rst atlas. The original title is Atlas or Cosmographic Reections on the Creation of the World and the Shape of Creations and it is much more than a simple compilation of maps. Photos courtesy of Kulturund Stadthistorisches Museum DuisburgThis original map from 1569 is the rst world map using Mercators projection. This pioneering idea for assisting navigation is still used as the basis for UTM and GPS. Photo by Staff Sgt. R. Michael Longoria Gangelt celebrates Mercator Following Mercators tracks in EuropeOnly three copies of Mercators original world maps ad usum navigantium (for the use of navigators) published in 1569 have been preserved. One can be found at Basel University, Switzerland, the second at the National Library in Paris, France, and a third one at the Maritime Museum Prins Hendrik in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The town of Sint-Niklaas in Eastern Flanders (Belgium) is planning many activities in 2012 to celebrate Mercator. Concerts, lectures and guided tours are scheduled. For more information (in Dutch language only), go to www.mercator2012.be.

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16 March 2012 NATO Skywatch 9 E-3A Component conducts rst operational ight in 1982The rst operational NATO E-3A, call sign NATO 01, took off from NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen at 9 a.m. local time on March 22, 1982. U.S. Air Force Maj. James E. Barry was the pilot on this historic mission and the rst crew consisted of 36 personnel. The sortie lasted 10 hours and ew on an orbit between Gtersloh and Bremen. By Capt. Wilko ter Horst Changing knowledge, attitude and behavior is not as simple as it seems. For many years communication experts and psychologists studied the complexity of changing peoples attitude and behavior and many books were written. When checking the internet, you will nd the most complex studies and models on how to change a person or a groups knowledge, attitude and behavior. To make it a little easier, all the studies have the same outcome. Changing knowledge, attitude or behavior is the base of all information campaigns. You have to assess and reassess the shortand long-term effectiveness of your campaign. Simply stated, did you obtain your communication goals, and did the campaign really change the knowledge, attitude or behavior within your designated target groups. Lets simplify. Knowledge, attitude and behavior are the main targets in any communication you want to achieve. Whether you work on a strategic communication plan, an advertisement campaign, explaining something to a colleague or discussing with friends, you do not communicate without a reason. You want to bring a message across and with your message you want to inform them, achieve a change in thinking or people taking action. What do you want to accomplish with your message and even more important, how? Do you want to just change the persons knowledge or their attitude toward a subject or even their behavior? Can you accomplish a change e.g. the knowledge of the target group with a simple message or do you need to use a different approach or methodology? Understanding these principles makes it somewhat easier to achieve your communication goals. The three targets explained: Knowledge: Knowledge is simply informing your target group. It is nothing more than sharing information. You want to inform your target group and give them knowledge about a certain subject. We do this on daily bases by telling stories to colleagues, writing articles, having interviews and sharing information on SharePoint. Your primary aim is informing. Attitude: With your information you want to change the attitude of your target groups. You want to inuence their way of thinking about e.g. the E-3A Component or noise. The attitude consists of only three basic understandings toward a subject. It is positive, negative or neutral. For example, the media campaign on Operation Unied Protector (OUP) changed the way of thinking about AWACS. By using the media intensively thru articles, interviews and news items we not only changed the knowledge, but more important the attitude positively toward NATO AWACS. The community started to realize that without AWACS no OUP and the necessity of us being stationed at Geilenkirchen. People changed their opinion from negative to neutral and even toward positive. Behavior: Changing behavior means we want the target group to actively react on a message. Actually, we want them to do something differently than what they did before. But before changing the behavior, we rst have to change the attitude towards the subject. Attitude and behavior are closely related. It is mission impossible to change the behavior of your target group when they are negative towards a subject. For example, newspapers stated the quality of a certain product is becoming worse. Even if it is true or false, people reading the article will immediately react and change their attitude and behavior towards the mentioned product. In the worst case they stop buying the product. The campaign for the company has to start by changing the attitude of the target groups positively towards the product by showing the public that the product remained the same. As soon as they establish the trust again in the product, they are able to change the behavior of the customer again. Buying the product again. How do you make your choices? Target group information is essential for the right choice. Which of the three targets are important at what moment in your campaign? Keep in mind what you want to accomplish with your message. Just informing people, an article in the Skywatch or the internet is convenient. Do you want a change in attitude the way you want people to think about a certain subject you will need more medium and a wellsubstantiated story. Do you want people to change their behavior, e.g. lling in new forms or implementing new procedures, you rst want to change their attitude positively by explaining why it is better to have new forms or procedures. As soon as you have accomplished a change in the attitude, you can change their behavior and they will ll in the new form or work with the new procedures. The PAO ofce is always available for communication advice. We are specialized in internal and external communication, communication strategy and ready to support you.Communication: Changing knowledge, attitude and behaviorStory and photo by Tom McAdow The 2012 golng season is just around the dogleg. Weather is improving, grass is getting greener, and maintenance crews are already preparing the Openbare Golf Brunssummerheide course for another season. Golfers wanting to enjoy the 27 hole complex at a terric price can join the NATO E-3A Component International Golng Association (IGA) of Geilenkirchen. The IGA is holding its Annual General Meeting (AGM) and membership sign-up March 29 in the former Sentry Club. IGA membership entitles golfers to enjoy everyday play at Brunssummerheide, tournaments at more than a dozen courses within about an hours drive and club competitions. Membership fees this year are if paid by March 31 and if paid on or after April 1. Brunssummerheide Golf Course, which is located in the Netherlands, just minutes from the back gate, includes three 9-hole championship courses offering a variety of challenging holes, a driving range and a par-3 course. The AGM starts at 3:30 p.m. but registration begins at 2 p.m. Golfers can bring their completed applicatons and proof of payment to the meeting. Membership sign-up is done by bank transfer only this year. Those that register may collect their Members Guide 2012-2013, season sticker and, for new members, a Bag Tag. IGA members are also encouraged to be members of MWA. More information and membership appliciations can be found on the IGA Web site at www.igagolf.de. IGA on course for upcoming golf season IGA member Patricia McAdow practises for the 2012 golf season.

