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('I'Cr scC7C C 0 L C M B U S, 14 9 2.
THIS BOOK IS PUBLISHED BY
Tm,. ROTARY CLUB OF HAVANA
Undci the ALI6j)IC(,N Of t je -Asociac!6n Nacional
de Fomento del TurlSfllo
General Mario G. Menocal is now serving his second term as the third President of Cuba.
Mr. Menocal graduated from Cornell University as a Civil Engineer in the class of 1888. Shortly afterwards he was called to assist his uncle Aniceto Menocal, the celebrated engineer who was then engaged in the survey of the Nicaragua Canal route between the Atlantic and Pacific. He continued in the practice of his profession until the beginning of the war of Independence in the spring of 1895, when he at ohce joined the Insurgents, rising rapidly to the rank of Colonel. In the spring of 1896 General Calixto Garcia, operating in Oriente and Camagiiey Provinces, made him his Chief of Staff.
At Victoria de las Tunas he so distinguished himself that he was promoted to a General of Brigade, and the close of the war found him in command of the Cuan 'forces of Havana Province.
In the campaign of 1912 he was elected President of the Republic and was inaugurated on May 20, 1913. Again in 1916 he was elected to ru ,, the affairs of Cuba.
He has displayed (excellent judgement in sorrounding himself with capable men to co-operate with him in the direction of
-public affairs, and under his administration
-the Republic has seen its most prosperous days.
fhe most beautiful land that human eyes liave ever seen.
Cristopher Columbus 1492.
The naval battle at Santiago, between the H E history of Cuba is replete with American and Spanish navies, was the culminating
romance and interest. Since its discovery in point in Cuban history, and forever settled the question 1492 it has been fought for by the nations of Spanish dominion over Cuba. The conditions of
of the world as the prize of the Caribbean. peace presented by the United States were accepted
For more than three hundred years its by Spain on August 12th, and the Paris Protocol,
industries were built up only to be prepared on October Ist. of the same year, was signed
T periodically demolished by internal and on December 10th.
With the withdrawal of the Spanish troops those In 1895 the final rebellion against Spain broke out of the United States and of Cuba herself, were distriand after much devastation ended in the Spanish- buted to preserve order and quiet and to organize
American War which resulted in the establishment of departments which guaranteed a good and safe governthe Cuban Republic. ment.
The Punta, and Malecon driveway, in the center, and the low-lying city stretching along the crescent shore of the Gulf.
Beyond rise the green hills, and above is a sky intensely blue.
GOVERNMENT to arrange for an election by the people under the
constitution so framed. The election was held on SeptIn July 1900, the United States military governor ember 15, 1900, and in less than three months the
of Cuba decreed an election of delegates to a constitutio- constitution was completed on lines very similar, to those
nal convention to be held the following September and of the Constitution of the United States.
On eceme of S 1901 and elcincffcrittsbeathyihraa ftop adtu ea for ,an the reulinas hedwtohfeutta T-tera salsmn o h ua eulc h maetd Pm wars ulorscs enah is rsdn is diitrto fCb yteCbnpol ea othe Cubcanees Repubi.onay2te92 n thesue 24 toe acrfloigeteUiesntofra.lclcniioso ua emt h 57
~LA FUERZA .
A cherished relic of the city's remote past. Built by De Soto in 1538, is the oldest habitable building in America. Is is surrounded by a deep moat and a drawbridge leads to the entrance.
LOS FOSOS DE LOS LAURELES
The Laurel Ditch, so named from the laurel trees which grow here, was the place of execution of insurgent and political prisoners during the Cuban revolution.
system of government is modelled on that of the United States. There are a President and Vice-President, who 7 serve terms of four years. The President appoints a
cabinet of ten members, as follows: Secretary of State, I ~Secretary of the Treasury, 'Secretary of the Executive Department, Secretary of justice, Secretary of the v- Interior, Secretary of Public Works, Secretary of Public
Instruction, Secretary of Agriculture. Commerce and Labor, Secretary of Sanitation, and Secretary of War and Navy
The Senate consists of twenty four members, and the House of Representatives has a membership of 118 Each of the six provinces has a Governor who resides in the capital of the province and is elected for a term of four years.
The location of a country, especially an island With reference to channels of trade and the great markets of the world, means everything in the race for success, L and in this Cuba is extremely fortunate.
corated with a cartouche, bearing the Spanish- Arms. This The Island lies between the Gulf of Mexico, and
buidin wa former te ofiialheaquater oftheSpais
the southern seas. crossed by the tropic of Cancer, refreshed by the northeast trade winds, bathed with bountiful showers, with soil and sunshine that tempt even dead seeds to life.
North of us lie the great American markets and centers of distribution; south, the countries of Argentine, Brazil, Chile and all their sister republics. To the west Mexico and Central America, while with the opening of the Panama Canal we have Japan, China, Siberia and India; and to the east, across the Atlantic lies Europe.
The healthfulness of any locality is above all the first consideration to the. homeseeker. In this essential feature, Cuba asks no favors of any country on earth.
