Citation
U.S. Army Medical Department journal

Material Information

Title:
U.S. Army Medical Department journal
Alternate title:
United States Army Medical Department journal
Alternate Title:
AMEDD journal
Running title:
Army Medical Department journal
Abbreviated Title:
U.S. Army Med. Dep. j.
Creator:
United States -- Army Medical Department (1968- )
Place of Publication:
Fort Sam Houston, TX
Publisher:
U.S. Army Medical Department
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[<Oct.-Dec. 2001->]
Bimonthly[ FORMER Sept.-Oct. 1994-]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
volumes : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Medicine, Military -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Military Medicine ( mesh )
Medicine ( mesh )
Medicine, Military ( fast )
United States ( mesh )
United States ( fast )
United States
Genre:
Electronic journals.
Periodicals.
Periodicals. ( fast )
Fulltext.
Government Publications, Federal.
Internet Resources.
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Electronic journals ( lcsh )
Periodicals ( mesh )
Periodicals ( fast )
Fulltext
Government Publications, Federal
Periodicals
Internet Resources

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Sept.-Oct. 1994-
General Note:
Title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
32785416 ( OCLC )
98642403 ( LCCN )
1524-0436 ( ISSN )
ocm32785416
Classification:
RC970 .U53 ( lcc )
616.9/8023/05 ( ddc )
W1 JO96 ( nlm )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Journal of the US Army Medical Department.

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Digital Military Collection

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

LEADERSHIPTHENECESSARYELEMENTFORSUCCESS OctoberDecember2007Perspective1MGRussellJ.CzerwTheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeaders4forTomorrowsChallengesJodyR.Rogers,PhD;MAJRalphT.Navarro,MS,USA;MAJThomasJ.Anton,MS,USA;HankSebastian;KenKnightAMEDDLeadershipDevelopment:FromtheGrassRootsUp19COLChuckCallahan,MC,USA;LTCMarkThompson,MC,USAMentoringintheArmyMedicalDepartment:AdviceforSeniorLeaders26COLMarkA.Melanson,MS,USAMentorsandProtgs:SimpleRulesforSuccess29COLMarkA.Melanson,MS,USAEvolvingRolesofHighlySuccessfulMentors37COLMarkA.Melanson,MS,USATheCouragetoLead:StepstoBecomingaBetterLeader40JodyR.Rogers,PhDElementsofLeadershipfortheSuccessfulOrganization46COLGeorgeW.Turiansky,MC,USAPostmodernism,theMetanarrative,andPrinciple-BasedLeadership49COLChuckCallahan,MC,USA;COLBryanMartin,MC,USALeadershipInsightsoftheChineseMilitaryClassicsfor57PhysicianLeadersandHealthcareAdministratorsCOLRobertW.Enzenaue,MC,ANG

PAGE 2

MGGaleS.Pollock ActingTheSurgeonGeneral Commander,USArmyMedicalCommandMGRussellJ.CzerwCommandingGeneral USArmyMedicalDepartmentCenterandSchool OctoberDecember2007 TheArmyMedicalDepartmentCenter&School PB8-07-10/11/12 0722601 GEORGEW.CASEY,JR General,UnitedStatesArmy ChiefofStaff DISTRIBUTION:Special AdministrativeAssistanttothe SecretaryoftheArmy ByOrderoftheSecretaryoftheArmy: Official: JOYCEE.MORROW Onlineissuesofthe AMEDDJournal areavailableathttps://secure-akm.amedd.army.mil/dasqaDocuments.aspx?type=1 AProfessionalPublication oftheAMEDDCommunity The ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournal [ISSN1524-0436]ispublishedquarterlyfor TheSurgeonGeneralbytheUSArmyMedicalDepartmentCenter&School,ATTN: MCCS-DT,2423FSH-HoodST,FortSamHouston,TX78234-5078. CORRESPONDENCE: Manuscripts,photographs,officialunitrequeststoreceive copies,andunitaddresschangesordeletionsshouldbesenttothe Journal atthe aboveaddress.Telephone:(210)221-6301,DSN471-6301 DISCLAIMER: The Journal presentsclinicalandnonclinicalprofessionalinformation toexpandknowledgeofdomestic&internationalmilitarymedicalissuesand technologicaladvances;promotecollaborativepartnershipsamongServices, components,Corps,andspecialties;conveyclinicalandhealthservicesupport information;andprovideapeer-reviewed,highquality,printmediumtoencourage dialogueconcerninghealthcareinitiatives. Viewsexpressedarethoseoftheauthor(s)anddonotnecessarilyreflectofficialUS ArmyorUSArmyMedicalDepartmentpositions,nordoesthecontentchangeor supersedeinformationinotherArmyPublications.The Journal reservestherighttoedit allmaterialsubmittedforpublication(seeinsidebackcover). CONTENT: Contentofthispublicationisnotcopyrightprotected.Materialmaybe reprintedifcreditisgiventotheauthor(s). OFFICIALDISTRIBUTION: ThispublicationistargetedtoUSArmyMedical Departmentunitsandorganizations,andothermembersofthemedicalcommunity worldwide.

PAGE 3

OctoberDecember20071Considerationofleadershipusuallyinvokesthoughtsofuniversallyacknowledgedgreatleadersontheworldstage,normallythosewhorosetoprominenceduringtimesofcrisis.Suchleadersmaybepolitical,AbrahamLincolnandWinstonChurchill,orseeminglyunremarkablepeoplewhosimplyevolveintoleadershiprolesinresponsetosituationsandcircumstances,MahatmaGandhiandLechWalesa,forexample.Similarly,discussionsaboutmilitaryleadersusuallybringforththenamesofseniorcommanderswhosesuccessincombatinmajorconflictscarriedhistoricsignificance.TheUSmilitaryhasmanysuchindividualswhoseleadershipstyleswereasvariedastheirbackgrounds:flamboyantandaggressiveinthemoldofGeneralGeorgePattonandAdmiralWilliamBullHalsey,orpersuasiveandtactfulasGeneralDwightEisenhower.However,itmustberememberedthatsuccessofmilitaryorganizationsisdirectlydependentontheexerciseofsolidleadershipacrosstheentireforcestructure,atalllevelsofrank.Everymilitarymemberlookstosuperiors,whetherornotdirectlyinthechainofcommand,forleadership,eitherasexamplesorfordirectionandstability.Conversely,everymilitarymemberalsoveryquicklyrecognizestheabsenceofleadershipinsituationsrequiringit.Whenthisoccurs,weeitherlookelsewhere,ortakepersonalresponsibilitytofillthevoid.Often,incriticalsituations,thatexerciseofpersonalleadershipcanmeanthedifferencebetweenlifeanddeath,eitherforourselves,orothers.Inourworldofmilitarymedicine,situationsinvolvingthelivesofothersaretheprimaryreasonforourexistence.Inthedeadlychaosofthebattlefield,theCombatMedicassumesaleadershiprolebasedonspecializedskillsandanunwaveringresponsibilitytothelivesofSoldiers.TheMedicisinchargeofthecasualtysituation,nomattertheranksorrolesofothersinvolved.TheleadershipdisplayedbytheMedicinsuchsituationsiscriticaltothemoraleoftheunit,whichmusthavecompleteconfidenceinhisorherskillsandabilitytousethem.AttheotherendofthechainofcasualtycarearetheseniormedicalSoldierswhomustexerciseclearleadershipamongtheircounterpartsofvaryingandinterrelatedmedicalspecialties.ThisleadershipiscriticaltoensuringthecorrectandtimelyapplicationofmedicalresourcestoallcasualtiesthesingleSoldierwithnon-life-threateninginjuriesorthemasscasualtysituationwhereinnumerouspeopleexerciseindividualleadershipatmanystages,fromtriagethroughthecriticalcareunit,andbeyond.However,asinallmilitaryorganizations,officersareultimatelyresponsibleforthesuccessorfailuresexperiencedinthecareofourSoldiers.OfficersensurethattheMedicisprepared,academically,physically,andemotionally,tofullyfunctiononthelinewithhisorherfellowSoldiers.Officersleadtheirrespectivemedicalteams,byactionandattitude,inthedecisionsandprocedureswhichsaveandbetterliveseverysingleday,whetherindirectpatientcare,orinthemanysupportfunctionsattendanttothemaintenanceofourSoldiershealthandwellbeing.ThisissueoftheArmyMedicalDepartment(AMEDD)JournalfeaturesarticlesonthedevelopmentandrefinementofleadershipskillsinArmymedicalofficers.Aswithallotheraspectsofthetrainingofourmedicalprofessionals,theAMEDDCenterandSchoolhasthemissiontocreateanddeliverleadershiptrainingtomedicalofficersatvariousstagesoftheirPerspectiveMajorGeneralRussellJ.Czerw

PAGE 4

2ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalPerspectivemilitarycareers.DrJodyRogersandhiscoauthorsopenwithacollectionofarticlesabouttheLeaderTrainingCenter,thefocusofArmymedicalofficerleadershiptraining.MAJRalphNazzarooffersadetaileddescriptionofthebasisandevolutionoftheAMEDDOfficerBasicLeadersCourse,thetrainingthatestablishesthefoundationofleadershipskillsrequiredbynewAMEDDofficers.Heclearlyarticulatesthecomplexitiesofdefining,developing,anddeliveringsuchtrainingtoAMEDDofficerswhosepathstocommissioningarevariedandoftencomplicated.HeclearlydescribesthebiggestchallengeforthecoursedesignersensureAMEDDofficershavebackgroundknowledgeandleadershipskillsonaparwiththeircontemporariesacrosstheArmy,mostofwhomhadbeenexposedtoyearsoftrainingandexperienceinmilitaryleadershippriortocommissioning.ThiscourseisvitaltothesuccessofArmymedicine,bothonandoffthebattlefield.AMEDDprovidesadditionallevelsofleadershipinstructionforofficersastheyprogressthroughtheirArmycareers.MAJThomasAntonprovidesanoverviewoftheAMEDDCaptainsCareerCourse,whichpreparesofficersforthoseassignmentsexpectedatthemid-gradecareerpoint,suchascompany-sizedunitcommandorhigherstaffbillets.HeclearlydescribestheArmydoctrinalbasisandtheacademicapproachtothecourse,withemphasisonitsflexibilitytoadapttodynamicsofourworldenvironment.TherefinementofleadershipskillscontinuesforseniorofficersintheAMEDDMedicalStrategicLeadershipProgram.KenKnightoutlinesthiscomponentoftheCommandandStaffTrainingBranchwhichisdesignedtostimulatestrategicthinkingonhealthcareissuesfrombothnationalandinternationalperspectives.AnotheraspectofbigpicturethinkingconcernsthesecurityoftheUnitedStatesasawhole,fromtheperspectiveofallthreats,conventional,unconventional,foreign,domestic,man-made,andnatural.HankSebastiandescribestheHomelandSecurityBranch,whichwasestablishedtoprovideofficertraininginthoseconsiderations.Also,hediscussestheinitiativetoestablishaformalmastersdegreecourseofstudyinhomelandsecurity.DrRogerswrapsupthediscussionoftheLeaderTrainingCenterwithadescriptionoftheExecutiveSkillsBranch,whereseniorofficersareprovidedtherequisitetrainingintheexecutiveandadministrativeskillsnecessarytopreparethemforassignmentsasfacilitycommandersorseniorhealthcareexecutives.Thebranchsresourcesexposemedicalprofessionalstothedisciplines,competencies,andpastandcurrentthoughtsandpracticesinvolvedwithexecutiverolesintheFederalHealthcareSystem.LeadershiptrainingofmedicalprofessionalscannotbesolelytheresponsibilityoftheAMEDDCenterandSchool.COLChuckCallahanandLTCMarkThompsondetailtheevolutionofalocallyconceivedanddevelopedofficerleadershiptrainingprogramwithinamajormilitarytreatmentfacility.Thisarticledescribeshowsuchaprogramcanconformtodoctrinalguidelines,adapttocurrentcircumstances,appealtodiverseindividualsanddisciplines,andaddresstheneedsofboththeparticipantsandtheArmymedicalsystem.Theinitiative,creativity,andflexibilitydemonstratedbythiscontinuing8-yearsuccessstorycouldserveasamodelforotherAMEDDcommandsofalltypesandsizes.IamconfidentintheAMEDDCenterandSchoolseducationalandleaderdevelopmentprograms.Weproducecapableofficerswhoservewellatalllevels.However,likeanyenterprise,ourprogramsshouldreceivecriticalscrutinyandbeimprovedasnecessarytobettersuittheneedsoftheArmyMedicalDepartment.Alongtimeadvocateofmentorshipasavehicleforprofessionaldevelopment,COLMarkMelansoncontributes3articlesexploringthisveryimportanttoolfromseveraldifferentperspectives.Hisfirstarticleiswrittenforthoseleaderswhoareinpositionstoinitiateandpromotementoringprograms.Hedescribesthevariousconsiderations,techniques,andapproachestomaintainingaviablementoringprogramwithinanorganization.Next,inanexcellentarticlereprintedfromanearlierissueoftheJournal,hedelineatesanddetailsaseriesofbasicrulesforbothpartiesdirectlyinvolvedinamentoringrelationship,thementorandtheprotg.Hislastarticleisathoughtfulandarticulatelookatthecomplexityinherentintheroleofmentor,andtheflexibilityrequiredtobesuccessful.HopefullyCOLMelansonsarticleswillstimulatemoreinterestinthisproven,yetalltoooftenoverlooked,approachtoaugmenttheprofessionaldevelopmentofourfutureleaders.

PAGE 5

OctoberDecember20073 Whenallaspectsofleadershiparereducedtothemostbasicelements,onefactisindisputable:thequalityofleadershipdemonstratedbyanindividualisadirectresultofthatindividualsmotivation,attitude,andchoices.DrJodyRogersaddressesthisinhisarticledetailingthevariouspersonalconsiderationswhicharefactorsinanindividualsdevelopmentasaleader.Whetheraleaderisbornortrained,apersonisonlyasgoodaleaderasheorshewantstobe.Inhiswellresearchedarticle,DrRogersdevelopsthepropositionthatonceapersondecidestobealeaderordiscoversthatheorshemustassumealeadershiproletherearedefinitestepsthattheindividualcanfollowtoevaluatetheirpersonalpotential,andthentakeactiontoenhancethestrengthsandimprovetheweaknesses.Asinsomanythingsinvolvedinasuccessfulmilitarycareer,effectiveleadershipisasdependentonpersonalactionasitisoninstitutionalresourcesandtraining.COLGeorgeTurianskysarticlethenexploreshowthepersonalcharacteristicsrequiredforeffectiveleadershipmustbereflectedintheorganizationalethos.Histhoughtfuldiscussionsuccinctlyexplainstheunbreakablelinksbetweentheleadersattributesandthoseofthesuccessfulorganization.Hedescribeshowatrueleadercannotbeeffectiveinavacuum.Theleadermustimpartthefactorsofsuccessintotheorganizationalinnerworkingsandstructuretofullyrealizethepotentialofeffectiveleadership.Mosttreatmentsofleadershipdealwiththedefinableattributesfoundineffectiveleaders,anddiscusstechniquesandtheapplicationofpreceptsandguidelinestoachievesuccess.COLChuckCallahanandCOLBryanMartinapproachleadershipfromadifferent,muchlargerperspective.Theirabsorbingarticlediscussesleadershipinamorephilosophicalcontext,developingtheideasthatapersonslifeexperiences,particularlythegenerationalandsocietalinfluences,shapethatpersonsleadershipstyleandtheleadershipprinciplesthatareimpartedtosubordinates.Theintriguingconceptspresentedinthisarticletrulywidenthescopeofanyconversationsaboutleadershipandshouldserveaspointsofreflectionforusall.Sincethebeginningofrecordedhistory,militaryleadershiphasbeendiscussedbychroniclersandanalyzedbyhistorians,sincesuccessandfailureofmilitarycampaignshavedefinedmuchofthehistoryofcivilization.Amongtheoldest,andundoubtedlymostprofound,writingsaddressingprinciplesandphilosophyofmilitaryorganizationandleadershiparefoundinChineseliterature.COLRobertEnzenaueclosesthisissueoftheJournalwithanintriguingcollectionofexcerptsfromthoseancientChinesemilitarywritingswhichdirectlyaddressdifferentaspectsofleadership.MostofusarefamiliarwithafewofthemorecommonmaximsfromTheArtofWar,butthedepthandextentofChinesethoughtinthisareaistrulyimpressive.COLEnzenauegroupstheexcerptsincategoriesreflectingvariousaspectsofleadership,withinwhichallofuscannodoubtfindexampleswhichrelatetosituationswehaveexperiencedoverourcareers,whetherextendedorinthebeginningstages.TheancientChinesewarriorsweremastersatcapturingtimelesstruismsaboutthedynamicsofhumaninteractionsinsuccinct,clear,anduniversallyunderstandablephrases,whichareasvaluabletoleaderstodayaswhentheywerewritten.COLMATTIXJOINSTHEAMEDDJOURNALEDITORIALREVIEWBOARDTheAMEDDJournalwelcomesCOLMarcE.Mattix,VC,USA,totheEditorialReviewBoard.COLMattixistheDeputyChiefoftheArmyVeterinaryCorpsandtheCorpsSpecificBranchProponencyOfficer,AMEDDCenter&School,FortSamHouston,Texas.COLMattixjoinstheboardreplacingCOLJohnL.Poppe,VC,USA.COLPoppehasbeenamemberoftheBoardsinceJuly2005.WethankCOLPoppeforhiseffortsintheplanningandcoordinationoftheexcellentJuly-September2007issueoftheAMEDDJournal,whichwasdedicatedtotheprofessionalsoftheArmyVeterinaryCorps.Wealsothankhimforhiscommitmenttotheoverallhighstandardsandprofessionalqualityofthispublication,andhisyearsofserviceandsupporttoourmission.TheEditors

PAGE 6

4ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalTheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallengesJodyR.Rogers,PhDMAJRalphT.Navarro,MS,USAMAJThomasJ.Anton,MS,USAHankSebastianKenKnightTheLeaderTrainingCenterhasthemissiontocreateArmyMedicalDepartment(AMEDD)leadersforthe21stcenturybyprovidingcollectiveandindividualleadershiptraining.ThedevelopmentofleaderscapableoftakingtheArmyingeneral,andtheAMEDDinparticular,intothenextseveraldecadesisachallengingtask.Jobcomplexity,challengingassignmentsanddeployments,andarapidlychangingworkforcemakethedevelopmentofstrongleadershipskillsapriorityinanyorganization.AlthoughtheLeaderTrainingCentersprimaryfocusisonouryoungerofficers,inrealityitexiststohelpallAMEDDofficersmaximizetheirleadershippotential.TheLeaderTrainingCentergoalsincludethecreationofmultiskilledleaderswhoare:StrategicandcreativecriticalthinkersBuildersofleadersandteamsCompetent,fullspectrumwarfightersandaccomplishedprofessionalswhosupporttheSoldiersEffectiveintheleadership,management,andmodificationoflargeorganizationsSkilledingovernance,statesmanship,anddiplomacy,whounderstandculturalcontext,andworkeffectivelyacrossitTheultimategoalistodevelopofficerswho,aboveall,setthestandardforintegrityandcharacter,andare:ConfidentandcompetentdecisionmakersinuncertainsituationsEmpatheticandalwayspositiveProfessionallyeducatedanddedicatedtolifelonglearningEffectivecommunicatorsInordertoaccomplishthesetasks,theLeaderTrainingCenterisintheprocessofareorganizationaroundmultiplebranchesfocusedonacoretrainingarea:LeaderDevelopmentBranchAMEDDOfficerBasicLeadershipCourseMedicalOperationsBranchCaptainsCareerCourseCommandandStaffTrainingBranchHomelandDefenseMedicalStrategicLeadershipProgramAMEDDExecutiveSkillsProgramThebranchesandtheirattendantresponsibilitiesarediscussedindetailintheremainderofthisarticle.AUTHORS DrRogersisaVisitingAssociateProfessorintheGraduatePrograminHealthcareAdministration,TrinityUniversity,SanAntonio,Texas.HealsoworksintheAMEDDExecutiveSkillsProgram,LeaderTrainingCenter,AMEDDCenterandSchool,FortSamHouston,Texas.MAJNavarroisthePlansOfficer,EmergencyPreparednessandResponseBranch,Headquarters,USArmyMedicalCommand,FortSamHouston,Texas.Atthetimethisarticlewaswritten,hewasaclassadvisorandinstructorintheLeaderDevelopmentBranch,AMEDDCenterandSchool.MAJAntonisastudentattheCommandandGeneralStaffCollege,FortLeavenworth,Kansas.Whenthisarticlewaswritten,MAJAntonwasaninstructorattheCaptainsCareerCourse,AMEDDCenterandSchool.MrSebastianistheChiefoftheHomelandSecurityBranch,LeaderTrainingCenter,AMEDDCenterandSchool.MrKnightistheDirector,MedicalStrategicLeadershipProgram,LeaderTrainingCenter,AMEDDCenterandSchool.

PAGE 7

OctoberDecember20075TheGlobalWaronTerrorismhascreatedanoperationalenvironmentunlikeanytheArmyhaspreviouslyseen.LeonardWong1pointsoutthattherequirementsofOperationsEnduringFreedomandIraqiFreedommeanthatcompany-gradeofficersareactingwithalevelofinitiativeandmakingdecisionswithstrategicimplicationsunlikeanyrequiredofjuniorofficersinpreviousconflicts.WithoperationaldeploymentsatascalenotsinceseenWorldWarII,youngofficersarebeingdeployedmorefrequentlyandarebeingthrustintoacomplexpolitical,social,andtacticalenvironmentwheretheiractionsmayhavestrategicimplications.TheArmysOfficerEducationSystemnowfacesthechallengeoftransformingcadetsandofficercandidatesintoleaderswhoarereadytooperateinthisenvironmentofambiguityandrapidchange.Newofficersmustarriveattheirfirstdutystationfullycompetentintechnical,tactical,andleadershipskillsbecausemanyofthemaredeployedshortlyafterarrival.ThefoundationofthecurrentArmyOfficerEducationSystemistheBasicOfficerLeadersCourse(BOLC).BOLCisa3-phasedofficerinitialmilitarytrainingprogramdesignedtomoldstudentsfromavarietyofcommissioningsourcesintoconfident,adaptiveleaders.Withtheimplementationofthisprogramandtheissuanceofthenewgoverningfieldmanual,ArmyLeadership(FM6-22),2theArmyisprovidingclearguidanceastothenecessarycapabilitiesitsofficersmusthavetoprosecutetheGlobalWaronTerrorismandprepareforfutureconflicts,aswellasamethodologyforcontinuingofficerleadershipdevelopmentthroughouttheircareers.THEBOLCMETHODOLOGYANDTHEARMYLEADERSHIPREQUIREMENTSMODELAsstatedinArmyRegulation350-1,3the3BOLCphasesaredesignedtobuilduponeachothersothatparticipatingofficersareindoctrinatedintotheArmyWarriorEthosevenbeforeaccession.BOLCPhaseIencompassesallArmypreappointmentandprecommissioningtraining.TheUnitedStatesMilitaryAcademy(USMA),ReserveOfficerTrainingCorps(ROTC),andtheArmyOfficerCandidateSchoolareallexamplesofBOLCItrainingsitesandsources.Suchtrainingmaylastanywherefromseveralmonthsto4ormoreyears.Itprovidestheinitialsoldierizationforcadets/candidatesandbuildsthefoundationincommonskills,attributes,andknowledgedesiredofallofficers.Subjectstaughtduringthisphaseincludecustomsandcourtesies,drillandceremony,theArmyordersprocess,developmentalcounseling,andtroopleadingprocedures.Cadets/candidatesalsolearnbasicfieldskills,small-unittacticaldoctrine,andphysicalfitness.Thefocusisonassessingthereadinessandpotentialofcadetsandofficercandidatesforcommissioningasofficersandpreparingthemforfurtherleaderdevelopment.Cadets/candidatesreceivetheircommissionsaftercompletionofBOLCPhaseI.BOLCPhaseII,orExperientialLeaderTraining,isdesignedtobeatough,standardizedbranch-immaterialcoursefocusedonsmall-unitleadership.Theprimarymissionofthisphaseistodevelopandproduceadaptiveofficerswiththeconfidencetoleadsmallunitsuponarrivalattheirfirstdutystation.Allattendingofficers,regardlessofbranch,aregroundedinthebasicsofsmall-unittacticsandshareacommonbondwiththeircombinedarmspeers.ThepurposeofBOLCIIistoprovidestudentswithapracticalleadershiplaboratory,withampleopportunityforinstructorandpeerreviewsothattheycanhaveafirmunderstandingofthestrengthsandweaknessesoftheirleadershipstyle.Thisoccursthroughatrainingprogramfocusedonhands-ontraininginthe40ArmyWarriorTasksand11BattleDrills,toincludeadvancedlandnavigationtraining;weaponsfamiliarizationandqualification;convoyoperations;chemical,biological,radiological,nuclearandhigh-explosivedefense;andsquadandplatoon-patrolexercisesinbothwoodlandandurbanterrain.StudentsareassumedtobeproficientinallBOLCItasks(suchascustomsandcourtesiesandphysicalfitness).Therefore,thosesubjectsarenotthetrainingfocusofBOLCII.Theadministrativeaspectsofofficership,suchasevaluationreportsandpropertyaccountability,arealsonottaughtduringthisphase.BOLCIItrainingis7weeksindurationateitherFortBenning,Georgia,orFortSill,Oklahoma. LAYINGTHEFOUNDATION:HOWTHEAMEDDOFFICERBASICLEADERSCOURSEGROWSLEADERSMAJRalphT.Nazzaro,USA

