Fals, Gloves, Umfbrellas aid Canns.
CUBAN, SPANISH AND MEXICAN CURIOS.
Solid Silver Spoons as Souvenirs.
Tourists will be welcomed at this store to examine the great collection of fans of all kinds, with paintings representing the beautiful scenery of the Island.
MANUEL CARRANZA, Proprietor.
S ESTABLISHED 01T86.Y
From the "Florida Times-Union," the leading paper of Jacksonville, Florida.
Mr. Prince's Illustrated Guide Book of Havana and the Island of Cuba has been a perfect boon to the traveler, who not only learns what is interesting to do and see, but can easily make himself understood by the aid of the Anglo-Spanish Vocabulary contained in the Guide Book.
SETH W., FOX.
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ATAP OF TIIE CITY OF HAVANA, EXPRESSLY ENGRAVED FOR THIS NVORI -
BIOGRAPHY AND PORTRAIT
GENERAL INFORMATION RELATING TO
HAVANA, MATANZAS, CIENFUEGOS,
AND THE ISLAND OF CUBA
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS
TOGETHER WITH AN
J. C. PRINCE
SIXTH EDITION-ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
NAPOLEON THOMPSON & Co., PRINTERS AND TRANSLATORS
Nos. 33-43 GOLD STREET
aso78 9At 7
The principal object of this book, which, under its present increased and revised form, reaches the sixth edition, is to give American tourists reliable information about the beautiful Island of Cuba, so appropriately surnamed the Pearl of the Antilles. Spots having an historical interest are scrupulously depicted; ancient cities like Havana, Mlatanzas, Crdenas, Cienfuegos, Santiago, etc., are the object of special and elaborate descriptions.
The author has thought fit and proper that in this memorable year, which marks the close of the fourth century of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, to add to this book a portrait with a brief historical sketch of the genius who has given, through perseverance and innumerable sufferings of all description, a continent to the human race During the last five years, the literary talent of our generation has done wonders to unearth from the ancient and dusty parchments hidden in the libraries and museums of the old world, everything of interest relating to the discovery of America. These combined literary efforts have been embodied in the present historical and biographical sketch of Christopher Columbus, and it may not be pre-
VI CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
sumptuous on our part to hint that these pages will not only be read with pleasure by the present generation, but may eventually be of some help to those historians of the future who will recount the high deeds of Columbus on the occasion of the fifth century of the discovery of America, and recall the prowess of the imperishable Latin race for its unselfish spread of civilization.
In rearanging this work, and in order to make it accurate in all of its details and valuable to tourists, new illustrations have been added.
The Anglo-Spanish vocabulary has been carefully revised, and notable additions have been made to it; all of which leads me to think that the present edition will be of great assistance to those travelers who are unacquainted with the beautiful Spanish language.
Inquiries upon any subject treated in this work will be cheerfully answered by addressing J. C. PRINCE,
43 Gold Street,
N. B.-The attention of tourists is respectfully called to the firms advertised in this book. It is important for travelers to be acquainted with first-class houses while visiting foreign countries; those advertised in this book enjoy the confidence of the public for their honorable dealings and strict integrity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PREFACE ............................. ....... V-VI
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUs-The discovery of America ...... 1
C U BA .............................. ................... 25
C lim ate ........................................ .... 27
Soil- Population .................................... 28
Government- Religion ............................... 3
Maritime Department-A trip to Havana ............... 33
K EY W EST ............................................. 36
Entrance to the Bay of Havana ....................... 39
HAVANA .............................................. 41
El Prado ................................. ......... 45
The Casino Espafiol .................. .............. 48
T heatres ........................................... 49
Plaza de A rm as ..................................... 53
Carnival- Bull-fights ................................. 55
Churches .......................... ................ 59
F orts ............................................... 62
Markets-Cock-pits-General places of interest .......... 63
The Cocoa-nut tree .................................. 71
The Chicken dealer ................................. 73
Base Ball Clubs-Foreign Consuls ..................... 74
H ack fares .............. : ........................... 75
Vill CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
City Cars-Stage Routes-Foreign traveling ..............77
Excursion Steamship Guide...................... ...... 79
The TomAs Terry Theatre................... I....... 91
The Constancia Sugar Estate...................... 98
Fort Cast illo.......................................... 95
ISLE OF PINES............................................ 97
SAN DIEGO DE Los BASOS........................ ........ 99
PUERTO PRINCIPE................... ..................... 99
SANTIAGO DE CUBA............... ...................... 100
USEFUL HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS......................... 101
THE HOTELS OF HAVANA................................ 103
GUIDE TO CUBAN CIGAR MANUFACTURERS ................108
DUTIES ON TOBACCO, ETC................................. 116
PRINCIPAL CIGARETTE FACTORIES........................ 117
THE CIGAR FACTORIES OF HAVANA......... ............. 119
SUGAR PLANTATIONS IN THE ISLAND OF CUBA ............125
SHOPPING IN HAVANA.................................... 175
ADVERTISEMENTS.................... ............... 178-224
PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP LINES AND RAILROADS ............225
VOCABULARY...................... ...................... 281
NOTICE To HOTEL-KEEPERS.............................. 260
CALENDAR............................ .................. 262
THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.
According to the most reliable historians Columbus was boru in Genoa, Italy. In his tenderest years he was bereft of both father and mother, and left to his own resources, having no friend, no guardian to advise him or to whom he could look for help and support.
Columbus passed his younger days in Genoa, a seaport surrounded by high mountains and bearing the. same name as that of the city of his birth.
2 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
During his youth, lhe would pass at play many hours of the day on the sea shore, listening with the curiosity of his age to the stories of travels recounted by the sailors. Christopher Columbus was of fair complexion, with curly red hair and very bright, fiery eyes.
Oftentimes he would be found alone, walking silently on the beach, contemplating the infinite vastness of the ocean and listening to the murmur of the waves. Who can tell if at that very time Columbus did not entertain already the idea of circumnavigating the globe?
In his youth he made long sea voyages. His courage and agility gained for him the admiration of his superiors. It was at the beginning of his career as a sailor that he visited Greece, the shores of Africa, England, and that his inclination for adventures made him undertake a trip to Iceland, surrounded by the icy Waters of the Arctic seas Old sailors entertained him of the stories of ancient mariners who had been carried by south-eastern winds and had seen immense stretches of rich lands, which they had named country of the vine, and which according to their narration were inhabitated
Those stories preoccupied his mind; they spurred his desires and aspirations, and he doubted sometimes whether they would be ever satisfied or realized. In his dreams he thought he saw an enchanted nymph, clad in brilliant garments, holding in her hand exotical flowers, and crowned with flowers no less beautiful and rare. He would bow to the charming apparition, who would tell him in soft musical tones: "Leave, and go far! Very far! beyond the seas! discover a New World!
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 3
When thou bast reached that strange land, preach the religion of Peace and not that of War! "
When he would awaken from those dreams, be would study with increased ardor the maps of the lands and the charts of the seas. He would ref use to take part in the amusements of his companions, in order to devote all his time to his studies.
In those days men in general believed that the earth was a flat disc. Few among the learned men believed in the Pythagorean doctrines, which had been enunciated before Jesus Christ. No more credence was given to Ptolemy who declared in Alexandria, one hundred and forty years after Christ, that the earth had the form of a ball.
Columbus who was studying incessantly this important question, finally mastered the trustworthiness of those assertions. He haa by that time acquired a thorough knowledge of navigation, and moreover he was full of life and valor, and his anxiety to travel west was on the increase.
He believed that by following a westernward course he would reach India directly; but divers voyages undertaken in the western zones without any tangible success had finally dampened his ardor, inasmuch as he was short of resources for Such costly undertakings.
After marrying in one of the most illustrious Italian families, he settled in the Portuguese island of Porto Santo. One day he accidentally discovered a few maps which bad been left by his great grandfather. The study of those maps confirmed him in the correctness of his ideas
4 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
while it endowed the stories he had heard about Iceland and the fabulous country of the vine, a certain degree of trutlifulnes.
From that instant Columbus was persuaded of the possibility of finding his way to a new continent. The dreams of his youth, the desires and the ardor of the past were again awakened in the full grown man, and he could not remain any longer in the island of Porto Santo.
Accompanied by his wife and his son, he left for Lisbon, in order to ask from the King of Portugal the necessary means to carry out his gigantic undertaking. The King was loth to believe in his plans, and played false with the man's noble aspirations.
Upon the death of his wife, which occurred during his sojourn in Lisbon, Columbus undertook on foot the voyage to Spain. Here Providence, who had marked him for a glorious destiny, was manifestly instrumental in changing the course of the eventful life of the great discoverer.
After a day of fatiguing march on the highways, father and son came by a monastery. The son, feeble and footsore, asked his father with great persistency to knock at the door and beg for a night's hospitality from the monks. His son's condition, who was almost dying with the fatigue of the long umarch, had the better of hip, pride, and Columbus knocked at the door of the monastery.
The monks gave a friendly greeting to the man pale with hunger and fatigue and to the delicate and worn-out son. When both had been revived with food and rest,
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 5
the Father Superior questioned them upon the object of their voyage. Columbus told his story, and was listened to attentively by the Superior, who was struck by his language and the magnitude of his ideas. Thereupon he called in his two friends, one, Hernandez, a learned doctor in medicine, and the other, Valazco, an intrepid and wise sailor. It was thus, in a small room of the monastery of La Rabida, that Columbus explained his plans to those learned men.
When he got through with his demonstration, Superior P6rez exclaimed with enthusiasm: "Your project will be realized, and Spain will share with you the honor and glory of this great enterprise!"