Cuba is the healthiest country in the world, as the figures in the following table, giving the number of deaths per thousand, will-show:
Cuba ........ ..12.54
Australia .... 12.60 Uruguay ....... 13.40
United States 15.00
England .... 17.70 Germany ..... : 17.80
France ....... .20.60 The cntrancc to the Cabafias Fortress bears above an
Spain ...... 29.70 cutcheon displaying the castle and dragons of the Arms of
The harbor expands before and one-half miles wide, with 11 In the numerous steamship
year we find indication of the the second of America.
i~ ~ ~ ~~j I!%i .. .
The intensely blue sky makes an effective background for the city
with its houses gaily painted in tints of pink and yellow, and brown and blue, and green and white, and the dark red of the Spanish tile roofs, which may
yet be seen in the old part of the city.
On account of the epidemic of influenza in 1918. is at present, one of [he cleanest cities of the world,
Cuba's death rate was increased to 15.04 but in the with a death rate lower than either New York, Washsame period the death rate in the United States went ington, Philadelphia Boston, San Francisco Baltifrom 14.20 in 191a7 to 18.00 per 1,000 in 1918. more, Pittsburah or Cincinnati
Havana, for nearly fifteen years, has been, and
TEMPERATURE summer. We have refreshing breezes by day and the
nights are always cool and pfeasint. The average The mean average temperature of January is rainfall is 54 inches. Dry in winter; showers in summer.
700.3; that of July 820.4. Only on rare occasions the Average temperature during December, January,
mercury goes below 600 in winter or above 900 in February, March and April 72.28"
Most of the houses are of one story or of two; but the single story is often so lofty that it seems as high as many two-storied houses elsewhere.
CenralPar i th hert f he ity isinthe very midst of Havana's F.
soia if.Issrrude y oelthareclubs and office buildings. The onuentin te fregoundis hatof en. Francisco de Albear, aut r fthe elerate Veto auedct wichsupplies water to the city.,
The temperature in the shade, in the city of Havana, during eighteen years, has been:
Minimum recorded 50)
Average ,, 760
The island is approximately 760 miles long, the width varying from 22 to 160 miles. Area 45,881 square miles, slightly larger than the State of Pennsylvania. Laid down on the map of the United States it would extend from New York City to Cincinnati.
Cuba's sea coast is approximately 2,000 miles long, with more fine deep water harbors than any other country in America outside of the United States. Cuba's coastline gives her a wonderful commercial and Havana has several large hotels, and only during the strategic relationship to the trade of the Pan American
inter season there is some difficulty in obtain ood acco- seas.
1odations. New hotels are being built to take care of the
thousands of visitors who recognize that Cuba as a vacation land has no peer. This is Hotel Plat a, Rotary's Headquarters.
Cuba, with its population of 2.889.004 is supporting only 63 persons to the square mile, while the Bermuda Islands have 1,000; Belgium, 600; Java, 595; Rhode Island, 500; Holland, 454; England. 425; Porto Rico, 330; Japan, 317; Italy 310. With all her natural resources this Island can easily sustain more inhabitants per square mile than any of the above 7A
Seventy-two per cent of the population is white; eleven per cent black; sixteen per cent mixed and about half of one per cent of the yellow race.
There are 340,079 foreigners, of which there are '9,555 Americans. Spaniards comprise the majority of the foreigners in Cuba, there being 245,644. There are 10,300 Chinese born.
The population is divided into 1.530,509 males and 1. i58,495 females.
There are 10 cities of over 20,000,.41 cities of over What the Mediterranean is to the millions of Europe,
5,000, and 44 per cent of the people live in towns of Cuba is to the m illions in the United States and Canada
1,000 or over. tervcto lyrud huad fAeiaswohv
Everywhere, in public buildings and private houses, one gets the .
impression of .massive, substantial const auction, as attested by these l lofty y USe and wide colonnades. "111 fil111)1I
Havana's architecture has been determined by its climate. Everything ~is arranged with reference to coolness. The thick walls and heavy roofs are
~the full inflow of every cooling draft.
" t Cmunumentaln ach Aub-ve
3 Amounting the whole is a
group of heroic figures
bringing the light of religion to the New World.
THE LARGEST CITIES ARE:
Havana with .... 363,506. A rather encouraging feature is the increase of our
Santiago ..... 70,232. population by an excess of births over deaths amounting
Camaguiey .. ... 41,909. to 40,000 per year, in addition to which our average
Matanzas ...... 41,574. annual increase of white immigration is also 40,000
Cienfuegos ...... 37,241. The increase from 1907 to 1919 was 840,024.
EDUCATION There are at present 5,000 primary schools and
5,300 teachers. Each of the six provinces has an One of the first acts of the American Intervention Institute or High School. Four provinces have Normal
in the year 1900, was to inaugurate a modern system Schools.
of public instruction such as prevails in the United States. The University of Havana was founded on
On Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday afternoons Havana's fashionable parade ground is filled with a concourse of smart equipages, the promenades are crowded, and from the windows and balconies of the houses p exchange greetings with their friends in the gay throng.