PAGE 8

6ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalBOLCPhaseIIIisthebranch-specifictechnicalandtacticalphasetaughtatindividualofficerbranchschools.Thelengthofthephaseisestablishedbythebranchschoolandmayrangefromseveralweekstoseveralmonths.BOLCIIItrainsnewofficersintheskills,tactics,anddoctrinespecifictotheirbranchsothattheyarepreparedtodeployandleadSoldiersaspartof,orinsupportofawarfightingunit.Officershipsubjects,suchastheevaluationreportingsystems,trainingmanagement,propertyaccountability,andunitmaintenancemanagementarealsotaughtorreviewedduringBOLCIII.Leadershipevaluationandtrainingmaycontinueduringthisphase,butthemaintrainingmissioninBOLCIIIisbranchtechnicalskills.Insummary,BOLCIassessesthecadet/candidate'scharacterandfitnesstoserveasanofficer,BOLCIIservesasthecrucibleexperiencefortheofficer'sinitialleadershipdevelopment,andBOLCIIIbuildsonthisleadershipfoundationwithdoctrinalknowledgeandtacticalandtechnicalskills.AtthecompletionoftheBOLCprogram,thenewofficerisshapedoveraperiodofmonthstoyearsintoaproficient,adaptiveleaderthatmeetstheArmyleadershiprequirementsmodelasoutlinedinFieldManual6-22.2Inbrief,theLeadershipRequirementsModelstatesthatanArmyleadermustpossessthefollowingattributes:ALeaderofCharacter.TheleadermustexhibitcommitmenttotheArmyValuesandWarriorEthos.TheleadermustalsopossesstheempathytoenvisiontheimpactthathisorherdecisionswillhaveonSoldiersandtheirFamiliesandontheireffortstocreateacohesiveteam.Theseattributesshouldbepresentwithinthecadet/candidateatthebeginningofhisorhermilitarycareer,butcanbefurtherdevelopedthroughtrainingandexperience.ALeaderwithPresence.Theleadermusthavepropermilitarybearing,toincludephysicalfitnessandendurance,mentalandemotionalresilience,andcomposureandconfidence.Soldiersdemandtheseattributesfromtheirleadersiftheyaretorespectandfollowthem,whethertheyarepartofaconvoyinMosul,orcodeatanArmyhospitalormedicalcenter.ALeaderwithIntellectualCapacity.Thisattributedescribesaleaderwhopossessesboththecriticalthinkingskillsandcreativitytooperateinthecomplexenvironmentthatisthecontemporaryoperatingenvironment.*Leadersmusttempertheiradaptabilityandcreativitywithsoundjudgment,interpersonalskills,andtechnicalcompetenceinbothskillsgenerictoallSoldiersandspecifictotheirbranchandAreaofConcentration(AOC).Inadditionoftheseattributes,theLeadershipRequirementsModelcallsforArmyleaderstopossesscertainCoreLeaderCompetencies.Armyleadersmustbecapableofleadingbyexample,communicatingeffectively,inspiringfollowers,exertinginfluenceandresolvingconflict,developingthemselvesandtheirunitsthroughtrainingandapositiveclimate,andachievingrealisticplansandconsistentsuccessfulresults.Thesecompetenciesareacquiredatthestartofaleaderscareerandshapedandmoldedovertime.ThepurposeoftheBOLCprogramistoharnesstheseattributesandcompetenciesinleadersanddevelopthemwithinthenewofficersinlightofcurrentoperationaldoctrineandthecurrentthreat.Theresultisanofficerthatisbothreadyfordeploymenttoacombattheaterandcapableofcontinueddevelopmentandgrowth.EVOLUTIONOFTHEAMEDDOFFICERBASICLEADERSCOURSETheArmyBOLCmodelisdesignedtofunctionoveraprotractedperiodoftimeasstudentsevolvefromcadetsandofficercandidatesintoSoldiersandArmyleaders.Eveninthecaseofofficercandidateschoolcandidates,theBOLCmodelrecognizesthattimeandeffortmustbeinvestedintheBOLCItransitionphasetogivestudentsaperiodofcharacterassessmentanddevelopment,andtocreateabaselineknowledgeofleadershipandofficerskills.ThisisabsolutelynecessarybeforeitispossibletobeginthepracticalleadershipexperienceandwarriorskillstrainingofBOLCII,orthetechnicaltrainingofBOLCIII.However,manyArmyhealthcareproviders,particularlythosethatmeettheArmyandtheAMEDDsmostcriticalneedstosupporttheGlobalWaronTerrorism,comeintotheAMEDDdirectly *Theoperationalenvironmentthatexiststodayandfortheclearlyforeseeablefuture.AnoperationalenvironmentisdefinedinDoDJointPublication1-024asacompositeoftheconditions,circumstances,andinfluencesthataffecttheemploymentofmilitaryforcesandbearonthedecisionsoftheunitcommander.TheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallenges

PAGE 9

OctoberDecember20077fromtheciviliansectorasofficerswithoutthebenefitofaBOLCI-equivalenttransitionphase.Inaddition,theAMEDDreceivesonly485BOLCIIslotsannuallyfortheapproximately2,400newofficersthatentertheAMEDDeachyear.These485AMEDDslotsaredesignatedforthoseAOCsthatareeitherassignedto,orsupportArmybrigadecombatteamswiththemostfrequencyordensity:MedicalServiceCorpsFieldMedicalAssistants(AOC70B),AeromedicalEvacuationPilots(AOC67J)andMedicalSpecialistCorpsPhysicianAssistants(AOC65D).TheabovedescribedofficerinputenvironmentmeansthatamajorityofAMEDDofficersreporttotheAMEDDCenterandSchoolatFortSamHoustonforofficerinitialmilitarytrainingwithoutthebenefitofBOLCIItraining.Further,anumberofofficersdonotevenhaveBOLCIequivalenttraining.DespitethelackofopportunitytofollowthesameinitialOfficerEducationSystemmodelforleadershipandofficerdevelopmentasmostotherArmyofficers,theseAMEDDofficersinallbranchesandspecialtiesarestillexpectedtoconformtothesameArmyleadershiprequirementsmodel,serveonthesamenoncontiguousbattlefield,andbejustasreadytoleadunderfireastheirbrethrenintheArmyCompetitiveCategory*(ACC)andotherspecialtybranches.Toputthisdisparityinprofessionaldevelopmentintoperspective,atypicalACCofficermayspendupto4yearsormoreinBOLCPhaseItrainingasacadet,followedby7weeksofBOLCPhaseII,andthenseveralmoremonthsofBOLCPhaseIIItrainingbeforereportingtotheirfirstdutystation.Ontheotherhand,adirectlycommissionedAMEDDofficerhasonlythetrainingreceivedatFortSamHouston,Texas,beforereportingtohisorherfirstunit,andpossiblydeployingtocombat.Consequently,theAMEDDCenterandSchoolischallengedtoprovideacomparableinitial-entrytrainingprogramforallAMEDDofficerstoensurethattheyenterservicecapableofleadingSoldierstofight,survive,andsupportArmyoperationsanywhereintheworld.Thisdifficultmissioniscompoundedbythevarietyofbackgrounds,specialties,andcommissioningsourceswithintheAMEDD.In1994,theAMEDDCenterandSchoolanditsLeaderDevelopmentBranch,theorganizationresponsiblefortheAMEDDOfficerBasicCourse,addressedthedeltabetweentheamountandlengthofformalizedleadershipandwarriorskillstrainingreceivedduringtherespectiveArmyofficerinputtracks:the12-weekAMEDDbasiccoursefordirectaccessionsintotheAMEDD,andthemonths-to-yearslongBOLCprogramwhichpreparesotherArmyofficers.Additionally,thenewAMEDDofficersmuststillreceivethedoctrinalandtechnicaltrainingfromthevariousbranchschools.TheLeaderDevelopmentBranchinitiatedaseriesofcourserevisionsdesignedtobringAMEDDofficerinitialmilitarytraininginlinewiththeArmyBOLCmodel,andtobetterprepareallAMEDDofficerstoserveasArmyleadersintheContemporaryOperatingEnvironment,whethertheyarereportingtoaninfantrybattalionortoamedical-surgicalward.TheculminationofthiseffortistheAMEDDOfficerBasicLeadersCourse(OBLC).Therevisedcourseisaproventool,dedicatedtoforgingnewofficersintocapableandadaptableleadersthroughtrainingrootedintheArmyWarriorEthos,WarriorTasksandDrills,andwarfightingdoctrine,andfocusedthroughtheprismoftheAMEDDmissionandtacticalmedicaldoctrine.TheresultisacoursethatprovidesattendeeswiththeequivalenteducationofArmyBOLCPhasesIthroughIIIandhasastrongemphasisonfieldcraft,practicalemploymentofdoctrinalconcepts,andleadershipdevelopment.TogetherwiththeAMEDDBOLCPhaseIIIprogramforthoseAMEDDofficerswhohaveattendedArmyBOLCPhaseIItraining,theAMEDDOBLCprogramisproducingnewofficerswhoseleveloftrainingiscomparabletotheirACCcontemporariesinpreparationtoleadSoldiersonbothcurrentandfuturebattlefields.TheLeaderDevelopmentBranchidentifiedanadditionalneedtoensurethattrainingwasofequivalentvalue,notonlyacrossallAMEDDbranchesandAOCs,butacrossallcomponentsaswell.AsignificantportionofAMEDDpersonnelstrengthresidesinReserveComponent(RC)unitsassignedto *CompetitiveCategoryisdefinedinDoDInstruction1320.145as:AseparatepromotioncategoryestablishedbytheSecretaryofaMilitaryDepartment,underSection621or14005ofreference(b)[Title10,USCode]forspecificgroupsofofficerswhosespecializededucation,training,orexperience,andoftenrelativelynarrowutilization,makeseparatecareermanagementdesirable.

PAGE 10

8ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalTheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallengesArmyNationalGuardorArmyReserveunits.TheseunitsaredeployingtoAfghanistanandIraqwiththesamefrequencyandfacingthesamethreatsastheirActiveArmycounterparts.However,thelegacyversionoftheearlierAMEDDOfficerBasicCourseforRCofficerswasa13-daycoursedesignedtobecompletedduringtheattendingofficers'requiredannualtrainingobligationinordertominimizetheimpactontheseofficers'civilianmedicalpractices.HealthProfessionalScholarshipProgram(HPSP)andUniformedServicesUniversityofHealthSciences(USUHS)medicalstudentsareanotherpopulationwithparticularrequirements.Thesestudentsattendedacompressed,6-weekversionoftheAMEDDOfficerBasicCourseinconjunctionwiththeirmedicaltraining.TherequirementforHPSPandUSUHSstudentstoattendalongercoursewouldcreateconflictswiththeirmedicalschoolandresidencyschedules.WhileACCbranchescanrequireallofficers,regardlessofcomponent,toattendthefullArmyBOLCIIandBOLCIIIcourses,theworkandschoolingrequirementsofAMEDDRCofficersandmedicalstudentsrenderthisrequirementunfeasible.However,alloftheseofficersmustbetrainedtothesameArmyleadershiprequirementsmodel,ataskthatcouldnotbeaccomplishedforRCofficersandHPSP/USUHSstudentswiththepreviouslyexistingcoursedesignandlength.TotheLeaderDevelopmentBranchinstructors,itwasclearthatatotalredesignoftheAMEDDOfficerBasicCoursewasnecessaryifAMEDDofficersweretoarriveattheirfirstdutystationwiththeleadershipskillsthatarerequiredforthemtoleadandmanagetheirSoldiers.THEAMEDDOFFICERBASICLEADERSHIPCOURSEMETHODOLOGYThethreatanddemandsofthecontemporaryoperatingenvironmentrequiredthattheLeaderDevelopmentBranchprovideacurriculumequivalenttoBOLCIIandIIIinamannerthatisrelevantandengagingtoallAMEDDofficers,regardlessofcommissioningsourceorbranch.ThetaskwasmademoredifficultbythefactthatinstructorshadtodeterminehowtoeffectivelytrainofficerswhohadgraduatedfromBOLCIprogramstomeetBOLCIIandBOLCIIIstandards,whilealsoprovidinganeffective,simultaneous,soldierizationprogramforstudentswhohadnotbenefitedfromBOLCI.Ifthisbalancewasnotstruck,thecoursewouldeitherbe(a)toooverwhelmingformostdirectlycommissionedofficerstobeconfidentoftheirpreparationfortheArmy,or(b)notsufficientlychallengingforBOLCIgraduatestobeconfidentofthevalueoftheirtrainingandtheirpreparednesstoserveasofficers,or,(c)worstofall,both.Ironically,complaintsalongtheselineshaveplaguedtheoldincarnationoftheAMEDDOfficerBasicCourseforyears.Theanswer,evolvedover3yearsofcontinualevaluationandrefinementoftheAMEDDOfficerBasicCourse,wastocreatea7-weekcourse,followedbyapproximately2weeksofAOC-specifictracktrainingthatwouldserveasanintenseintegrationintotheArmyWarriorEthosmindset.Thisisaccomplishedbyfocusingonthosewarriortasks,battledrills,andclassesthathavebeendeterminedtobemostpertinenttothesuccessandsurvivalofSoldiersandmedicalunitsinIraqandAfghanistan.FromthisArmytrainingbaselineforallofficersandleaders,thecoursebuildstotheBOLCIIItechnicaltasksofArmyoperationaldoctrine,AMEDDforcehealthprotectionprinciplesandtacticaldoctrine,and,finally,thetechnicalofficershipskillspertainingtopersonnel,propertyandmaintenancemanagement;andtrainingdoctrinethatleadersmusthavetoruntheirunitsandtakecareoftheirSoldiers.Studentsthenreceiveupto2weeks(moreforsomeAOCs)ofAOC-specifictracktraining.ItisduringthisfinalphasethatbranchandAOCrepresentativesfromacrosstheAMEDDdemonstratehowallthetrainingintegratesintotheirdailymission,whetherasanurse,aphysician,alaboratoryofficer,oranyoftheothervitalAMEDDAOCs.ObviouslytheLeaderDevelopmentBranchinstructorscouldnotreplicatethesameBOLCItransitionexperiencegainedover4yearsattheUSMAorinanROTCprogramwithoutmakingthecourselengthuntenable.TheycreatedanacceleratedsoldierizationprocessbychoosingkeyBOLCIsubjectsandfront-loadingthemduringtheofficer'sfirstdaysinthecourse.Uponarrival,OBLCstudentsareimmersedincustomsandcourtesiesandgivenintroductorydrillandceremonytraining.BOLCIgraduatesremainengagedandchallengedwithassignedresponsibilitiestocontinuethistrainingpastthefirstweek,andtoevaluateandassisttheirdirectlycommissionedpeers.StudentsarealsogivenaRecordArmyPhysicalFitnessTest(RAPFT)immediatelyuponarrival.This

PAGE 11

OctoberDecember20079allowsimmediateidentificationofstudentswhohavedifficultypassingtheRAPFT,ormeetingArmyheight/weightandbodyfatstandards.Thisallowsthecoursecadretoprovideearlycorrectivetrainingtoensurethatcommandersreceivephysicallyfitofficers.Theother,andwithintheframeworkofthecoursemoreimportant,aspectofsoldierizationisbuildingtheArmyWarriorEthosmentalityintoallstudents.AswithArmyBOLCII,thisisaccomplishedthroughacurriculumrootedinfieldcraftandhands-ontraining.ItstartswithrigorousphysicaltrainingduringboththegarrisonandfieldphasesofAMEDDOBLC.Thisincludesnotonlystudent-ledphysicaltrainingsessions,butalsotacticalfootmarchesandLevelIArmyCombativestraining.6Nearly50%ofAMEDDOBLCistaughtundertacticalconditionsatCampBullis,Texas,intheLeaderDevelopmentBranchForwardOperatingBase(FOB).Theinitialemphasisduringthefieldphasetrainingisthecoreindividualwarriorskills,suchasweaponsqualification,dayandnightlandnavigation,andcommunications.Theemphasisthenshiftstopredeploymenttrainingandcertificationsmostfrequentlyrequiredbydeployingunits,suchasconvoyoperations,urbanroomclearingoperations,middleeasternculturalawareness,mediaonthebattlefield,andsearchingandprocessingofenemyprisonersofwar.Alltrainingisreinforcedthroughscenariotraininginwhichstudentsarerequiredtobuilduponandlinktheirknowledgeofindividualandcollectivetasks.Forexample,dismountedlandnavigationtrainingleadsintomountedlandnavigation,andeventuallytoconvoyoperations.M16A2riflefamiliarizationtrainingleadsintoroomclearingoperationsandFOBdefenseexercises,andthenintoFOBcommandandcontrolexerciseswherestudentsprovidecompany-levelcommandandcontrolwhiledefendingtheFOB.Thedifficultylevelisthenfurtherincreasedbyhavingthestudentsworkthroughareadamagecontroloperations,masscasualtyscenarios,andpatienttracking.Thismethodologygivesthestudentsthecomplextrainingenvironmentnecessarytohonecriticalthinkingandadaptability.Italsoshowsstudentshowwarriorskillsanddrillssupportthetreatmentandevacuationofcasualties.InadditiontofieldtrainingonBOLCIItasks,thestudentsreceiveBOLCIII-levelclassroomlecturesonArmyandAMEDDoperationaldoctrine.Thisincludesclassesontheevacuationcontinuumandemploymentoftreatmentfacilities,aswellastraininginthemedicalprotectionsystem.Studentsalsoreceive6-hoursoftrainingonBlueForceTracker*andhowtoemployitforcommandandcontrolandmovementtracking.StudentsalsospendtimeonAMEDDofficerrolesandresponsibilitiesduringpre-andpostdeploymentphases,toincludetrainingonpre-andpostdeploymenthealthassessments,fieldsanitation,andthemedicalevaluationboardandphysicaldisabilityprocess.Allfieldandclassroomtrainingculminatesina5-daycapstonemedicalsupportfieldtrainingexercise(FTX).StudentslearnTacticalCombatCasualtyCareprinciplesandemployalltheyhavelearnedinthedeploymentofbattalionaidstations,ambulanceexchangepointsandaLevelIImedicalcompanyinsupportofasimulatedbrigadecombatteamoperation.Studentsalsoreceiveanin-depthorientationtoaLevelIIICombatSupportHospital.AttheconclusionoftheFTX,studentsknowthattheknowledgeofindividualWarriorTasksisessentialtotheabilityoftacticalmedicalunitstosuccessfullyprovidelife-savingcareinthecontemporaryoperatingenvironment.Theexpectationofthistrainingisnotnecessarilycompleteproficiencyonthepartofthestudents,noristhistheexpectationwhenthesametasksaretrainedatBOLCIIsites.Rather,thegoalsaretointroduceandfamiliarizenewofficerswiththesetasks;toorientallmedicalprofessionals,regardlessofspecialty,tothemissionsconductedbytheSoldiersforwhomtheyprovidemedicalsupport;andaparticularlykeypurposetobuildindividualconfidenceandawarfightingmentalityineachstudentthroughthesuccessfulexecutionofthesetasks.ArmynursesandphysicianswhoattendtheOBLCarenottoldthattheyshouldnecessarilyexpecttopersonallyconductroomclearingoperationsinBaghdad.TheyaretoldthattheexperiencetheygainfromunderstandingwhattypesofoperationsinfantrySoldiersconduct,andtheconfidencetheygainfromtrainingtoclosewiththe *ForceXXIBattleCommand,BrigadeandBelowSystem(FBCB2).AlsoknownasBlueForceTrackerorBFT,itgivescombatvehiclesadashboard-mountedlaptopandaroof-mountedtransponder/receivertobeaminformationviasatellitetoheadquartersandothervehicles.Theresultisanall-weather,always-on,near-realtimepictureofthebattlefield.7

PAGE 12

10ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalTheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallengesenemywillmakethembetterSoldiers,andultimatelybetterabletosupportthoseWarfighters.LEADERSHIPDEVELOPMENTAswithBOLCII,successfulcompletionofamajorityofastudent'sevaluatedleadershippositionsisagraduationrequirementforAMEDDOBLC.ThefactthatasignificantnumberofeachAMEDDOBLCstudentclasswillhavenoBOLCIorotherpriormilitaryexperiencecreatessomeunavoidabledifferencesinmethodologybetweenAMEDDOBLCandArmyBOLCII.AMEDDOBLCis,bynecessity,focusedoninstructor-ledtrainingonthemechanicsofthewarriortasksandbattledrillsasavehicleforsoldierization,aswellastoteachcriticalbaselinemilitaryleaderskills.Bycomparison,BOLCIIismorefocusedonprovidingstudentswithpracticalleadershipexperienceandpeerandinstructorevaluationoftheirleadershiptechniques,ratherthanthemechanicalprocessofthewarriortasksandbattledrills.Thetask-centeredapproachoftheAMEDDOBLCcurriculumallowsitsstudentstomakeuplostgroundontheirBOLCcontemporariesintermsoftheirtechnicalknowledgebase,butitalsomeanslessfree-form,practicalleadershipexperiencethanthatgainedbyBOLCIIstudents.TheAMEDDOBLCprogramofinstructioncompensatesforthiswithanintensecoursepacethatservesasthedesiredcrucibleeventtoencouragethedevelopmentofstudentleadershipstylesandpersonaladaptability.Studentsareplacedinleadershippositionswhicharerotatedweekly(sometimesmorefrequently)and,whileinthosepositions,areresponsiblefortheaccountabilityof,andmissionaccomplishmentbytheOBLCstudentcompany.Thestudentleadershipreceivesguidancefromtheclassadvisorastowhattasksmustbeaccomplished,suchashavingstudentsseatedintheirplatoonclassroomaccordingtothetrainingscheduleordeployingthestudentcompanytothefield.Itisuptothestudentchainofcommandtoanalyze,throughtroop-leadingprocedures,howtoaccomplishthosetasksand,guidedbytheinstructors,howtheycanmeettheirrequirementsmoreefficiently.Forinstance,thestudentchainofcommandisallowedtodeterminethetimesandfrequencyofstudentcompanyformations.Somestudentchainsofcommandmaytrytoeliminateformationsentirelybutsoondiscover,astheytrytomeettheclassadvisor'srequirementsforaccountabilityanddisseminationofinformation,thatformationsareavitalpartofthedayforaunit.Inthisway,thestudentleadershiplearnsbothspecificlessonsaboutleadershipandgenerallessonsabouttheArmyculture.Otherstudentleadershipopportunitiesincludethephysicaltrainingabilitygroupleader,convoycommander,partofthestudentcompanyleadershipfortheforwardoperatingbasedefenseexercise,squadleaderduringtheurbanpatrolling/roomclearingoperationsexercise,andanynumberofleadershippositionsduringthecapstonemedicalsupportFTX.EachofthesepositionsrequiresthestudentstousetheirknowledgeoftroopleadingproceduresandtheArmyordersprocesstoplan,brief,execute,andassessmissionsuccessaspartoftheirduties.OBLCinstructorsprovideinformalfeedbackthroughouttheleadershiprotation.Attheendofastudentleadershiprotation,whetherthestudentservedasaphysicaltraininggroupinstructorfor50minutesorasastudentplatoonsergeantforaone-weekFTX,anOBLCinstructorprovidesformalwrittenfeedbacktothestudentandverbalcounselingonobservedstrengthsandweaknesses.ThecounselingisadialoguebetweenstudentandevaluatorthatensuresthestudentunderstandshowheorsheperformedintheframeworkoftheArmyleadershiprequirementsmodel,whattheydidwell,andhowtheycanimprove.Otherthanthegraduationrequirementofanoverallsatisfactoryleadershipperformance,studentperformanceduringtheleadershiprotationandthewrittencounselingarenotlinkedtoagradeattheendofthecourse.Thegoalistogivethestudentone-on-onementoring,discussspecificaspectsoftheirleadershipthattheycancarrytotheirnextassignment,andprovidethestudentwithadocumenttowhichtheycanreferastheyconductfurtherself-evaluationoftheirleadershipskills.Inshort,theinstructorslaythegroundworkforfuturegrowthandmentoringthroughouttheofficer'scareer.BALANCINGTHEGAPFORRESERVECOMPONENT,HPSP,ANDUSUHSSTUDENTSInresponsetotheschedulingchallengesofRCandHealthProfessionalScholarshipProgram(HPSP)andUniformedServicesUniversityofHealthSciences

PAGE 13

OctoberDecember200711(USUHS)students,theLeaderDevelopmentBranchdeviseduniquewaystointegratetheseofficersintotheOBLCprogram.Startinginfall2007,RCofficersthatwouldnormallyhaveattendedthe13-dayAMEDDOfficerBasicCourse-RCattendthesameOBLCprogramofinstructionasActiveArmyofficers.However,RCofficersonlyattendin-residencefor26daysofthe7-weekAMEDDOBLC.These26dayscoincidewiththe3-weekfieldtrainingphaseofOBLC,duringwhichtheRCofficersareintegratedwithanActiveArmyclassthatisalreadyinsession.Priortoarrival,attendingRCofficersarerequiredtocompletetheclassroomtrainingreceivedbyresidentActiveArmyattendeesthroughanonlinedistancelearningprogram.OncetheRCstudenthascompletedthedistancelearningphase,heorsheisenrolledinthePhaseIIresidentportionofOBLCatFortSamHoustonandCampBullis.TheRCofficersthusreceivethesameprogramofinstructionasattendeesatthe7-weekOBLC,whilelimitingtheirtimeatFortSamHoustontoonlythecriticalfieldtrainingphase.ForHPSPandUSUHSstudentswhoarerestrictedtoanarrow,6-weekperiodofavailabilitypriortoreportingtomedicalschoolorresidencyprograms,thesolutionforprovidingidenticaltrainingtothe7-weekAMEDDOBLCwaslesschallenging.SinceJune2007,theHPSP/USUHSOBLCcourseworksthroughweekendperiodsasnecessarytomeettherequirementsofthecompleteAMEDDOBLCprogramofinstruction.ThisprovidesanextremelyintenseleadershipandtrainingexperienceandgivesHPSP/USUHSstudentsthesamenumberofoveralltrainingdaysasthe7-weekAMEDDOBLC.AnintensesoldierizationexperienceisespeciallyimportantforHPSPstudents,astheywillreturntocivilianmedicalprogramsandmaynotreturntotheArmyforseveralyearsafterthecompletionofOBLC.InstillingaclearunderstandingandappreciationoftheArmyWarriorEthosinmedicalstudentsduringinitialentrytrainingshouldreapenormousdividendsyearslaterwhentheirmedicaltreatmentfacilitycommandersreintegratethemintotheArmycultureastheyreturntoactiveduty.THEAMEDDBOLCIIICOURSEIntheprocessofdetermininghowtomeettheneedsofAMEDDofficerswhomaynothavethebenefitofBOLCIandIItrainingbeforearrivingatFortSamHouston,theLeaderDevelopmentBranchwasequallyconcernedaboutprovidingappropriateandadequatetrainingforanotherstudentpopulation,MedicalServiceCorpsFieldMedicalAssistants,AeromedicalEvacuationPilots,andMedicalSpecialistCorpsPhysicianAssistants,allofwhomattendArmyBOLCIItrainingatFortBenningorFortSill.TheseofficersthenreporttoFortSamHoustonforBOLCIIItraining.TheLeaderDevelopmentBranchdeterminedthat,whiletheAMEDDOBLCcoursecontainedalloftheBOLCIIItechnicaltasksanddoctrinalknowledgethatanAMEDDofficerrequirespriortoreportingtothefirstdutystation,ArmyBOLCIIgraduateswouldreceivemorebenefitfromaseparateAMEDDBOLCIIIcourse.Thisallowsinstructorstofocusonthetrainingneedsofofficerswhoarereportingtoassignmentsprimarilywithinbrigadecombatteamsanddivisionalunits.TheresultingAMEDDBOLCIIIcourseisa5-weekcurriculumfollowed,aswithAMEDDOBLC,by2weeksofAOC-specifictracktraining.ItisdesignedtoreinforcethecrucibleleadershipexperiencesandwarriorleaderskillstrainingofBOLCIIwithadvancedtrainingintheseareaswhilelinkingthemtoAMEDDtechnicalanddoctrinaltasks.Forexample,studentsareexpectedtoarrivefromBOLCIIcompetentinconvoyoperations.Therefore,theBOLCstudentsaregiventhemissiontoconductaconvoytoacertaingrid,wheretheywillestablishabattalionaidstationandprovideLevelIcaretoa(notional)battaliontaskforceduringoffensiveoperations.Thestudentsarealreadycapableofconductingamapreconnaissance,writingandbriefinganoperationsorder,conductingprecombatinspectionsandchecksofvehiclesandequipment,andthenmaneuveringtheconvoytoitsdestination,whilemaintainingcommunicationwiththeirhigherheadquartersthroughouttheoperation.Onceatthedestination,BOLCIIIinstructorstakeoverandteachthestudentstheprinciplesofsiteselection,aidstationestablishment,masscasualtyoperations,andpatienttracking.Trainingcontinuesuntilthestudentsareproficientenoughtoconductsiteselectionandestablishmentontheirown.ThismethodologyallowsforcontinuedleadershipdevelopmentwhileprovidingthestudentswiththefocusedbranchtechnicalandtacticalskilltrainingexpectedofaBOLCIIIsite.