It was then decided that Columbus should go to the Court of King Ferdinand, with a letter of recommendation to the father-confessor of the Queen. At that epoch the King with his spouse, Dona Isabella, was in the camp before the city of Granada, where the Moors were intrenched in this their last foothold in Spain after an occupation of seven hundred years. The fatherconfessor, who was a friend of Superior PNrez, listened with interest to Columbus' plans; however, he could do no better than to advise him to be patient. Once the war ended, there would be some favorable chances to win the sovereigns to his project. Once more, the poor and weak had to wait for the rich and powerful.
Weak and discouraged he visited several states, and finally he had made up his mind to leave for France, where he had had promises of ships,. when Superior
Perez decided to make a last effort. He saddled his mule and went to the camp in order to speak in person to the Queen, who was at last persuaded.
Columbus was called to the court, at the very time, thanks to good fortune, the war was ending. Boabdil, the last King of the Moors had to leave the beautiful castle of Alhambra, and with broken heart had to surrender to the victors the keys of Granada.
The Sovereigns where now in a position to grant Columbus the necessary means for the enterprise. This had for consequence to give him renewed energy, and the audacious mariner seeked an audience from the King and Queen. He unfolded his plans with great enthusiasm. The Queen was under the impression that Columbus intended to preach the christian faith; but the King, who was of a suspicious character, ref used to accept the propositions of Columbus. "You want to be Admiral and Vice-Roy of the countries you discover," said the King angrily, "to this, assuredly, I shall never consent."
However, Columbus was inflexible in his just demands, and again left court with the intention of going to France. But the Queen who had finally succeeded to overcome the objections of her spouse prevented Colurnbus' departure. And at last the sun of good fortune shone radiantly upon the man who had passed through the bitter experience of a life of incessant disappointments.
Ferdinand acceeded to all the demands of Columbus, and the Queen assuaged his paternal anxiety regarding
his son, which he had to leave in Spain, by assuring him that she would create him a page in the suite of her own son. "I shall do all in my power to help you in this great undertaking," said the Queen, "and I will sell my jewels in order to equip the ships you need !"
It was on the 3d of August, 1492, that this extraordinary man sailed from the port of Palos with his small crafts, and directed the little squadron towards unknown lands. Columbus had waited eighteen years for this propitious event, sorrow and misery had already whitened his hair, but his energy and faith were still unshaken, while his heart was full of hope.
He sailed upon the caravel Santa Maria, while the Niha and Pinta were respectively commanded by the brothers Pinzon. When they had lost sight of the Canary islands, surrounded by the immensity of the Atlantic ocean, the enthusiasm of the sailors was somewhat dampened. A whole month had already passed, and the caravels were still in the midst of the ocean without the least sign of land. It was at that period of the voyage that his companions began to murmur, and wanted Columbus to return to Spain.
It was with humility that the Admiral prayed his rebellious companions to have patience, and exhorted them to perseverance. "Follow me a little while longer," said Columbus, "and we shall reach the end of our jour"ney. Remember that plants from an unknown clime "as well as corpses of a strange race have been carried "by the waves upon the shores of the Canary islands; "consequently, there must exist in the West, which
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 9
"is the course we follow, a land yet unknown to us. "Learned men, among them Martino de Behain, of Nur"mberg, and the Italian Toscanelli, are of opinion that in following a western course, unknown lands must be "discovered."
" Very well," answered the sailors, "we shall follow "thee for a few days longer; but if after that respite the "desired land is not reached, we shall exact from thee to "return to Spain."
A few days passed away, and notwithstanding that Columbus was fully convinced the little squadron was nearing land, no sign of it was yet perceptible, and despair was hourly on the increase among the crews.
However, Columbus remained undaunted and firm as the rock before his mutinous companions.
The evening of the 11th of October was already clad in darkness, and the Admiral, who had consulted his maps all day, was then pacing the deck in a pensive mood and scrutinizing the horizon with anxiety. While thus engaged he saw a light which appeared and disappeared at intervals. Columbus communicated his discovery to two of his sailors, who also perceived the light, but did not attach any great importance to the fact.
This luminous apparition, however, filled the Admiral with new hopes; again concentrating his sight in the direction where the light had shone, his heart palpitated with stronger energy. le thought the morrow might reveal the land bo much desired. Wakeful nights had exhausted his strength, and towards morning he sue-
10 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
cumbed to sleep. It was then that the goddess of his youth again appeared to him in his slumber. The beautiful fairy, crowned with exotic flowers as of yore, bent towards him, and while touching his forehead, exclaimed : "Thy golden and ideal dream, which thou hast pursued "over the deep sea is at last realized. Thou art near the "New World! "
At that very instant, the first rays of the rising sun were reflected upon the water, and the cry of Land! Land!" was heard. The happy tiding came from the Pinta, from whose deck the sailor Rodrigo de Triana had first seen the land.
As if blinded by lightening, Columbus awoke from his sleep. There could not be any illusion about the discovery, for before him could be seen a beautiful green isle. The naked eye could already distinguish clusters of trees as well as human beings of a dark color. Later on, birds with brilliant plumage were flying and singing over the decks of the caravels, as if to bid "Welcome to the visitors of the New World. Columbus fell upon his knees to thank the Almighty, while his sailors pressed around him to beg his pardon for their incredulity.
A short time afterwards, Columbus ordered the anchors to be thrown and the boats lowered. Dressed in his costume of Admiral, he stepped on the first boat, and in a few minutes he landed with his men upon the shore, which presented an admirable spectable on account of the beautiful plants which covered it in abundance.
When he landed, Columbus planted the Spanish flag, thus taking possession of the newly discovered land-
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 11
which he named San Salvador, and later on Guanahaniin the names of his sovereigns.
His companions, who had immediately followed him on shore, kissed the earth and cried with joy. They erected a cross as a sign that the christian faith was to be preached to the human beings who inhabitated this strange land. The Indians, who were of a copper color, with a mild physionomy and beautiful eyes, at first were timid and kept at a distance, while admiring apparently the white meni, whom they saw for the first time. Gradually they lost their shyness and came nearer the Spaniards. Columbus received them with great amiableness, and ordered his companions to treat them with equal consideration.
In this manner, pleasant relations were established between the Indians and the Spaniards, and the sojourn of the worn-out sailors in the enchanted island was thus made agreeable while resting from the fatigue of a long sea voyage.
However, with Columbus' insatiable activity, their rest was of short duration. Shortly after this first landing, they set sail again on their mission of discovery. At the expiration of two months they had landed in several islands, and visited various savage tribes. Columbus was yet of the opinion that those islands formed part of the group of India. Having discovered them while sailing West, he called them the West Indies, a designation which they have borne to these days.
At Christmas of the year 1492, the expedition met with a great misfortune. At sundown, after having
12 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
given the pilot his instructions and recommended him great carefulness, Columbus went to his cabin to take a much needed rest. The pilot disobeyed the precise orders of the Admiral, and the consequence was the loss of the caravel Santa Maria, who struck the rocks near the island of Cuba. In this circumstance, the presence of mind and the coolness of Columbus were remarkable; it was due to him that the lives of the whole crew were saved, but the caravel was a total wreck.
It was after this accident that Columbus, with a few of his companions -the majority remaining in the New World-sailed back to Spain in the Niha.
The return trip was full of hardships ; heavy weather prevailed most of the time. Notwithstanding, they finally arrived safely in Spain, and on the 4th of March landed at the port of Palos, which had seen, seven months previously, the departure of the expedition amidst the mockeries of many.
The contrast between the reception and departure could not have been greater; for the ovation granted Columbus could not have been more enthusiastic. The Indians which the Admiral had taken along with him on his return trip to Europe had the effect of creating considerable curiosity. Their copper color, and their queerly painted face, the earrings which ornamented their nose and ears had the effect of astonishing the spectators. Following the Indians were men carrying birds of variegated plumage; these in turn were followed by sailors leading animals which had never been seen before in Europe, while others disembarked with rare plants from
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 13
the New World. T his part of the procession was closed by other sailors carrying large vases with rings of gold, which had been secured from the Indians in exchange for some trinkets. The profusion of the objects thus landed, gave an adequate idea of the richness of the foreign land just discovered.
Then came Christopher Columbus seated upon a magnificent steed. 1-is stately and imposing hearing ; the softness of his great blue eyes, into which determination was plainly readable, mi~de of the famous discoverer a picture of intrepidity allied to greatness. Like a vic torious king, he was worthy of being seen; and like a victorious kiug he was acclaimed.
Ferdinand and Isabella had a platform erected in one of the squares of Barcelona. It was there, seated upon a throne richly Ornamnted, that they awaited the arrival of the courageous sailor.
On his coining before the throne, the monarchs rose and came forward to meet him. Columbus made a movement as if to kneel, but he was prevented from doing so, and the sovereigns invited him to a seat at their side. This was a most extraordinary distinction, unknown to the etiquette of the Spanish court.
Columbus began by recounting the various incidents of his voyage. He was listened to with great interest by all, as he enumerated the great advantages the King and Spain would derive from the immense natural resources of the countries he had discovered.
All knelt, and with tears of joy, began to sing a hymn of thanks to the Almighty, who had chosen Columbus as
14 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
the worthy instrument for the accomplishment of so great deeds.
Thereafter, King Ferdinand reaffirmed Columbus' privileges to the twelfth portion of all royal rights; he also conferred upon him and his descendants the perpetual title of Admiral for West Indies; he granted him an escutcheon bearing the royal arms of Castille and Leon with this inscription : "For Castille and Leon, Columbus discovered a New World !"
While the honors thus bestowed on Columbus were of a nature to gratify the pride of the mariner, he experienced great satisfaction on the other hand in finding that his son Diego had made marked progress both physically and mentally, and promised to be an object of just pride to his family.