OM1 111 11111111 f(il avn i actyofplae, f teesand plazas, of colonnades and 10111J18 towers,~ ~ ~ ~ an-hrhsadmnseis
January 5th, 1728, by a Religious Order, and secularized in 1842. It has, therefore, been teaching for two centuries. It is divided into departments where Letters and Philosophy, Pedagogy, the Sciences, Engineering, Architecture, Medicine and Law, are taught. At the present time over 1600 students receive scientific and technical instruction.
Cuba was the second country in America to operate a steam railroad. This road was opened for traffic
on the 19th of November, 1837. It connected Havana with the town of Giiines, and was about forty-five miles long. Today, Cuba's steam railroads aggregate 2,600 miles and 250 miles of electric railways.
More merchandise enters and leaves the harbor of Havana in normal times than any other port in-the Western Hemisphere, with the exception of New York.
There are thirty-two steamers a week to the United States, which give it a regular service to such ports as American, Canadian and English have contributed / New York, Boston, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Galvery largely to the development of Cuba's wonderful resources. veston, Mobile, Tampa and Key West. This is the Royal Bani of Canada, one of our most prestigious
The Cuban All-Rail Rou te operates a car-ferry service between Key West and Havana, linking up the railroads of the United States with the Cuban lines. Freight cars of almost any American or Canadian railroad are to be constantly seen on the Cuban roads, the two car-ferries making each a daily round-trip withL never less than 28 freight cars or. board, loaded with merchandise and machinery, direct from the factories to the sugar mills and interior points, without rehandling, and carrying north in the same way sugar in bulk, molasses in'tanks, tobacco in bales, hard woods, pineapples and other fruits, etc.
In addition to the regular passenger lines, there are many steamship lines plying between Havana and various ports, which carry freight only. The itinerant, or so-called tramp steamers, are entering and leaving the harbor of Havana almost every day of the year.
In 1919 the port was visited by 2482 ships, of which 2012 carried the American flag and 470 were of other nationality.
During 1919 there arrived at the port of Havana 81,366 people and 64,605 left during the same period
In. the first five months of, 1 920 the arrivals were There are many beautiful, modern buildings, but close to
52.88 te nmbr eavngth pot eig 3.65.these architectural evidences of the present one finds old
Touring this winter paradise may be accomplished with ease and .6
comfort by the United Railways of Havana and their connections. Other cities of the Island have attractions that are in some respects even more alluring than those of the metropolis itself.
This little Island, almost unknown a score of years ago, has won a place in the world of commerce and industry, of which any country might Well be proud. Her annual foreign commerce will exceed this year $1.500,000,000. The building in the back ground is the Custom House.
gConvent was selected by
Lord Albermaarle for
Worship of is troops in
1762; considered deseccrated in consequence and devoted to secular pur... poses -now G enera
Cub ha 1246mils f ecelen rodswhch orgreen foliage furnishing a stiicontrast with the white
be u, are spobaby4 uns rpse d in thel en rads, whit for ribbon of macadam hich narrows in the distance until
beauy, re robbly nsupased n th wold.At la-it disappear-, in the rool shade of the stately archway. ces the road is lined with royal poinciana or immense An automobile ride on one of these roads is a pleasure
laurel trees which completely sha de them, the dense dark never to be forgotten,
currency system. American metallic and paper money The Cuban Congress in adopting, in October 1914, circulates to the exclusion of other foreign moneys,
a national gold standard at a mint parity with the simplifying exchange operations and adding another American dollar, which was also made a legal tender link to the established close relations with the United rstCuba u;lig f' flf
vitality. syte.urria mealiad aermoe
ba ninlgol stnada-amn-aiyihWesipiynNxcagWprain ddn nte
under the same law, afforded the country an ample States.
HAVANAS CATHEDRAL A P I q
Built in 1704. The -Cathedral has long been popularly known as the
Columbus Cathedral, because for more than a century it enshrined certain
bones 'which were reputed to be the remains of the Great Discoverer.
The Santiago Cathedral is the largest church on the Island. Was erected in 1690, and occupies the site of two previous churches. Santiago
Cuban gold coins are of $ 20. $ 5, $ 4. $ 2, and $ I. The silver coins are $ 1, $ 0.40, $ 0.20, $ 0. 10, and nickel, 5, 2, and I cent.
The only paper money in circulation is that o. the United States, which has the same value as Cuban gold and silver coins.
The commercial possibilities of Cuba can best be indicated by saying that seldom in the history of nations has a country begun with practizall nothing but location, climate and soils as assets, devoid of credit, ... unknown to the commercial moAd for all intents and
purposes, and yet, at the expiration of a comparatively few years, has been able to maks the excellent showing that the following statistics demonstrate.
Exports to United States .......... $ 439.633,936.00
Other American Countries .,10.912,602.00 Germany ................ 10,425.00
Great Britain ............ 82.521,328.00
Other European Countries .,, 6.636,254.00 All Other Countries ...... 1.909,987.00 There is something of the flavor of Sevilla about the TOTAL --------$ 564.666,410.00
city and its quaint old buildings, balconies, window grills, heavy cornices and over-hanging, fluted, tile roofs.