PAGE 14

12ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalDEVELOPMENTOFTHEAMEDDOFFICERAFTEROBLCCommandersmaywonder,giventhedramaticredesignoftheAMEDDOfficerBasicCourseprogram,whatshouldbeexpectedfromanAMEDDofficerafterheorshecompletesinitialofficertraining.TheAMEDDofficershouldreporttohisorherfirstunitwith:1.AmentalityrootedintheArmyWarriorEthosandtheincreasedconfidenceandlevelofphysicalfitnessthatcomeswithadoptingthewarriorethosmindset.2.CertificationinAntiterrorismLevelItrainingandmostannualSkillLevel1WarriorTaskTrainingrequirements(suchasweaponsassembly/disassemblyandfunctionscheck;individualchemical,biological,radiological,nuclearandhigh-explosivedefense;andtheoperationofatacticalcommunicationsradio).3.FamiliarizationwithM16A2rifleandM9pistolmarksmanship.StudentsreceivetheopportunitytozerothesightsoftheM16A2rifleandtoqualifywithbothweapons,althoughtheywillonlybeprovidedagradesheetfortheM9pistol.4.Asolidgroundinginpredeploymentfieldtraining,toincludeconvoyoperationsanduseofBlueForceTracker,7urbanroomclearingoperations,middleeasternculturalawareness,mediaonthebattlefield,handlingenemyprisonersofwar,andplatoonandcompany-levelcommandandcontrol.5.AnintroductiontoLevelIArmyCombativesTraining.6StudentsthatshowproficiencyandmotivationwillbegiventheopportunityforadditionaltrainingandmayreceiveLevelICombativesInstructorCertificationupongraduationfromAMEDDOBLC/BOLCIII.6.AnunderstandingofArmyandAMEDDdoctrine,toincludepracticalexperienceintheemploymentofLevelIthruLevelIIImedicalunitsinsupportofabrigadecombatteamoffensiveoperation,aswellasplanningandprovidingcommandandcontrolduringmultipleFOBmasscasualtyincidents.7.TraininginAMEDDofficerrolesandresponsibilitiesduringpredeploymentandpostdeploymenttomonitorandmaintainthehealthofthecommand.8.Anunderstandingofbasicofficershipprinciples,toincludedevelopmentcounseling,officerandnoncommissionedofficerevaluationsystems,propertyaccountability,andmaintenanceandtrainingmanagement.9.Anincreasedunderstandingoftheirstrengthsandareasforimprovementasleaders.OfficersdepartAMEDDOBLCwithabroadeducationintheArmyandAMEDDmissionanddoctrine.DuetothefocusonpreparingAMEDDofficersfordeploymentsomeofficersmaydeployinsupportofOEFandOIFassoonastheyarriveattheirunitverylittletimebeyondthefirstfewdaysofAMEDDOBLCcanbedevotedtoBOLCItasks.Forleadersinthecontemporaryoperatingenvironment,knowledgeofdrillandceremonyisnotasvitalanattributeasconfidenceintheirabilitytoexecuteconvoybattledrills.CommandersshouldunderstandthetrainingfocusofAMEDDOBLCandadjusttheirownintegrationtrainingasnecessary,basedontheindividualofficer'sproficiencyandthemissionoftheirunit.Commanderswillhavetoreinforceandsupplementsometasks,suchasmedicalprotectionsystemandcombativestraining,toensuretheproficiencytheyrequireoftheirofficers.Itisequallyimportanttocontinuetodevelopofficersasleadersbyprovidingthemadaptiveopportunitiestostrengthentheirinitiative,criticalthinking,andexecutionandassessmentskills.However,commanderswillalsoseethat,overall,theofficerstheynowreceivefromAMEDDOBLChavemoreconfidenceinthemselvesandtheirmilitaryknowledgebase,areeasiertoassimilateintotheArmyculture,andaremorepreparedfordeploymentinsupportoftheGlobalWaronTerrorismthanthosewhohavecomebefore.TheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallenges

PAGE 15

OctoberDecember200713TheUSArmyiscurrentlyundergoingatremendoustransition,andtheAMEDDCaptainsCareerCourseisnodifferent.AsstatedinDAPam600-4,TheArmyhasmadeatotalcommitmenttothedevelopmentofitsfutureleaders(officers,noncommissionedofficers,andcivilians)byprovidingthemopportunitiestodeveloptheskills,knowledge,andattributes(SKAs)requiredtomeetthechallengesofanincreasinglycomplex,volatile,andunpredictableworld.8(p4)Thiscommitmentisrealizedthroughadisciplineknownasleaderdevelopment,theprocesstheArmyusestodevelopitsleaderstobesuccessfultrainers,rolemodels,andstandardbearers,bothtodayandinthefuture.Simplyput,goodleadersaretheresultoftheeducation,training,andexperiencetheyreceivethroughouttheirentirecareers.SinceOctober2004,theAMEDDCaptainsCareerCoursehasgonethroughsignificantchangesinordertoprepareourofficersfortheGlobalWaronTerrorism.BasedonlessonslearnedfromthecontemporaryoperatingenvironmentandinresponsetoarevisionoftheTRADOCOfficerEducationSystem,theCaptainsCareerCoursehasundergonemanychangesfrominitialconceptinNovemberof2004,tothe9-weekcourseimplementationinJuly,2006.ThegoaloftheAMEDDCaptainsCareerCourseistofacilitatepracticalleaderdevelopmentcoupledwithcriticalthinkingskills.ItischargedwiththeresponsibilitytodevelopAMEDDofficerstoleadcompanyorlike-sizedunitsandtoservesuccessfullyinUSArmystaffpositions.Themethodologyisquitesimple:facilitatelearningthroughsmall-groupinstructionofnomorethan15studentspergroup,conductthecourseonapass/failbasistoalleviatestudentcompetition,andimproveallstudentsthroughsmall-groupleaderfeedback.Bythetimeastudentgraduatesfromthecourse,heorsheisbetterpreparedtoleadinsupportofthefullspectrumofjointandcoalitionoperations.Thisisaccomplishedprimarilythroughsmall-groupinstruction.Theareasoftrainingemphasisincludenationalmilitarystrategy,theArmyproblem-solvingprocess,themilitarydecision-makingprocess,writtenandverbalcommunicationskills,staffgroupcoordinationofsynchronization,understandingofArmyorganizations,andintensephysicalfitnessandmodernArmycombativestraining,allthewhilefosteringAMEDDpride.RedesignteamsworkedhardtodeveloprelevantandactionablelearningobjectivesandincorporateArmylessons-learnedintoeachblockofinstruction.The9-weekcoursehasatotalof43classroomdays.AdetailedviewofthecourseredesignwhichwasimplementedinJuly2006ispresentedintheFigure.TheTRADOCOfficerEducationalSystemisundergoingtransformationtobettersupportthegoalsofincreasedreadiness,greaterrelevanceoftheforce,andtheexpeditionarynatureoftheArmy.Withthistransformation,theAMEDDCaptainsCareerCoursehasledthewayineffortstoensurethatourofficersreceiveaqualityeducationandpreparethemforassignmentsinsupportofthejointteamofmilitarymedicaloperations.ThroughouttheArmy,leaderdevelopmentisexecutedthrough3pillars:institutionaltraining,operationalassignments,andself-development.Thegoalisthesameforeachofthe3pillars:developleaderswhoarecapableofmaintainingatrainedandreadyArmyinpeacetimetodeterwar,andhavetherequiredcompetenceandconfidencetosuccessfullyengageanddefeatanenemyinbattleshouldtheneedarise.TheAMEDDCaptainsCareerCoursehasbeenredesignedtobettersupportthe3pillarsofleaderdevelopment,butmorespecifically,institutionaltraining,whichisdefinedas:allofthe"schoolhouse"trainingandeducationleadersreceiveintheSKAs[skills,knowledge,andattributes]neededtoperformcriticaltasksessentialtohighqualityleadership.8(p6)Whenthesesameskills,knowledge,andattributesaretested,reinforced,andstrengthenedbyfollow-onoperationalassignmentsandmeaningfulself-developmentprograms,leadersattainandsustaintruecompetencyasofficersinthearmedservices. DevelopingFutureLeaders:TheCaptainsCareerCourseMAJThomasJ.Anton,MS,USA

PAGE 16

14ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalIntheend,theAMEDDCaptainsCareerCourseprovidestheprogressive,sequentialeducationrequiredtodeveloptechnicalandtacticalcompetenciesaswellascommoncoreleadershipskillstoformasolidfoundationuponwhichstandsallfuturedevelopmentforourWarriorLeaders. Inprocessing(4days)IntroductorybriefsConductArmyphysicalfitnesstestsTeambuildingLeadershipreactioncourseAgileLeaderBlock(3days)CriticalthinkingCreativereasoningLeadershipvignettesNegotiationsNationalMilitaryStrategyBlock(1day)HomelandsecurityTheProfessionofArmsCriticalthinkingLeaderDevelopmentBlock(4days)LeadershipstylesEthicsEvaluationsCounselingCommandclimateCompanyBlock(4days)SupplyoperationsTrainingLegalEqualopportunityUnitmovementQuarterlytrainingbriefsCulturalAwareness(1day)Whatisculture?IraqAfghanistanCounterinsurgency(1day)InsurgencyStaffRide(1day)MilitaryhistoryMilitarytacticsHowtoconductastaffrideHospitalOperationsinaFixedFacility(4days)ProfessionalFillerSystemManagedcareAMEDDorganizationResourcemanagementMedicalprotectionsystemHospitalemergency/crisismanagementBalancedscorecardCombinedArmsBattleStaff(15days)IntroductiontothefollowingArmyFieldManuals:FM1-02:OperationalTermsandGraphicsFM3-0:OperationsFM3-90:TacticsFM5-0:ArmyPlanningandOrdersProductionFM6-0:MissionCommand:CommandandControlofArmyForcesFM7-100.1:OpposingForceOperationsApplicationofthefollowing:Militarydecision-makingprocessForcehealthprotectionplanningJoint/combinedoperationsAllmateriallearnedSpecialtyBranch&TrackWeek(5days)LeaderpanelIntroductiontodifferentAreasofConcentrationAdditionalProfessionalEducationtraining The43-daycourseofinstructionpresentedduringtheAMEDDCaptainsCareerCourseTheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallenges GrowingSeniorAMEDDLeadersCOMMANDANDSTAFFTRAININGBRANCHJodyR.Rogers,PhDTheCommandandStaffTrainingBranchhasthemissionoftrainingseniorAMEDDofficerswhohavebeenselectedforspecificcommandandstaffpositions.Thebranchaccomplishesthistaskbyconductingcoursessuchastheprecommandcourse,divisionandbrigadesurgeonscourses,theHealthServicesPlans,Operations,Intelligence,andSecurityTrainingCourse(70H),andtheForwardSurgicalTeamCourse.Inadditiontothesecourses,theCommandandStaffBranchalsoincludestheMedicalStrategicLeadershipProgramandtheExecutiveSkillsProgram.EachoftheseconductstheirowncoursestoprovideseniorAMEDDofficersadditionalleadershipskills.

PAGE 17

OctoberDecember200715COMMANDANDSTAFFTRAININGBRANCH(CONTINUED) MedicalStrategicLeadershipProgramKenKnightTheMedicalStrategicLeadershipProgramisaforumtoprovidetrainingsupportfocusedonstrategiclevelmilitarymedicalleadershiphealthissueswithemphasisonworkingwithincoalitionsandalliances,combatingterrorism,andprovidinganetworkingenvironmentformilitaryprofessionals.SeenasacriticalleadershipskillforseniorAMEDDofficers,thiscourseisdesignedtofosterstrategicthinkingonhealthcareissuesandtheimportanceofcreatingallianceswithimportantalliesfromaroundtheworld.TheMedicalStrategicLeadershipProgram(MSLP)isamultinational,postgraduate,continuingmedicaleducationprogramdesignedforinternationalandUSmilitarymedicalofficers(lieutenantcolonelandabove,orequivalent).Theprogramprovideshealthcareleadershiprelatedtrainingtoprepareattendeesforthestrategicleadershipchallengesofcombinedhealthservicesupportoperations,andoperatingwithincoalitionsandalliances.MajorareasoffocusincludetheUnitedNations,UScombatantcommands,strategicleadership,internationallaw,militarymedicalreadiness,hostnation/coalitionpartnersupport,healthresourcesallocationandmanagement,nongovernmentalorganizations,counterterrorism,andhomelandsecurityandmedicalobservertraining.TheMSLPconsistsof3weeksofinstruction.Weekoneisforinternationalstudentsonlyandconsistsof5daysofin-processing,jointandUSArmymedicalpolicy,medicalobservationtraining,andtours,includingadaytriptoFortHood,TX.Thesecondweekis5daysofin-residenceinstructionattheArmyMedicalDepartmentCenterandSchool,consistingofstrategiclevelhealthcareandleadershippresentations.USstudentsjointhecourseatthebeginningofweektwo.WeekthreeisconvenedinNewYorkCityandWashington,DC,wherestudentsspend5daysparticipatinginbriefingsanddiscussionsoninternationalmedicalissues,andvisittheUnitedNations,UShealthcareandresearchfacilities,governmentagencies,andcivilianorganizationssuchasthinktanksandinternationalmediaoutlets.TheMSLPisoffered3timesperyear.AmajorleadershipgoaloftheMSLPistoencourageandpromotenetworkingopportunitiesbetweentheUSandinternationalattendees.RecentinternationalgraduatesincludetheSurgeonsGeneralfromIraq,Afghanistan,thePhilippines,theCzechRepublic,Hungary,Canada,andMoldova.Anumberofinternationaldeputysurgeonshaveattendedaswell.HOMELANDSECURITYBRANCH HankSebastianAcompleteunderstandingoftheprinciplesandcomplexitiesofhomelandsecurityisaknowledgecriticaltoleadershipthathasgainedprominenceinjustthepastfewyears.EffortsareunderwaywithintheLeaderTrainingCentertoensureourfutureleadersarecompetentinthisskill.TheAMEDDhasformedaHomelandSecurityCellattheMedicalCommandHeadquarterswiththemissionofpreparingAMEDDmedicalfacilitiesforanynaturalormanmadeemergencies.OutsideoftheAMEDD,allmajorcommandshaveformedHomelandSecurityCellstoprepareforanycontingency.TherearerequirementsinallofthesecommandsforqualifiedAMEDDleaderstofillhomelandsecuritybillets.Currently,thereisnoeducationalcurriculumtoprepareAMEDDofficerstofillanyofthesepositionsexceptthroughlong-termhealtheducationandtraining.TheHart-RudmanCommissionreport9suggestedanincreasingneedforhomelandsecurityeducationtoprotectagainstthreatstoourownsoil.Thereportsuggeststhatthestrategytodefendthecountryisuptotheeducated,ie,thosewiththeknowledgetopreventthedisaster.ThenationalstrategywasformulatedbasedonthecontentandprovisionsoftheHomelandSecurityActof2002.10Since2002,theDepartmentofHomelandSecurity(DHS)hasexpoundedontheseareasandconstructedcorrespondingdepartments.OffshootdirectorateshavealsobeencreatedastheDHScontinuestoexpandvisionandmission.Itisalong-termgoaloftheDHStocreatesanctioneddegreesandcertificatesinHomelandSecurity.WiththeDHSemphasisandtheAMEDDrequirementforqualifiedofficerleaders,thedevelopmentofamastersprograminHomelandSecurityattheAMEDDCenterandSchoolisimperative.TheformationofthemastersprogramwillpositiontheAMEDDaspreparedforanycontingency.Theresultingeducatedandwell-informedofficerleaderswillunderstandtheirrolesandreactappropriatelyduringanycontingency,thussavinglivesandprotectingproperty.

PAGE 18

16ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalTheproposedlocationforthemastersprogramistheAMEDDCenterandSchool.Inthenearfuture,theAMEDDCenterandSchoolwillbecometheDoDMedicalEducationandTrainingCommand,atriservicemedicaleducationandtrainingorganizationthatwillbuildonthesynergiesofthe3servicestoprovidearobustmedicaltrainingenvironmentforallDoD.Therefore,thecurriculumwillbetaughtbyfacultyrepresentingall3servicestotriservicestudentclasses.Themastersprogramwillbesponsoredacademicallybyamajoruniversitywhichgrantsmastersanddoctoralleveldegrees.TheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallenges EnsuringAdministrativeCompetencywithintheMilitaryHealthSystemJodyR.Rogers,PhDJOINTMEDICALEXECUTIVESKILLSINSTITUTETheJointMedicalExecutiveSkillsInstitute(JMESI)istheagencywithinDoD/HealthAffairswiththeoverallresponsibilitytoensureseniorexecutivesacrossall3servicesareadequatelypreparedforcommandorserviceasseniorhealthcareexecutiveswithintheMilitaryHealthSystem.TheJMESIaccomplishesthistaskthroughtheJointMedicalExecutiveSkillsProgram,whichisacongressionallymandatedprojecttoassurethatmilitarytreatmentfacilityTRICARE*leadagentsandtheirseniorstaffmembersareadequatelypreparedfortheirincreasedadministrativeandleadershipresponsibilities.FailuretoensureMilitaryHealthSystemofficersaresufficientlycompetenttoserveasaseniorexecutivecouldresultinCongresswithholdingfundsfrommilitarytreatmentfacilities.TheprimaryfocusoftheJMESIisthe40medicalexecutivecompetenciesshownintheFigurethatrepresenttheuniqueskillsetnecessaryforsuccessfulhealthcareexecutivemanagement.TheJMESIhascreatedanoutstandingwebsitecontainingpertinentinformationspecifictoaseniorhealthcareexecutive.Inadditiontocontainingimportantinformationoncompetencydevelopment,ithasawonderfuldistancelearningsectionthatwillenableofficerstogaincompetencyinawiderangeofskills.Notonlyarethesewell-designedcourses,officersarealsoabletoobtaincontinuingmedicaleducationcreditandcontinuingeducationunitsaswell.Currently,JMESIprovidesover50hoursofoutstandingdistancelearningprograms.TheJMESIalsooffersaCapstoneSymposiumdesignedforseniorgradeofficersselectedatTheSurgeonGenerallevel.Itisconsideredapinnacleeventforparticipants,mostofwhomhavebeenrecentlyassignedasseniormilitarytreatmentfacilitycommanders,leadagents,andseniormedicalofficersinkeystaffpositions,whowillbenefitfromexposuretoandfamiliaritywithentitiesthatshapetheMilitaryHealthSystem.Thesymposiumisoffered3timesannuallyinWashington,DC.AMEDDEXECUTIVESKILLSBRANCHTheAMEDDExecutiveSkillsProgram(ESP)wascreatedtoensureseniorAMEDDhealthcareexecutivesmeettherequirementsoftheJointMilitaryExecutiveSkillsProgram.TheAMEDDESPperformsseveralfunctions.ItsmostimportantfunctionistotrackthecompetenciesforallAMEDDofficers.Thisisanautomatedprocessthatcross-referencesinformationincludedinanofficersOfficerRecordBriefwithamatrixthatidentifiescompetenciesearnedbasedonanofficerseducation,experience,andprofessionalcertification.OfficersinterestedinservinginaseniorleadershippositioncantracktheircompetencylevelbygoingtotheESPwebsite.ThewebsiteincludesallnecessaryinformationabouttheAMEDDESPandgivesallAMEDDofficersintheranksofcaptainandabovetheabilitytoviewtheirowncompetencylevel(ViewProfile).ThealgorithmfordeterminingcompetencyusestheinformationincludedintheOfficerRecordBrief.Ifacourseoranassignmentisntinthebrief,thealgorithmwillnotaccuratelydeterminethelevelofcompetency.Thisalsoisagreattooliftheofficersunithasanofficerprofessionaldevelopmentprogram,orwhenmentoringjuniorofficers. https://executiveskills.amedd.army.mil *TRICAREisDoDshealthcareprogramformembersoftheuniformedservices,theirfamiliesandsurvivors.Informationavailableathttp://www.tricare.mil.http://jmesi.army.mil

PAGE 19

OctoberDecember200717AsecondimportantfunctionoftheESPisaone-weekcoursetopreparenewlyselecteddeputycommandersfortheirnewresponsibilitiesasseniorexecutivesofmilitarytreatmentfacilities.ThecourseisofferedeveryAprilatFortSamHouston.AttendanceisdeterminedbyselectionbyeachAMEDDCorps.AthirdimportantfunctionoftheESPistoserveasaclearinghouseofleadershipthoughtandpracticewithintheAMEDD.ThisisaccomplishedthroughtheCenterforLeadershipExcellenceinHealthcare.CENTERFORLEADERSHIPEXCELLENCEINHEALTHCAREOneofthemostimportantcompetenciesforaseniorhealthcareexecutiveisleadership.TheCenterforLeadershipExcellenceinHealthcare(Center)wascreatedtocaptureleadershipthought,practice,andtheoryasitappliestomilitarymedicine.TheCenterwascreatedtoserveasarepositoryofcurrenthealthcareleadershipthoughtandpractice,withtheintentofincreasingtheleadershipcapabilitiesofindividualsandorganizationswithintheFederalHealthcareSystem(FHS).ThemotivationbehindtheCenteristhebeliefthattheFHSisfortunatetohaveseveraloutstandingleaderswhohavemadesignificant,long-lastingcontributionstomedicalmissionaccomplishment.Thesecontributionsmustbeidentified,captured,andmadeavailabletofutureleaders.Assuch,theCentersprimarygoalistoadvancetheunderstandingandpracticeofleadershiptheoryasitappliestofederalhealthcare,bycapturingCoreCompetencies The40medicalexecutivecompetenciestheprimaryfocusoftheJointMedicalExecutiveSkillsInstituteofDoD/HealthAffairswhichrepresenttheuniqueskillsetnecessaryforsuccessfulhealthcareexecutivemanagement.MilitaryMedicalReadinessMedicalDoctrineMilitaryMissionJointandCombinedOperations(formerlyJointOperations/Exercises)TotalForceManagementNationalDisasterMedicalSystemsManagementMedicalReadinessTrainingContingencyPlanningGeneralManagementStrategicPlanningOrganizationalDesignDecisionMakingChangeandInnovationLeadershipHealthLaw/PolicyPublicLawMedicalLiabilityMedicalStaffBy-LawsRegulationsExternalAccreditationEthicsintheHealthCareEnvironmentEthicalDecision-MakingPersonalandProfessionalEthicsBioethicsOrganizationalEthicsPerformanceMeasurement&ImprovementQualityManagementQuantitativeAnalysisOutcomeMeasurementsPatientSafety(formerlyClinicalPerformanceImprovement)IndividualandOrganizationalBehaviorIndividualBehaviorGroupDynamicsConflictManagementCommunicationPublicSpeakingPublicandMediaRelationsClinicalUnderstandingEpidemiologicalMethodsClinicalInvestigationIntegratedHealthCareDeliverySystems(changedfromAlternative)HealthResourcesAllocation&ManagementFinancialManagementHumanResourceManagementLabor-ManagementRelationsMaterielManagementFacilitiesManagementInformationManagementandTechnology(changedfromInformationManagement)

PAGE 20

18ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournal outstandingleadershipthoughtsandpracticesandmakingthemavailableforotherstostudy.Today,leadershipdevelopmentisabsolutelycriticaltoorganizationalsuccess.ThisisespeciallytruewithintheFHS.Unfortunately,mosthealthcareorganizationsspendverylittletimedevelopingtheirleaders.Recentresearchhasshownthatlessthan10hoursayearofleadershiptrainingisprovidedbymostorganizationstoday.Thisissimplynotenoughtimetoensurefutureleadersreceivethetrainingnecessarytoserveaseffectiveleadersintheyearsahead.Theresultisagrowingpopulationofadministratorsseekingleadershiptrainingandinformation,butnotfindingasuitablesourcefromwhichtolearn.Tothatend,theCenterhascreatedawebsite*intendedtoserveasarepositoryforrelevantleadershipthoughtandpracticeforhealthcareadministratorswithintheFHS.Thewebsiteisdividedinto6categories:LeadershipbookreviewsLeadershipquotesLeadershipresourcesLeadershipsurveysLeadershipspotlightLeadershiptopicofthemonth.Listedbeloweachcategoryisapartiallistofdocumentsavailableforreviewbytheuser.AstheCentergrowsandmoredocumentsareposted,olderdocumentswillbearchived.AlthoughthefocusoftheCenterisontheFederalHealthcareSystem,itisobviousthattheoutstandingleadershipthoughtandpracticecommonwithintheFHSwillalsobeavaluableresourceforcivilianhealthcareexecutives.REFERENCES1.WongL.Developingadaptiveleaders:thecrucibleexperienceofOperationIraqiFreedom.CarlisleBarracks,PA;StrategicStudiesInstituteoftheUSArmyWarCollege:July1,2004.Availableat:http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=411.2.FieldManual6-22:ArmyLeadership:Competent,Confident,andAgile.Washington,DC:USDeptoftheArmy;12October2006.3.ArmyRegulation350-1:ArmyTrainingandLeaderDevelopment.Washington,DC:USDeptoftheArmy;13January2006.4.JointPublication1-02:DoDDictionaryofMilitaryandAssociatedTerms.Washington,DC:JointStaff,USDeptofDefense:July12,2007.Availableat:http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp1_02.pdf.5.DepartmentofDefenseInstruction1320.14:CommissionedOfficerProgramProcedures.Washington,DC:USDeptofDefense;September24,1996:E2-15.6.FieldManual3-25.150:Combatives.Washington,DC:USDeptoftheArmy;January18,2002.7.GoureD.StandardizeBlue-ForceTracking.DefenseNews.com[serialonline].November8,2004.Availableat:http://dfn.dnmediagroup.com/story.php?F=494578&C=.AccessedAugust30,2007.8.DAPamphlet600-4:ArmyMedicalDepartmentOfficerDevelopmentandCareerManagement.Washington,DC:USDeptoftheArmy;June272007.9.RoadMapforNationalSecurity:ImperativeforChange.Washington,DC;USCommissiononNationalSecurity/21stCentury;February15,2001:38.Availableat:http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/nssg/PhaseIIIFR.pdf.AccessedAugust31,2007.10.HomelandSecurityAct,PubLNo.107-296,116Stat2135(2002). *http://cleh.amedd.army.milTheLeaderTrainingCenter:PreparingArmyMedicinesLeadersforTomorrowsChallenges

PAGE 21

OctoberDecember200719 THENEEDFORMEDICALLEADERSHIPTheArmyassumesthatofficerswillbeleaders.Itisanassumptionbasedontheneedformentobeledintothefaceofdangerstheycansee,forreasonstheycannot.Itisexpectedthatascaptainsbecomemajorsthencolonels,theywillbestudentsofleadership.Eisenhower,himselfalifelongstudent,believedthatleaderswerelearnerswhosecharacterandqualitieswere"ripenedandmatured"inbattleandtheclassroom.1Armymedicinehasatleastasmuchneedforeffectiveleadershipascombatunits.Whereleadershipinthechaosofcombatrequirescontrolledexpressionofaggressivetension,thepracticeofmedicineincombatrequirescontrolledrepressionofthesameaggressivetension.Todate,thoseprofessionalsbestpreparedforleadershipinArmymedicinehavebeenthosewhohavestudiedthesubjectelsewhere;attheUnitedStatesMilitaryAcademy,inReserveOfficerTrainingCorpscourses,orthroughpriorservice.Formany,theleadershiplessonslearneddirectlyintheArmyMedicalDepartment(AMEDD)systemhavebeenbadones.Itisremarkablehowsuccessfulthesystemhasbeen,despiteasomewhatpiecemealapproachtothetrainingofthosewholeadit.Unfortunately,withourcurrentchallenges,thesystemcannolongeraffordapassive,piecemeal,parochial,orpersonalapproachtothestudyofleadership.GLOBALWARONTERRORISMArmymedicinehasbeentowarbefore.Butthisconflictisuniqueinanumberofways.InAfghanistanandIraq,thedeployedclasspicturechangesconstantly.Asprofessionalsrotatetodifferentforwardoperatingbases,theyfindthemselvesthrownintoleadershippositionswithdifferentplayersonadailyorweeklybasis.Thedoctororphysiciansassistanthastoleadpeoplefromdiversebackgrounds;eg,anewprivatefirstclasswithnoexperienceormiddle-agedreservistwhoalreadyhasalltheanswers.Justasthepeoplechange,thelocationschangeandadeployedprofessionalmaypracticeinseveraldifferentsettingsinthesameweekperiod.Finally,therequiredskillscanchangemultipletimesinthesameday;eg,combattraumacare,humanitarianism,civil/militaryaffairs,sickcall.GLOBALIZATIONCorporationswhosemarketsexpandinternationallymustconfronttheleadershipchallengesofoperatingindiverseculturalsettings.ThelanguageofProgramBudgetDecision753willrequireincreasingleadershipofjointmedicalunitsbyArmyofficers,2aprocessalreadyunderwayintheater.NavyandAirForcemedicineshareacommoncommitmentwiththeArmytoexcellenceinpatientcare.Butthatiswherethecommonthreadends.CivilianizationoftheworkforcealsomeansthatArmyleaderswillhavetoleadnonmilitarysubordinatesingarrison,andpossiblyAMEDDLeadershipDevelopment:FromtheGrassRootsUpCOLChuckCallahan,MC,USALTCMarkThompson,MC,USAYoucannotpreparefortheshockofseeingandtreatingcombatcasualties.Thewoundscanbehorrificandextensive.Butyouwillbetheonethatallthemedicslooktoforleadershipinthetraumacaresetting.Ifyouhavethetypeofpersonalitythatscreamsandyellsandcurseswhenyouareinastressfultraumasetting,figureouthowtochange.Takeadeepbreathandstaycalm.ManyoftheseSoldiersonthetraumatablearestillalertandmayormaynotknowhowclosetheyaretodying.Youmustdoeverythinginyourpowertoremaincalm,fortheirsake.Yourmedicswillmostlikelybeyoungandhavelittleexperience.Ifyouloseyourcool,thentheywilllosetheirfocus.Itallspellsbadness.MAJRickBickel,USA;SadrCity,Iraq;October2004