In the meantime, the good fortune of Columbus began to excite envy among the courtiers, they were intriguing to deprive him of his laurels.
At a grand feast, given by the High Cardinal of Spain in honor of Colombus, some of the courtiers-secretly at first, but openly later on-began to make sport of the distinctions and honors showered upon the Admiral. "What has he accomplished that is so very marvelous ? said one of them, "if the King had given me the necessary ships with the same equipment, I could have discovered the New World easy enough! "
"Same with me! Same with me exclaimed the
other envious courtiers.
Columbus remained quiet under these jealous taunts, and gave the order to a domestic to bring him an egg.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 15
When the domestic had brought him the desired article, he said with great coolness: "Who, among of you, 4 gentlemen, can make this egg stand upon one of its ends?" The courtiers, one after the other, tried the experiment unsuccessfully. Then Columbus took the egg, and by a gentle knock depressed one of its extremeties so as to make it stand upright, and in this manner solved the problem apparently so difficult.
Undaunted, the courtiers exclaimed: "But this we "also can do!"
" Undoubtedly, gentlemen!" answered Columbus, "but not before I showed you how to go to work at it. "The same thing with the discovery of the New World; "you know now how to proceed since I have shown you "how it was done!"
COLUMBUS' SECOND EXPEDrION.
On the 25th of September, 1493, Columbus set sails on his second expedition to what is now known as the West Indies. Howsoever brilliant and enthusiastic the reception that greeted Columbus at Barcelona on his return in the sunny resplendence of the spring of the year, the occasion of his second departure was made no less brilliant and enthusiastic, although it took place under an autumnal sun.
On this occasion the vessels did not leave from the little port of Palos, but from the grand bay of Cadiz. The expedition, as formerly, was not restricted to but three caravels; on the contrary, the Vice-Roy was
16 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
at the head of a majestic fleet, fully equipped in order to strenghten the colonies already established and enable its commander to proceed to new discoveries.
The approaches to the port, were crowded by the multitude that had come from all quarters. The spectacle presented by the variety of costumes of this great affluence was not less remarkable than the diversity of the contingent that forced its way through it to reach the vessels upon which they were assigned. Here could be seen a scion of a noble family, dressed in his most brilliant costume, winding his way through the great and cheering crowd, while a little further back, priests and monks, with ascetic faces and austere mien, wrapped in the sombre vestments of their orders, were no less anxious to reach the deck of their respective ships.
Then last, came Columbus. All eyes were set upon this hero of great physical stature, who, accompanied by his son Diego, trended his way to the shore amidst the acclamations of the multitude.
At last father and son parted ; the latter to resume his functions at the court, the former to give the signal of departure for new perils and privations, more discoveries and glory.
In the course of this expedition, and of several others undertaken by Columbus, he discovered many more islands and founded numerous colonies. At last, entering the mouth of the Orinoco, he discovered the mainland of the new continent. The glory of this discovery is due to him; but he was shorn of the so well-earned honor of giving his name to the New World. This
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. iT
honor was bestowed upon an Italian named Americo Vespucci, who had explored the regions of Brazil.
The last years of Columbus were years of bitter suffering and great affliction. Death was already claiming this noble heart, who was bleeding at the spoliations to which the peaceable indigenous inhabitants of America were the victims on the part of the Spaniards. In their anxiety to accumulate gold, the Spaniards were forgetting they were dealing with human beings like themselves; consequently, the poor Indians were treated with the utmost cruelty when they manifested the least reluctance in parting with their riches. Even the priests, who had been specially sent to the West Indies to evangelize the aborigenes, behaved in the most rapacious manner. Far from preaching the religion of peace and good-will, they would resort to extreme measures of physical coercion to force the natives to receive the baptismal rites. Discontentment was on the increase. Repeated uprisings were the natural consequences of proceedings so unfair and inhuman.
Columbus suffered greatly because of so shameful conduct on the part of his companions. The very nobleness of his heart made him the natural protector of the persecuted. He punished the offenders severely, and without distinction. Birth or position could not shield the culprit or prevent Columbus from exercising impartially the attributes of justice. This had for effect to exasperate the rapacious nobles and the cruel priests. They conspired together and resolved the ruin of Columbus by all possible means. It was with this object in view that they secretly dispatched a vessel to Spain, with an
18 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
emissary on board who had the mission of proffering before the King charges against Columbus.
Ferdinand, who had only as a last resort granted Columbus a twelfth of the royal rights upon the new domains, was rather well disposed to lend credence to the infamous charges made against his Vice-Roy.
lie ordered a hidalgo by the name of Bobadilla-a man known for his unscrupulousness-to sail for the West Indies, with the special mission of bringing Columbus back to Europe. This miserable instrument of a cowardly conspiracy accepted the mission with alacrity and discharged it with infamy.
Once in West Indies, he ordered the great navigator to be placed in irons, and had him conveyed to the ship like a common malefactor.
What a fall for a man who so recently had had the greatest honors bestowed upon him; what humiliation for so illustrious a personage to be treated so contemptuously at a sudden. The thought that he was innocent and the victim of envy, and the consciousness of having discharged his duties with impartiality, sustained him in this great affliction.
The conduct of captain Andres Martin, to whom had been entrusted the command of the ship that brought Columbus back to Europe, was of great contrast with that of the miserable Bobadilla. The moment he raised anchor in the port of Santo Domingo, he approached the noble prisoner with great respect, and asked him to give him his hands in order to free him from the chains that were cutting his flesh.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 19
"I thank you for your offer," answered Columbus, "the King has sent me word in writing to submit to all "the orders of Bobadilla ; I will carry these chains until "Ferdinand relieves me of them, and even until death "if I should be called away sooner. They will bear tes"timony of Spain's ingratitude, and of the manner she "rewards the services of a man she recently raised so "proeminently."
When the vessel reached the port of Cadiz, Columbus was conveyed to the shore like a common criminal. The indignation of the people, who held Columbus in great esteem, knew no bounds. Every Spaniard, imbued with a sentiment of justice, felt for the noble man's ill-treatment, and murmurs of anger could be heard against the Regent who had allowed the consummation of so shameful an action.
Universal discontent and the influence of the Queen, who had never ceased to befriend the illustrious Admiral, finally convinced Ferdinand that he had been guilty of a great injustice. A letter of Columbus written to their Majesties, and in which he passed in review the accusations made against him, and where he exposed the malice and hatred of Bobadilla, dispelled all the doubts the Queen might have still entertained, and decided Ferdinand to immediately summon Columbus to Granada.
On his arrival, the Queen, with tears in her eyes, gave him her hand to kiss. For the first time the great Admiral, worned and demoralized, lost his nerve and presence of mind. -Te fell, crying, at the feet of Queen Isabella, and allowed her to take off his chains.
20 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
THE COLUMBUS TABLET IN THE CATHEDRAL OF HAVANA.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 21
At all hazards it seemed as if Columbus was on the way to be reinstated in the King's favor; however, the appearances proved false, for his star was on the decline, and doomed to disappear altogether in a very shft time.
King Ferdinand was unrelenting in his annoyances of every description, and at the death of the noble and generous Isabella the Catholic, the discoverer of a continent, the man who had been the instrument of refilling the coffers of the crown and create a hallow of glory around the Spanish name, was shorn of all his rights and despoiled of most all his property.
Ingratitude, bitter sufferings and abject privations were his lot. On the 21st of May, 1508, at the age of 70 years, he died of a broken heart, while uttering these last words:
"Father, I place my soul in thy hands!"
There is something strange in the fact that the remains of a man whose career had been so agitated, and who had known no repose in his life of adventurous travels, foulid a last resting place only many years after his death.
At first his body was buried in Valladolid, the city where he died. Thence in Seville, from which place, in 1536, it was transferred to Santo Domingo. When this island passed into the hands of France, his ashes were transferred to Havana, in the island of Cuba, where they are now interred, side by side, with those of his son Diego, to whom, as a tardy reparation for the injury done his father, was granted a dukedom with vast estates.
Fernando, second son of Columbus by his marriage
THE CATHEDRAL QF HAVANA.
CUBA, ILLUSTRATED. 23
to a Spanish lady, is buried in the cathedral of Seville.
The chains with which Columbus was shackled were, according to his desires, buried with him.
Tourists who visit Cuba will see, at the peristyle of the cathedral of Havana, the new monument which has been erected to Columbus on the occasion of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America, and where his ashes are definitively laid.
Four hundred years have passed since Columbus discovered the American continent. Monuments in his honor have been erected in all parts of the world, and the people of the United States, the foremost nation of the New World, have held the grandest exposition yet known in commemoration of the grandest discovery yet made. These marks of honor, this era of general thankfulness towards a man like Columbus, whose chief characteristics were exalted perseverance and brilliant daring, toned down by nobleness of heart, are the natural tribute the whole human race owe this really great man.
MORRO CASTLE, HAVANA, CUBA.-ENTRANCE TO THE BAY.
T IHE finest and largest of the West India islands, was
discovered by Columbus, on the 28th day of October, 1492, and was named by him Juana, in honor of Prince John, the son of Ferdinand and Isabella, the sovereigns of Aragon and Castille. Upon the death of Ferdinand, the island was called Fernandina, receiving afterwards the name of Santiago, as a mark of reverence for the patron saint of Spain ; and still later, the inhabitants -to illustrate their piety- gave it that of Ave Maria, in honor of the Holy Virgin. Cuba extends from Cape Maizi, on the East, to Cape St. Antonio, on the West, in a curved line of 790 miles. It lies between 19' and 230 north latitude, and 740 and 850 west longitude. It is 117 miles wide in the broadest part, from Cape Maternillos on the north, to the western point of Mota Cove, on the south, 21 miles east of Cape Cruz.