Imports from United States......$ 272.192,946.00
Other American Countries ,,27.257,637.00 Germany .. .. .. .. .....197,499.00
Spain. .. .. .. .. .. ....15.911,108.00 t
France. .. .. .. .. .....9.90,7 19.00
Great Britain .. .. .. .....8.746,505.00
Other European Countries ,,3.059,989.00 All Other Countries.....20.305,129.00
TOTAL- -- --------$ 357.576,532.00
Cuba outranks all nationsof the Western hemisphere, save Canada, in the value of its trade with the United States. In 1919 Cuba sold more goods to the United States than any other country of the world, excepting Canada.
The total trade of Cuba with the United States lacks one per cent of being larger than that of the Argentine and Brazil combined. Cuba's trade in 1919, $ 697.001,485; Argentine's $ 355.126,791; Brazil's $ 348.226,929.
More than one-quarter of the total trade of the
United States with Latin-America is done with Cuba. The traveler who can find nothing of interest or charm
Under Spanish rule the Roman Catholic Church was the established church of Cuba; public services of any other church were prohibited. There are now in Havana churches of various Protestant denominations.
The churches and religious orders were formerly very rich, possessi sugar plantations and coffee estates which had been bequeathed to them, an drawing vast revenues from lands owned by them.
This figure of an Inthan maiden is allegorical of Havana. She wears a 74 headdress of feathers and
r, has a quiver of arrows;
in one hand is held a cornucopia, in the other a shield with the Arms of the City.
In 1913, the last normal year before the war, our our purchases in the same country amounted to
exports to the United States amounted to $ 125.093,740, $ 227.156,'047.
In 1919, the first year of peace, we sold to the while our imports were valued at $ 73.238,834.
In 1918, the last year of the war, the value of our United States $ 418.610,263 worth of goods, and
exports to the United States was $ 278.635,027 and bought in the same year $ 278,391,222.
Ceaub's oforeigna tre in11Oaihelimsa 2 uaimotd$13prcaiaadteUie
the parks and promenades t a ha n
and drives, which extend from .he water front on the Gulf through the city .out to Principe Hill. The statue of Carlos III, King of Spain, marks the beginning of the drive bearing his name.
Cuba's foreign trade 'in 1919 was three times as $ 72. Cuba imported $ 123 per capita and the United
large as that of the United States, based on the popul- States only $ 35.
ation. The trade of Cuba 'was $ 321.00 per capita, The total foreign trade of Cuba during 1920 is
while that of the United States was only $ 107.00. estimated at $-1.500.000,000, an increase over 1919 of
Cuba exported $ 198 per capita and the United States more than 50 per cent.
The White House of Cuba, or Presidential Palace, is one of Havana's most beautiful buildings, is lavishly finished and decorated and luxuriously furnished; it is home the President of the Republic.
On the stage of the National Opera House Ix world's most famous artists have been seen and heard. At this moment Caruso, the greatest
Ca ll 111111111111(111111111 fill Ull 11 (111 fill] 1111 lllfllmll lll "111111111111 Ill Ill I Ill 1111 M B
living tenor, is si ging to Havana's appreciative audiences.
CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE
The Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Navigation of the Island of Cuba,- Camara de Comercio, Industria y Navegaci6n de la Isla de Cuba- is 11 the oldest and most representative body devoted to the
....promotion of trade, industry and navigation in Cuba.
Its object is to unite in one organization firms and individuals engaged in commerce, industry and transportation; to promote the development of their interests; to assist and defend these interests by all 'i legal means; and to initiate or support measures tend! 'ing to the improvement and extension of trade, i production and transportation.
The activity of the Chamber covers a wide field,, and it is constantly engaged in exerting its influence, or bringing to bear its experience, so as to promote or defend the economic interests of the country. Just now it has been directing its attention especially to obtaining
- improvements in the railroad service, and in urging upon
_____the Government measures for relieving the congestion of the port of Havana.
Havana can boast of a skyscraper, perhaps the highest A system of arbitration for settling controversies
building south of the United States. In the business district the
new constructio are being made four or more stories in height. ),
in commercial matters arising between merchants has been provided, and the number of cases brought before' the Chamber for arbitration increases steadily.
THE AMERICAN CHAMBER
OF COMMERCE OF CUBA
The leading American business interests in Cuba
were discussing the formation of an American Chain- t
ber of Commerce for the Island for a long time but had postponed action on account of the European war. In the summer of 1919, after the armistice was signed, the movement began to take form and a number of meetings i$
were held under the auspices of the American Minister to Cuba, at the American Legation jnd the American Club, which led to the formation of the Chamber in August, 1919.
The objects of the Chamber as expressed in its Charter are:
"To promote trade and commerce between the United States of America and the Republic of Cuba, as well as the Agricultural, Financial, Industrial, Min- No country or state of equal area in the short space of
ing and other interests of Americans in Cuba; to defend eighteen years, without advertising, without bounties or governand protect the business interests of the members before mental aid, and with but comparatively little capital, has
been able to make a showing in the commercial and industrial I world equal to that of Cuba. The International Bank of Cuba is one of our leading banks.
Many Havana houses are of inmense size, and cost enormous fortunes. The city is the home of most of the wealthy sugar planters, it being evrybody's ambition to live in the "Capital"' of the Republic.