PAGE 22

20ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalAMEDDLeadershipDevelopment:FromtheGrassRootsUpeveninthecombattheater.Andfinally,expansionofTRICARE*andmultimarketmanagementwillrequireArmymedicinetoincreasinglyunderstandcapitationandthebusinessofmedicine.Newlanguages,newculture,andnewvaluesallconfronttheleadersofArmymedicineinthisuniqueprocessofglobalization.GRADUATEMEDICALEDUCATIONResidencyprogramsarethefactoriesofArmymedicalleadership.Leadership,professionalism,andthecorecompetencieshavemadetheAccreditationCouncilonGraduateMedicalEducationrequirementsmorelaborintensivetomeetanddocument.Inaddition,wehavelesstimetotrainresidents.Thereareonly80hoursaweekfor3years(12,480hours)ina3-year(familypractice,medicine,pediatrics)residency.Inpractice,theavailabletimeisshorter.Subtract8weeksofvacationscatteredoverthe36monthsandthetotaldropsto11,840hours.Incontrast,20yearsago,workweeksof100hoursweretypical.Twoorthree24-hourdaysoncallwith12-hourdaysfortheremainderoftheweek,evenwithararedayoff,addsupto14,800hoursayear.Thus,todayresidencytrainingtimeis20%shorter.ThecurrentsituationviolatestheBermudaTriangleofbusinessthatstatesyoucanonlygettwoofthefollowingthreeinanygivenproduct:good,fast,orcheap.Ifwewantgoodresidencygraduates,andwewantthemfaster(lesstrainingtime)thenitwontbecheap.Ifwewontspendthemoneyitwilltaketotraintheminlesstime,thentheywillnotbeasgood.Leadershipofgraduatemedicaleducationwillrequirenewandgreaterdepthofleadershipcapability.MODELSFORLEADERSHIPTRAININGAtTriplerArmyMedicalCenter(Honolulu,HI)Pediatrics,webeganformaltraininginleadershipforstaffandhousestaffin1999usingtheArmysthennewpublication,FieldManual22-100,ArmyLeadership,publishedayearearlier(supersededin2006byFieldManual6-223).Theinitialeffortswerenotwellorganizedandthemanual,althoughanexcellentoverview,didnotreadwell.Journalarticleswerealsoincluded,butaswithmostadditionalreadingforjournalclubs,itisdifficulttogetparticipantstoreadthematerialaheadoftime,and,ofcourse,lackofpreparationhampersdiscussion.In2002,anannuallecture,TheIntentionalOfficer,outliningsomeofthepracticalitiesofleadershipandofficershipwasaddedaspreparationforgraduatingresidents.Anaccompanyingarticle(publishedintheAMEDDJournal4in2005)providedadditionalgristfordiscussion,butsufferedfromthesamechallengesofparticipantpreparation.Insubsequentyears,leadershipwasamonthlytopicattheresidentweeklygraduatemilitaryeducationsession.Withseveralofthelectures,videoclipswerepresentedtofosterdiscussion.Forexample,thespeechbyKennethBranaghasShakespearesKingHenryVatAgincourtfromthemovieHenryV(MGM,1989)supplementedadiscussionoftheimperativesofleadershipbasedonKeegansTheMaskofCommand.5Theseclipsprovedtobeamongthemostsuccessfultoolsintroducedtodate,asitseemsthatparticipantsweremorecomfortablewatchingandrespondingtothevideothantoreadinganddiscussinganarticle.Infact,subjectivelyitseemedthatintroducingthearticleasbackgroundforthevideoclipoftenledtogreaterreadershipafterthesessionanddiscussioninsubsequentsessions.Thesuccessofthesetoolsledtotheintroductionofamoreformal,weeklyseries,Leadership@LunchintroducedtothedepartmentofPediatricsinthewinterof2003.Aformalschedule,anexampleofwhichisincludedatAppendix1,wasdevelopedcoveringarangeoftopicsthatfollowtheleadershipoutlineBe,Know,Do.3(p1-1).Thisseries,currentlyinitsfourthiteration,hasproventobeverysuccessfulwithseveraldozenregularparticipants,livelydebate,andvigorousdiscussion.Especiallysuccessfulhavebeentheintroductionofcase-basedscenarios(exampleincludedatAppendix2).Eachsession,therefore,hasacombinationofareading(providedaweekahead),someopeningremarks,avideoclip,discussionofthevideo,ascenariowithdiscussion,thenawrap-up.Thesessionisonehourinlength.Aswithanyeducationalvenue,weexpecttheformatandcontenttochangewithtimeandwithcontext. *TRICAREistheDepartmentofDefensehealthcareprogramformembersoftheuniformedservices,theirfamilies,andsurvivors.Informationavailableathttp://www.tricare.mil.AccreditationCouncilforGraduateMedicalEducation(ACGME)(Suite2000,515NorthStateStreet,Chicago,IL60610-4322)isresponsiblefortheaccreditationofpost-MDmedicaltrainingprogramswithintheUnitedStates.Informationavailableat:http://www.acgme.org/acwebsite/home/home.asp.

PAGE 23

OctoberDecember200721Someofthesamereadingsandscenarioshaveprovedveryusefulinmentoringdiscussions(one-on-one)andinlessformal,smallergroupdiscussions.Understandingthatthefuturecurriculummaychange,itwascleartousthatourstaffwasanxioustodiscussleadership,theirexperienceswithleaders,andtothinkaboutthescienceofleadingothers.APROGRAMFORCEOSUCCESSIONInanarticlepublishedinHarvardBusinessReview,Charanoutlinedtheweaknessesinthecurrentapproachtoleadershipsuccessioninindustry.6HalfofthecompanieshesurveyedhadnomeaningfulplansforCEOsuccession,andlessthanonefifthofsurveyedcorporationsweresatisfiedwiththeirleadershipsuccessionprocesses.Morestriking,40%oftheCEOschosenbytraditionalmethodsfailedwithintheirfirst18monthsofoffice.Traditionally,achiefexecutiveofficer(CEO)inamajorUScorporationassumesthatpositionwhenheorsheisbetween46and52yearsofage.ThisisverysimilartoAMEDDgeneralofficers,whoareoftenintheirfifties,andmidwaythroughtheirthirddecadeinArmymedicinewhentheyareappointed.CharanproposedthatindustrieswithsuccessfulCEOsuccessionplansoftenidentifypotentialcandidates15to20yearsbeforetheybecomeCEOs.IntheAMEDD,thatwouldequatetoidentifyingpotentialgeneralofficersorseniorlevelcommanderswhiletheyarestillmidlevelcaptainsorjuniormajors.ShouldwebeidentifyingourfutureCEOsatthislevel?Andifwedid,howwouldwepreparethem?Therearemanyoptions,but,asanexample,thefollowing4basicstepscouldhelpustodoabetterjobofpreparingfutureAMEDDCEOsforleadershippositions.TrainLeadershipseminarscouldbeestablishedatallgraduatemedicaleducationprograms.Takingonelunchaweekdoesnotoverlytaxtheprogramanddoesnotadverselyimpactthe80-hourworkweek.Theexactsubstanceofthecourseislessimportantthanestablishingtheopportunitytodiscussleadershipandencouragingyoungofficerstobecomelifelongstudentsofleadership.Seniorleaderscouldhostsimilarweeklyjournalclubsatthemedicalactivities(MEDDAC).ItispossiblethattherecouldbeacorecurriculumbasedontheArmysleadershipmanual.2TheSurgeonGeneralcoulddevelopasuggestedreadinglistwithtitlesfrombasicleadershipscience(ie,JohnKeegan,StephenCovey,MarcusBuckingham)andleadershipinmedicine(InstituteofMedicine,RichardSeltzer).Thesereadingscouldbethebasisfortheongoingweeklymeetings.Industryleadershipseminarscouldbemadeavailabletomoreseniorleaders,alongwithopportunitiesforphysicianexecutivetraining.TrackProgramdirectorsanddepartmentchiefscouldidentifystarsintheirprogramforalistmaintainedbythespecialtyconsultant.Forcaptainsandmajors,theconsultantcouldmaintainthisdynamic,fluidlistandhelptheyoungofficersbyguidingtheircareerpaths.TheconsultantcouldworkwiththeMEDDACcommanderanddeputycommanderofclinicalservicestoofferopportunitiestothesejuniorofficers,includingarangeofpossibleduties.TheconsultantcouldalsomaintainfrequentcontactwiththeseofficersbyphoneandelectronicmailinanefforttokeepthemonactivedutyandinassignmentsatbothTDA*andTO&Eunitswhichwillenhancetheirleadershipdevelopment.TutorMoreseniormajorsandlieutenantcolonelswouldbethesubjectofformalmentoringbymedicalcenterdepartmentorMEDDACcommandleaders.Thespecialtyconsultantandthebranchchiefwouldfacilitatethementorshipoftheseleaders.Differentspecialtyleaderscouldparticipateinthementoring,includingseniornursingandadministrativeleaders.Theseyoungleaderscouldfacilitateandparticipateinlocalleadershiptrainingattheirhospital,asonelearnsasmuchbyresearchingandteachingtheseseminarsasbyattendingthem.Theofficersneedtoparticipateinhospitallevelcommitteesandmultidisciplinaryteamstoseehowseniorlevelleadersspendtheirdays.Frequentcontactwiththeconsultantwillhelptheofficerwithcareerchoices.TailorBythetimetheofficerisselectedforcolonel(approximately16yearsofserviceforMedicalCorpsofficers),itwillbeimportantforhimorhertomakedirectedcareerchoicesthatmayincludeapurposefulmovefromprimaryclinical,teaching,orresearchroles *TableofDistributionandAllowances:Prescribestheorganizationalstructure,personnelandequipmentauthorizations,andrequirementsofamilitaryunittoperformaspecificmissionforwhichthereisnoappropriatetableoforganizationandequipment.TableofOrganizationandEquipment:Definesthestructureandequipmentofamilitaryorganizationorunit.Seerelatedarticlesonpages26,29,and37.

PAGE 24

22ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalAMEDDLeadershipDevelopment:FromtheGrassRootsUpintomorefulltimeadministration.Thesearetheofficerswhowouldmostbenefitfromgeneralofficermentorship.Theyshouldbeofferedaformal360degreeleadershipprofilefromoneofthecommerciallyavailableorganizationsandshouldcloselycoordinatepositionswiththespecialtyconsultantandtheirseniorlevelmentor.THEWAYAHEADThereislittlequestionthatthechallengescurrentlyfacingtheAMEDDand,evenmoreso,thoseonthehorizon,willrequireamoreintentionalapproachtoleadershipdevelopmentandsuccession.ItisespeciallysoifmedicalcorpsofficersaretoplayacontinuedkeyroleinAMEDDleadership.Whilethereareavarietyofoptions,theexactformoftheneededstepsshouldbedirectedfromtheArmyMedicalCommandorTheSurgeonGenerallevel.Alistofsuggestedreadingsanddiscussionpointscouldbedraftedandmodifiedannually,perhapsatthewintermeetingofthejointservicesgraduatemedicaleducationselectionboardandconsultants.Leadershipseminardevelopmentcouldalsobeatopicofthismeetingonaregularbasis.SpecialtyconsultantscouldworkwithprogramdirectorsanddepartmentleaderstoidentifytrackliststarswhohavethepotentialtobedevelopedforpossibleCEOsuccession.MayyouliveininterestingtimesissaidtobeaChineseproverb.Thereisathought,however,thatitisreallyaChinesecurse.AccordingtoPratchett,7thecursewasaccompaniedbytwoothers:Maytheauthoritiestakeaninterestinyou,andMaythegodsgiveyoueverythingthatyoudesire.Thereisnodoubtthatweliveininterestingtimes.Whetherourinterestingtimesbecomeacursemaywellturnonourapplicationoftheothertwopoints:whetherourbestleaderscometotheattentionofthoseinauthority,andwhether,intheirdevelopmentasleaders,theyareabletorealizetheopportunitiestheydesire.REFERENCES 1.EisenhowerDD.SpeechtodisabledveteransatAmericanUniversity;February10,1946;Washington,DC.Availableat:http://www.eisenhowermemorial.org/speeches/19460210%20Speech%20at%20American%20University.htm.2.USDeptofDefense.ProgramBudgetDecision753.Washington,DC:USDeptofDefense,OfficeoftheAssistantSecretaryofDefense;23December2004;8.Availableat:http://www.missilethreat.com/repository/doclib/20041200-DOD-pbd753budget.pdf.3.FieldManual6-22:ArmyLeadership:Confident,Competent,andAgile.Washington,DC:USDeptoftheArmy;October2006.4.CallaghanC.Theintentionalofficer.ArmyMedDeptJ.April-June2005:29-32.5.KeeganJ.TheMaskofCommand.NewYork,NY:PenguinBooksUSAInc;1988.6.CharanR.EndingtheCEOsuccessioncrisis.HarvBusRev.2005;83(2):72-81.7.PratchettT.InterestingTimes.NewYork,NY:HarperTorch;1994.AUTHORS COLCallahanisDeputyCommanderforClinicalServices,WalterReedArmyMedicalCenter.HeisslatedtobetheCommander,DeWittArmyCommunityHospital,FortBelvoir,Virginia,inthesummerof2008.LTCThompsonisChief,DepartmentofPediatrics,TriplerArmyMedicalCenter,Honolulu,Hawaii,andtheSeniorPediatricConsultanttoTheArmySurgeonGeneralLeadership@LunchSeminarSeriesTriplerArmyMedicalCenterDepartmentofPediatrics BeIMPERATIVESOFLEADERSHIPREADING:CallahanCW.Imperativesofleadership:HenryatAgincourt.MilRev.1999;79(3):88-90. Appendix1

PAGE 25

OctoberDecember200723VIDEO:HenryV(MGM,1989),speechpriortobattleatAgincourtEMOTIONALINTELLIGENCEINTRODUCTIONREADING:GolemanD.Whatmakesaleader?HarvBusRev.2004;82(1):82-91.VIDEO:Gettysburg,Scenes:8-10;Prisonerdelivery/Usedbyidiots/Whatwerefightingfor(NewLineCinema,1993).EMOTIONALINTELLIGENCESTYLESOFLEADERSHIPIREADING:GolemanD.Leadershipthatgetsresults.HarvBusRev.2000;79(2):78-87.VIDEO:Miracle,Scenes14&16;Iamahockeyplayer/Thisisyourtime(Disney,2004).EMOTIONALINTELLIGENCESTYLESOFLEADERSHIPIIREADING:GolemanD.Leadershipthatgetsresults.HarvBusRev.2000;79(2):78-87.VIDEO:Gettysburg,Scene5,SideB:LeeadmonishesStuart.TheLordoftheRings:TheTwoTowers,Disc1,Scene23:TheKingsdecision(NewLineCinema,2002).TheLordoftheRings:TheReturnoftheKing,Disc2,Scene59;Thelastdebate(NewLineCinema,2003).THELEADERSHIPMOMENT:COLJOSHUACHAMBERLAINATLITTLEROUNDTOPREADING:UseemM.JoshuaLawrenceChamberlaindefendsLittleRoundTop.In:TheLeadershipMoment.NewYork,NY:ThreeRiversPress;1998:127-152.VIDEO:Gettysburg,Scenes28-35,LittleRoundTop;nametoremember.INTEGRITYTHECASEOFNATHANJESSUP,PART1READING:CohenWA.Maintainabsoluteintegrity.In:TheStuffofHeroes.Atlanta,GA.LongstreetPress;2001:9-39.VIDEO:AFewGoodMen,Scenes25-28;Jessuptakesthestand;theverdict(ColumbiaPictures,1992).INTEGRITYTHECASEOFNATHANJESSUP,PART2READING:ShermanS.Rethinkingintegrity.LeaderLeader.2003;28:39-45.Availableat:http://leadertoleader.org/leaderbooks/L2L/spring2003/sherman.html.VIDEO:AFewGoodMen,Scene5;COLJessup.Know VISIONANDGETTINGTHEBIGPICTURE:BGJOHNBUFORDATGETTYSBURGREADING:JohnBufordandtheGettysburgCampaign.(http://www.gdg.org/research/people/buford)VIDEO:Gettysburg,Scene10,SideA;Bloodymomentahead.LEADINGYOURPEERSREADING:BlumensonM,StokesburyJL.Eisenhower.In:MastersoftheArtofCommand.Boston,MA:HoughtonMifflin;1975:287-303.Appendix1(continued)

PAGE 26

24ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalAMEDDLeadershipDevelopment:FromtheGrassRootsUpVIDEO:Ike:CountdowntoD-Day,Pattonproblem;Aplanunveiled(ColumbiaTriStar,2004).LEADERSHIPAGAINSTALLODDS:SIRERNESTSHACKLETON.BUILDINGATEAMREADING:AlexanderC.Shackleton:epicofsurvival.NatlGeogrMag.November1998:83-101.VIDEO:Shackleton,Disc1,Scene8;settingsail(A&ETelevisionNetworks,2002).SCENARIO:BuildingtheTeamLEADERSHIPAGAINSTALLODDS:SIRERNESTSHACKLETON.FACINGMUTINYREADING:AlexanderC.Shackleton:epicofsurvival.NatlGeogrMag.November1998:83-101.VIDEO:Shackleton,Disc2,Scene6;breakingpoint.SCENARIO:FacingMutinyDo CRISISRESOURCEMANAGEMENTREADING:GabaDM,FishKJ,HowardSK.CrisisManagementinAnesthesiology.NewYork,NY:ChurchillLivingstone;1994:37-44VIDEO:Apollo13,Scene19;Houston,wehaveaproblem(MCAUniversalPictures,1995).LEADERSHIPAGAINSTALLODDS:SIRERNESTSHACKLETON.OPTIMISMINTHEFACEOFCRISIS.READING:AlexanderC.Shackleton:epicofsurvival.NatlGeogrMag.November1998:83-101.VIDEO:Shackleton,Disc2,Scene8;Ontheedge.SCENARIO:FacingaCrisisTOXICLEADERSHIPREADING:ReedGE.Toxicleadership.MilRev.1999;84(4):67-71.VIDEO:BandofBrothers,Episode1,Currahee:Scene2;Anythingbuteasy,Scene5;Trialbycourtmartial(HBO,2001).CEOSUCCESSIONREADING:CharanR.EndingtheCEOsuccessioncrisis.HarvBusRev.2005;83(2):72-81.VIDEO:MasterandCommander,Scene23;Hollomsweakness(20thCenturyFox,2003).SCENARIO:Iwanttobeageneral.WhatdoIhavetodo?SERVANTLEADERSHIPREADING:GreenleafRK.ServantLeadership.In:SpearsLC,ed.InsightsonLeadership.NewYork,NY:JohnWileyandSons;1998.VIDEO:Gandhi,Disc1,Scene10(ColumbiaPictures,1982).Appendix1(continued)

PAGE 27

OctoberDecember200725ShackletonScenariosLifeasanAMEDDLeader1.BuildingtheTeam(Afictionalstory)YouhavebeennamedthenewchiefatFortHipp.YouaresteppingintotheArmyslargestandbusiestMEDDAC.Thereare10othergeneralpediatriciansand3neonatologists.Theclinicsees100,000visitsayear,andthenurserymakes3,600deliveries.Thepreviouschiefdidnotseesame-dayappointmentsnorpullin-housecallliketheothermembersofthestaff.Hewasbusymostofthetimewithadministrativeduties,buthadgivenseveralofthehospitalcommitteemeetingstojuniorstaffsotheycouldgainfromtheexperience.Hehadanopen-doorpolicy,butthedoorwasseldomopen.Whenthedoorwasopen,visitorsfoundthedeskwasbetweenhischairandthedoor,andhefrequentlywascalledoremailedduringconversationswiththestaff.Heinvariablyansweredtheemailsorphonecallssaying,Thiswilljusttakeamoment.Healsowasoneofveryfewstaffmemberswhohadnotyetdeployed.Howwillyouapproachthisleadershipmoment?2.FacingMutiny(Afictionalstory)YouaretheChiefattheSanAntonioJointMedicalCenter,andhaveresponsibilityfortheAirForcepediatricclinicsinSanAntonioaswell,especiallysinceWilfordHallclosedseveralyearsago.YouhaverecentlylaunchedCHCS-III,andyourdepartmentclinicshavenotregainedtheirproductivity.Inadditiontothemyriadofdeployments,youhavelostseveralkeygeneralpediatriciansandtheconsultantcouldnotreplacethem.TheAirForcegeneralhasinsistedthathispeoplesbeneficiariesnotbedeniedaccessattheAirForceclinics,butyoudonothavethestaff.So,yougingerlyapproachaplantohavetheAirForceclinicsstaffedbyyourpediatricsubspecialists.Theyarenothappy.One,aseniorcurmudgeonpulmonologist,refusestoattendtheclinics.Heletsyouknowwithablisteringemailmessageaddressedtoallstaff.3.FacingaCrisis(Afictionalstory)YouhavebeenChiefatFortCrandellfor2yearsanddecidedtoremainintheArmysinceyourpromotiontomajorlastsummer.MEDCOMhaspushedupthedeploymentofCHCS-IIIforyoursite,althoughthenumberoftrainershasbeencut.Youshouldhave6pediatricstaff,butyouaredownto4,with2ofthemdeployed.Oneoftheremainingstaffispregnantandonprofilewithrestrictedworkhours.Theremainingthreesharethecall,andhavepickeduptheeveningclinicthatwaspreviouslystaffedbyacivilservicepediatricianwhowasmarriedtoaservicememberbuthadleftrecentlyasherhusbandhadbeentransferred.Youhavebeeninformedthatoneofthethreeoftheremainingstaffwillhavetodeploy.Howdoyoudecide,andhowdoyoutellyourstaff?Appendix2

PAGE 28

26ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalINTRODUCTIONDuringeffectivementoring,aseniorleadertakesajuniorofficerunderhisorherwingandprovidesguidanceandadvicetohelpthesubordinategrowprofessionally.Asuccessfulmentoringrelationshipisbeneficialforbothparticipants.Theprotgreceivesassistanceincareerdevelopmentandlearnsfromthewisdomofthementor.Meanwhile,thementorgetsaboosttohisorherself-esteemandthesatisfactionofhelpingthenextgenerationofArmyleadersgrow.However,thereisanotherstakeholderwithavestedinterestinthesuccessofthisspecialrelationship,namelytheArmyMedicalDepartment(AMEDD).SignificantbenefitstotheAMEDDincludetheretentionofqualifiedofficers,continuityofleadership,andregimentalespritdecorps.Giventhesefacts,seniorAMEDDleadersmaywonderwhattheycandotoassisttheirofficersinfindingandestablishingmentoringrelationships.ThepurposeofthisarticleistoprovideadviceforseniorAMEDDleaderstohelpfosteracultureofsuccessfulmentoring.AVOIDMANDATORYMENTORINGPROGRAMSIfmentoringissoessentialforleaderdevelopment,thenwhynotjustassigneachofficeramentorthroughtheestablishmentofamandatorymentoringprogram?Theproblemwithsuchaprogramliesinthefactthateffectivementoringisaspecialrelationshipbetweentwouniqueindividuals.Successfulmentoringrequiresenthusiasm,compatibility,andrapportbetweenthementorandtheprotg.Assigningmentorandprotgpairswillnotguaranteethetypeofaffinityorchemistrythatissoessentialforalastingmentoringrelationship.Furthermore,abadpairingwithamentormayactuallyturnaprotgawayfrommentoring,especiallyifthemandatoryrelationshipisnegative.ThatiswhyIstronglyopposetheestablishmentofmandatorymentoringprogramsandpreferadecentralizedsystemwherementorsandprotgschooseeachotherbaseduponmutualinterestandrespect.Otherwise,theparticipantsmaysimplygothroughthemotionsjusttosatisfyarequirement,orworse,becomeentirelydisillusionedwithmentoring.INCORPORATEMENTORINGINTOAMEDDVISIONSTATEMENTSGiventhatmentoringisvitallyimportanttotheAMEDD,itshouldbeclearlyreflectedwithinAMEDDvisionstatements.Suchadelineationwouldbeclearproofoftheimportanceofmentoringandtheseniorleadershipscommitmenttoit.Sincedevelopmentoffutureleadersisavitalstrategicgoal,itonlymakessensetoincorporatementoringintoAMEDDvisionstatementswhichare,bytheirverynature,strategic.PROMOTEANDENCOURAGEMENTORINGWhileAMEDDleadersshouldnotmandatementoring,theyshouldpromoteandencouragetheestablishmentofmentoringrelationships.Seniorleaderscanbecomepassionatechampionsformentoringandopenlyspeakoftheimportanceofmentorship.Anotherwaytoencouragementoringisforseniorleaderstosharetheirownpersonalstoriesofmentoringandbeingmentored.Thiscouldbedonebytheinformaltellingofwarstories,orbywritingabouttheirmentoringexperiencesinjournalsandnewsletters.Ofcourse,theultimatewaytopromotementoringisforseniorleaderstobeeffectivementorsthemselvesandserveasrolemodelsthatinspireotherstobecomementors.REWARDMENTORINGOneofthemajorbarrierstomentoringisthefactthatmentorshipdoesnotusuallycontributetotheurgenttasksathand.Developingtomorrowsleadersistoughwhenpotentialmentorsarestrugglingtoaccomplishtodaysmissions.Unfortunately,shorttermfocusontheimmediatemissionofteneclipsesthelongtermgoalofdevelopingfutureAMEDDleaders.Awaytohelprectifythissituationistoprovideanincentivetomentorsbypubliclyrewardingthosewhodoitwell.MentoringintheArmyMedicalDepartment:AdviceforSeniorLeadersCOLMarkA.Melanson,MS,USA