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10 NATO Skywatch 16 March 2012 For more information on the latest programs and upcoming events, visit the Services Branch WSS Web page. MWA Card Issuing Ofce MWA Cards are issued in Building 80 (Services Branch Accounting Section), room 16, 9 to 11:30 a.m. and 1 to 3 p.m. Monday through Thursday, and 9 to 11:30 a.m. on Fridays. An MWA Card costs 60 Euros and is valid for 12 months payment only in cash. MWA Card holders receive a 30% discount on all food/beverage items purchased at the E-3A Club or Rotodome, and also on participation in all MWA programs on base. You will also receive the Food Services Newsletter and the weekly Rotodome menu via e-mail, if you wish. Shopping Cards Effective April 1, it will be mandatory for E-3A Component personnel to present a valid shopping card to shop at all NATEX facilities. Shopping cards may be picked up Building 80, room 13, from 9 to 11:30 a.m. and 1 to 3 p.m. Monday through Thursday, and from 9 to 11:30 a.m. on Fridays. Food Services System For more information, visit the Services Branch, Food Services System WSS Page. For questions or concerns, contact Rene Peeters at ext. 4990 or e-mail rpeeters@e3a.nato.int. Rotodome: The Rotodome is the main MWA food facility open to everybody including families with children. The Rotodome is open from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. Monday through Friday and serves breakfast, lunch and dinner, along with a wide variety of pizza and salads. Rotodome Pizza: To pre-order pizza, call ext. 4937. During busy lunch-time periods, the staff cannot guarantee the pizza will be available exactly at the requested time the pizzas are made fresh and require more preparation time. All pizzas are available for take away! E-3A Club: The E-3A Club is open from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. on Mondays and 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday through Friday. The Red Lion Bar is open on Wednesdays from 4 to 10 p.m. Special Events (See Food Services Web Page for details): March 23: Steak Night April 8: Easter Brunch Coffee and Cake ( 3.55), Toasties and Bockwurst with Salad are served every day starting at 11 a.m. Coffee-to-go is also available. Additionally, a small warm dish with bread is available from 11 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. The price for MWA members is 2.50 Euros and 3.50 Euros for non-MWA members. The E-3A Club is equipped to cater for all special functions, ofcial dinners, conferences, meetings, etc., on a limited basis. To arrange details for these types of events, contact Peeters at ext. 4990. The Kegelbahn, located in Building 60, is open for use on a rental basis. Contact the activity manager for a free slot. Sports Department Sports Department facilities are open Monday through Friday from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m., and 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. on the weekends. No sports staff is available at the New Gym Monday through Thursday after 5 p.m., Fridays after 2:30 p.m. and on weekends. Patrons wishing to check out equipment need to do so before the above-mentioned times. Management apologizes for this inconvenience. All Component personnel are authorized to utilize the sports facilities free of charge. However, participation in tness classes with instructor, i.e. spinning, aerobics, dance classes, etc., are restricted to personnel in possession of a valid MWA membership card. Dependants are required to be in possession of a valid membership card to utilize the gym. Daily checks will be conducted.Utilization of the New Gym/Old GymThere are still open slots available for usage of the New/Old Gym. If interested, contact the Sports Department at ext. 4946. Fitness Classes Everyone is invited to try out one of the many tness classes offered at the Sports Department. To see the schedule, visit the Sports Department WSS page. International Youth Activities For more information or to register for one on the activities below, contact the IYA Ofce in Bldg 95 at ext. 4954/4955. For more upcoming activities, visit the IYA WSS page. Mixed Martial Arts Christian Eckl, an experienced and certied instructor, holds Mixed Martial Arts classes at the Old Gym (HAWC) on Mondays and Wednesdays from 5 to 6:3p.m. for ages 6 to 15 and 6:30 to 8 p.m. for ages 16 and up. The cost for the 3-months course, which runs from Feb. 29 to May 30, is 75. A 5 Euro discount is offered for the second and each additional family member that signs up. The rst class is free. Swimming Courses On March 6, the IYA is starting beginner and advanced swimming classes for children ages 4 and older at the Indoor Swimming Pool (Hallenbad) in Geilenkirchen on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 4:45 to 5:45 p.m. The certied instructors speak English and German. The cost for 12 lessons is 78.50, but its only 55 with a valid MWA Card. Easter Egg Hunt An Easter egg hunt, and other games, will be available for children up to the age of 12 at the IYA Playground behind Building 95 on April 2 at 2:30 p.m. Children can meet the Easter bunny, hunt for eggs and enjoy seasonal games and attractions. There is no fee. In case of a rain delay, the event will be held April 3.MWA INFORMA TIONMarchThe International Club Charity Committee will host its annual Charity Night March 23 on JFC Brunssum. Festivities will commence at 7 p.m. and are open to all NATO ID Card holders and guests who are 16 years and older. The party features dancing, music provided by a live band and one of the best DJs in the area, casino games, an assortment of rafe prizes, as well as sale of food and drinks from various country booths. This event, considered by many to be the biggest on the JFC Brunssum social calendar, is organized by volunteers from the International Club charity committee. Visitors are expected to come in fancy dress related to fairy tales, as the theme is Once upon a time, but this is not mandatory. Entrance tickets are 0 and rafe tickets are for a stack of ve. All proceeds go to the 11 different charities selected by the committee. For more information or tickets, contact Bibi Thomsen at ext. 3962.International Club hosts Charity Night

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