Designed by Messrs. Carrere & Hastings, this home in Vedado is one of the most sumptuous and beautiful of the city.
egadin theadvntags o Cua asa cmmerialdo uch the thigselaie, torasi the tersafrsi center tostlbcrirtodfeecsta a smyb on eia le, s convenientso aneceab ry,
arie; o pocue nifrmiy o oinin ad atio s fa asthesae my b pemtead biy a"ti 44pstin n hc
been utilized and the to-ae
pography of the land closely followed to obtain the best results.
The Chamber during its short existence has been ions in Cuba in connection with other bodies, notably
able to obtain from the Cuban Government various in breaking the recent strike in the bay of Havana,
modifications of the Custom House and Tariff Regul- which was done in connection with the Rotary Club
ations, and it has also taken active part in various of Havana, by the merchants themselves and the clerks
movements to improve commercial and business condit- doing the work of laborers, stevedores, teamsters and
The flat roofed houses with the wall s carried above the roof to form
parapets bright spots on moonlit nights the large windows, the thick 11 il1111111111
walls, high ceilings and large rooms,. all make for an openness of living peculiar to Cuban life.
Oeiimressed by the size and elaborateness of thehmsoth weathy Fotuately for them the servant problem in Cub sntvr
The Chamber is always ready to co-operate with M similar bodies in Cuba or in the United States in improving the commercial situation in Cuba by any means in its power, and also stands ready to help any commercial or manufacturing concern in the United States so far as it can in all matters relating to commerce between Cuba and the United States and invites correspondence on such matters.
ARMY AND NAV'Y
Cuba's army consist of 647 officers and 16.489 enlisted men, beside 75 cadets.
The navy is not large, but ample for the country's needs. It consists of 134 officers and about 1,000 men. There are two cruisers, twelve gun-boats and four submarine chasers.
The President is the Chief Commamder of the armed forces of the Republic, and exercises this command through the Secretary of War and the Navy.
$0 The Aviation Corps of the Army is well trained
and has for its use several of the latest type of AmericT 'he central feature of the Cuban home is the patio, the .. an and French planes
In the numerous steamnships and sailing craft we find indication of the magnitude of the commerce of the port. During, 1919 there arrived at Havana 2482 ocean steamers, of lw
which 2012 Carried the IV
American flag. The value of imports was $ 234. 100,5 18.
The army is well equipped and highly efficient. The regulations are practically those of the United States Army, and for several years after the American occupation, American officer-instructors were used in its upbuilding and organization.
The police force of Havana is a most efficient body, well organized and carefully trained. It consists of 174 officers and 1943 men of which 200 are mounted policemen devoted to the regulation of traffic and the policing of the outskirts of the city. The body of men who compose the traffic squad has been carefully selected and consists of 9 officers and 200 men. They succeed in a highly efficient manner in maintaining order in the crowded streets. The population of the city is 363,506 and the number of vehicles over seventeen thousand.
The production of cane sugar represents about eighty per cent of the agriculture of Cuba. Climate and soil make Cuba the natural sugar cane growing country of the world, and the Island has sufficient The patio is often filled with a profusion of shrubbery,
territory to furnish the world with all the sugar it needs. palms, orchids, roses and other flowers, and ferns and vines,
with caged birds, a fountain splashing in the center, and
Good houses are not only found in Havana, for many ill owners have built themselves magnificent homes and live of every comfort and luxury.
It is all very bright and highly colored and charming, whether we see
it in the tinted air of the early morning or in the full blaze of the noonday
In spite of the fact that labor is much higher in ce a higher grade of cane sugar at less cost than any
Cuba than in other cane sugar producing countries, such other country in the world.
is the fertility of her soil and so great are the natural advantages of location, deep water harbors, rainfall and The sugar mills, of which there are over two hunclimatic conditions, that Cuba can undoubtedly produ- dried in operation, are, as a rule, equipped with the most
modern and up-to-date machinery- Some of the mills The sugar crop of 1919-1920 was estimated at
have a capacity exceeding 650,000 bags of 325 pounds 4.446,429 gross tons, but on account of the severe
each. drought suffered during the last several months, the crop
Sugar made up 86 per cent of the value of exports is now estimated at 3.650,000 gross tons, or a reduction
from Cuba to the United States in 1919. of about twenty per cent.
Havana has another attraction for the turist -a Casino-where a]
selected attendance is given the chance of testing its luck. Outside from its sporty and gambling character the place is frequented for it first class restaurant service and the curiosity that an establishment of this kind inspires on the average man.
k ]inds of out-door sports. Of these, none gives better opportunity for a display of skill and agility than Polo. The principal Cuban teams are that of the Havana Country Club and the Army's. American players frequently visit Cuba and play against the Cuban teams.
Next in importance commercially to the production of sugar, ranks that of tobacco, the annual value of the crop being about $50.000,000.
Since the beginning of hostilities, in Europe, export of tobacco, especially finished cigars, has fallen off in the neighbourhood of thirty per cent. Now, with the restoration of peace, and the resumption of normal conditions, tobacco culture will again assume its original importance in the agricultural industries of the Republic; especially so, since Cuba has always been able to produce a grade of tobacco unequalled for its quality in any part of the world.