PAGE 29

OctoberDecember200727Thiscouldbesomethingsimplelikeselectingandrecognizinganoutstandingmentoroftheyear.However,theactualmethodofrewardingdoesnotmatter.Rather,whatisimportantisthattherewardingisdonepublicly,sothateveryonecanseethatmentoringhasvalueandthosewhodoitsuccessfullyarerewarded.IDENTIFYTARGETTIMESFORMENTORINGWhileguidingthecareersoftheirjuniorofficers,seniorAMEDDleadersshouldidentifythosecriticaltimeswhenjuniorofficersmightespeciallyneedmentoring.InitialofficertrainingduringtheOfficerBasicLeadershipCourseisaclearexample.Anotherimportantperiodisduringajuniorofficersinitialdutystationtour,however,thismaybedifficultdependinguponthenatureoftheassignment(deployment,forexample).SeniorofficersatRegionalMedicalCommandsmaywishtoreachouttojuniorofficersthatareassignedwithintheirregion.IhavedonethiswithotherNuclearMedicalScienceOfficersthatareassignedwithintheNorthAtlanticRegionalMedicalCommand.Anotheroccasionformentoringisanofficerspromotiontomajor,theimportanttransitionfromcompanygradeofficertofieldgradeofficer.Finally,officersinlong-termciviliantrainingareanothergroupthatmayparticularlyneedmentoringastheypursuegraduatestudiesandareoutofthemainstream.TRAINMENTORSSincebeingamentorisinherentlyamatterofpersonalstyle,onecannotteachmentoringlikeonewouldteachasimpleskillsuchasmapreading.However,Idobelievefundamentalmentoringprinciplescanbetaught.Onewaytoteachmentoringisthroughtheuseofrolemodelswhopracticeeffectivementorship.Incorporatinginstructiononmentoringduringmeetingsandconferencesisalsoagoodwaytohelpmentorslearnandgrowinthisimportantrole.Forexample,duringtheannualForceHealthProtectionConference,theHealthPhysicsandRadiologicalSciencesTracktypicallyincludesablockofinstructiononmentoring.Duringsomeyearsthetrainingforthistrackwaspurelydidactic,whileduringotheryearsitincludedsmallgroupexercisesthatencouragedinteractionsbetweenjuniorandseniorofficers,andopenedthedoorforfuturementoringopportunities.Finally,therearemanycommerciallyavailablecoursesonmentoring.Byrecognizingandexploitingthesetrainingopportunities,seniorAMEDDleaderscantrainaspiringmentors,therebymakingthemmorecompetentandultimatelymoreeffective.PROVIDERESOURCESFORMENTORINGOncementorsaretrainedandwilling,theyneedresourcestopracticetheircraft.Themostimportantresourceistime;thiscanbeaccomplishedbyestablishinganactiveOfficerProfessionalDevelopmentprogramthatsetsasidetimeforthepurposeofdevelopingandmentoringsubordinates.1Anotherimportantresourceistheestablishmentofasuggestedmentoringreadinglistwhereinterestedmentorscanfindmoreinformationonmentoring.Asastartingpoint,IhaveincludedabibliographyofbooksandarticlesthatIhavefoundhelpfulinmypersonalgrowthasamentor.Whenpossible,unitfundsshouldbemadeavailabletoprocureanyneededreferencematerialorallowpersonneltoattendmentortrainingcourses.SEEKFEEDBACKFROMJUNIOROFFICERSSincementoringisreallyabouttheneedsoftheprotg,itonlymakessensetoperiodicallycheckwiththejuniorofficerstoseeiftheirmentoringgoalsandobjectivesarebeingmet.Thiscanbeachievedthroughtheuseofsurveysorbyhavingmeetingswithjuniorofficersduringprofessionalsocietymeetingsormilitaryconferences.Baseduponthisvitalfeedback,seniorAMEDDleaderscangaugetheprogressofmentoringeffortsandmakeanynecessarymidcoursecorrections.STAYOUTOFTHEWAYOncementorshavebeenproperlytrainedandresourced,seniorAMEDDleadersshouldstepbackoutofthepicture.Withpositivefeedbackfromthejuniorofficers,theseniorAMEDDleadershipshouldfeelconfidentthattheirjuniorofficersmentoringgoalsarebeingrealized.So,itishelpfultoremembertheoldadage,ifitaintbroke,dontfixit.Ifmentorsaredoingtheirjobs,seniorAMEDDleadersneedtogetoutoftheway!COMMITTOCONTINUOUSLEARNINGHavingdoneconsiderableresearchintothesubjectofmentoring,Ihavelearnedthatitisanevolvingfield.Giventhat,seniorAMEDDleadersshouldstrivetostayabreastofdevelopmentsintheareaofmentorship.Thereadingmaterialintheincludedbibliographyisa

PAGE 30

28ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalgoodplacetostart.Also,seniorleaderscansearchtheinternettofindfurtherinformationandmaterialonmentoring.Muchinformationexistsonthesubject,withinbothpublicandprivatesectors.SUMMARYThepurposeofthisarticleistoprovidesuggestionsaboutmentoringfortheseniorAMEDDleadershipthatIhavegleanedthroughongoingresearchandpersonalexperience,asbothamentorandaprotg.Keypointsincluderesistingthetemptationtoinitiatemandatorymentoringthatforcesjuniorandseniorofficersintomentoringpairs.Sincementoringissoveryimportant,itshouldbeclearlyarticulatedinAMEDDvisionstatements.SeniorAMEDDleadersshouldpromoteandencouragementoringwhenevertheycanbybeingstrongchampionsformentorshipandsharingtheirownmentoringstories.TheestablishmentofarewardsystemformentoringmayinspiremoreseniorofficerstobecomeeffectivementorsandshowthattheAMEDDtrulyvaluesmentoring.IdentifyingcriticaltimesformentoringinthecareersofjuniorofficerswillassistinthedevelopmentandretentionofthesefutureAMEDDleaders.Mentorsmustbetrainediftheyaretobeeffectiveinmentoringandbetterpreparedtodeveloptheirownpersonalstyleofmentorship.Providingresourcestomentors,mostnotablytime,iscriticaltoensurethatmentoringopportunitiesaremadeavailable.Periodicfeedbackfromthosebeingmentoredisessentialtobesurethatthejuniorofficersaregettingwhattheyneed.Wheneffectivementoringistakingplace,seniorleadersshouldstayoutofthewayandlettheprocessunfold.Finally,theseniorAMEDDleadershipshouldbeperpetualstudentsoftheevolvingfieldofmentoringinordertoguaranteethatourjuniorofficersarebeingproperlygroomedtoonedaytakethereinsofAMEDDleadership.REFERENCE 1.MelansonMA,WinsteadAD.Officerprofessionaldevelopment:acasestudyinofficermentorship.ArmyMedDeptJ.2003;JanuaryMarch:7-10.HendricksHG,HendricksWD.AsIronSharpensIron.Chicago,IL:MoodyPress;1995.MaxwellJC.DevelopingtheLeadersAroundYou.Nashville,TN:NelsonBusiness;1995.PeddyS.TheArtofMentoring.Houston,TX:BullionBooks;1998.PeggM.TheArtofMentoring.Gloucester,UK:ForgeHouse;1999.SheaGF.MakingtheMostofBeingMentored.MenloPark,CA:CrispLearning;1999.WicksRJ.SharingWisdom:ThePracticalArtofGivingandReceivingMentoring.NewYork,NY:CrossroadsPublishing;2000.LaceyK.MakingMentoringHappen.Warriewood,NSW,Australia:BusinessandProfessionalPublishing;2001.DalcortCJ.Mentoring:establishingalegacy,shapingthefuture.MilRev.November-December2002;82;No.6:35-39.MurrayM.BeyondtheMythsandMagicofMentoring.SanFrancisco,CA:Jossey-Bass;2001.KosperGJ,Mentoringinthemilitary:noteverybodygetsit.MilRev.November-December2002;82;No.6:40-44.PortnerH.BeingMentored:AGuideforProtgs.ThousandOaks,CA:CorwinPress;2002.KemJD.Mentoring:buildingalegacy.MilRev.MayJune2003;83;No.3:62-64.MelansonMA,WinsteadAD.officerprofessionaldevelopment:acasestudyinofficermentorship.ArmyMedDeptJ.JanuaryMarch2003:7-10.StoddardDA.TheHeartofMentoring.ColoradoSprings,CO:Navpress;2003.HunsingerN.Mentorship:growingcompanygradeofficers.MilRev.September-October2004;84;No.5:78-85.JohnsonW,BandRidleyCR.TheElementsofMentoring.NewYork,NY:PalgraveMacMillian;2004.ZacharyLJ.CreatingaMentoringCulture.SanFrancisco,CA:Jossey-Bass;2005.AUTHOR COLMelansonisChiefoftheHealthPhysicsOffice,WalterReedArmyMedicalCenter,Washington,DC. SUGGESTEDREADINGMentoringintheArmyMedicalDepartment:AdviceforSeniorLeaders

PAGE 31

OctoberDecember200729MentorsandProtgs:SimpleRulesforSuccessCOLMarkA.Melanson,MS,USAMentoringisapartneringrelationshipwhereasenior,moreexperiencedofficerprovidesguidanceandadvicetoajuniorofficerinordertofosterprofessionalgrowthinthesubordinate.Speakingfrompersonalexperience,mentoringhasbeenandremainsthesinglemostimportantfactorinmydevelopmentandgrowthasanofficerandaleader.ThefollowingaresomekernelsofwisdomforthementoringrelationshipthatIhavediscoveredduringmynearlyquartercenturyofexperienceasbothmentorandprotg.Ihavedistilledthisexperienceintotwosetsof10commonsense,yetremarkablyoftenoverlookedrulesoneseteachforthementorandtheprotgrespectively.TenSimpleRulesforMentors Wheninitiatinganydiscussiononmentoring,anaturalquestiontoaskiswheretobegin?Doyoustartwiththementorortheonebeingmentored(protg)?Whilethecontributionsofbothparticipantsareimportant,mentoringsuccessesorfailuresmostoftendependupontheskillsofthementor.Ifthementorisnotpreparedtodohisorherjob,thentheentirementoringprocessmaybeineffectiveand,consequently,discouragetheprotgfromanyfuturementoringopportunities.Itishopedthatbyconsideringthese10simplerules,mentors,presentandfuture,willbebetterpreparedtoassumethisveryimportantrole. Thisarticle,updatedbytheauthor,isreprintedfromtheJulySeptember2006issueoftheAMEDDJournal.COLMelansonisChiefoftheHealthPhysicsOffice,WalterReedArmyMedicalCenter,Washington,DC.MENTORRULE#1ItsNotAboutYou!Beingchosentobesomeonesmentorisapowerful,potentiallyintoxicatingexperience.Notsurprising,itiseasytoletitgotoyourhead.However,ifyousimplyengageinmentoringtosatisfyyourownego,youwillultimatelyfail.Atbest,yourprotgwillrecognizethatyouarejustdoingthisforyourselfandnotforhimorher.Atworst,youwillmodelaself-centeredbehaviorthatyourprotgmayemulateandthenperpetuatewhenheorshebecomesamentor.Whilementoringdoesofferbenefitstothementor,suchasself-validationandestablishingalegacy,theprimaryfocusofmentoringisontheindividualbeingmentored,theprotg.Sincenotallattemptsatamentoringrelationshipwillbesuccessfulandnotallofyouradvicewillnecessarilybefollowed,youshouldbehumblewhilementoringandcheckyouregoatthedoor.Itisalsoessentialthatyoudonotusethementoringrelationshipasavehicletoexploittheprotgforyourownpersonalgain.Forexample,avoidgivingbusyworkthatyoudonotwanttodotoaprotgundertheguiseofitbeinggoodforhimorher.Chancesareyourprotgwillseerightthroughthisveiledattemptatexploitationandunderstandablygrowtoresentit.

PAGE 32

30ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournal MENTORRULE#2AlwaysMaintainConfidencesTrustiscriticalinahealthymentoringrelationship.Hence,mattersdiscussedbetweenamentorandaprotgmustremainconfidential(aslongastheissuedoesnotinvolveviolationsofArmyregulationsortheUniformCodeofMilitaryJustice).Itisinthissafeenvironmentthataprotgcanopenlysharemistakesoranylackofself-confidence.Italsoallowsthejuniormentoringpartnertotakeriskswithoutfearingnegativeconsequences.Giventhat,thementorshouldnotsharetheprotgsmistakesandsetbackswithothers.Ofcourse,maintainingconfidencesgoesbothways.Thistrustingenvironmentallowstheseniormentoringpartnertosharelessonslearnedfrompersonalmistakesandfailureswithoutthefearoftheseblundersbecomingcommonknowledge.Alwaysremember,trusttakesalongtimetobecomefullyestablished,yetitcanbedestroyedinamatterofmoments. MENTORRULE#3SetandEnforceBoundariesThisruledealswithavoidingoneofthedarkeraspectsofamentoringpartnershipthedevelopmentofaninappropriaterelationship.Throughoutthecourseofmentoringajuniorofficer,itiseasytodevelopalikingoraffinityforyourmentoringpartner.But,itisimperativethatthementorkeeptherelationshipprofessional.Asamentor,youmustalwaysinsistonmaintainingmilitarycourtesywithnoexceptions.Asapersonalexample,Icalledmymentorofmorethan20years,Siruntilthedayheretiredasacolonel.Ifyouareasupervisortoyourprotg,youmustneverletyourroleasamentorcompromiseyourdutiesandresponsibilitiesasarater.Youmustavoidlettinganyhintofcronyismorfavoritismtocreepintoyourdecisionmaking.Ofcourse,aromanticrelationshipwithyourprotgisstrictlyforbiddenandwillprobablyadverselyaffectbothofyourcareers.Afinalnote:youshouldneverallowyourmentoringrelationshiptocircumventthechainofcommand. MENTORRULE#4KnowYourLimitationsOnceyouhavegainedthetrustandconfidenceofyourprotg,youmayfindyourselfaskedforguidanceinareasaboutwhichyouknowverylittle,or,perhaps,nothingatall.Thatiswhyitissoimportantthatyouacknowledgeanysuchlimitationswhenprovidingadvice.Theremaybethetemptationtoprovideguidance,anyguidance,justsothatyoudontloseface.Admittingalackofknowledgeonasubjectmayseemlikeaweaknessandthreatentoundermineyourstandingwiththeprotg.But,inactuality,acknowledgingyourownlackofexpertiseorexperiencewillfurtherstrengthenyourmentoringrelationship.Thosebeingmentoreddonotexpecttheirmentorstoknoweverything,but,rathertosharetheirexperiencesandpointthemintherightdirection.So,ifyouareaskedtoprovideadviceonasubjectaboutwhichyourknowledgeislimited,youshouldguidetheprotgintheproperdirectionand,ifpossible,tothebestpersonwhocangivethemthenecessaryguidance.MentorsandProtgs:SimpleRulesforSuccess

PAGE 33

OctoberDecember200731 MENTORRULE#5KeepYourPromisesMentoringtakestime,yourmostvaluableresource.Beforeenteringintoamentoringpartnership,itiscrucialthatyoudeterminewhetherornotyoucanmakethetimetodedicatetosuchanendeavor(Istronglybelievethatifyoutrulythinkthatmentoringisimportant,youwillmakethetimeforit!).Ifyoucannotdedicatethetime,thenIsuggestthatyoudonotevenattemptit.Onceyouhavedecidedtocommittoamentoringrelationship,youmustfollowthroughwithyourpromises.Forexample,ifyouagreetoweeklymeetingswithyourprotg,youmustkeeptheseappointments.IfyoupromisetoreviewajuniorofficersOERSupportForm,thendoitandprovideyourfeedbackinatimelymanner.Apatternofbrokenappointmentsandunfilledpromiseswillsendaclearmessagetoyourmentoringpartnerthatyouarenotreallydevotedtohisorherdevelopment.So,dowhatyousayyouaregoingtodo,whenyousayyouaregoingtodoit. MENTORRULE#6ListenandAskQuestionsAcommonmisconceptionaboutmentoringisthattheprotgsimplybringsproblemstothementorandthementortellstheprotgwhattodo.Althoughthismaybetemptingforbothmentoringpartners,itshouldbedonesparingly.First,donotassumethatyouautomaticallyknowwhatyourmentoringpartnerneedsfromyou.Youneedtotrulylistentothequestionsthattheprotgisasking.Practiceeffectivelisteningtobesureyouaregivingtheactualhelporadvicethatisrequired.Interestinglyenough,ahighlyeffectivewaytoimpartwisdomisbyaskingquestionsthatleadtheprotgtodiscovertherightanswerforhimorherself.Iknowfirsthandthatthiscanbeveryfrustratingtotheprotgwhousuallysimplywantsaquickanswer.However,inthelongrun,itteachestheonebeingmentoredhowtothinkthroughproblemsandindependentlydevelopsoundsolutions. MENTORRULE#7ReachOuttoJuniorOfficersItisessentialthat,asaseniorofficerandpotentialmentor,onemustremainapproachable.IntheArmy,rankcanbeveryintimidating.RememberhowyouwereintimidatedbyseniorofficerswhenyoufirstjoinedtheArmy.Giventhatfact,weasseniorleadersneedtobreaktheice.ApracticethatIlearnedfromanotherofmymentorsistoinitiateconversationswithjuniorofficerswhomIdonotknow.Iintroducemyselfandaskwheretheyarefromandtrytolearnalittleaboutthem.Thissimplegesturepaysbigdividendsinthelongrun.Itgreatlyincreasestheprobabilitythattheseofficerswillseekmeoutforguidanceinthefuture.

PAGE 34

32ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalMentorsandProtgs:SimpleRulesforSuccess MENTORRULE#8DontSugarcoatFeedbackHonestfeedbackisveryimportantinaneffectivementoringpartnership.However,theremaybeatemptationtosoftenconstructivefeedbacksoasnottooffendtheprotgorruinthementoringrelationship.Typically,whenhandledcorrectly,suchcorrectivefeedbackisusuallysomeofthemostimportantmentoringthatyoucangiveayoungofficer.Now,Iamnotcondoning,degrading,orbelittlingtheindividual.Negativefeedbackneedstobespecific,givenjudiciouslyandunemotionally.Ofcourse,ithelpsifsuchfeedbackissandwichedbetweenpositivecomments.Aswithallcounseling,itshouldbedoneimmediatelyandinprivatetohavethegreatestimpact.Thefeedbackshouldalsoproviderecommendationsonhowtoaddressshortcomingsorareasthatneedimprovement.Itisimportanttoalwaysseparatetheindividualfromtheundesirablebehavior.Finally,oncethematterisdiscussed,itshouldnotbebroughtupagainunlessthebehaviorormistakeisrepeated. MENTORRULE#9BeYourselfSincementoringisarelationshipbetweentwouniqueindividuals,thereisnosingleguaranteedrecipeformentoring.Therelationshipwillnaturallyreflectthedistinctpersonalitiesofthepairofindividualsinvolved.So,itisimportantthat,asamentor,youareauthentic.Yourdeedsshouldmatchyourwordsoryourwalkshouldmatchyourtalk.Ifyouareanintrovertbynature,tryingtocomeacrossasanextrovertwillseemphony.Onethingthatmayhelpyouindevelopingyourownstyleistodosomeself-reflection.Thiscanhelpyouidentifythekeyelementsofyourleadershipstyleandhowyoucanusethesetraitstobecomeamoreeffectivementor.Thegoodthingaboutmentoringisthemorethatyoudoit,thebetteryouwillbecome.Sotakeprideinbeingamentoranddoityourownway,withbothpassionandconviction. MENTORRULE#10CommittoContinuousLearningWhateveryourmilitaryspecialty,youshouldbededicatedtomaintainingyourtechnicalcompetencyandstayingabreastofadvancementsinyourfield.Thisisalsotruefortheleadershipandmentoringskillsrequiredtobeaneffectiveofficer.Awaytodothisistosetasidesomequiettimeforreadingprofessionaljournals,thoserelatingtoyourmilitaryspecialtyandthoserelatedtoofficership.Whileyouareprobablyawareofprofessionalreferencesforyourtechnicaldiscipline,youmaynotbeawareofjournalsforleaderdevelopment.ArmyjournalsthatmaybeofhelpareMilitaryReview,publishedbytheUSArmyCombinedArmsCenteratFortLeavenworth,KS,andParameters,fromtheUSArmyWarCollegeatCarlisleBarracks,PA.Bothinstitutionssupportwebsitesfromwheretheirarticlesmaybedownloaded:MilitaryReviewhttp://usacac.leavenworth.army.mil/CAC/milreview/index.aspParametershttp://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/Thispublication,theAMEDDJournal,isanothervenueforstayingcurrentindevelopmentswiththeArmyMedicalDepartment.Finally,ifyouareseriousaboutgrowingasamentor,youshouldavidlyreadallthatyoucanonthesubjectofmentoring.Foralistofsuggestedreadingmaterial,Ihaveincludedabibliographyofbooksandarticles(page28)thatIhavefoundhelpfulinmypersonalgrowthasamentor.

PAGE 35

OctoberDecember200733SUMMARYThekeypointsoftheaboverulesincluderememberingthatmentoringisabouttheprotg,notthementor.Confidencesmustalwaysbemaintainedtoensuretrust.Thementorneedstosetandenforceboundariesintherelationshiptoensureprofessionalism.Amentormustknowhisorherlimitationswhengivingguidanceoradvice.Promisesmadebythementorneedtobekeptiftherelationshipistolast.Duringthementoring,theseniorofficermustuseeffectivelisteningandshouldrefrainfromsimplytellingtheprotgwhattodoinordertodevelopproblem-solvingskillsintheprotg.Potentialmentorsmustbeapproachableifjuniorofficersaretofeelcomfortableinseekingthemoutasmentors.Feedbackneedstobespecificand,whennecessary,includeconstructivecriticism.Mentorsmustunderstandthemselvesanddevelopamentoringstylethatisauthenticandconsistentwithwhotheyreallyare.Finally,mentorsneedtodedicatethemselvestocontinuouslearning,technically,tactically,andasmentors.Itismysincerehopethat,byconsideringthesekeypoints,mentorswillbebetterpreparedtofocusontheindividualizedneedsoftheirrespectiveprotgs,therealgoalofanysuccessfulmentoringrelationship.TenSimpleRulesforProtgs Whiletheskillsofthementorarecriticaltomentoring,theprotgalsosharesresponsibilityforensuringthattherelationshipissuccessful.Unfortunately,somenewprotgsmaynotbeawareoftheirresponsibilitiesasamentoringpartner.Hence,thefollowing10rulesforprotgsarepresentedtohelpthemrealizethegreatestbenefitfromtheirmentoringrelationships. PROTGRULE#1CherishyourMentorsTimeItisimportantthatasaprotgyoutrulyvalueyourmentorstime.Yourmentorissettingasidetimeexclusivelyforyourdevelopmentandgrowth.Consequently,youoweittoyourmentoringpartnertoalwaysbeontimeandfullypreparedformeetingswithhimorher.Ifheorsheassignsyouhomeworktodo,suchasreadingassignments,thenyoumustbesuretocompleteyourtasksbeforetheyaredue.Tonotdosomaybeviewedbyyourmentorasacavalierattitudeandwilllikelyhurttherelationship.Yourmentormayreasonablyconcludethat,ifyoudonottakeyourprofessionaldevelopmentseriously,whyshouldheorshe? PROTGRULE#2AlwaysMaintainConfidencesOneofthecornerstonesofasuccessfulmentoringrelationshipistrust.Itiswithinasaferelationshipthattheprotgisabletofreelyaskquestions,expressconcerns,andtakeriskswithoutthefearofnegativeconsequences.Oneofthemosteffectivewaysformentorstoimpartwisdomisbysharingpersonalchallengesandsetbacksandwhatlessonsthementorhaslearnedfromthem.Sinceitisunlikelythatanyonewouldwanttheirmistakeswidelyadvertisedtoothers,thesameisprobablytrueforthosewhomentor.Therefore,whenyourmentortellsyouthingsinconfidence,youmusthonorthatspecialtrustandnotsharetheinformationoutsideofthementoringrelationship.Simplyput,genuinetrustonlydevelopsovertimeandcanbedestroyedinaninstant.Consequently,itisimperativethatyoualwaysmaintainconfidences.

PAGE 36

34ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalMentorsandProtgs:SimpleRulesforSuccess PROTGRULE#3LearnfromYourMistakesGoodmentorsdonotexpectperfectioninthosetheymentorandfullyexpecttheirprotgstomakemistakes.Interestinglyenough,itisusuallyfromourmistakesandfailuresthatwelearnourgreatestlessons.So,bewillingtotakerisksandtrynewthings;itisessentialforyourgrowthasanofficerandaleader.Also,acceptthatyouwill,fromtimetotime,makemistakes.Ifandwhenyoudofallshort,reflectuponthosesetbacksandgleanwhateverlessonthatliesattheheartofyourfailure.Now,whileamentorshouldbetolerantofmistakes,aneffectivementorwillnottolerateaprotgrepeatingthesamemistake.Suchbehaviordoesnotshowpersonalgrowthandmaturity.Besuretolearnfromyourmistakesandnotrepeatthem. PROTGRULE#4BeReceptivetoFeedbackOneofthemosteffectivetoolsinsuccessfulmentoringistheuseoffeedback.Oftenfeedbackispositiveandencouraging.Itcanbejustwhataprotgneedsduringtryingordifficulttimes.But,sometimesthefeedbackismorecritical.Thekeytobeingagoodprotgistoacceptthebadwiththegood.Ifyouexpectyourmentortoonlyshoweryouwithpraise,youwillbemissingthefullbreathanddepthofmentoring.So,keepyouregoincheckandlistenobjectivelytoanyconstructivefeedbackfromyourmentor.Whileitmightnotseemsoatthetime,suchwisdomandinsightcanoftenbesomeofthemostimportantmentoringthatyouwillreceive. PROTGRULE#5KeepYourPromisesMentoringrequiresyourmostvaluableresource,namelyyourtime.Beforeenteringintoamentoringpartnership,besurethatyoucandedicatetimetosuchanendeavor.Ifyoucannotsetasidethetime,thenIsuggestthatyoudonotenterintoamentoringpartnership.Thatbeingsaid,ifyoudocommittoamentoringrelationship,youmustfollowthroughwithyourpromises.Forexample,ifyouagreetoweeklymeetingswithyourmentor,youmustkeeptheseappointments.IfyoupromisetoprovideyourOERSupportFormtoyourmentor,thendoitpromptly.Brokenappointmentsandunfilledpromiseswillclearlydemonstratethatyouarenotseriousaboutbeingmentored.Toavoidthiscommonpitfall,keepyourpromisestoyourmentor.Bydoingthis,youwillalsobekeepinganimportantpromisetoyourself,namelytomakethemostofbeingmentored.

PAGE 37

OctoberDecember200735 PROTGRULE#6GenuinelyConsiderAdviceGivenOneofthemostvaluablebenefitsofmentoringistheopportunitytofreelyaskforadvice.Guidancecanrangefromthetechnicalaspectsofgettingthejobdone,tosuggestionsaboutchoosinganassignment,orwhetherornottocontinuepursuingamilitarycareer.Asacourtesytoyourmentor,youshouldthoughtfullyconsideranyadvicethatisgiven.Now,thisdoesnotmeanthatyousimplydowhateverthementorsuggests.Rather,itisbesttolistentothesuggestionsgivenandthencarefullydecidewhetherornottofollowtheadvice.Aself-confidentmentordoesnotexpecttheprotgtofolloweverybitofadvice.However,ifyouareconstantlyseekingadvicefromyourmentor,butneverfollowhisorherguidance,thenchancesarethatyourmentorwillstopgivingyouanyadvice.(ThishappenedtomewithonejuniorofficerIwasmentoring.Thisrecurringbehaviorultimatelyendedthementoringrelationship.)So,genuinelyconsideranyguidancethatisgivenand,ifyouchoosenottofollowit,explaintoyourmentorwhyyouelectednottofollowtheadvice.Thiskindofopendialoguewillhelptoensurethatyourmentordoesnotfeelthatheorsheiswastinghisorhertime. PROTGRULE#7ClarifyYourExpectationsSincethefocusofthementoringisontheneedsoftheprotg,itisimportantthatyouclarifyyourexpectationstoyourmentor.Forexample,ifyouareonlylookingforsomeonetobearolemodelorasoundingboard,youshouldmakethatclear.Ifyouarelookingforamorein-depthrelationship,youshouldalsospellthisout.Whatyourequirefromthementoringrelationshipwilldeterminethedegreeofyourmentorsinvolvement.Therefore,openandhonestcommunicationiscriticaltoensurethatyouractualneedsarebeingmet.Clarifyingyourexpectationswillmakeiteasierforyoutogaugeyourprogressanddeterminewhetherornotyourmentoringgoalsarebeingfulfilled. PROTGRULE#8RespecttheChainofCommandItisimportanttorememberthatmentoringisnotawaytobypassorinterferewiththechainofcommand.Forexample,youshouldneveruseyourmentortogooveryourbosssheadinordertoreverseadecisionwithwhichyoudisagree.Also,refrainfromaskingyourmentortointerveneinmattersbetweenyouandyourrater.Now,thatisnottosaythatyoucannotaskyourmentorforadviceonhowtotalkwithyourraterorresolveanydisagreements.However,yourmentorshouldnotbeinsertinghimorherselfbetweenyouandyourrater.Anysuchinterferencewouldbehighlyinappropriate.So,alwaysremembertorespectyourchainofcommandanddonotuseyourmentoringrelationshipasashortcutaroundit.