The narrowest part of the island is 22 miles, from the mouth of Bahia del Mariel on the north to the Cove Mavana on the south. From Hfavana to Batabano, it is 28 miles; near the centre of the island, the breadth, north and south, is about 75 miles. The periphery of the island, following a line less tortuous, and cutting the bays, ports and coves at their mouth, is 1,719 miles, of which 816 are on the north and 903 on the south. Its
26 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
area is about 55,000 square miles; and taking into the estimate the adjacent islands or keys which belong to it, it is 64,000 square miles. The form of the island is exceedingly irregular, resembling that of a long, narrow crescent, the convex portion of which looks toward the Arctic pole. Her situation in regard to said pole is nearly from east by south to west by northwest. It is the most westerly of the West India Islands, and her western part is advantageously situated at the mouth of the Gulf of Mexico, leaving two spacious entrances ; the one of the northwest, 124 miles wide, between Point Hicacos, the most northerly of the island, and Point Tancha, or Cape Sable, the most southerly of East Florida. The other entrance into the Gulf to the southwest, is 97 miles in its narrowest part, between Cape St. Antonio de Cuba and Cape Catoche, the most salient extremity of the Peninsula of Yucatan; from Cape Mola, or St. Nicholas, in the Island of St. Domingo, the eastern extremity of Cuba, or Maizi Point, is separated by a channel 42 miles wide. From Maizi to Great Enagua, the nearest of the Lucayas, or Bahama Islands, the distance northeast is 45 miles. From Point Lmcrecia, in Cuba, the most easterly point of the great banks of Bahama, is the old Bahama channel, called St. Domingo's Key, 34 miles. From Punta del Ingles, on the south of Cuba, to the nearest point of the northern coast of Jamaica, the distance is 75 miles.
Cuba contains the following ports, on the north, viz.: Guadiana, Bahia Honda, Cabarias, Mariel, HIabana, Cogimar, Bacurana, Jilcaro, Matanzas, Cairdenas, Sagna la
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 27
Grande, San Juan de los Remedios, Guanaja, Nuevitas,* Nuevas Grandes, Manati, Puerto del Padre, Puerto del Mangle, Jibara, Jururu, Bariai, Vita, Naranjo, Salma Banes, Nipe, Lebisa, Cabonico, Tanamo, Cebollas, Zaguaneque, Zaragua, Taco, Cuyaguaneque, Navas, Maravi, Baracoat and Mata. On the south: Batiqueri, Cienfuegos, Puerto Escondido, Guantinamo, Santiago de Cuba, Mota, Manzanillo, Santa Cruz, Vertientes, Masio, Casilda, Sagua, Eusenada de Cortds and Ensenada de Cochinos.
The climate of the Island is of the pleasantest, both in the spring and winter; in the latter season prevails what is called la seca, or dry weather. The rainy season begins in May and continues until November. The annexed tables, based upon the Fahrenheit thermometer, illustrate the almost even temperature of Cuba:
Mean temperature of the year at Havana and the
northern part, near the sea . . . . .77 Mean temperature at Havana, the warmest month, 82 Mean temperature the coldest month . . 70
* Nuevitas was the first place on the island visited by Columbus, October 28th, 1492.
t Baracoa was the first town built on the island by the Spaniards, under Diego Velazquez, in the year 1511, and until 1522 was reckoned as the capital.
28 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
Mean temperature in the interior for the year, where
the land rises from 600 to 1,050 feet above the
level of the sea, ... ............... 74
Mean temperature in the coldest month, . . 62 for the year at Santiago de Cuba, 80 for the warmest month, 84
for the coldest month, ..... .64
At Havana it is cold when ... ......... 60
The coldest is about .... ........... 45
The warmest day seldom above .. ....... .95
At all times a pleasant breeze prevails.
The soil of the island may be said to rest almost generally on a great mass of calcareous rock of a porous and diversified character (Seborucos or Mucara). Near the middle of the northern coast, a slaty formation is to be found, on which the calcareous rock seems to rest.
POPULATION AND FERTILITY OF THE SOIL.
According to the last official census, the population of Cuba is 1,521,684-the census of 1866 gave 1,359,238, which shows an increase during a period of 26 years of 162,446 inhabitants. The Island of Cuba is about six times larger than Jamaica Island, of which the English are so proud. Only one-sixth of the Island of Cuba is under cultivation, and there is now in full operation-
A TOBACCO PLANTATION.
30 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
1,200 sugar plantations,
5,000 breeding farms,
17,000 small farms,
95,000 stores, workshops, factories and warehouses.
As to the fertility of the soil in Cuba, little can be said which may be new-it being so well known that it is almost proverbial. An area of 65,000 square miles, equivalent to nearly 34,560,000 acres, the greater part of which is of the first quality for cultivation, and a great portion of which still remains uncultivated, are circumstances which offer an industrious emigrant a vast field to exert his efforts in, with the prospect of a very brilliant reward.
Immense forests of precious woods are to be found in the Island, whose products enter into the finest art gems of the cabinet-makers of New York, Paris and London.
The principal products are sugar, tobacco, coffee, cocoa, corn, rice, yuca, yame, sweet potatoes, potatoes, vanilla, etc. Exquisite fruits, as the pine-apple, oranges, sapodillo, anon, cocoanut, caimitos, berries, guanbana (the strawberry of the Antilles), mamey, guava, bananas, marafi6n, etc.
The situation of Cuba, commanding the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico and the communication between North and South America, gives it a high commercial and political importance. Indeed, such designations as "The Queen of the Antilles," "The Key of the Gulf,"
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 31
"The Sentinel of the Mississippi," "The Beautiful Antille," "The Gem of the American Seas," indiscriminately bestowed upon this enchanting island, are sufficiently significant of its advantageous commercial position and its remarkable natural beauty and fertility.
Politically, the island is composed of a single Province under the control of a Superior Governor, who is at the same time Captain-General. It is subdivided into four political governments (gobiernos politicos) or Lieutenancies, which are further divided into Gobiernos and Captaincies. There are thirty-one political districts, each of which has an Ayuntamiento or Town Council at the head of affairs. The military divisions likewise include the whole island, and constitutes a Captaincy-General. It is divided into two departments, with Havana for its capital in the west, and Santiago in the east; the former under the command of the Captain-General, the latter under the Governor of Cuba. Each department consists of military districts (gobiernos) and districts of arms.
The Roman Catholic is the religion of the country, and the ecclesiastical government consists of the Archbishopric of Cuba and the Bishopric of Havana-the two dioceses being separated as above. Other rites are also tolerated.
The house situated in Dragones and Zulueta Streets,
Lo . . . . . . .
BIRD $-EYE VIEW OF HAVANA,
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fronting the Irijoa Theatre, has been recently purchased for a place of worship by the Baptists of Havana. Americans and all foreigners are cordially invited to attend the religious services which are held on Sundays, in English, at 11.30 A. m., and in Spanish at 7.30 P. M.
The maritime division comprises five Provinces: Havana, Trinidad, San Juan de los Remedios, Nuevitas and Cuba; the whole under a General Commander. The public domain and public works are controlled by a General Superintendent. As Cuba is the most important of the Spanish colonies, its Captain-General can not be of a lower rank than a lieutenant-general in the army, and the post is one of great power.
A TRIP TO HAVANA.
Tourists desiring to escape the rigors of a northern winter, pleasure-seekers who wish to enjoy a mild and delicious climate, will surely be satisfied by going to Cuba. Every year the number of tourists increases from all parts of the United States, and if you meet in your travels southward some one coming from the Queen of the Antilles-which lies in the South Sea 80 miles from the United States (Key West)--you will surely feel anxious to enjoy the charms of its climate.
By enumerating the principal points of interest in the, island, the compiler will have accomplished his dutyWhile leaving to every one its own appreciation of that
34 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
delightful country, whose scenery is so rich and varied, allow me to indicate the different ways to reach Havana from New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, New Orleans and Chicago, by the different lines of steamers and railroads.
FROM NEW YORK.
The palatial steamers of the Ward's Line, 113 Wall Street, New York, leave on Wednesdays for Havana, and every Saturday for Havana and Vera Cruz, at 3 P. m.; for Cienfuegos, calling at Nassau, twice a month, from Piers 16 and 17, East River. The distance by sea from New York to Havana is 1,200 miles, and the trip is generally made by these steamers in 4% days.
The Spanish steamers of the Spanish Transatlantic Line," J. M. Ceballos & Co., Agents, No. 80 Wall Street, leave every ten days for Havana, from Pier 21, North River. These steamers have first-class passenger accommodations, European table-wine included.
The Mallory Line, Pier 20, East River, New York, in addition to the service between New York to Fernaudina, makes semi-weekly trips to Galveston, Texas; steamers leaving on Saturday stop at Key West, Florida; the time between New York and Key West is but 3Y2 days, and connection is made there for Tampa and all parts of South Florida, as well as for Havana, Cuba. This is a most convenient and cheap route to southern Florida, or to the West Indies; these beautiful steamers are of great speed, and have first-class accommodations for passengers.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 35
The Clyde's New York, Charleston and Florida Steam. ship Line; the elegant steamers of this line are advertised to sail from Pier 29, East River, New York, every Tuesday and Friday at 3 P. m. Tuesday's ships stops at, Fernandina, and Friday's ships at Jacksonville. Passengers' accommodations by this line are unsurpassed, Theo. G. Eger, Traffic Manager, 35 Broadway, New York.
The Ocean Steamship Company, Pier 35, North River, New York. The palace steamers of this line connect with the Savannah, Florida and Western Railway (Way Cross Short Line), and offer to tourists attractions Surpassed by no other line.