Cuba is a natural citrus fruit country, since the sour and bitter orange trees are found wild in almost every forest of the Island. The lime, growing in its natural state, is found in abundance scattered over the rocky hillsides. Almost everywhere in Cuba are found a few cultivated orange trees, the fruit of which is used for home consumption, but only since AmerAmong the characteristic features of Camagiiey houses are can industry took hold in Cuba has citrus fruit growing
the "tinajones" or earthe n jars for storing rain water. They are been undertaken as a commercial possibility. sometimes of inmense size, standing six feet in diameter with a capacity of 500 gallons. Used now as flower pots.
There are more than 20,000 acres already planted G=9
in citrus fruit in Cuba. The total value of estates in this enterprise is about $15.000,000.
Pineapples have been grown in Cuba for export for the past twenty years. In point of money value, the pineapple industry ranks high. At the present time most of the pineapples intended for export are grown within fifty miles of the city of Havana. Over a million crates are shipped annually to the United States.
The virgin forests of Cuba abound in valuable hardwoods, such as mahogany, spanish cedar, rosewood, ebony, lignum-vitae and other. So abundant, in fact, are the hardwoods in these forests, that such valuable woods as mahogany, ebony and lignum-vitae, are sometimes used as railroad ties, while in the United States they are sold by the pound.
There are still large amounts of cedar, mahogany and other fine woods scattered throughout the mountain districs, but they are unavailable until good roads are secured for transporting the product. Jesds del Monte, on a hill rising 220 feet, is the highest
point of Havana, and here are many fine residences. Has always
enjoyed a reputation for salubrity.
Six seasons of continuous racing has made Havana one of the greatest racing points on the sport map, and each year finds the pasttime growing in popularity.
Of all athletic sports none calls for greater strength, endurance, skill fand agility on the part of the player than Jai Alai, the Spanish National
Ball Game. None gives greater delight or arouses greater enthusiasm on
the part of the spectators.
voidof xtrees nteperturie and an tay marke alay accessible.e hor Cuba,~~~ha ass aos whole offer inaunachehesn
tial~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ l codtin neesar toe sucsflsokriig-Teeaehnrdftosnsifae of well
nti co dtios gras e ss r oo drink ulstc riingwae, a ci te e- w T here ad rel hudried land th atd poss a lle of thee 60
The Vedado Tennis
Club, one of the most attractive and elite organization of Havana, with
its delightful club-housc 7
overlooking the ocean, is a place of fascination for
those of choicest taste.
qualities. Much of the territory formerly devoted to under proper management, returns quite as satisfactory
grazing has been recently planted in sugar cane, owing as those derived from the sugar industry.
to the high prices of sugar, but there still remain large tracts in all of the six provinces, that are not only Tha royal palm, which covers many of the hillsides
available for stock raising, but which would produce, and slopes of our long mountain chains, produces a small
The Boniato military road, built under Gen. Wood's administration, ascends an elevation whence is spread before the eye the amphitheatre of Santiago Bay, with the sea beyond. The climb by automobile is easy and the reward is well worth the while.
Every bend in the road brings change, cnarm and contrast. Mountains, valleys, table lands, rolling hills and plains, follow in rapid succession. Monotony of landscape is seldom found in Cuba.
nut called "palmiche" that furnishes a never failing food which helps the stock-grower in the raising of hogs.
The iron deposits in Oriente province are perhaps the most valuable in the world. It has been found that they are equal to those of Sweden, and in some points superior, as nature has suplied the requisite amount of both nickel and manganese.
Back of Nipe Bay, deposits of high grade ore have been discovered sufficient to supply the demands of the entire world for the next hundred years.
Nearly all the great iron deposits of Oriente lie within a few feet of the surface, and, in many places it is only necessary to scrape the dirt from the sides of the hills, remove the ore at small cost and send it down to the sea by gravity.
Its gorgeous tropical landscape, where nature is charmingly As a result of the present large demand for coppe
beautiful in the exuberance of growth and extravagance of col- and the consequent high prices offered for this metal,
-or form a series of vistas, the splendor of which challenges comparison.
great activity has been revived in the industry of capper mining. The greatest activity has been manifested in
the province of Pinar del Rio, where, in one -mine the ore runs from twelve to twenty-four per cent copper with a sufficient amount of silver in combination to pay the entire smelting cost.
In Camaguey province copper, iron and manganese ores are found. In Santa Clara province is perhaps to be found the richest place in Cuba in copper.
There are some asphalt deposits, and petroleum is found'in Matanzas and Havana provinces.
In Oriente there is a great unexplored region that will some day make Cuba famous for her mineral wealth.
Recent discoveries of marvellously rich ore in unexpected places would seem to justify the belief that the great stretches of unexplored and unsurveyed mineral zones beneath the surface may yet equal, if not surpass, the remarkable agricultural wealth of the fertile soilsroaplmwhteinstlyvnusraoes above. eeyhr osiusadcaatrsi beto h
Our roads 188 and almond tr
The valley of Mariel, twenty five miles out of Havana, while not the
most beautiful in Cuba, is well worth the journey, to see. The Yumuri and Vifiales valleys are considered the most beautiful
Sea bathing is enjoyed safely all the year round at the beaches of Bibijagua and Nueva Gerona, and motor-launching and canoeing on the beautiful Casas River is a pasttime popular with many residents and visitors to the Isle of Pines.