PAGE 38

36ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalMentorsandProtgs:SimpleRulesforSuccess PROTGRULE#9BringMoreThanJustYourProblemsOvertheyears,Ihavehadprotgscometomewithproblemsandtheywantedmetosimplytellthemwhattodo(Muchtotheirchagrin,rarelydidIjustgivethemtheanswer!).Sincetheultimategoalofmentoringisthedevelopmentofaself-reliantofficerthatcanindependentlymaketimelyandeffectivedecisions,itisimportantforprotgstodeveloptheirownskillsinproblem-solving.Tohelpachievethisgoal,itisdesirablethat,alongwiththegivenproblemthatneedssolving,youcomearmedwithpotentialsolutions.Whilethismayseemlikemoreworkforyouandyourproposedcoursesofactionmayultimatelyprovetobeinappropriate,thissortofexercisewillhelpyouinthelongrunbyimprovingyourabilitytosolveyourownproblems. PROTGRULE#10CommittoContinuousLearningWhateveryourmilitaryspecialty,youshouldbededicatedtomaintainingyourtechnicalcompetencyandstayingabreastofadvancementsinyourfield.Thisisalsotruefortheleadershipandmentoringskillsrequiredtobeaneffectiveofficer.Awaytodothisistosetasidesomequiettimeforreadingprofessionaljournals,thoserelatingtoyourmilitaryspecialtyandthoserelatedtoofficership.Whileyouareprobablyawareofprofessionalreferencesforyourtechnicaldiscipline,youmaynotbeawareofjournalsforleaderdevelopment.ArmyjournalsthatmaybeofhelpareMilitaryReview,publishedbytheUSArmyCombinedArmsCenteratFortLeavenworth,KS,andParameters,fromtheUSArmyWarCollegeatCarlisleBarracks,PA.Bothinstitutionssupportwebsitesfromwheretheirarticlesmaybedownloaded:MilitaryReviewhttp://usacac.leavenworth.army.mil/CAC/milreview/index.aspParametershttp://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/Thispublication,theAMEDDJournal,isanothervenueforstayingcurrentindevelopmentswiththeArmyMedicalDepartment.Finally,ifyouareseriousaboutgrowingasaprotg,youshouldavidlyreadallthatyoucanonthesubjectofmentoring.Foralistofsuggestedreadingmaterial,Ihaveincludedabibliographyofbooksandarticles(page28)thatIhavefoundhelpfulinmypersonalgrowthasaprotg.SUMMARYThekeypointsoftheprotgsrulesincluderememberingthattheprotgmustcherishthementorstimeandmakethemostofit.Mutualtrustisdependentuponmaintainingconfidences.AprotgmustlearnfromhisorhermistakesifheorsheistogrowasanArmyleader.Beingreceptivetofeedback,bothpositiveandnegative,isessentialtomaximizethementoringexperience.Promisesmadebytheprotgmustbekeptiftherelationshipistolast.Whilenotalladvicemustbefollowed,theprotgshouldgenuinelyconsidertheguidancethatisreceivedand,iftheadviceisrejected,explaintothementorwhyitwasnotfollowed.Clarifyingexpectationswillensurethatthetypeofhelpwantedisprovidedandthatthementoringgoalsareachieved.Protgsmustneverusetheirmentorstobypassthechainofcommandoraskthementortointerveneinissuesbetweentheprotgandhisorherratingchain.Whenbringingproblemstotheirmentors,protgsshouldalsohavepossiblesolutionsinmindtofosterthedevelopmentoftheirownproblem-solvingskills.Finally,thosebeingmentoredmustdedicatethemselvestocontinuouslearning,technically,tactically,andasprotgs.Iofferthesekeypointsinthehopethattheywillassistjuniorofficerstobetterpreparefortheirrolesassuccessfulmentoringpartnersinordertoreapallofthelastingrewardsofbeingmentored.

PAGE 39

OctoberDecember200737EvolvingRolesofHighlySuccessfulMentorsCOLMarkA.Melanson,MS,USAINTRODUCTIONThepurposeofthisarticleistosharewhatIviewastheevolvingrolesofahighlysuccessfulmentor.Thisshort,butimportantlistofinterrelatedrolesisderivedfromseveralyearsofresearchonthesubjectofmentoring,observationsofsuperbmentorsinmyowncareer,andanassessmentofmyownstrengthsandweaknessesasamentor.Itisimportanttonotethattheorderoftheserolesisnotarbitrary,eachrolebuildsuponthepreviousones.Ideally,aperfectmentormovesseamlesslyfromoneroletoanotherandbackagain,adoptingthemostsuitablerolethatisneededatthetime.However,whiletherearenoperfectmentors,therearepoormentors,fairmentors,goodmentors,andgreatmentors.Thispaperisallabouthowtobecomeagreatmentor.Hopefully,byidentifyingtherolesofahighlysuccessfulmentor,individualswhomentororaspiretobementorscanbenefitfromthiscriticalanalysisandpreparetosuccessfullyfulfilltheseessentialroles.COMPETENTPROFESSIONALFirstandforemost,amentormustbeathoroughlycompetentprofessionalinhisorherfield.Simplyput,mentorsmustknowtheirstuffandknowitcold.Mostoften,itisthistechnicalmasterythatfirstattractspotentialprotgs.So,mentorsmustbesubjectmatterexpertsintheirchosenareaofpractice.Whatitmeanstobeanexpertmaymeandifferentthingsindifferentfields.Forexample,expertisemaybeachievedbyobtainingadvanceddegrees,pursuingboardcertification,becominganactivememberofaprofessionalsociety,publishinginprofessionaljournals,orperhapsbyachievingallofthesethings.So,whatevertherelevantbenchmarksofexpertisemaybe,amentormustachievethemtofulfillthisfundamentalroleinmentoring.RESPECTEDLEADERUnfortunately,simplybeingatruesubjectmatterexpertisnotenoughtosecureonesplaceasagreatmentor.Whileexpertiseisabsolutelynecessary,itisnotsufficient.Yourmasteryoftechnicalexcellencemustbeaccompaniedbyawell-earnedandlastingrespectfromthosewithinyourcareerfield.Interestinglyenough,theroleofrespectedleaderisoneofthetworolesthatyoucannotclaimforyourself;itisbestoweduponyoubyothers.Onceearned,thiscovetedrespectiswidespread,sharedbyyoursuperiors,peers,andsubordinatesalike.Itgoeswellbeyondthehomageduetoyourrank,title,orposition.Inordertoearnthissincerestformofrespect,youmustbeviewedastrustworthyanddeeplycommittedtothedevelopmentofthosejuniortoyou.Sobewareifyouputyourselfandyourcareeraheadofothers,theywillseethisandwillprobablydenyyouthemantleofrespectedleader.Likewise,ifyouarenotauthentic,itwillbebecomereadilyapparenttothosewhomightbeconsideringyouasapotentialmentor.HUMBLESAGEParadoxically,thegreatmentorisatruemasterofhisorhercraft,iswellrenownedasarespectedleader,andyetconsistentlymaintainsahealthydegreeofhumility.Bybeinghumble,mentorscontinuetobeopentolearningfromalltheirmentoringrelationships,whetherasprotgsorasmentors.Becauseofthishumility,thementorrecognizesanypersonalweaknessesalongwithhisorherownstrengths.Ahumblementordoesnotthinkthatheorshehasalloftheanswers,butrather,askstherightquestionsthatwillsteertheprotgintheappropriatedirectionandfosterpersonalgrowth.Properhumilitymakesamentormoreapproachabletoprospectiveprotgsandalsoshieldsthementoragainstthepotentiallystingingdisappointmentsthatmayoccurduringmentoring(suchasusefuladvicebeingignoredorprotgswhothinkthattheynolongerneedadviceandabruptlyendthementoringrelationship).Hence,tobemosteffective,amentorneedstoassumetheroleofahumblesage.PASSIONATETEACHERHighlysuccessfulmentorsarepassionateteachers.Inthisrole,theycanreadilyspotaprotgsuntapped,buthiddenpotentialandpassonjusttherightlessonatjusttherightmoment.Theytrulydelightinwatching

PAGE 40

38ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournaltheirprotgslearnandgrow.Inherentinthisgroomingisaquiet,calmpatiencethatreadilyacceptsthefactthatprotgsarenotperfectandwillmakemistakes.But,thementorscontagiousenthusiasmaboutthelearningpartnershiphelpstoliftthosetheymentortonewheightsandachievementsthatwereeitherpreviouslyunimaginedorsimplyviewedasunattainable.Mostimportant,thesehighlyskilledteachersrecognizethecriticallessonsthatlieattheheartofeachchallengefacingtheirprotgandfindthemosteffectivewaytoilluminatethesubtle,oftencamouflagedmessage.REFLECTIVETRAVELEROneofthemostpowerfulskillsofoutstandingmentorsistheabilitytocriticallylookbackupontheircareersandseetherelevantwisdomthatcanbegleanedfromtheirjourney.Learningfromonesownexperiences,aswellasthoseofothers,isthehallmarkofadultlearning.Bycouplingtechnicalprincipleswithreal-worldexamples,thementorcanofferpreciouspearlsofwisdomtotheeagerprotg.Fortunately,thecarefulblendingoftheorywithappropriatecasestudiesmakesthementorstutelagemoreappealing.Giventhis,skilledmentorsperiodicallydontheroleofreflectivetravelerandtaketimeoutforintrospectionandponderthemeaningoftheirownpersonalvoyage.Byroutinelydoingthis,theyarebetterabletoguidethosewhoarefollowingbehindthem.AVIDSTORYTELLERWarstorieshaveprobablybeenaroundforeverandremainbyfaroneofthemosteffectivewaystoconveywisdom.Bybeingavidstorytellers,highlysuccessfulmentorscanweaveimportantteachingpointsintoengagingyarnsthatsustaintheinterestofthelistenerandarerememberedthroughoutaprotgscareer.Forme,someofthemostpoignantandmemorablelessonsinmycareeraredirectlytiedtowonderful,vividstoriesthatIenjoytellingagainandagain.(TheconstantchallengeremainsrememberingtowhomIhavetoldthestoriesandtowhomIhavenot!)Whilemanyofthesetalesevokeastrongsenseofpride,othersrevealsomeofmyworstblunders,andmanyarequitehumorous.Someofthegreatthingsaboutstorytellingareitsinformality,itisengaging,anditisfun.Oftenthosebeingmentoredinthismannerdonotevenrealizethatitisactuallyaformofsharingwisdom.Therefore,beatelleroftales,storiesrichinfertilelessons.KEENLISTENERInadditiontotellingstories,atop-notchmentorisalsoakeenlistener.Heorsheisabletopracticeeffectivelistening,focusingonwhattheprotgissaying,aswellasnotsaying.Ratherthanimmediatelyjumpingtoconclusionsaboutwhathasjustbeensaid,theeffectivelistenerensuresthatheorsheistrulyunderstandingthespeaker.Ausefultoolineffectivelisteningistoparaphrasewhathasbeensaidandtoaskreaffirmingquestionstoensureunderstanding.Eventhoughitisverydifficult,practicingeffectivelisteningisanindispensableskillofahighlysuccessfulmentorandthiscriticalroleshouldneverbeunderestimated.OPTIMISTICCHEERLEADERInmyopinion,aworld-classmentorisalwaysanoptimistwhocanseethesilverlininginanysituation.Iknowforme,personally,thisisthehardestroletoconsistentlyplayandplaywell.Beingupbeatandpositiveisessentialwhendealingwithaprotgthatisexperiencingasetback,atimewhenthementorisusuallyneededmost.Now,thisdoesnotmeanbeingaPollyanna.Thereneedstobeanacknowledgementofthehurtanddisappointmentassociatedwithsuchdefeats,butthementorneedstohelpputthingsinproperperspectiveandperhapsshareaperennialtruth:sometimeswhenonedoorcloses,anotherdooropens.Recountingrelevantpersonnelfailures,andsharinghowthementorsurvivedandgreworlearnedfromthem,isalsoparticularlyhelpful.So,whileinthisrole,haveempathy,butalsoofferencouragementandhopetoyourprotg.TRUSTEDCOUNSELORTheroleoftrustedcounseloristhepinnacleofthementoringrelationshipandonethatcantakealongtimetoachieve.Itisbuiltuponsuccessfullyfulfillingthepreviousrolesandbygettingtoknowtheprotgovertheyears.Notsurprising,thisisthesecondmentoringrolethatmustbeearned;itisconferreduponyoubyyourprotg.Aproventrackrecordofprovidingsoundguidance,keepingconfidences,andbeingthereforyourprotgwhenitmattersmostiswhatearnsyouthisrevereddistinction.GiventhetremendousinfluencethatyounowhaveoveryourEvolvingRolesofHighlySuccessfulMentors

PAGE 41

OctoberDecember200739 protg,youmustalwaysknowyourlimitationswhengivingadviceandrestrictyourguidancetoappropriateareas(forexample,donotdelveintotaboosubjectssuchasreligionorpolitics).Whilethisultimatementoringroleisapowerfulone,itisextremelyfragileandcanbelostinaninstant;eitherbyaviolationoftrustorsomeotherformofdestructivebehavior.So,beproud(inside)andenjoytheviewfromthesummitofmentorship,butdonotloseyourbalance(humility)oryouwillmostcertainlyfall!CONSUMMATESTUDENTOneofthewaysthatmentorsremainrenewedandvitalisbybeingconsummatestudents,ofboththeirprofessionandmentoring.Bysettingasidetimetoremaintechnicallycompetentandtacticallyproficient,onecancontinuetoretainandfurtherhonetheirperishableexpertise.Likewise,stayingupdatedontheevolvingartofmentoringensuresthatthementorremainsusefulandisabletosuccessfullypassonvitalinsightsthathavebeendiscoveredthroughoutonescareer.Althoughthismayseemdifficult,especiallywhenfacedwiththemanyoverwhelmingandcompetingprioritiesoftheday,itisimperativetoensurethatoneisnotbecomingstaleandoutoftouch.Finally,inordertoatlastcomefullcircle,highlysuccessfulmentorsmustremainconsummatestudents.SUMMARYThisarticlewaswrittentohelpgroommentors,oldandnew,byidentifyingtheevolvingrolesthathighlysuccessfulmentorsplayinordertosharewisdomwiththeirprotgs.First,aspiringmentorsneedtobecomesubjectmatterexpertsintheirprofessionbyachievingtherelevantbenchmarksofmasteryintheircareerfields.Next,theymustwinthecovetedroleofrespectedleaderbybeingtrustworthyandputtingthedevelopmentofothersfirst.Themasteryofknowledgeandearningofrespectmustalsobebalancedbygenuinehumilityifthementoristobeeffectiveinsharingwhatheorsheknows.Highlysuccessfulmentorsareteachers,plainandsimple,andtheyaremosteffectiveinthisrolewhentheyhaveadeeppassionforteaching.Byproperlyusingreflection,adroitmentorslookbackupontheirmanyadventuresandcarefullyselectcriticalstoriestosharewiththeirprotgs.Whileoutstandingmentorshavealottosay,theyneedtospendmostoftheirtimelisteningtothosetheymentortoensurethattheyunderstandtheirprotgsindividualizedneedsandgoals.TohelpprotgsthroughthesetbacksanddisappointmentsthatcanaccompanyanArmycareer,high-speedmentorsneedtodontheroleofoptimisticcheerleaders,encouragingthosetheymentorandrestoringhope.Onceastrivingmentorhasfinallyreachedthesummitofmentoringandisatrustedcounselor,heorshemustcontinuetonurtureandprotectthisfragile,butmostinfluentialrole.Lastly,greatmentorsneedtobeconsummatestudentsofboththeirprofessionandmentoringsothattheyremainvitalandresponsivetothosetheymentor.Inclosing,itishopedthatbyconsideringandembracingtheseevolvingroles,dedicatedstudentsofmentoringwillderiveadeepersatisfactionandhavegreatersuccessinthiscriticallyimportantleadershipresponsibility.AUTHOR COLMelansonisChiefoftheHealthPhysicsOffice,WalterReedArmyMedicalCenter,Washington,DC.

PAGE 42

40ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalArmyMedicalDepartment(AMEDD)leadershipcomplementarywordsoroxymoron?ThereshouldbenodoubtthatoutstandingleadershipispresentthroughouttheAMEDD.TherealsoshouldbenodoubtthattheAMEDDscumulativeleadershipskillsneedimprovement.TodayscomplexandincreasinglychaoticenvironmentsimplymandatesthattheAMEDDmustdevelopmoreleadersatallranksandspecialtieswhoarecapableofleadingorganizationsmuchmorediverseintermsofcapabilityandlocationthaneverbefore.AstheAMEDDtransformstomeettheArmysnewmissionsandorganizations,theabilitytoinspire,direct,manage,andleadbecomesexponentiallymoreimportant.KeepinmindthatweneedmoreleaderswillingtodevelopthenextgenerationofAMEDDleadership.WecannotstopuntilallAMEDDofficersandnoncommissionedofficershavemaximizedtheirindividualleadershippotential.Oneofmyfavoritequotesaboutsuccessappliesequallywelltoleadership.AbrahamLincoln,oneofthiscountrysgreatestleaders,said,Successisnotmeasuredbyhowhighuptheladderyouclimb,butinhowmanypeopleyouhelpuptheladder.1Ourresponsibilitytodevelopourownleadershipskillsisnotenough.WemustallworkdiligentlytoensurewealsodevelopthenextgenerationofAMEDDleaders.Wemustgivethemhopeforabetterfuturebyhelpingthemdeveloptheleadershipskillsthatwillhelpthemcreatethatfuture.TheFrenchJesuitpriestandphilosopher,PierreTeilharddeChardin,saiditbestwhenhewrote:Thefuturebelongstothosewhogivethegenerationreasonforhope.2Organizationswiththebestleadershavethemosthopeforabetterfuture.THECOURAGETOLEAD;DEVELOPINGFUTUREAMEDDLEADERSLeadershipisanextremelypersonalissue.Ithaseverythingtodowithyourinnermostdesireandaspirations,andlittletodowithcapability.Althoughthereisamentalcomponenttoleadership,itismuchmoreanaffairoftheheartthananintellectualexercise.Assuch,everyonecanbecomeabetterleader.Leadershipisnotjusttheresponsibilityofthecommandteam.Leadershipiseveryonesresponsibility.Consideringthat99%ofthemosteffectiveleadershiphappensinareasotherthanthecommandsuite,itbecomesincreasinglymoreimportanttointroduceallofficerstotheconceptofleadershipanditsimportancetoorganizationalsuccess.Lookaroundyourorganizationandyouwillseegreatexamplesofinformalorquietleadersimpactingyourorganizationinjustabouteveryarea.Theyarenothardtorecognizeifyouopenyoureyestoallthegreatthingsthatyourorganizationiscurrentlydoing.Thosegreatthingsarehappeningbecauseofpeoplewithlittletonoformalauthorityusinghighlyeffectiveleadershipskillstogetthejobdone.Acloserlookatthisconceptcalledleadershiprevealsseveralaxiomsthatrequirefurtherdiscussion.LEADERSHIPAXIOMSIbelieveseveralaxioms,statementsuniversallyacceptedastrue,existwhentheconceptofleadershipisdiscussed.Theseaxiomshelpframeadiscussionofwhatleadershipisandhowitcanbetaught:LeadershipIsAChoiceLeadershiphasnothingtodowithposition,education,age,gender,race,religion,oranyotherphysicalcharacteristicofaperson.Ithaseverythingtodowithdesire,courage,andawillingnesstostudyandworkhardtobecomeabetterleader.Ifyouchoosetobecomeabetterleader,youcanalwaysimproveyourleadershipskills.Thatdoesnotmeanthatbecomingabetterleaderiseasyforeveryone.Somepeoplefacefargreaterchallengestobecomingabetterleaderthandoothers.Whilesomehavetoworkveryhardtoovercomethesechallengestobecomeabetterleader,thepointisthatifsomeonechoosestoenhancetheirleadershipskills,theycandosothroughhardworkandstudy.TheCouragetoLead:StepstoBecomingaBetterLeaderJodyR.Rogers,PhD

PAGE 43

OctoberDecember200741YouCanAlwaysImproveYourLeadershipSkillsThisisoftenthetoughestaxiomforsenior,moreexperiencedofficerstoaccept.Leadershipskillsareverytransient.Successasaleaderinthepastdoesnotguaranteesuccessinthefuture.Thisaxiomisevenhardertocomprehendwhenoneconsidersthatleadershipcontenthasnotreallychangedthatmuchovertheyears.Ifyouweretostudythemyriadofleadershipbooksfoundinyourlocalbookstoreoronline,youwillseecommontheoriesdiscussedinalmosteverybook.Whatchanges,however,isthecontextinwhichleadershipispracticed.TheleadershipskillsthatservedmesowellwhenIwasalieutenantoryoungcaptainover20yearsagowouldnotbeaseffectivetoday.Infact,thosesameskillsmaybemoreharmfulthangood.Whathaschangedisthecontextinwhichleadershipispracticed.Whileleadershipcontenthasremainedrelativelyconsistent,thecontextinwhichleadershipispracticedhaschangeddramaticallyinjustthepastfewyears.Globalization,organizationaldownsizing,longerandmorefrequentdeployments,decreasingresources,higherlevelsofinterconnectivity,andachangingworkforcearejustsomeofthecontextualchangesourleadersmustfacetoday.3Differentorganizations,missions,positions,andpeoplemeanthataleadersskillsmustcontinuallyevolvetoremaineffective.Whenyouhearsomeonesaytheyalreadyknoweverythingtheyneedtoknowaboutleadership,realizetheyarerapidlybecomingobsoleteorworseasaleader.Theverybestleadersarealwaysdevelopingtheirleadershipskillsforthenextgreatchallenges.YourLeadershipChallengesWillIncreaseAclosecorollarytothesecondaxiom,leadershipchallengesaremuchgreatertodaythanatanyothertimeintheAMEDD.Amuchhighertempoofoperations,forcereductions,missioncreep,amoreeducatedandyoungerworkforce,increasingnumbersofcivilservantsandcontractorsinorganizations,reducedbudgets,etc,simplymeansthatyoumustgetmorefromyourpeoplethaneverbefore.Thismeansonesleadershipskillswillcontinuetobetested.Failuretodevelopandrefineyourleadershipskillssimplymeansyoureffectivenessasaleadertodayandthefuturewillbeseverelycompromised.ThisaxiomisalsoveryapplicabletoouryoungerofficersandnewleadersthroughouttheAMEDD.Forexample,weareaskingmoreofouryoungerofficersatamuchearliertimeintheircareers.Ouryoungerofficersareservinginleadershippositionsthatjustafewshortyearsagowerebeingfilledbymuchmoreseniorofficers.Failuretoequiptheseofficerswiththeappropriatelevelofleadershipskillswillonlyservetofrustratethemastheystrugglewithanincreasinglydemandingenvironment.Wesimplycannotaffordtowaituntilourofficersbecomemoresenioringradetostartdevelopingtheirleadershipskills.DevelopingLeadershipSkillsTakesTimeAclosecorollarytothethirdaxiom,developingleadershipskillstakestime.Theverybestleadershaveworkedhardtobecometheleaderstheyaretoday.Itdidnothappenovernight.AsIlookedbackovermycareerasaleader,IoftenthoughtthatifIonlyknewthenwhatIknownow,Iwouldhavebeenamuchbetter,moreeffectiveleader,especiallylateinmycareer.IwishIhadstartedonmyleadershipjourneymuchearlier.Wesimplymust,asaninstitution,continuallystresstheimportanceofleadershiptoallofourofficers.Theymustthenbeputinpositionstodeveloptheirleadershipskillsundertheskillfulmentorshipofourmoreexperiencedleadersatamuchearlierstageintheircareers.Remember,thereisnoquickfixorsilverbullettobecomingabetterleader.Itistheconsistentapplicationofspecificleadershipbehaviorsthatwillhelpensureleadershipsuccess.LeadershipisEveryonesBusinessAllmilitarypersonnel,butespeciallyofficersandnoncommissionedofficers,mustbepreparedtolead.Weknownotthetimeorplace,butrestassured,therewillbeatimewhenyouaresummonedtobealeader.Failuretoprepareisunacceptable.Ourcolleaguesandnationexpectthisofus.LEADERSHIPDEFINEDThereareasmanydefinitionsofleadershipasthereareleadershipbooks.TheoneIprefer:Theabilitytoinspirepeopletoturnchallengingopportunitiesintoremarkablesuccessesusingethicalmeans.3Acloserexaminationofthekeywords/phrasesinthisdefinitionisinorder.Asimplealgorithmhelpsexplainthisconceptofleadership.Leadership=(preparation+opportunity)

PAGE 44

42ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalLeadershipisafunctionofpreparationandopportunity.Bothmustbepresentforleadershiptooccur.Thegoodnewsiswearesurroundedbyplentyofopportunitiestodemonstrateeffectiveleadership.Iforganizationsarenotaseffectiveastheyshouldorneedtobe,theproblemcanalmostalwaysbetracedtoalackofleadership.WesimplymaynotbeproperlypreparingofficersofallranksacrosstheAMEDDCorpstoprovidetheleadershipsonecessarytomeetorganizationalrequirements.Whenstudyingleadership,peopleoftenask,areleadersbornoraretheymade?Thebestanswerisaresoundingyes.Somepeoplearebornwithnaturalleadershipskillssoyoucouldsaythatleadersaremade.Ifyoudoubtthis,gotoanurseryorpreschoolandwatchagroupoftoddlers.Youwillquicklyseemoreleadershipabilityinsomeandlessinothers.Ialsostronglybelievethatleaderscanbemade.TheaxiomLeadershipisaChoiceaddressesthisquestion.PerhapsthebestanswercomesfromLeonardSweet:Leadersareneitherbornnoraretheymade.Theyaresummonedbyopportunityandthosewhoacceptthechallengearecalledleaders.6Wesimplymustdoabetterjobofpreparingourofficerstoacceptthechallengeofleadership.DrPatrickQuinlan,CEOofOchsnerHealthSystem,reinforcedthisneedtobereadyduringarecentpresentationinSanAntonio,Texas.7Hetoldhisaudience,Therearemomentsineveryoneslifethatwilldefinewhotheyare.Theproblemisyoudontknowwhenthosemomentswillhappen.Thesemomentsalmostalwaysrequiresomedegreeofleadership.Failuretopreparecouldeasilyresultinthesedefiningmomentspassingyouby.Preparationissimplythekeytoleadershipsuccess.Thereisnobettertimethannowtodeveloporenhanceyourleadershipskillsforthechallengesyouareabouttoface.Howcanwebetterprepareourofficers,earlycareeristsandexperiencedofficersalike,tobecomebetterleaders?Thefirstandprobablymostimportantstepalsotheonenotfrequentlytakeninleaderdevelopmentistoensurethatallofficershavetakenthetimeandmadetheeffortforsomeself-examinationoftheircurrentleadershipstrengthsandweaknesses.SeveralUSbusinessleaderswererecentlyaskedaboutthemostimportantcapabilitythataleadershoulddevelop.Theirnearlyunanimousanswerwasself-awareness.8Leadersmustknowwhatmotivatesthemtogreatnessbeforetheyundertakeanimportantleadershiprole.Evenifyourealizethatyouneedtochangeyourleadershipstyletobeeffective,youmustfirstdeterminewhereyouarefromaleadershipstandpoint.WeallhavewhatIcallleadershipDNA.WhetherweeverdiscoverorutilizeourleadershipDNAisanotherissue,butweallhaveit.Wejustneedtodevelopit.Inthiscase,DNAstandsforDesire,Need,andAbility.Doyouhavethedesiretolead?Canyouidentifyaneedwithinyourorganizationforbetterleadership?Haveyoudevelopedyourabilitytolead?Allarenecessaryforleadershipeffectiveness.RestassuredweallhaveleadershipDNA.TheverybestleadersdevelopthisDNAtoensuretheycanmeetthechallengesbeforethem.Inmanyways,ourleadershipDNAishiddendeepwithinus.TheonlywaytodiscoveranddevelopthisDNAistoundergosufficientselfreflectionorintrospection.Withoutthisstep,wecanneverbecometheverybestleadersweneedtobe.DrKevinPurcell9identified3levelsofleadership,depictedintheFigure.Wetendtospendalotoftimestudyingthefirsttwo,whileignoringthemostimportantlevel.TheCouragetoLead:StepstoBecomingaBetterLeader LEVELSOFLEADERSHIP OrganizationLevelPlotaCourseKnowyourorganizationanditsmarket(leadershiptheories)GroupLevelBuildaTeamKnowyourgroup(team,department,etc)DrPurcells3levelsofleadership.10 Organization IndividualGroup Coeur