Via New York by the New York, New Haven and Harlem Railroad to New York, and from New York by the Pennsylvania Railroad to Port Tampa (via Atlantic Coast Line). Also by the beautiful palace steamers of the Fall River Line which leave daily.
By the Pennsylvania Railroad to Port Tampa (via Atlantic Coast Line).
Pennsylvania Railroad and Atlantic Coast Line to Port Tampa.
FROM NEW ORLEANS.
Morgan Mail Steamship Line Steamers leave New
36 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
Orleans every Thursday to Havana direct. And also by the Southern Pacific Railroad (" Sun Set route) to Jacksonville, Sanford and Port Tampa, connecting with the Plant Steamship Line.
By the Pennsylvania Railroad to Savannah via Atlantic Coast Line, thence to Jacksonville by the Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad, thence to Sanford by the Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West Railway; from Sanford to Port Tampa by the South- Florida Railroad, and thence to Havana by the beautiful steamships Olivette and Mascotte, of the Plant Steamship Line.
As the steamers of the Plant Line stop at Key West, the most important city of Florida, a description of this city will be interesting to Americans.
Key West is an island with 20,000 inhabitants, and celebrated for its manufactures of cigars made with ilavana tobacco; next to Jacksonville she is the largest city in Florida. It is situated upon the island of the same name, off the southern extremity of the peninsula, and lying in the important part of the key facing the Gulf of Mexico. The island is about 6 miles long by 3 miles wide, and is 11 feet above the sea level. The temperature in the winter is delightful, the air is pure, and the climate healthy; the thermometer at mean temperature in the winter is about 700 and in the summer seldom
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 37
rises above 900. The public buildings are: the Customh,)use, Naval Stores, Marine Hospital, County CourtHouse, County Jail, a Masonic Hall and an Opera House. A monument of dark-gray granite, erected in 1866 to the memory of the sailors and soldiers who died in service at this station during the civil war, is near the Naval Stores. The city contains Episcopal, Baptist, Methodist and Roman Catholic churches. Outside the manufacturing of cigars, the principal industries of Key West are turtling, diving for sponges and fishing for the Cuban Market. The drives are charming, and the fishing and boating unsurpassed.
Seven miles of railroad are now run daily by 14 cars. Key West claims the greatest permanent population of any city in Florida, and is the richest city of its size in this country. It is in importance the ninth port of entry in the United States, and the third naval strategic point. The city alone pays more import duty and internal revenue tax than all the rest of the State of Florida, and the vast States of Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi combined.
The island enjoys several modern improvements: it is lighted by gas; it counts one of the finest fire departments in the State, under the command of Mr. B. F. H. Bowers, consisting of four first-class latest improved fire engines, one large hook-and-ladder truck, and four firstclass hose-carriages. Three handsome Methodist churches and a Cuban Mission chapel; Episcopal, Baptist, Presbyterian and Catholic churches, one colored Baptist, two public schools, and several private schools, all under
ST. MARY'S CONVENT FOR YOUNG LADIES, KEY WEST, FLA.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 39
excellent management with large attendance. Besides these there is the finest Catholic convent to be found in the State, with pupils from nearly every State and foreign countries.
This institution is under the direction of the Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Maria. The convent is advantageously situated on the south beach of the island. The various (14) students' rooms are perfectly ventilated and well provided with modern school furniture; they all connect together, and when the partitions are thrown open the sight of 400 female students is charming. The curriculum embraces a thorough English education, the Latin, French and Spanish languages, drawing, painting and needlework. A visit to this institution will well repay tourists on their way to Havana.
From Key West to Havana the distance is about 90 miles. The steamer leaves Key West in the evening and arrives at Havana early in the morning.
ENTRANCE TO THE BAY OF HAVANA.
When nearing Morro Castle, a pilot comes aboard the steamer, and soon after it is visited by two government boats, having on board the Custom-House and the Board of Health officials, who alone are authorized to give a landing permit. The general aspect of the bay is wonderful; at the left rises the fort of Morro Castle and the heights of La Cabaha surmounted with flags ; at the right is Fort La Punta. The port is full of steamships of every nationality and of all tonnage. The bay is three miles in circumference, and is one of the finest in the
PARLOR IN THE PALACE OF THE CAPTAIN-GENERAL, HAVANA.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 41
world. Steamers anchor at their respective buoys. (No ship except Spanish vessels or steamers of the Spanish Transatlantic Line are allowed to dock.) Immediately upon their arrival they are surrounded by small boats with hotel agents, who clamor for the privilege of taking tourists ashore. The health authorities having acconplisbed their work, you have then the Custom-House officers to please. Agents, interpreters for the hotels, will take passengers and baggage in charge, have boats ready to land and have baggage registered at the CustomHonse. Expenses of landing and going to the hotel, including boat, carriage and express are $1.50 gold and upward, according to the number of pieces of baggage; the best way is to put yourself in the hands of the interpreters or agents of the hotels, who are reported to be the most reliable in the world, according to the statement of experienced tourists. You may find it a good way in Havana to live on the European plan; that is, room in one place and take your meals at the restaurants, which are the best in the world. It is well to have an understanding beforehand in order to avoid recriminations.
The city of Havana; advantageously situated, is built upon a tongue of land, the head of which is protected by the fort of Morro Castle and the heights of La Cabafha. The entrance to the port is protected: on one side by the fort of Santos Reyes del Morro, garrisoned by 800
A FASHIONABLE STORE IN HAVANA,
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 43
soldiers, and an apparent battery, that of the Doce Apostoles, built at the level of the water, which gives shelter to the garrison ; on the other side by fort La Punta. At the southeast of the Morro, rising above the city, is the fortress of San Carlos de ]a Cabafla, which can shelter 4,000 men. The batteries of La Cabana and La Pastora are built at water level, as the Twelve Apostles, and armed with 245 guns. On the east, about one mile, is Fort No. 4, and on the southeast, about 4 miles, is the Tower of Cogimar. Both the fires of Morro and La Cabafja on the one side, and of the fort of Principe and Santo Domingo de Atar~s on the other, are designed to put the city in ashes in a few hours, while the lower batteries of La Pastora and the Twelve Apostles command the sea. Besides these forts and batteries there are other important fortifications, among them the fort of San Nazario, the bulwark De ]a Plaza, the Santa Clara battery, the fort of La Chorrera and the Tower of Banes, representing in all about 650 guns. These fortifications have entailed the outlay of considerable sums of money.
The population of Havana is about 250,000 inhabitants; it is one of the finest and most important cities in the West India and South America, and is essentially cosmopolitan. Tourists will notice the carriages, entirely different from those seen in the United States; a few thousands of small victorias circulate in the streets of the ancient city for very low fares; some of them are very comfortable; the horses are about half the size of American horses, and according to an American writer: "Wonderful because they never fall down in the streets and
THE PRADO WITH THE MORRO CASTLE IN THE DISTANCE.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 45
never get tired." Driving through the city and passing the narrow streets of the old town, one will enjoy the sight of the stores with their employees, in shirt-sleeves behind the counters, smoking cigarettes in very good humor, and ready to show fine imported goods and curiosities. If you have never been in Spain, you may realize yourself to be there while in Havana, because Cuba represents Spain in many of its different characteristics. The picturesque aspect of the city, which is a vast museum of curiosities, excite your attention at every moment. The principal street for shopping is Calle del Obispo, or Bishop Street, where I recommend tourists to visit the stores La Habana, Las Ninfas, La Granada, first-class stores for dry goods and silks; La Especial and La Complaciente, fan stores; El Kovator, tailors and fancy articles; Wilson's American book store; La Carolina, great depot for cigars and cigarettes. Oreilly Street, parallel with Obispo, is the street of the photographersthe most fashionable gallery is that of S. A. Corner. In Muralla or Ricla Street, parallel with Obispo Street, are the wholesale houses. By showing this Guide at any store or business house advertised in it, tourists will be attentively waited upon, and will obtain the lowest prices for their purchases.
With its walk of two miles in length, lined with Indian laurel trees and evergreen on each side, the Prado is enchanting at night.
46 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
INDIAN FOUNTAIN-PILA DE LA INDIA.
CUBA. ILLUSTRATED. 47
From the fountain of La India, as the illustration shows, to La Punta (entrance of the bay), the walk is very pleasant; going down the Prado is to be found, on the right side, the beautiful Hotel Pasaje, and the greatly renovated Payret Theatre; while on the left is the beautiful Tacon Theatre. In the centre of the Paseo is the celebrated Central Park, with the beautiful marble statue of Isabel Segunda, an artistic work of the great sculptor Vega. The military band plays almost every other evening in the Park. The general aspect at night is wonderful ; the park, crowded with agreeable and pleasant people who enjoy themselves; the private carriages, here and there, with the charming segoritas, under the Indian laurel and palms, in their light and pretty dresses, surrounded by their friends, who deem it a duty to pay them compliments, chattering en p1ein air, is a tropical scene of the greatest interest. In the Park are the great Caf6 Central, Caf6 Tacon, the celebrated Helados de Paris, which attracts the leading society of Havana for their sorbets and famed ice-cream; and the Gran Hotel Telegrafo, the great favorite of the American tourists, the great Tacon Theatre, the popular circus of Pubillones, and the Albisu Theatre. The walk or drive on the
Prado is always interesting. In the Prado, Nos. 67-69, is the hydrotherapic hnd bathing establishment of Dr. Belot, one of the most elegant of its kind in the world. Do not fail to visit Dr. Belot, who will take a special pleasure to show you his great establishment.
48 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
THE CASINO ESPAROL.