FUTURE. for good government, and a most liberal encouragement
to outside capital, together with friendly international A marvelous soil, a climate unexcelled, a location relations, presage for this Republic most exceptional
directly in the pathway of Western and Southern com- industrial development.
merce, an ambition to excel in those things which make With only 63 inhabitants to the square mile, and
Heretofore the Isle of
Pines has been associated
in many people's mind nw k ,
with land sales, citrus fruit growing, and other industries of the soil, but today the little Island is quietly taking its place as one of the coming winter resorts.
This is Hotel Santa Rita.
ample room for the sustenance of three hundred, and opportunities are open to and challenge the capital
but 25 1/c of the available soil adapted to the production and enterprise of the world.
of sugar under cultivation, the possibilities of future If the commercial and industrial possibilities of
growth along other lines than that now producing the, Cuba are to be based on her record of the past ten
greatest revenue are apparently marvelous. 'These years, it.is most natural to conclude that her future is
Th ntrance to Santiago's harbor is only 180 yards inr itadle be thte battlements of the historic Morro Castle, whihcon h smiofa rocky promontory 200 feet high, and juts into tesa
Id "In Memory of the Officers and men of the United States Ar eekilled in the assault and capture of this ridge, July Ist, I8 siege of Santiago, July Ist to July 16th, 1898. War between.Sp .United States."
Cuba is by far the largest sugar producing country in the world. With a little more than two and three. quarter million inhabitants, .it produced 3.971,594 gross tons of sugar in 1919, and the estimated crop for 1920 is more than ten per cent higher than the previous year. This enormous production by such a small population speaks well for the enterprise and industry of its people.
The greater part of the Cuban sugar crop is shipped to the United States, but it has also played an important part in feeding the Allied nations during the war, both by shipments of raw sugar direct to Europe and by shipments to the United States where it was refined and exported to the Allies.
While in 1911 the exports of sugar from Cuba to European countries were almost nil (1286 tons.) they increased to 274,000 tons in 1914, and reached the large figure of 925,000 tons in 1917. The exportation of. ;o sugar to Europe is on the increase, and there is no doubt
Beneath this "ceiba" tree, which stood midway between ta uoewl cuya motn lc mn
the American and Spanish lines, General Shafter received on Cuba's customers for its sugar.
It is evident that sugar is the principal source of wealth in. Cuba, and with the high prices brought about by the war, Cuba is enjoying unprecedented prosperity.
For some years previous to 1914 the price of sugar had been low and only few favorably located factories,
-which owned large tracts of new land, had little competition in buying cane, and were equipped with modern machinery were able to work at a J
profit. The great majority of the factories were deeply in debt and obliged to pay so heavy a tribute for financial accommodation that they were always on the edge of bankruptcy.
At the commencement of the war sugar prices doubled almost over night, and these prices have been continuously on the increase until today they have reached an unprecedented high level.
Therefore,the position of the sugar cane planter is very different today from what it was previous to the war. The cane planter is never satisfied with his production, and is, therefore, constantly making improvements in the methods, of growing cane, in the machinery and apparatus used for grinding the cane and manu- It was from this tower that Hernando de Soto's wife
facturing the sugar. The amount of machinery watched through the weary years for the coming of her husband, who was never to return. In days gone by he bell in th
tower was rung by the sentinel always posted there 'to alarm the town of the approach of a otlsal
The growing of sugar cane and tobacco have usually proven so satisfactory that comparatively little attempt has been made to produce
articles of first necessity that can be so readily imported. The sugar mill
is the backbone of Cuba's wealth.
There are two hundred and ten sugar mills in the Island. During the grinding season the work is carried on day and night, from December to June, and during the rest of the year they are completely idle.
Despite her extraordinary present wealth and development she still is only well started on- the road to improving her potentialities. Sugar cane on virgin land may be cut for thirty years without replanting.
imported from the United States during the past few It is not unusual for one of these large mills to
years for the improvement and enlargement of existing have as much as 200,000 acres of land and over 200
sugar mills, and for the erection of new ones, is miles of standard gauge railroad, with its equipment of
enormous. engines and cars, which serve to bring in the cane to
There are hundreds of
thousands of acres of well watered lands that possess the essential conditions necessary to successful stock
the mill, and, where the estate has its own shipping cane, for a much larger production, -and the tendency
port on the coast, to carry the sugar to that point, at the present time is still to increase.
G reat as the increase of the sugar crop of Cuba The production of sugar in Cuba during the past
has been, there is land enough remaining, suitable for twenty-five years has been:
The machinery and apparatus necessary for making sugar i quite costly, but the sugar mills, are, as a rule, equipped with the most modern and up-to-date equipment.
The cane juice passes through a complicated process of manufacture.
In these large vats or "vacuum pans" the syrup is cooked to-the crystallization point. The sugar made in these mills is brown and is known as raw sugar.
Tons. of 2240 lbs.