PAGE 45

OctoberDecember200743Theorganizationallevelisimportantbecauseofitsimportanceinenvironmentalscanning,creatingandsustainingavision,andunderstandinghowyourorganizationworkstogether.Wefrequentlylearntheseskillsbystudyingthevariousleadershiptheoriesthathelpusunderstandwhatmotivatesoursubordinates.Whilethestudyofleadershiptheoriessuchastraitstheory,leadershiptraitsandbehaviorstheory;orleadershiptraits,behaviors,andsituationstheoryisimportantandnecessarytounderstandinghowleadershipworks,itishardlysufficientinthedevelopmentofleadershipskills.10Toofrequently,manyacademicorganizationsfocusatthislevelattheexpenseoftheother,inmyopinion,moreimportantlevels.Thegrouporbuild-a-teamlevelisveryimportantbecause,asCOL(Ret)GeorgeMasi(SeniorVicePresidentandChiefOperatingOfficer,HarrisCountyHospitalDistrict)oncetoldme,Thevastmajorityoftheimportantdecisionsmadeinhealthcarearemadeasateam.Asaresult,teamleadershipbecomesextremelyimportantwithintherubricwecallahealthcareteam,whetheritisamilitarytreatmentfacilityoracombatsupporthospital.Wearebeginningtospendmoretimetrainingofficershowtoworkinteams,butweneedtodomore.Ourofficersmustknowhowgroupsfunction,whatmotivatespeopleworkingwithingroups,theimportanceofselectingthebestteammembers,andhowtomakethenecessarymidcoursedirections,shouldtheteamgetoffcourse.Mostimportant,however,istheindividuallevel.Itisherewheretherubbermeetstheroadwhenitcomestoleaderdevelopment.Itistrulytheheartorcoeurofleadership.Withoutknowingwhatmakesaleadertick,ie,whattouchestheirheart,theywillneverbeabletofulfilltheirfullleadershippotential.PersonalityevaluationsliketheMyers-Briggstest11canhelpwiththis,butareclearlynotenough.Discoveringtheleadersheartrequiresalotofsoulsearching.Thistypeofactivityoftenmakespeopleveryuncomfortable.Itisthissoftersideofleadershipthatmanypeopleavoidliketheplaguebecauseitmakespeopletoovulnerable.Answerstothefollowingquestionscanhelpanofficerdiscoverhisorherleadershipheart.Thesequestionsaredesignedtogetofficersthinkingaboutthemselvesandwhatmotivatesthemtodothethingstheydowell.Theyareespeciallygoodwithinsmallgroupdiscussions,suchasanofficerprofessionaldevelopmentmeetingoraone-on-onementoringsession.Oncewehavediscoveredourowncourage,orcoeur,tolead,wecanallbecomemuchbetterleaders.Buttheroadtobetterleadershiphastostartwiththecouragetoknowourselves.Forthosewhohavenotdonetherequisiteintrospectiontobecomingagreatleader,thisisnotaneasytask.Ittakesalotoftime,thought,andreflection.Thismayexplainwhythiscriticalsteptoleaderdevelopmentisfrequentlybypassedorignoredaltogether.Beingasuccessfulleaderismoreabouttheconsistentimplementationofseeminglysmall,commonsensethingsthandoingsomethingcomplexorheroic.Consistentlyimplementingtheserelativelysmall,commonsensetypethingscanmakeahugedifference.Thisisverygoodnews.Unfortunatelythisgoodnewsiscloselyassociatedwithsomebadnews.Thebadnewsisthattheseseeminglysimple,commonsensethingsareoftenthemostdifficulttoimplement. 1.Whoisthegreatestleaderyouveevermetorstudiedand,mostimportant,why?2.Whatmakesagreatleader?3.Howdoyouknowifyouareaneffectiveleader?4.Whatkindofleadershipisnecessaryinthisage,inthisprofession?5.Areleadersbornormade?6.Themostimportantleadershipskillis______7.Whatmotivatesyoutogreatness?8.Whatisyourpurposeinlife,professionallyandpersonally?9.Whatisimportanttoyou?10.Whoisimportanttoyou?11.Whatisyourmostimportantvalue?12.Whatdoyouwantyourlegacytobe?13.Whichleadershipvalueisnon-negotiable?

PAGE 46

44ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalSTEPSTOBECOMINGABETTERLEADERAsyouwillsoonsee,theseseeminglysimple,common-sensethingscanhelpyoubecomeabetterleader.Thequestionthatmustbeanswered:ifthesearesosimpletodo,whyisnteveryonedoingthem?Thefollowingare9behaviorsyoucouldemployimmediatelytohelpyoubecomeamoreeffectiveleader.1.Care Aseeminglysimplestep,acaringattitudebytheleadercanhaveanextremelypowerfuleffectonanorganization.Leadersmustcareforpeople,notasfunctionalsubordinatesbutashumanbeings.Acaringattitudeshowsrespectandisextremelyimportantinhelpingtheleaderbuildtrust.Leadersareseenascaringwhentheydemonstrateagenuineinterestinemployees,greetthemwarmlywhentheycometowork,visittheirsubordinatesworksites,andwhentheyworktounderstandthemotivationsandconcernsoftheirworkers.Unfortunately,busyschedulesandotherdemandsoftenresultintheperceptionofleadersasnothavingacaringattitude,eveniftheytrulydocare.Theleadersdemonstrationofacaringattitudeisnotenoughbyitself,however.Thebestleadersalsomotivatetheirsubordinatestocareasmuchastheydofortheirfellowworkers,fortheircustomers,andforthemissionoftheorganization.Themosteffectivewaytodothisistoconstantlyremindyourworkersoftheimportanceandcontributionoftheirworktowardtheaccomplishmentofthemission.2.FocusonIntangibles,EspeciallyValuesAlthoughorganizationalvaluesareimportant,identificationofindividualvaluesarealsoveryimportant.Whatvaluesaremostimportanttoyou?Haveyouwrittenthemdown?Haveyousharedthemwithyourfellowemployees?ResearchbyKouzesandPosnerhasshownthatpeoplewhohavethegreatestclarityaboutbothpersonalandorganizationalvalueshavethehighestdegreeofcommitmenttotheorganization.3Otherintangiblesofwhichtheleadermustbecognizantincludeorganizationalmorale,culture,andesprit-de-corps.Allareextremelyimportanttotheleader,andallmustbeactivelymanaged.Thebestorganizationshaveleaderswhospendalotoftheirtimeensuringtheorganizationalcultureishealthyandcontributingtoorganizationalsuccess.3.RecognizeOutstandingContributionsAllorganizationsconsistofpeopledoingoutstandingworkonadailybasis.Unfortunately,leadersspendmoretimelookingforpoorworkthanforoutstandingwork.Thisisextremelycounterproductive.Leadersmakeaconsciousefforttocatchpeopledoinggoodthings,andthenrecognizethemfortheirgooddeeds.Remember,peoplewillworkhardtomaintainagoodreputation.Recognitionofpeoplefortheirgoodworkservesasagreatmotivationaltoolforfuturegoodwork.MarkTwainoncesaid,Icanlivefortwomonthsonagoodcompliment.Dontunderestimatetheimpactyouwillhaveonsubordinateswhenyoudiscoverthemdoinggoodthings.4.BecomeaGoodCommunicatorTheabilitytocommunicatewithyourpeopleisacriticalleadershipskill.Thisdoesnotmeanhavingtheabilitytospeakandmotivatehundredsofpeopleatatime.Theleaderswhoareexceptionalcommunicatorsareabletoconnectwiththeirlistenersinadeepandprofoundway.Aslongasyouareabletoconnectwithyourlisteners,youwillbeseenasagreatcommunicator,evenifyoudonothavetheskillortalentofthegreatcommunicators.Anintegralpartofcommunicationislisteningskills.Thebestleadersareexceptionallisteners.Theymaketheeffortandtakethetimetolistentotheiremployees.Thebestleadersalsolistenforwhatisnotbeingsaid.Theyaregreatatlisteningwiththeireyesandareabletodetectthetruemessagebeingspoken.5.MastertheQFactorThebestleadersaskmorequestionsthantheyofferanswers.Theylearnhowtoasktherightquestionoftherightperson,attherighttime,andintherightmanner.Theyusequestionstogettheirpeopletoshareinformationaboutwhattheydo,whattheylikeabouttheirjobs,andwhattheywoulddodifferentlyiftheywereincharge.Leadersalsoaskgreatquestionsinanefforttoeducatethemselvesaboutwhatishappeningintheirorganization.6.LeadersNeverPuleLeadersneverwhineorcomplain.Whenyouareleading,youloseallrighttocomplainorwhine.PeoplewanttheirleaderstohaveaneternallypositiveTheCouragetoLead:StepstoBecomingaBetterLeader

PAGE 47

OctoberDecember200745attitude.Leadersmustalsoberealistic.Theyshouldnotdownplayadifficultsituationorproblem.Buttheymustalwaysofferapositiveattitudeastohowtheyaregoingtoresolvethisissueorproblem.Peoplehaveenoughoftheirownproblemswithouttheleaderwhiningpubliclyabouthisorherproblems.Thebestleadersneverpuleinfrontoftheirworkers,period.7.LeadersCreateaSenseofUrgencyfortheWorktoBeDoneLeadersworkhardtoavoidcomplacencywithintheorganization.Allorganizationsmovetowardthestatusquo.Leadersworkhardtocreateasenseofurgencyfortheworktobedoneandthechangesthatmustoccurwithintheorganizationtoremainsuccessful.Complacencyisnotpartofthelexiconofthebestleaders.Peopleenjoybeingchallenged.Theylikeworkingforsomethingbiggerandbetterthanthemselves.Leaderspushtheirpeoplebycreatingasenseofurgencythatkeepstheorganizationaliveandmoving.8.LeadersStressIncreasingEveryonesAdaptabilityQuotientChangeisawayoflife.Organizationsaswellaspeoplemustchange,oradaptinordertosurvive.IncreasingeveryonesAdaptabilityQuotientiscriticaltoorganizationalsuccess.Theabilitytothriveinaconstantlychangingenvironmentrequiresconstantlearningandtraining.Leadersstressthisintheircommunicationandactions.Insteadofbecomingfrustratedbychange,thebestleadersseeachangingenvironmentthatisloadedwithnewopportunities,notnecessarilychallenges.9.LeadersAlwaysRememberTheirRoleLeadershipisnotaboutyou.Itisaboutyourpeopleandyourorganization.Neverputyourselffirstwhenitcomestoyourpeopleororganization.Theconceptofbeingaservantleaderisextremelypowerfulandaccurate.Youexisttohelpothersbecomebetter.Youexisttohelpyourorganizationbecomebetter.Ifboththingsoccur,youwillbeseenasagreataleader.Italsoisimportantthatyourememberthis:Donot everunderestimatetheimpactyoucanhavebybecomingabetterleader.Evenifyouareanovice,anyimprovementyoumaketobecomeabetterleaderwillhelpyourorganizationmaximizeitscapabilities.Hardwork,constantlearning,andseekingopportunitiestodevelopyourleadershipskillswillhelpyoubecometheleaderyouwanttobe,andthatyourorganizationneedsyoutobe.Byimplementingthesesteps,youwillbeseenasabetterleaderandyouwillbewellonyourwaytomaximizingyourleadershippotential.REFERENCES 1.LincolnA.Quotedby:CarltonPK.PresentationtotheUSArmy-BaylorUniversityGraduatePrograminHealthandBusinessAdministration;2006;FortSamHouston,TX.2.VeningaR.Effectiveleadership:apublichealthperspective.MNVision.Spring2006:7-8.Availableathttp://www.hpm.umn.edu/res_pubs/files/mnvision/MNvision306final.pdf.3.KouzesJ,PosnerB.TheLeadershipChallenge.3rded.SanFrancisco,CA:Jossey-Bass;2002.4.CollinsJ.GoodtoGreat.NewYork,NY:HarperCollinsPublishersInc;2001.5.LombardiV,HeinzWC.RuntoDaylight.UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:PrenticeHall;1963.6.SweetL.SummonedtoLead.GrandRapids,MI:Zondervan;2004.7.QuinlanP.PresentationtotheTrinityUniversityGraduatePrograminHealthcareAdministration.SanAntonio,TX:January2007.8.GeorgeB,SimsP,McLeanAN,MayerD.Discoveringyourauthenticleadership.HarvBusRev.2007;85(2):129-138.9.PurcellK.GraduateResearchPaper.TrinityUniversity,SanAntonio,TX:2004.10.LongestBBJr,RakichJS,DarrK.ManagingHealthServicesOrganizationsandSystems.4thed.Baltimore,MD:HealthProfessionsPress;2000.11.Briggs-MyersI,BriggsKC.Myers-BriggsTypeIndicator(MBTI).Availableat:http://www.cpp.com/products/mbti/index.asp.AUTHOR DrRogersisaVisitingAssociateProfessorintheGraduatePrograminHealthcareAdministration,TrinityUniversity,SanAntonio,Texas.HealsoworksintheAMEDDExecutiveSkillsProgram,LeaderTrainingCenter,AMEDDCenterandSchool,FortSamHouston,Texas.

PAGE 48

46ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalLeadershipisdefinedintheArmysleadershipmanual,FM6-22,asinfluencingpeoplebyprovidingpurpose,direction,andmotivationwhileoperatingtoaccomplishthemissionandimprovingtheorganization.1Myleadershipphilosophyemphasizes6areasthatarecriticaltoachievingsuccessinanyorganization:VisionCommunicationCourageDevelopmentofsubordinatesKnowyourselfPassionLeaderswhosuccessfullytapthesefactorsintheirpersonalandprofessionallifearerolemodelsfortheirorganizations.Visioniskeytoleadership.Withoutvision,thepeopleperish.2(p94)Visionistheleadersroadmapoftheorganizationsfuture.Itprovidestheorganizationwithdirectionandasenseofpurpose.Anorganizationneedstoknowtheplanforitsfutureandthemilestonesthatwillbeusedtoattainsuccessfulresults.Peoplewhoworkinanorganizationwithoutavisionhavenosenseofbelongingandfeelthereisnohigherreasonfortheirexistence.Workisnotmeaningfulwithoutavision.Visionisthusthekeyingredientthatstokesthefireofcreativityandtransformsanorganization.Anintellectualimageofthefutureisaprerequisiteforchangeandmustprecedeanyphysicalchange.Organizationalchangeisundirected,unfocused,andunproductivewithoutaunifyingvision.Communicationisparamounttoleadership.Awell-formedvisionforanorganizationisnotenough.Goalsareuselessifmembersofanorganizationdonotunderstandwhattheyare.Aleadersvisionmustbecommunicatedtotheorganizationinaclearandsuccinctmannersothatitiseasilygraspedbyorganizationmembers.Communicatingthevisioninvolvespersuadingpeopletobuyintoit.Toachievesuccess,subordinatesateveryleveloftheorganizationmustbeabletotranslateandapplytheleadersvisiontotheirdailyjobs.Leadersmustwidelyarticulatetheirvisioninfrequentinteractionswithorganizationmembers.Communicationcanbeverbalorwrittenandwithinformalorinformalsettings.Newsletters,emailcommunications,andsmallandlargegroupforumsareeffectiveandpracticalwaysofdisseminatingthevision.Everycontactwithamemberoftheorganizationisanopportunitytoreachoutandspreadthevision.Communicatingthevisionisonlyoneofmanymessagesthatmustbeconveyedthroughoutanorganization.Stressingtheneedforconstantimprovementkeepstheorganizationfocusedonattainingfuturegoals.Disseminationofresults-basedlearningaboutwhatisworkingandwhatneedsimprovementwithinanorganizationiscritical.Givingpraise,credit,andpositivereinforcementforajobwelldoneisessential.Bythesametoken,counselingandconstructivecriticismisalsoimportantinthepursuitofthevision.Aleaderisafacilitatorandmoderatorwhoinfluencesthebehaviorofindividualsandteamswithintheorganization.Effectivecommunicationfostersgroupproblemsolvinganddecision-making.Itencouragesaclimateofopennessandtruthfulnessforfreeinteractionsaboutcommonlysharedproblems,errors,andlessons.Anopendoorpolicyandawillingnesstolistenareintegralcomponentsofeffectivecommunication.Listeningisjustascriticalasspeaking.Opennesstonewideascapitalizesonanorganizationscreativity.Beingaccessiblesendsamessagethattheleadercaresandisapproachable.Nonverbalcommunicationthroughbehaviorandgesturessendsapowerfulmessagetoorganizationmembers.LeadersshouldnotunderestimatetheextentElementsofLeadershipfortheSuccessfulOrganizationCOLGeorgeW.Turiansky,MC,USA Thisarticle,updatedbytheauthor,isreprintedfromtheJulySeptember2006issueoftheAMEDDJournal.

PAGE 49

OctoberDecember200747towhichtheirfollowersobservethem.Asimplegestureofintegrityorcompassioncanbeworthathousandwordsandcanencouragerole-modelingbehaviorwithintheorganization.Conversely,aleaderwhosendsinconsistentandcontradictorymessagesbynotlivinguptotheexpectationsthathesetsforhisorganizationbreedsmistrustanddisrespect.Courageisathirdelementofleadership.Itisoneofthe7ArmyvaluesformingtheacronymLDRSHIPthatallSoldiersareexpectedtopossess.Couragecanbesummarizedbythephrase,Whenincharge,beincharge.2(p39)Aleadermusthavecouragetofollowhisvision,takeaction,andinitiatechange.Hemusttranslatehisvisionintoreality.Thisinvolvesawillingnesstotakeapublicstandonhisbeliefsandsometimestochallengethestatusquo.Aleaderwhotakesactiondoeswhathesaysandthenmore.Hespeaksthetruthanddisplaysintegrity,anotherofthe7Armyvalues.Acourageousleadertakesrisksandsearchesforsolutions.Heistoughenoughtoensurethattheorganizationexecutestheactionsnecessarytotransformvisionintorealityandtoachievethedesiredendresult.Hedelegatesresponsibilitytoempowerhissubordinates.Healsostandsupforsubordinateswhennecessary.Couragealsomeanstakingresponsibilityfordecisionsandacknowledgingmistakes.Throughpersonalreflection,aleaderusesmistakesasalearningtoolinthelifelongprocessofself-improvement.Aleaderwithcourageembodiesthevalueshecultivatesinhisorganizationandlivesbythem.Aleaderconsistentlyconductshispersonalandprofessionallifeinamannerthatwillbringcreditnotonlytohimself,butalsotohisorganization.Thisencouragessubordinatestofollowthepathtosuccessbyemulatingtheleadersbehavior.Developingandmentoringsubordinatesisessentialtoeffectiveleadership.Leadershipconceivedasthelonewarriorisreallyheroicsuicide.3Aleadercannotcommandinavacuumdisregardinghisstaffsinput.Aleaderneedssubordinatestoadviseandchallengehimandtohelphimidentifyhisweakandblindspots.Aleaderrecognizesthatdevelopingandmentoringhissubordinatesenhanceshisowneffectiveness.Buildingleadershipintothegeneticcodeofanorganizationistheultimatecompetitiveadvantage.4AccordingtoCharanandTichy,GeneralElectricattributesitsabundanceofchiefexecutiveofficertalenttoitsfocusonnurturingandgrowingleadersfromwithintheorganization.4Thismeansmakingtimeforpeopleissuessuchasencouraging,mentoring,coaching,andadvising.Aneffectiveleadergivesbothpositiveandnegativefeedbacktohissubordinates.Aleaderrewards,recognizes,andcelebratestheaccomplishmentsandsuccessesoftheirsubordinates.Aleaderprovidesguidanceandsuggestspathwaysforproblemsolving.Aleaderalsoencouragesreflectionasatoolforself-improvementandemphasizesthatpeoplelearnfrommistakes.Anintegralpartofsubordinatedevelopmentisthecreationofaworkenvironmentinwhichpeoplecansucceed.Thisisdonebyearmarkingresourcesforlearninginareassuchastrainingandeducation,pilotprojects,anddevelopmentalassignmentsandensuringtheavailabilityofbasicresourcessuchasfinancialsupport,tools,materials,andfacilitiessosubordinatescanexcel.Anenvironmentforsuccessencouragesteamworkandcollaborationateachleveloftheorganization.Aleaderdevelopssubordinatesbyestablishingandmaintaininganethicalclimate,whichemphasizesthatracism,sexism,andprejudiceareunacceptable.Subordinatedevelopmentalsomeanscaringdeeplyaboutyourpeople,bothpersonallyandprofessionally.Respectandrecognitionareessential.Providingresourcestoremedysocialissuessuchasmaritaldiscordandalcoholabuseisimportantforharmoniousandeffectiveworkperformance.Afairandcaringcommandclimatefostersrolemodelemulationandsubordinatedevelopment.Effectiveleadershipmeansknowingyourselfbyrecognizingyourlimits,abilities,shortcomings,andvalues.Thisalsoinvolvessearchingdeeplywithinyourselftounderstandyourownassumptions,biases,prejudices,andbeliefs,aswellasthoseofothers.Aneffectiveleaderexploreshowhediffersintheseareasfromothersandrealizestheimplicationsofthesedifferencesonhisbehaviorandinteractionswithorganizationmembers.Itisimperativethataleaderlookinwardandexplorefeelingstowardrace,gender,rank,andsexualandreligiousorientation.Theimplicationsofnotrecognizingdifferencesbetweenyourfeelingsandthoseofyourorganizationmemberscanbeimmense.Inaddition,aleadermustrecognizethatothershavevaryingdecision-making,learning,andinterpersonalstylesandthatthesestylesmaybejustaseffectiveasanyofhisown.Beforeyoucanleadothers,beforeyoucanhelpothers,youhavetodiscoveryourself...Andnothingismorepowerfulthansomeonewhoknowswhotheyare...ifyouknowwhoyouare,thenpeopletrustyou.5Aleaderwhoknowshimselfultimatelycontributestoacommandclimate

PAGE 50

48ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournaloffairnessandtrustwhichcanonlyspurrolemodelbehaviorinsubordinates.Effectiveleadershipispassion.Passionistheinnerfiretoinspireandmotivatepeople.Passionisbornofempathy,theabilitytoconnectwithpeople.Withpassionateleadership,thepulseofaninstitutionanditspeoplebeatsfaster,itbreathesharder,itrunsstronger.6Passionateleadershipinvolvesinstillingoptimism,highmorale,enthusiasm,andanespritdecorpsintheworkenvironment.AccordingtotheBlairHousePapers,onewaytomaximizepeopletalentistoraisethespiritoftheworkforceEmpoweringandenergizingthefrontlines...7Aleadermustcreateaworkclimateinwhichpeoplefeelgoodabouttheirjobsandtheircontributionstotheorganization.Aleadercaninstillenthusiasmforhisvisionbyhismerefrequentpresenceandpersonalinteractionswithorganizationmembers.Thisshowspeoplethatyoucareenoughtoseehowthingsaregoing,tomakesurethatpoliticalredtapedoesnotbogpeopledownintheirjobs,andtomakepeoplefeelthattheyreallydomakeadifference.Aneffectiveleaderinspirespeopletofocustheirenergyonspecificgoalsdirectedtowardthevision.However,aleadermustbewiseenoughtobalanceappropriateoptimismwiththerealitiesthatfacetheorganizationmembersonadailybasis.Inspiringsubordinatestoattaintheirgoalsgeneratesfeelingsoffulfillment,self-esteem,andjobsatisfaction.Byvirtueoftherolemodelstatus,apassionateleaderbreedsenthusiasminsubordinates.Toachievetheendresult,aneffectiveleadermustcreateaclimatethatstimulatespositivechangewithinhisorganization.Hemusthaveavisionthatisclear,succinct,andunderstoodbyhissubordinates.Hemusthaveexcellentcommunicationskillsasaspeaker,listener,facilitator,andmoderator.Hemusthavecouragetobeatrueleader.Asmartleadernurturesfutureleadersforhisorganizationandbecomesapeoplesleaderbymentoringanddevelopinghissubordinatesanddealingwithpeopleissues.Aleadercanbefaironlywhenheknowsdeepinsidewhohereallyis,howthiscompareswithothers,andhowtheactionsofhissubordinatesaffecthisownbehavior.Passionateleadershipignitestheorganizationinpursuitofthevision.These6elementsarecriticaltoeffectiveleadershipintoday'sArmy.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TheauthorgratefullyacknowledgesLieutenantRussellA.Baum,Jr.,SupplyCorps,UnitedStatesNavalReserve,forhiscriticalreviewandeditorialcomments.REFERENCES 1.FieldManual6-22:ArmyLeadership:Confident,Competent,andAgile.Washington,DC:USDeptoftheArmy;October2006:1-2.2.SullivanGR,HarperMV.HopeisNotAMethod.NewYork:BroadwayBooks;1996.3.HeifetzR.Quotedby:GaryL.Theworkofamodernleader:aninterviewwithRonHeifetz.HarvManagUpdate.April1997:4-6.4.CharanR,TichyN.NeedaCEO?Hereshowtogrowone.USAToday.October20,1997:21A.5.JaworskiJ.Quotedby:WebberAM.Destinyandthejoboftheleader.ChangeAgent.June/July1996:40-42.6.RodinJ.Quotedby:TraffordA.Leadingmedicineintothefuture.WashingtonPost.November4,1997:HealthSection:6.7.ClintonWJ,GoreA.BlairHousePapers.January1997:PartIII,Section1.Availableat:http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/papers/bkgrd/blair.html.AUTHOR COLTurianskyistheProgramDirectoroftheNationalCapitalConsortiumDermatologyResidencyProgramattheWalterReedArmyMedicalCenter,Washington,DC,andtheNationalNavalMedicalCenter,Bethesda,Maryland.HeisalsotheDermatologyConsultantfortheDiLorenzoTRICAREHealthClinicatthePentagon.ElementsofLeadershipfortheSuccessfulOrganization