The Spanish Casino is one of the finest buildings and one of the principal attractions in Havana. This Club was founded in 1859; it averages 2,500 members. Almost every city in the Island has a club, corresponding with the main club of Havana. Tourists should not fail to visit the Casino, where they will always be welcomed. Its amiable and distinguished President, Mr. Garcia Tun6n, and its members, take great pleasure to show tourists the interesting curiosities it contains. There is a fine collection of paintings, copies from celebrated Spanish artists, representing the history of the nation since the remotest epoch. Among the collection of oilpaintings, I call the attention of visitors to the beautiful group, full of expression and historical truth, representing Isabella the Catholic, when she gave the royal diamonds to help the expedition of Columbus. It is one of the greatest and most sublime episodes of the history of Spain. During the winter splendid balls are given there, as well as lyric and dramatic entertainments. The masquerade balls of the Casino during the carnival are justly noted to be the most gorgeous in the world. The Casino supports a free academy where the English and French languages, book-keeping, drawing, etc., are taught. The Casino Espafiol, which was at first near the park, is now located in one of the finest buildings in Havana, on Zulueta Street. Tourists should not fail to visit the Casino, where they will be welcomed.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 49
GRAND TACON THEATRE.
The Grand Tacon Theatre was erected in 1837, in memory of Captain-General Don Miguel Tacon, who was then in command of the Island of Cuba. It was built by Mr. Francisco Marty, and Torrens estimated its cost at $400,000. It is situated in the better part of the city, between Prado and Consulado Streets, fronting on the celebrated Central Park. The Tacon Theatre occupies a superficial area of 6,176 square yards, it has three doors on the front, six on San Rafael Street, three on Consulado Street, and two on San Jos6 Street. At the other angle of the Theatre, formed by Prado and San Rafael Streets, is the Salon Brunet, the leading Caf6 of Havana. The stage is 42.83 metres in length by 20.68 in width, and the entrance 17.63. The seating capacity is as follows: 56 boxes on first and second floors, 8 boxes on third floor, 4 grilles on first and second floors, 2 grilles on third floor, 112 butacas on third floor, 552 orchestra seats, 101 chairs in the tiers and front, 1,203 chairs front and back of tiers. Total number of seats, 2,287; therefore, 3,000 people can be seated very comfortably at the Tacon Theatre. The luminary consists of 1,034 gas jets; the decorations comprise 751 shifting scenes; the armory possesses 605 different sorts of arms; the wardrobe 13,787 costumes; the furniture and tools for the stage number 782; the archives contain about 1,200 partitions of opera, operabouffe, tragedies, dramas, comedies, etc., besides a large number of songs and piano
TACON THEATRE ON CENTRAL PARK.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 51
und military band pieces. This Coliseum was inaugurated with the performance of the drama Don Juan de Austria." Ten years ago $20,000 were expended in repairs; the busts of Tasso, Dante and Arioste were also added in the dome. Tie Tacon Theatre is a great public ornament, and indicates great love for the arts, and offers tourists to the capital of the Island of Cuba a matchless place of amusement.
PAYRET OPERA HOUSE.
In Prado Street, fronting on Central Park, near the Grand Hotel Pasaje. It is a beautiful structure, fully equal to the Tacon Theatre as to architecture and seating capacity. The Payret was erected about fourteen years ago. In 1883 the theatre was partly destroyed by a terrible tornado, and was abandoned until 1890, when the edifice was entirely restored, and has again become the home of the great operatic school.
THE ALBISU THEATRE.
Is an elegant hall located in the building of the Centro Asturiano (Asturies Club), and has lately been restored ; it is one of the prettiest theatres of its kind, where comedy, drama and opera are performed.
THE IRIJOA THEATRE.
Named in memory of the industrious and distinguished owner, Mr. Irijoa. It is a handsome, commodious and well ventilated theatre, lately built, and specially adapted for summer performances. Elegant balls are
t7' t, C
PLAZA DE ARMAS-QQVIER iOR'S FALACI .
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 53
given there every season by the leading societies of Havana. A garden with fountains, in the main entrance, attracts the eye. Small tables are placed here and there to partake of refreshments, which gives it the appearance of the "Champs Elys6es," or Paris caf6s concerts. Mr. lrijoa has made his name very popular by the erection of his theatre.
PLAZA DE ARMAS.
Is situated at the lower extremity of Obispo Street. It is here that the winter residence of the Captain-General and the main official government buildings are. By consulting the illustration, the reader will notice a garden of tropical flowers, plants and palms. The statue in the centre, an artistic marble monument, is that of Ferdinand the Seventh. The illustration, el Templete, opposite the Captain-General's residence, represents a little chapel erected to the memory of Columbus. It was at this place that, in the year 1519, was celebrated the first mass in the Island, under a large ceiba, a beautiful tree known as the cotton-tree of the West Indies. Tourists will notice a bronze tablet at the frontispiece with the following inscription:
Reinando el Senor Don Fernando V11, eiendo Presidente y Gobernador Don Francisco Dionisio 'ives. La fdelieima Rabana religious y pacifXea erigi6 este sencillo monumento decorando el sitio donde el ago 1519 se celebr6 la primera misa y cabildo; el Obispo Don Juan Jo8 Diaz de Espada solemniz6 el mismo Augusto Sacri4cio el dia 9 de Marzo de 1598.
54 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
"During the Reign of His Majesty Don Fernando VII, under the Presidency and Governorship of Don Francisco Dionisio Vives, the faithful, religious and pacific Havaneses erected this modest monument, consecrating the place where, in the year 1519, was celebrated the first mass and holy office by the bishop Don Juan Jose Diaz de Espada, solemnizing the Divine Sacrifice of the Mass on the 9th day of March, 1598."
THE LITTLE CHAPEL-EL TEMPLETE.
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During the Carnival, public masquerade balls are given every Sunday after the performances at the Tacon Theatre. Dancing commences at about 12 P. M., and continues until daylight. For that purpose the floor of the parquette is raised to a level with the boxes and the stage, converting it into a vast and commodious ballroom. The theatre is open to all, and access to the boxes and galleries is free to the public, who can thus enjoy the sight of the ball and listen at the same time to the peculiar Cuban dancing music. During the carnival the Paseos are very attractive. A drive to the Prado and Carlos Tereero, which are crowded with carriages and fantastic masqueraders is also very interesting.
(La corrida de toros.)
This old Spanish entertainment and amusement has also its lovers in Havana, and offers every year an exceptional interest. The Captain-General being generally present at the corrida, it attracts the fashionable society of Cuba. Havana has been favored with the best matadore8 of Spain. Every season the best bulls are imported from Lerida at enormous prices. A few years ago Cuba was raging over the espada Luis Mazzantini. His engagement was made at a great expense- $30,000, and a benefit, for fourteen performances, all expenses paid to and from Madrid, as well as during his stay in Cuba for
56 CUBA ILLUSTRATED,
himself and company. The portrait and biography of Mazzantini may be interesting to Americans.
Luis Mazzantini was born in the Province of Guipuzcoa in Spain forty-two years ago. His father was an Italian, his mother a Spanish lady: he was educated
at Rome, Italy, where he graduated and received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Mazzantini was at one time the secretary of one of the confidential advisers of King Amadens I., of Spain. Having learned telegraphy, he became an operator, was promoted chief of station, and for his efficiency was again promoted to a high position in the administration of a great railway company at Madrid, where he was protected by Jos6 Echegaray, the
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 57
great Spanish writer and dramatist, who was at the time manager of the railway. Mazzantini said that he discovered there was but two ways by which a man might become eminent in Spain: either by singing or bullfighting.
He failed as a singer and was left to do the other, or else remain a telegraph operator. His fondness for the amateur bull-ring was such as to take a great deal of his time from the office. This was noticed by the manager, who finally told him that he must choose between bullfighting and railroading. "All right," said Mazzantini, "I'll give up the railroad." He left the office and went directly to the Plaza de Toros. He reported that he was ready to enter the arena as a professional; he was well and favorably known as an amateur, and his coining was
MAIN ALTAR IN THlE CATHEDRAL, HAVANA.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 59
hailed with delight ; he was placed in the front rank as Primer Espada or Matador, and the next Sunday he appeared in the arena with the white satin costume of a d~butant; though it rained he killed his three bulls like an old hand in the business, and became famous as the first bull-fighter in Spain.
The Plaza de Toros, where the sport takes place, is situated near the Paseo de Carlos III. From any part of the city a carriage will take you to the arena for 50 cents silver (same price for two). Tourists should arrive before the opening, in order to be present at the entry of the cuadrilla, when the President is saluted and gives the signal to commence the performance. It is a lively scene well worth seeing. Tickets can be had almost anywhere. Bull-fights take place every Sunday at 3 r. m.
are devoid of beauty, both externally and internally, as such edifices can be made.
The foundations of the Cathedral were laid in 1656, and the church finished in 1724. It is situated on Empedrado Street. The architecture is of the Latin-Gotbic style. The ceremonies on feast days are magnificent and solemn. High mass is celebrated every Sunday at 8 A. M. The ashes of Columbus lie in one of the vaults of the Cathedral. On the left side, in the rear, tourists will notice a slab, upon which is a bust in relief of Columbus, as the illustration shows (see page 20), with this inscription:
60 OUBA ILLUSTRATED.
MAIN ALTAR IN THE MERCED CHURCH, HAVANA.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 61
Oh restos b image del grande Colon !
Mil siglos durad guardados en la urna,
Y en la remembranza de nuestra nation.
Oh! remains and image of the great Colon!