1 895 1.004,264
. .. 1914 2.596,567
The Ile. of Pines abounds in a great variety of means for 1919 3.971,594
outdoor life and sport, and its waters afford splendid fishing' 1920 4.446,429
which includes the tarpon, red snapper, cherna, bluefish, and numerous other gamy fish.
So much for sugar. We know of Cuba's present or developed resources, but for her great latent or potential wealth we are compelled to guess since the development of the Island has only begun. Only those who are in daily contact with experimental work in, the various agricultural stations, and in constant touch with exploration efforts in the many mineral zones, can form an idea of the potential or future value of Cuba's undeveloped resources.
Cuba was one of the first foreign markets visited by the traders of the American colonies. Then, as now, the proximity of the Island to the United States made it a desirable starting point in a foreign trade campaign.
The growth of our trade with the United States since 1850 is shown in the following table of values of our average annual imports and exports, compiled from statistics of the United States:
S There are many springs of mineral water, chiefiy magn-, sia, all. over the Isle of Pines, much of which is bottled and
One can ride the entire distance of 500 miles between Havana and Santiago de Cuba and view almost 'a continuous stretch of growing sugar cace as far as the eye can reach, and on both sides of the track.
Th rnsportation of cane to the railroad lines operated by the sugar
mil[s tl one with oxen carts a slow and costly system'of transportation which is really being supplanted by mechanical methods.
agiutr of Cua Cli
PERIODS IMPORTS. EXPORTS TOTAL TRADE
grwn nr of th
1851-1860 $ 8.386,809 $ 24.517,905 $ 32.904,714 1861-1870 13.944,927 38.219,516 52.164,443
1871-1880 13.882,316 65.970,314 79.852,630
1881-1890 11.047,498 55.436,365 66.483,863
1891 -1897 10.045,671 40,532,663 50.578,334
e Vue a
AVERAGE AVERAGE. TOTAL TRADE
PERIODS IMPORTS EXPORTS
1898-1903 $ 21.506,895 $ 35.512,261 $ 57.019,156 1904-1908 41.997,666 85.798,776 127.796,442
1909-1914 59.858,296 117.850,998 177.709,294
1915-1918 154.122,675 233.025,971 387.148,646 1919- 278.391,222 418.610,263 697.001.485
Most of the tobacco isgrw infed coee wih hes ltwih
D wilIIIIIII flIfnot only gives shade and breaste oc fri trs u lopeet insects from laying eggs on teudrsdso h evs
The obaco mst e cu jut atthepsyholoica perod f it grwth
The United States, however, is not alone in the enjoyment of Cuba's orders for factory products. Cuba, as an origin ofdesired products and a market for manufactured articles, has become popular with the importing and exporting nations othe world.
Spain still holds sway over the tastes of many Spanish-Cubans, and markets her merchandise accordingly. Other European nations, and shippers from the Far East as well, realize the value of sending their boats to our ports. However, the. share of the United States ii our import trade has grown from 20 per cent in 1840 ti. 77 per cent in 1919.
Fruit are indigenous to Cuba. e lim isfoud oer ock hilsdes, and orange trees are scattered throghot te Ilan, bt nt until lately has the growing of ciru fut ee udrtke s a cornmercia! industry.
American manufacturers may look forward to keen competition from both Europe and the Orient. The geographical advantage of the United States cannot be counted upon to wholly offset possible advantages in price ald service, and it therefore behooves American manufacturers to cultivate Cuban markets with the careful attention that is usually rewarded by continued patronage everywhere. One of the first essentials to success is a study of the needs of the country from the viewpoints -of climate, products, general development, and the character of the people.
The close relations between Cuba and the United States are so intimate and cordial that, without exaggeration, it may be said that they have come to be indissoluble and are making themselves felt in ail
Until the abolition of slav
coffee was one of the chief indusre fteIlnbtwt the consequent complete change o h ao ytm n h profitable returns derived from sugr ofecltr a ail lost its impotne
"The most 'beautiful island that human eyes have ever seen
"h ms I beuiu island4that human eyes haveiever seen".
SDon't you think that Columbus was right?
spheres of human activities; and these relations, based It is our hope and desire that our trade relations
on reciprocal confidence and a community of senti- with the United States may be constantly on the increase,
ments and interests, will daily grow more fruitful, and towards that end Cuba will use her every effort.
The "volanta" was the
conveyance used in Cuba before the opening up of roads made possible the use of more modern types of vehicles, On account of the large wheels and the low center of gravity it could be used on almost any kind of roads, over mountain trails, and for fording most of our shal
To end, we wish to say that in these few facts it Just as the influence of men does not depend upon
is absolutely impossible to do justice to this Island which their stature, but upon their brain quality, so Cuba's
has had such a remarkable development in the past and place in the family of nations depends not on her area
now faces such a wonderful future. but on what she really is, has and does.
oflhms fa mocustes ot the world. xas ftelvesadsoe n 94
The harbor of Cienfuegos is pronounced one of the fin 0 1 with room for a thousand ships. It is considered the grea
strategic purposes in the Caribbean. The town was found troyed by a hurricane and rebuilt in 1825.
DESIGNED, ENGRAVED AND PRINTED
BY INSTITUTO DE ARTES GRAFICAS DE LA HABANA.