A thousand ages thou will be preserved in this urn,
And in the remembrance of our nation.
built in 1746, is on Cuba and Merced Streets. It is one of the wealthiest and most aristocratic churches of Havana. At its rear tourists will notice two chapels with fine and artistic cupolas. The oil paintings are very fine, one especially, "The Last Supper." The rear of the church has been remodeled during the last twenty years. High mass is celebrated on Sunday at 9 A. m.
corner of Cuba and Amargura Streets-built in 1608formerly a monastery.
is a large nunnery, on Cuba Street, between Luz and Sol; it was founded in 1644, and is to-day the wealthiest nunnery in the city.
on Oreilly Street, at the corner of Compostela Street, built in 1698, and dedicated in 1700. The bodies of the martyrs, Celestino and Lucida, were brought as relics from the City of Rome (Italy), and deposited here.
62 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
on Compostela Street, at the corner of Luz. This monastery was built in 1704 by Bishop Diego Evelino de Compostela, in his garden ; he had in 1695 built a church called San Diego de Alcahi. These monks kept the only free-school up to the latter part of the last century. The school existed until 1854, when the whole building was given to the Jesuits for the establishment of the Royal College of Havana.
Tourists are welcomed visitors to the churches at any time.
MORRO CASTLE AND LA CABANA
can be visited every day. Tourists must first procure an application from the United States Consul to the Military Governor of the city, and they will receive in return a permit to visit the forts. Tourists will go down the wharf (mnuelle caballeria) and take a guadaftero (boatman) and cross the bay; arriving at the fort the permit is presented to a soldier on guard, who gives the right to pass. The officers are very courteous. A soldier is detailed to accompany the tourists through the forts. At one end of Morro Castle, tourists will notice a wooden bridge uniting the two forts and built by the English during the occupation in the year 1762. They will also notice the light-house constructed when General O'Donnell was Commander of the Island, in the year 1844. The lighthouse is a revolving one, of the Fresnell model, with a minute flash-light that is seen at a distance of 25 miles.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 63
Are very attractive for the variety and abundance of fish, vegetables and tropical fruits; the best time to visit them is at early morning. The Tacon is the leading market, the largest and finest in Havana. It occupies an entire block, opened all around; it is surrounded by all kinds of stores with the greatest assortment of goods and novelties, where tourists can purchase, at a trifling cost, charming souvenirs. The Colon market, on Zulueta Street, has been recently completed, and the Cristina market, on the Plaza Vieja, is the oldest of Havana. Tourists should visit them in order to get acquainted with the richness of the products of the soil.
Cock mains take place every Sunday afternoon. While bull fight lovers enjoy themselves at the Plaza de Toros, the excitement of cock-fights prevail at Manrique Street. The cock-pits of Cuba are the most famed in the world.
GENERAL PLACES OF INTEREST.
El Circulo Militar.-Military Society founded in 1883 by officers of the Spanish army in Cuba.
Real Casa de Beneficencia.-Orphan Asylum, on Calle Ancha del Norte.
Asilo de Mendigos.-Almshouse (Calzada Belascoain).
Asilo San Jos6.-Reformatory Asylum for boys, on Ancha del Norte.
64 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
Mazorra.-Lunatic Asylum, at about 10 miles from Havana.
Casa de Recogidas.-Female convicts and abandoned women are confined in this asylum; it is situated on Calle de la Fundici6n
Royal Economical Society of the Friends of the Country.-Public library (free). Opened from 12 m. to 4? P. M.
Studio of Painting and Sculpture, in the same building, 60 Dragones.
Royal Scientific Academy.-Museum of Natural History of the Antilles, Cuba Street, between Teniente Rey and Muralla Streets, where all antiquities and relics since the discovery of the island are kept and can be seen. Opened from 12 m. to 4 P. m.
San Felipe y Santiago.--Located in the City Prison, a large edifice which tourists will notice when entering the harbor, at the right side of the bay, fronting the Morro Castle.
Hospital Paula.-Assigned specially to women.
Hospital San LAzaro.-Leprosy patients are only admitted.
Hospital de San Ambrosio.-Military hospital, situate beyond the Arsenal.
Tourists of the medical profession and visitors are admitted to the above establishments at any time.
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 65
On Calle Oficios, near the landing. Tourists will notice two boxes for mailing letters: one, "Nacional," where letters for the Island, Spain and her possessions are mailed ; the other, "Extranjero" (foreign), for letters to foreign countries
A list of letters directed to Havana, without address, is published, and letters are delivered to the addressees only.
Letters can be mailed also in auxiliary boxes, placed in different parts of the city.
Postage for the United States is 5 cents; for the city 2, cents; for the Island 5 cents. Universal postal cards, 2 and 3 cents.
The telegraph lines in Cuba are under the supervision of the Government. The main office is on Calle Oficios, same building as the post-office. Wires communicate with the principal points of the Island. Submarine cable to Key West and Punta Rassa, in Florida, etc.
SUBURBS OF HAVANA.
A carriage drive to the Captain-General's summer residence, known as "Quinta de los Molinos," is very interesting. The route is picturesque, the garden profusely planted with various kinds of palms, fruit-trees of all kinds, flowers, and adorned with artificial waterfalls. From the garden-drive to the cemetery, upon the
66 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
APPROACH TO THE BISHOP'S RESIDENCE AT TULIPAN.
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MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE CEMETERY.
hill, the scenery of the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico is one of the grandest sights. The portico of the cemetery, as the illustration shows, and the chapel within the gates, are two exquisite pieces of architecture. Returning, drive to the Vedado, where are willas and fine summer residences. Passing the Ancha del Norte, stop at the Campos Eliseos bathing-houses, which are worth seeing.
THE CERRO AND TULIPAN
dotted with beautiful summer residences, is the rendezvous of the fashionable society of Havana. A benevolent society established at the Cerro in 1875, composed of select members, frequently gives dramatic and lyric
68 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
QUINTA DE PALATINOS, CERRO, HAVANA.
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soir6es, and lectures by celebrated speakers of the country.
The Marianao Railroad stops at the following stations: Tulipan, Cerro, Ceiba, Buenavista, Quemados, and Marianao. Marianao, about 15 miles from Havana, is a nice and pleasant town of 5,000 inhabitants. The railroad extends to the beach of Marianao, three miles from that place, where sea-bathing can be enjoyed. About three miles from the Marianao station lies one of the finest sugar plantations in Cuba-the Ingenio Toledo. A permit is required to visit the plantation; it can be obtained through a prominent person or a business house in H1ivana. Trains leave every hour from 6 A. m. Tourists will enjoy the trip very much and pass an agreeable morning. The round trip takes three hours.
Tourists will also enjoy a visit to Guanabacoa, one of the oldest cities in the Island, with a population of about 20,000 inhabitants. This city possesses excellent mineral waters, especially beneficial for disorders of the digestive organs. Trains leave every half hour, and run in connection with ferry-boats at the wharf Muelle de Luz.
EXCURSION TO THE CELEBRATED RESIDENCE "CQUINTA DE
PALATINOS, AT THE CERRO, HAVANA.
Tourists will enjoy a visit to this beautiful country residence, 12 miles from Havana. Trains leave the Bahia Railroad station, near the Mascotte flotel, at 1 P'. m. every day, returning to Havana at about 5.30 P. m. The name of this great property comes from the Count of
70 OUBA ILLUSTRATED.
A COCOA-NUT TREE AT THE PALATINOS GARDENS.
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Palatinos, who was formerly its owner. Mine. Rosa Abreu, Countess of Palatinos, who resides in Paris, is the present owner. The Countess is married to Dr. Granger, a prominent French physician, who is at the head of the celebrated Pasteur laboratory.
Mr. Betancourt, the gardener and keeper of the property, will kindly show tourists the great variety of tropical trees, comprising twelve species of mangoes, orange, cocoa-nut, etc. A fine collection of marble statuary, valued at $40,000, is an additional ornamentation to this beautiful place.
THE COCOA-NUT TREE.
The cocoa-nut tree shown in the accompanying illustration can be seen in its natural condition at the Palatinos gardens. The specimen shown in the engraving was planted six years ago, and consequently has entered in its second fruit-bearing year. The cocoa-nut tree bears fruit incessantly, as new nut formations are made with every change of the moon, and consequently once arrived at its fruit-bearing stage, the cocoa-nut tree is never devoid of nuts. When freshly plucked from the tree the nut is filled with a delicious milky water, which has certain medicinal properties. This water is quite cool and very refreshing in tropical climes, and can be drank without the least danger. The nut after a lapse of time, becomes dry and coated on the inside with a deposit from the milky water; it is generally in this condition that it reaches the United States, where this hard matter enters
THE CHICKEN DEALER, HAVANA-EL POLLERO.
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to a large extent in the manufacture of candies, pies, etc. The agriculturist finds in the cocoa-nut tree and its fruit, a source of income which day by day goes on increasing, as the fibre enters more largely into the channels of the industrial arts. From the ordinary door-mats, ropes, bagging, efc., the textile qualities of the plant have so appreciated that it enters in almost everything where strength, pliableness and durability are desired. It figures to-day into the construction of the modernized man-of-war. The French and American war navies
use it as a filler between the hull and the armor of their most powerful vessels, as well as between decks. The fibre not only diminishes the concussion on board a manof-war firing a broadside, but it helps wonderfully in filling up holes made by the firing of the enemy, according to experiments lately made.
THE CHICKEN DEALER (El Pollero).
Among the characteristic types of Cuban peddlers the chicken dealer is one of the most interesting. He comes every day to the city, as he lives in the neighborhood of Havana. He goes on his rounds among his customers and sells live poultry. No one in Cuba would think of buying chickens as it is done in the United States, where the poultry is killed by steam and kept on ice. The Havana chicken dealer is well patronized, and can be seen every day around the town attending to his business. The accompanying illustration, taken from nature, cannot fail to interest American tourists
74 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
BASE BALL CLUBS.
The spacious and commodious building of the Almendares Club is situated opposite the Quinta de los Molinos, or Captain-General's summer residence.
The Havana Base Ball Club is at the Vedado, up the north shore. Games are played every Sunday afternoon, and many spectators are attracted to the sport on account of American clubs coming almost every season to play with the Cubans, who are great lovers of that athletic sport. The main floors of both club houses are also especially arranged for dancing. Very fine balls are given here during the season.
United States of America, . . 92 Agniar Street. France, . . . 106 Teniente Rey Street.
Germany . . . 12 San Ignacio Street.
Russia, . . . . 5 Mercaderes Street. China, . . . . . 74 Prado Street.
Austria and Hungary, .... 7 Mercaderes Street.
Belgium, . . . . 2 Mcrcaderes Street. Great Britain, .... ... 13 Oficios Street.
Denmark, . . . . 78. Cuba Street.
Greece, . . . . 5 Mercaderes Street. Holland, . . . . 53 Cuba Street.
Italy,.. . . . . 136 Amistad Street.
Portugal, .. . . . 2 Mercaderes Street. Sweden and Norway, . . 37 Obrapia Street.
Mexico. . . . . 43 Tejadillo Street.
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Argentine Republic .... ..... (_post not filled.) Uruguay .... .......... 43 Cuba Street.
Dominican Republic ........ .101 Galiano Street. Haytian Republic ......... ..30 O'Reilly Street.
Venezuela ... .......... 3 Baratillo Street.
Peru, .. ........ 84 San Ignacio Street.
Honduras ......... . 108 Jesus del Monte.
Guatemala, ... ....... 31 Amargura Street.
HACK FARES.-SPANISH CURRENCY.
One journey in any direction within the limits of Belascoain Avenue:
Two persons, .... 20 cents silver.
Three persons, .....25 cents silver.
Four persons, .... 30 cents silver.
Beyond Belascoain Avenue, not beyond Calzada de la
Two persons, .... 30 cents silver.
Three persons, 35 cents silver.
Four persons, .... 40 cents silver.
By the hour in any direction within the city limits:
Per hour, two persons, $ .75 silver.
Per hour, three persons, .90 silver.
Per hour, four persons, . 1.00 silver.
In engaging hacks for trips outside the city limits the price should be agreed upon before starting, in order to avoid annoyances and misunderstandings. Carriage for two can be had for $1.50 to $2.00 silver per hour.
76 CUBA ILLUSTRATED.
A knowledge of the various coins in circulation in Cuba, and of their respective value, should be acquired by tourists. The following is a table of the principals: Spanish -1 ounce, gold ...... ...is worth $17.00
. . 8.00
" called doublon, 4.25
"" escudo, 2.12
" center, .......... C9 5.30
American gold and greenbacks command a premium on Spanish gold, according to the exchange. On arriving, tourists should change some of their money for Spanish currency, to meet their small expenses.
Tourists will receive the highest premium at the exchanges advertised in this book.
BAIIIA DE LA IIABANA RAILROAD FERRY.
Wharf-Muelle de Luz.
Havana to Regla every day, from 4.45 A. M. to 10.30 P. m., and vice versa.
Boats leave every 30 minutes, and connect with the Bahia Railroad and Guanabacoa Branch. Fare 5 cents silver.
EMPRESA VIEJA (OLD COMPANY).
Wharf-Muelle de Luz.
Havana to Regla every day, from 4.35 A. M. to 10.20 P. m.
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Boats leave every 15 minutes, and connect with the Puebla Railroad to Guanabacoa. Fare, 5 cents silver.
From Plaza San Juan de Dios to the Cerro, cars leave from 6 A. m. every 15 minutes. First-class fare, 10 cents, silver. Cars run until 11 P. m.
From San Juan de Dios to Jesus del Monte, same as above.
From Plaza San Juan de Dios to the Chorrera, Vedado and Carmelo every half hour. Fare, 10 cents silver, this line rUms until after the closing of the opera at night.
From Castillo del Principe to the Cemetery, stages leave every half hour. Fare, 10 cents each way. From Plaza de Armas to Jesus del Monte, stages leave every 15 minutes-through fare, 15 cents.
At Havana tourists will find first-class steamship lines for almost every part of the world.
The steamers of the French Transatlantic Line, from St. Nazaire, arrive at Havana about the 10th of every month, and leave Havana the 22d of every month.
In the interval they go to Vera Cruz, Mexico, and return in time to make their direct trips.
Ward's Line from New York to Vera Cruz arrives at Havana every week, and leaves a few hours after for
CAVES OF BELLAMAR, MATANZAS, CUBA.
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Vera Cruz. Leaves Havana for New York on Wednesdays and Saturdays also.
The Spanish Transatlantic Line leaves every 10 days for Spain, also for New York.
At St. Thomas tourists will find steamers for all the West India islands and Central America. At Santiago de Cuba connections are also made for Haytian ports, St. Domingo, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and Jamaica.
EXCURSION STEAMSHIP GUIDE.
New York, Cuba Mail S. S. Co., for Cuba and
Mexico, Ward's Line.
A first-class powerful iron steamship sails direct for New York and for Vera Cruz every week.
HIDALGO & Co., Agents, 25 Obrapia Street. Spanish Transatlantic Mail S. S. Co.
Leaves every 10 days. Some of the steamers stop :at Puerto Rico on their way to Spain; all stop there coming to Havana ;also for New York every 10 days.
M. CALVO & Co., Agents, 28 Oficios Street. French Transatlantic Mail S. S. Co.
Arrives at Havana; leaves for Vera Cruz, returns and sails for St. Nazaire, stopping at Puerto Rico and "St. Thomas, once a month.
BRIDAT & Co., Agents, 32 San Ignacio Street. Plant Steamship Line.
United States Fast Mail Route, S. S. .Mascotte and
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Olivette, connecting at Tampa with the Southern Florida Railway.
LAWTON BROS., Agents, 35 Mercaderes Street. Morgan Steamship Line.
Between New Orleans and Havana, weekly, stopping at Key West and Punta Gorda, Florida.
LAwTON BRos., Agents, 35 Mercaderes Street. South Coast Steamers.
Leave for Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba via Batabano twice a week.
MENENDEZ & Co., Agents, 75 San Ignacio Street.
There are several coast line steamers from Havana to Cdrdenas, Nuevitas, Jibara, etc.
This beautiful city, situated 85 miles east of Havana, and called the city of the two rivers, was founded in the year 1693. The etymology of the name Matanzas is much disputed by antiquarians in Cuba. Some, ascribing it to the slaugther of Indians in 1511 at the time of the conquest of the Island, contend that the supposed Indian name Yumuri, which is also that of one of the two rivers between which the city stands, is synonymous, in poor Spanish, with the Indian name of the locality where the massacre took place. The story goes on that an Indian spy of the conquerors, when pursued by them,
RM5 ---7VALLEY OF THE YUMURI, MATANZAS.
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ran away shouting: "Yu-muri," which in poor Spanish means "I die." The rivers St. John and Yumuri divide the city in three parts. The northern part, on the Yumuri, is called Versailles; the central part, between the two rivers, is known as the old town; and the southern part, on the St. John, is called Pueblo Nuevo. Many beautiful squares, the San Carlos Church and the Esteban Theatre embellish the city. It has also numerous hospitals and benevolent societies. The principal attractions for tourists are the Ynmuri Valley and the Caves of Bellamar. In the Plaza de Armas, as the illustration shows, are the interesting Spanish and Cuban Casino clubs.
The Bahia Railway connects Havana to Matanzas. The trains leave every day at 6.50 A. m. and arrive at Matanzas at 9.15 A. m. The beautiful valley of the Yumuri and the caves of Bellamar may be visited the same day. At the station, a carriage will take you to, the hotel of your choice. The Hotel San Carlos is situated in the centre of the city and the Hotel Frances is near the Bahia Railway station. I take pleasure to inform American tourists that the beautiful caves of Bellamar have been purchased by Messrs. Garcia & Co., proprietors of the Hotel Franc6s, where tourists will find the best accommodation, polite attendance and the greatest coinfort. While at breakfast the necessary arrangements for a volcntc-the ancient and commodious vehicle of the Island-and guides, if necessary, should be retained to visit the caves and the Yumuri Valley.
First, visit the Yumuri Valley, about three miles
VOLANTA IN THEt VALLEY OF THE VUMURI, MATANZAS,
CUBA ILLUSTRATED. 85
northwest of Matanzas. Once upon the hill you are charmed by the beauty of the valley, with its grounds broken into sharp peaks and genteel undulations; its cane-fields,, with their pea-green verdure, and the darkgreen foliage of the palms, naturally scattered over them; its orange groves and luxuriant plantations, with broad waving leaves; the cocoa, the cocoa-nut and almond trees and its coffee plantations, while here and there an enormous ceiba-tree spreads out its massive branches high in the air. The landscape has no rival even in the pictures(que scenery of Switzerland. Visit the chapel of Monserrate, and drive to the eaves of Bellamar, about three miles east of Matanzas. Guides provided with torches accompany visitors throughout these marvellous caves. Speaking of the main chamber, Mr. Hazard says: "This temple, I should think, is quite 200 feet long by about 70 wide, and is about 150 feet from the entrance of the cave; and while it far surpasses in richness and splendor the temple of the same name in the Mammoth Cave, it does not equal it in size or solemn grandeur." *
The sparkling columns of crystal produce a most wonderful effect; their color changing, when a torch is held behind them, from white to amber, warmed up by lovely rose-tints, the effect is indeed magical and enchanting. Each of these caves have a name: one "The Mantle of Columbus," another "The Temple of Benediction," "The Guardian Spirits," and so on. The caves were
* Cuba, with Pen and Pencil, by Sam'l Hazard.
FLAZA DE ARMAS IN CARDENAS.