PAGE 51

OctoberDecember200749Theworldismadeofstories,notatoms.MurielRukeyserInthemovieCitySlickers(CastleRockEntertainment, 1991),theoldcowboy,CurlyWashburn,challengescity-slickerMitchRobbins:Doyouknowwhatthesecretoflifeis?Onething.Justonething.Yousticktothatandeverythingelsedon'tmean!Yeah,butwhat'sthatonething?Mitchasks.That'swhatyou'vegottofigureout.Theoldcowboyreplies.Thesamequestionholdstruefortheleaderinthemodernworld.Weeachmustunderstandthatonethingthatholdsthesecretofourlife.Eachofusliveswithinourownstoryanarrativethatdefineswhoweareandcontributestoourleadershipeffectiveness.LeadershipresearchersIrvingandKlenkeproposedthataleadersstory,particularlywhenitrepresentsametanarrative,orall-encompassingstory,ispartofaleaderseffectiveness.Astheyputit,Thereisanonspuriousrelationshipbetweenleadershipeffectivenessandthepresenceofanintegratedmetanarrativeinthelifeofaleader.1Effectiveleaderscanbetterappreciateandbuildontheirownmetanarrative,andmoreeffectivelyworktotrainthenextgenerationofleadersbyremainingtruetoprinciplesandunderstandingtheroleofgenerationalsociologyontheapplicationofleadershipandleadershipdevelopment.Tounderstandthemetanarrative,wemustfirstlookatthemajorinfluencesthataffecthumanity,andthenreviewanumberofindividualvaluesthatmostwouldagreeareimportantfoundationsforleadership.PHILOSOPHICALEPOCHSWesternphilosophersdividehistoryinto3broad,basicperiodsorepochs,timeswithdominantphilosophicalsystemsorwaysofthinking:premodern,modern,andpostmodern.Thepremodernera,wherepeopleacceptedknowledgefromauthoritativesourceswithoutproof,spannedfromtheearliestrecordedtimeuptoabout1650AD.Thedominantsourceofsuchinformationwasthechurch.Themodernerabeganaround1650.Itwasaneraofscienceanddiscoverythatstretchedto1950.Duringthisperiod,knowledgewasbasedonreason,scientificlogic,andproof.Overthelastcentury,societyhasgrowndisenchantedwithscience,whichdidnotappeartoprovidealltheanswers.Philosophersbelievewehavewitnessedthebeginningofanewepoch,thepostmoderneracharacterizedbypluralismandthedeconstructionoftheauthoritativesourcesthathavecontributedtothewaywethink.TheFrenchphilosopherJean-FrancoisLyotardwroteextensivelyaboutpostmodernism.Inhisbook,ThePostmodernCondition:AReportonKnowledge,2hepositedthatthepostmodernepochwascharacterizedbyanincredulitytowardmetanarratives.Hecoinedthetermmetanarrativetohelpdescribethepostmodernera.Ametanarrativeisanall-encompassing(meta,Greekwordforbehind)truestory(narrative)aboutthehistory,purpose,andgoalsofhumanitythatprovidesthefoundationfortheinterpretationofinformationandorganizationofknowledge.Themetanarrativeismorethanjustastory.Itisamethodologytoorganizelifeeventsintoacoherentwholethatprovidesinherentmeaningandadherestotheindividualsoverallvalues.Formany,religionservesasametanarrative.Butthereareotherdominantwaysofthinkingwhichcanalsoserve:socialdevelopmenttheoriessuchasfunctionalismandinteractionism;politicaltheoriessuchasMarxism,capitalism,andcommunism;andevenscience,feminism,andrationalismmayallserveasmetanarratives.Accordingtopostmodernism,thedominantphilosophicalsystemofthecurrentera,historycannotPostmodernism,theMetanarrative,andPrinciple-BasedLeadershipCOLChuckCallahan,MC,USACOLBryanMartin,MC,USA

PAGE 52

50ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalPostmodernism,theMetanarrative,andPrinciple-BasedLeadershipbedefinedbymetanarratives,sincetheydonotexist.Rather,itisdefinedbymicronarratives,subjectivestoriesthatweandthosewithwhomweidentifymostcloselyembraceastrue.Therefore,tomanywhomwewilllead,themetanarrativemaybeaforeignwayofthinking.Ifthemetanarrativedoesinfactexist,ifitexistsforanindividualleaderand,mostimportantly,iftheindividualtrulylivesasthoughheorshebelievesthemetanarrativeexists,itprovidesanadvantagefortheleader,asitcanbecomeacentralorganizingthemeforhisorherlife.However,leadersofdifferentagesandexperiencemayapproacheventheconceptofthemetanarrativedifferently,duetothecharacteristicsofthegenerationinwhichtheywereborn.GENERATIONALSOCIOLOGYGenerationsareapproximately2decadeslongandrepresentthetimeittakestomovefrominfancytoadulthood.SociologistsWilliamStraussandNeilHowehavewrittenextensivelyonthecharacteristicsoftheAmericangenerationssincethemid-16thcentury.3,4,5Theydescribecyclesofgenerationaltypesandthecharacteristicsofthedifferentgenerations.Theirtheoryisbasedonthebeliefthatpeopleofeachgenerationareshapeddifferentlybytheworldinwhichtheylive,aswellastheinfluenceofthegenerationsonbothsidesofthem.IntheArmytoday,thereare3distinctgenerationsofofficers.Muchhasbeenmadeofthedifferencesbetweenthegenerations,anditisclearthatnocharacterizationcompletelyexplainsanyonepersonsbehaviors.Itisinstructivetorealizethatofficersatdifferentagesandranksareinfluencedbyverydifferentexperiences,withverydistinctgenerationalworldviews.BabyBoomerswerebornbetween1940and1960(theagesarehotlydebated,andtheapproximatedateusedhereinareroundedsotheyareeasytoremember).Theygrewupinatimeofprosperityandrebellion,oftenwithanintactnuclearfamilyandstay-at-homemomthatdotedonthem.Intheworkforce,menandwomenpouredthemselvesrelentlesslyintotheircareers,oftenattheexpenseoftheirmarriagesandfamilies.Theycametobedefinedbytheircareers,andtheirworkbecame,inessence,theirreasonforbeing.Theygrewupsolidlyinthelatestagesofthemoderneraandbringthemechanistic,scientificapproachintolifephilosophy.In2007,allgeneralofficers(over50yearsofage)colonels(over45years)manylieutenantcolonels,andsomeseniornoncommissionedofficersarebabyboomers.MembersofGenerationXwerebornbetween1960and1980.Theygrewupwithalatchkeyinonehandandthetelevisionremoteorgame-controllerintheother.Manycamefromsingleparenthomesandwereoverlookedorneglected.TheydevelopedskepticismaboutauthorityastheylistenedtotheirparentsrailaboutWatergateandThree-MileIsland.TheylearnedcynicismfromwatchingHomerSimpson,BevisandButthead,andthespaceshuttleChallengerexplodingontheirtelevisions.Onthejob,theyremembertheworkaholictendenciesoftheirparentsandseektomaintainbalanceintheirlives.Theyarethefirstgenerationtoberaisedduringtheeraofevolvingpostmodernphilosophies.Manylieutenantcolonels(35to40yearsofage),mostmajors(30to35years),captains(25to30years),andseniornoncommissionedofficersarefromGenerationX.TheMillennialGenerationwasbornbetween1980and2000inthemostchild-centrictimeinAmericanhistory.ParentsfromtheneglectedGenerationXhaveshoweredattentionandaffectiononthem;runningthembetweenactivitiesinsearchofsomethingatwhichtheyexcel.Theyareusedtogettingtrophiesforjustbeingamemberofthesoccerteam.Sotheymayseemcockyandarrogantintheirself-confidence.Theyaremastersatmultitaskingandexpectstructureatworkbecausetheyareusedtoitathome.Medicalstudents(20to25years),youngenlisted(18to25years),andjuniorofficersaremostlyfromtheMillennialGeneration.And,inthesummerof2006,thefirstclassofMillennialGenerationresidentsenteredgraduatemedicaleducationprogramsasbrandnewcaptains.Itisimportantthatleadersatalllevelstodayhaveabasicunderstandingofgenerationalsociologyinordertoappreciatethattheremaybelarge,fundamentaldifferencesinthewaysthatindividualsfromdifferentgenerationsrelateandrespondtoleadersandsituations.Itisespeciallytruewiththegenerationsthathaveariseninthelast5decadesofthepastcenturyastheyhave,inadditiontothenormalcycleofchangesbetweengenerations,alsoexperiencedtheeffectsoflivingthroughtheendofoneoftheworldsmajorphilosophicepochs(modernism),andthebirthof

PAGE 53

OctoberDecember200751another(postmodernism).Todaysleadershavebeenmoreheavilyinfluencedbythephilosophyofthepostmodernerathananypreviousgroupofleaders.Thisincludestheincredulityofthepostmoderneratotheexistenceofametanarrative.LEADINGANDMENTORINGFROMTHEMETANARRATIVELeadersmusthaveamethod.Thosewhoworkwithleadersshouldhaveamodel.Themetanarrativecanprovidethefoundationofanindividualsphilosophy.Inthisleadershipmodel,valuesserveasthemap,whiletheprinciplesofintegrity,humility,honor,andfaithorbeliefarethepointsofthecompass.Byusingourvaluesasamapandourprinciplesasanazimuth,wecanmovetowardourdestinationorourgoals.GoalsDestinationOurworldsaremadeofstories,ofnarratives.Thisishowwerememberourexperiences,howwerelatetooneanother,howwelearnandhowwelive.Aswegrow,welearntostrugglewhenlisteningtoanothersstory,tryingnottochimeinortrytotopthatstorywithoneofourown.Children(andsomeadults)findthattobeimpossible.Sometimes,wejustcannotrelatetoanythingoutsideofthecontextofourownstory.Unfortunately,storiesaretypicallyhistorical,toofewpeopletellthemselvesthestoryofwheretheyhopetheirlifewillgo.Itisoftenilluminatingtoaskayoungercolleague,Wheredoyouwanttobein10to15years,andwhatdoyouwanttobedoing?Theseareexamplesofthewhatquestionsregardingtheirlifesgoalsanddestinationthatapersonshouldaskthemselves.Whatdoyouwanttobedoing?Whatdoyouwantyourlifetobelike?Whatisagooddayforyou?Whatisabadday?Whatisreallyimportanttoyoueveryday?Whatdoyouendupdoingthatreallyisntthatimportant?Onelearnswhereonewantstogobylookingatthelivesofothers,includingthelivesofcrediblementors.Atitsmostbaselevel,theanswertothesequestionsusuallyrevolvesaroundthekindsofrelationshipswehopetohavewithourspouses,children,coworkers,andbosses.Wewanttobehappy.Mostofuswanttobesuccessful,particularlywhenitcomestothewaywerelatetoothers.Researchhasshownthatthekeytooursuccessinrelatingtoothersatworkandathomeisaconceptcalledemotionalintelligence.Golemanetaldescribeemotionalleadershipinthefollowingcontext:TheemotionaltaskoftheleaderisprimalItisboththeoriginalandmostimportantactofleadership.6(p5)Thiscanbethesparkthatignitesagreatperformance:onemustunderstandbothoneself,andthenconsciouslyunderstandandrelatetoothers.Emotionallyintelligentleadershipdrivesperformanceinorganizationsofeverykind.6(p84)Emotionalintelligence,simplyput,istheleadersabilitytounderstandselfandothers.Itisnotdifficulttoimaginethatemotionalintelligencemaybeinfluencedbothbythedominantphilosophyofaneraaswellasthesociologicinfluencesofthegeneration.Itisanimportantleadershipskillasthereisevidencethattheleaderssuccessisdirectlyrelatedtohisorherlevelofemotionalintelligence.AnunderstandingoftheconceptsofemotionalintelligenceresearchedandchampionedbyDanielGolemanandhisassociatesforthepastseveraldecadesholdgreatpromiseforleaderdevelopment.Increasingly,leadershippunditsrefertoemotionalintelligenceasthefoundationofsuccessfulleadership.Emotionallyintelligentleadersarecharacterizedbytheirskillinpersonalandsocialcompetence.Theseleadershavekeenself-awarenessandself-management,aswellaswell-developedsocialawarenessandrelationalskills,alistofwhichispresentedintheTable.Unfortunately,dependingtoalargedegreeontheirupbringingandpriorexperience,leadersofeveryageandrankmaywellhavegapsintheiremotionalintelligence.Thesegapsprovidefertilegroundforindividualprogressthroughpersonaldevelopmentandmentoringrelationships.ValuesMapInamodelborrowedfromStevenCoveysPrincipleCenteredLeadership,7valuesrepresentthehowto

PAGE 54

52ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalPostmodernism,theMetanarrative,andPrinciple-BasedLeadershipdescribethewaywewillachievethesegoals.Theyarethemapbywhichwereachourdestination.Valuesaretheactionswedothatreflectwhowearebesttothosearoundus.HowdoIwanttolivemylife?HowdoIwanttomakemywayahead?HowdoIwanttorelatetoothers?Valuesserveasthemapthathelpsusnegotiatelifetoreachourdestination.Theyincludethingssuchas:loyalty(steadfastnessorfaithfulnesstoapersonorgroupofpeople),veracity(passionateadherencetothetruth),kindness(warmhearted,considerate,humaneandsympathetic),courage(willingnesstofacedangerwithdetermination),andperseverance(adherencetoacourseofaction,belieforpurpose.)Valuesdefinethewayweliveandmoveandhaveourbeingespeciallyinregardstothewaywerelatetoothers.Butthemapisrelativelyuselessunlessitcanbeproperlyoriented.PrinciplesCompassPrinciplesactasthecompassthatorientsourvaluesmap.Likethe4pointsofacompass,thereare4principlesthatcanbeconsideredmasterprinciplesuponwhichotherscanbebased:humility,honor,integrity,andfaithorbelief.Thesearethefundamentalreasonsthatweactormoveinacertainway.Principlesarewhatorientvalues.Theydeterminehow PersonalCompetence:HowwemanageourselvesSelf-AwarenessEmotionalself-awarenessReadingonesemotions,recognizingtheirimpact,usingonesgutsenseorinstinctstoguidedecisionsAccurateSelf-AssessmentKnowingonesstrengths,talentsandlimitsSelf-confidenceAsoundsenseofonesworthandcapabilitiesSelf-ManagementEmotionalself-controlKeepingdestructiveimpulsesandemotionsincheckTransparencyDisplayinghonesty,integrity,trustworthinessAdaptabilityFlexibilityinrespondingtochangingorchallengingsituationsAchievementThedrivetoimproveperformancetomeetinternalstandardsofexcellenceInitiativeReadinesstoacttoseizeopportunitiesOptimismSeeingtheupsideineventsSocialCompetenceSocialAwarenessEmpathySensinganothersemotions,understandingtheirperspectiveandactingontheirconcernsOrganizationalawarenessReadingthecurrents,thedecisionnetworksandpoliticsofanorganizationServiceRecognizingandmeetingfollower,clientorcustomerneedsRelationshipManagementInspirationGuidingandmotivatingwithacompellingvisionInfluenceWieldingarangeoftacticsforpersuasionDevelopingothersBolsteringothersabilitiesthroughguidanceandfeedbackChangecatalystInitiating,managingandleadinginanewdirectionConflictmanagementResolvingdisagreementsBuildingbondsCultivatingandmaintainingawebofrelationshipsTeamworkandcollaborationCooperationandteambuilding EmotionalIntelligenceDomainsandCompetencies

PAGE 55

OctoberDecember200753thevaluesthatothersmayusetodescribeusarereflectedinourcharacter(combinationofqualitiesorfeaturesthatdistinguishonepersonfromanother.)Theyanswer,inessence,thewhoquestionsaboutaperson:WhodoIwanttobe?WhodoIwantpeopletothinkthatIam?Therearenumerouslistsandsummariesofprinciplesandvaluesthatcharacterizethewhoandhowofapersonslife.Itisimportantforleadersandespeciallyformentorstodevelopintheirownmindsaconceptoftheprinciplesthattheyhopedescribethem,theabilitytoarticulatetheseprinciplesandevenmoreimportantly,theabilitytodemonstratetheseprinciplesconsciously,conspicuously,andconsistently.HumilityInhisbook,GoodtoGreat,8JimCollinsspecificallysetouttodiscounttheroleofleadershipincompaniesthatexperiencedamajorturn-around.Hedescribedhimselfasaleadershipagnostic.Heandhisteamresearched1,435Fortune500companiesfrom1965through1995,lookingspecificallyforcompaniesthatweremediocrefor15yearsorlonger,thenexperiencedadramaticturnaround.Elevencompaniesmadethecut,includingWalgreens,GeneralElectric,andAbbottLaboratories.Whatstoodoutfirst,muchtohisinitialdismayandsurprise,wasthatleadershipwasimportant.Therewassomethinginaleaderthatcoulddriveacompanyfromgoodtogreat.ThesecompanieswereallledbymenandwomenwhomhecharacterizedashavingLevel5leadershipskills.Theleadershadpersonalhumility,analmostfanaticalprofessionalwill,workmanlikediligence(moreplowhorsethanshowhorse)andsteadfastambitionforthecompanyssuccess,nottheirown.Theyshunnedpublicityandself-promotionandwererarelyorbegrudginglyshowcasedonthefrontofmajorbusinesspublications.Level5leaderswerecharacterizedbythewindowandthemirrorphenomenontheytendedtolookinthemirrorandblamethemselvesformistakes,butwhenthingsweregood,theywouldlookoutthewindowtofindthereasonfortheirsuccesses.Theywouldeitherproclaimhoweveryoneinthecompanywaswonderful,orhowfactorsoffortunecausedsuccess.Theywerehumbleleaderswhodidnotleadforself-aggrandizement.AseniorAMEDDleaderwasconfrontedwiththepossibilitythatadecisionhewasmakingmightbelookedatdisparaginglybythoseabovehim.Withoutprompting,hecommented,Look.Iwasself-actualizedtwopay-gradesago.Iamnotworriedaboutwhattheywillthink.Theoppositeofthispersonalhumilityisdemonstratedbythenarcissisticleader.Theseleadersarecharacterizedbyafalsesenseofself.Whiletheymaybecharmingandengaging,theyaretremendousactorswhousepersuasionandmanipulationtogarnishtheinputfromothersthatregulatestheirself-esteem.Theytendtohavegrandioseviewsofthemselves.Theyarepoorjudgesofrealityandtheyusepeopleastoolstoreinforcetheself.Narcissisticleadersareenviousofthesuccessesofothers.Theytakecreditanddistributeblame.Theydownplayanddiminishcontributionsofothers.Theyarecharacterizedbyrageandenvytowardperceivedcompetitionanddemonstrateattention-seekingbehaviors.Theytendtobepoor,disruptiveteammembers,micromanagers,andarecriticalandbelittlingofothers,especiallybehindtheirbacks.Forthenarcissisticleader,peoplearetoolstoreinforceashakyornonexistentselfimage.Theydonotembracetheprincipleofpersonalhumility.TouseCollinsanalogyofthemirrorandthewindow,8unliketheLevel5leader,theylookintothemirrorforcreditandoutthewindowtoassignblame.HonorHonorisbothaverbandanoun.Asaverb,tohonoristoshowrespectforanother.Asanoun,itisthespecificrespectthatweshow,thehonorswerender.Hospitalpersonnelineverydepartmentareencouragedtoaddresspatientsbytitleorrank,MsSmithorSergeantSmith.Insodoing,theydemonstratehonor,andbestowhonorinasettingwhereapatientcanveryeasilyfeeldishonoredandidentityisveryeasilylost.Honoristherightwayforustotreatothers.TheGoldenRuleisfoundinoneformoranotherinmostoftheworldsmajorreligionsandcultures.However,ifattemptsathonoringanotheraremerelymy

PAGE 56

54ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalPostmodernism,theMetanarrative,andPrinciple-BasedLeadershipprojectionsofmyowninsecurities,thenIwillfailoftenasnotinshowinghonor.TotrulyshowhonorImustknowmyselfandothers.Honorisnotonlyhowwetreatorrespectothers.Wealsotalkaboutbehavingwithhonor.Thatistoshowrespectforourselvesandourideals,andtoactwithintheconfinesofourideals.Leaderscharacterizedbytheprincipleofhonorareawareofandunthreatenedbytheirownweaknesses.Theyarealsounimpressedbytheirstrengthsandtalents.Theyseeeveryinterpersonalinteractionasanopportunitytogrowand,moreimportantly,anopportunityforotherstogrowaswell.Thedesiretohonorothersisoneofthepointsontheirpersonalcompass.IntegrityMostleadershipdiscussionsstartonthesubjectofintegrity.TheArmyleadershipmanual9definesitastoconsistentlyactaccordingtoprincipleandmorallycompleteandtruetoyourself.Forhisbook,TheStuffofHeroes,10GeneralWilliamCohensurveyed200combatmilitaryleaders,including62admiralsandgenerals,regardingthelessonstheyhadlearnedfromleadershipinbattle.Ninety-fivepercentoftheirresponsesfellintooneof8principles,thefirstofwhichwasmaintainabsoluteintegrity.Itisnotjustthemilitarythatfocusesonintegrity.IntegritywastheMerriam-Webster*WordoftheYearin2005,wherethefirstdefinitionofintegritywasadherencetoacode.Thedefinitionofintegrityisinterestingbecauseithaschangedthroughthecenturies,asdescribedbyStratfordSherman.11ThefirstdefinitionintheOxfordEnglishDictionary12istheconditionofhavingnopartorelementtakenawayorwanting;undividedorunbrokenstate;materialwholeness,completeness,entirety.Itstressescompletenessorconsistency.Theconceptofconsistencyandincorruptibilityremainedfirstamongthedefinitionsthroughthe1950s,whichwas,interestingly,throughtheendofthemodernera.IntheancientHebrewworld,animalsandpeopleweredescribedashavingintegrity,ormorespecificallyinHebrew,tamiym(withoutblemish,complete,perfect,blameless,havingintegrity).Forasacrificialanimaltohavetamiym,ithadtobeeverythingitwassupposedtobe(male,domesticanimal,firstborn),nothingitwasnotsupposedtobe(imperfect,defective,blemished),consistent(withoutspotorblemishfromheadtotail),andcomplete(hasallitsfeatures,ismissingnothing).Integritywasablendofwhatwasexpectedaswellaswhatwasintrinsicallyconsistent;acombinationofanexternalstandard,but,moreimportantly,aninternalcompletenessandconsistency.Thisisincontrasttothemoderndefinitionofintegrity,demonstratedbythepreviouslycited2005Merriam-Websterdefinition(adherencetoacode).Thefirstdefinitionofintegrityhasbecome,firmadherencetoacodeofespeciallymoralorartisticvalues:incorruptibility.Thustheprincipleofintegrityhasmigratedfromsomethingthatwasinsideofaperson,tosomethingimposedonapersonfromtheoutside.Integrityisbeingconstantandconsistenttothestorywetellourselves,andthestoryinwhichwefindourselves.Itisinternalfirst,rootedandbasedonthemetanarrativeweembrace,sothatallouractionsreflectwhatwesaywebelieveandstandfor.Italsohasanexternalaspectasweadapttotheever-changingcircumstancesofourlives,andencounteruniquechallengesontheroadtoourdestination.Whenwearelost,themapmaynotbeofvalue.Weuseourcompassourprinciplestoshootanazimuthanddeterminethebestwaytogo.FaithBeliefOneofthethingsthatcharacterizeshumans,anddistinguishesthemfromanimals,istheirabilitytobelieveinsomethingthatisnotseen,insomethingthatisbiggerthanthemselves.Itisoneofthecoretenantsthatmakelifepossible.Asinfants,welearntotrustthatourparentswillbetherewhenwecry,thatourmotherswillfeeduswhenwearehungry;thattheywillcareforusandprovideforusaswegrow.Whenthisisnotthecase,theconsequencesforthegrowing,developingchildandadolescentcanbedevastating.Infact,psychologistshavedefinedtheresultingconditionasReactiveAttachmentDisorder. *Merriam-Webster,Inc,47FederalStreet,Springfield,MA01102 Reactiveattachmentdisorderisadisturbanceofsocialinteractioncausedbyneglectofachild'sbasicphysicalandemotionalneeds,particularlyduringinfancy.Source:http://www.healthline.com/adamcontent/reactive-attachment-disorder-of-infancy-or-early-childhood.

PAGE 57

OctoberDecember200755ReactiveAttachmentDisorderischaracterizedbymistrustandaninabilitytorelatenormallyinchildren.Itisseeninchildrenwholackconsistentparentalavailability,eitherbecauseofseparationfromprimarycaregivers,orthecaregiversinabilityordisinterest.Childrenwithreactiveattachmentdisorderdevelopdefensivemechanismstocopewithstressontheirown,includinglying,stealingandhoardingfood,mistrustofbasicstatements,withheldorinappropriateaffection.Theydonotlearntotrust,andthustheyfinditdifficulttobelieve.WhilethewordfaithusuallyreferstobeliefinGodorasetofreligiousdoctrines,theword(fromtheLatin,fides:totrust)alsoimpliesafirmbeliefinsomethingforwhichthereisnoproof.Animalscanlearntotrustthattheywillbefedornotbeatenbyamaster,butasfarasweknow,arenotcapableofbelievinganythingforwhichtheyhavenotlearnedbyreinforceddemonstration.Humansmustlearntotrustandbelieveinoneanothertosurviveonthebattlefieldorintheworkplace.ThephilosopherFriedrichNietzsche,whocertainlywouldnothaveconsideredhimselfreligious,acknowledgedthatHewhohasawhycanendureanyhow.Ifwehavesomethinginwhichwecanbelieve,apurposeonwhichwecanfocus,wecanendureanysetofcircumstances.ThebeliefthatoneslifehasapurposethatisbiggerthantheimmediateandobviouswasthewaythatpsychiatristVictorFranklsurvivedtheconcentrationcampatTheresienstadt.*HedevelopedthepsychologicaltheoryoflogotherapybasedontheGreeklogos(word,intent,orpurpose).Franklwrites,Manssearchformeaningistheprimarymotivationinhislife,andnotasecondaryrationalizationofinstinctualdrives.13Inordertobelieveinthispurpose,somethingthatcannotbeseen,liketheabilitytoembracethemetanarrative,onemustexercisetheuniquelyhumancharacteristicoffaith.Thusfaiththeabilitytobelieveisoneoftheprimaryprinciples,andoneofthe4pointsofthepersonalcompassthatdescribewhoweare:humility,honor,integrity,andfaith.TrueNorth:TheMetanarrativeIftherewerenotatruenorthtogivemeaningtothepointsonthecompass,itwouldbenomorethanarelativelyuninterestingtoy.Byanalogy,onesmetanarrativeservesasthetruenorthtowhichonespersonallifecompassisanchored.Themetanarrativeprovidesthewhyforthewho,whatandwherequestionsofourlivesitprovidesthemeaningtoourlives.WhydoIwanttogothatway?WhydoIwanttobethatkindofperson?WhydoIwanttobedifferent?Justastheorientationofthemapandtheazimuthofthecompassarebasedonnorth,sothevaluesandprinciplesoflife,aswellasultimatelythedirection,arebasedonthemetanarrative.Ithastobepowerfulenoughtosurmountthemicronarrativeofself-interest,themesonarrativeoftheimmediateclanorgroup,andeventhemacronarrativeofaparticularcauseormovement.Themetanarrativeprovidesanexplanationforknowledgeandexperiencethatgoesbeyondallofthese.ThecinemacowboyCurlyWashburnprovidesgoodadvicefortheleadertoday.TherisingMillennialGenerationofleaders,somethink,arelookingforthereturnofthemetanarrativeastheyplottheircoursetowardimprovingtheworld.Theyare,accordingtoHoweandStrauss,5thenextgreatgenerationofAmericans,andwillsurpassthelastAmericancivicgeneration,theGIGenerationbornbetween1900and1920.ThatisthegenerationthatwonWorldWarII,builtthesuburbs,andprovided7Americanpresidents:Johnson,Reagan,Ford,Nixon,Kennedy,Carter,andGeorgeBushSr.TheMillennialGenerationwilllearntheirmetanarrative,astheywilllearnaboutprinciplesandvalues,whentheyseethemlivedoutinthelivesofcredible,believable,sincerementors.Itisthesinglemostimportantthingwecandotoleadthenextgeneration,justasitisthesinglemostimportantrolewehaveasparents,biologicalorotherwise,tochildrenwhoarelookingtousforexamplesandforhope.JohnMcCain,himselfamemberofthesilentgenerationbornbetween1920and1940,sufferedasaprisonerofwarinVietnamfor5years.Atonepoint,hewasinvitedtoenjoyanearlyfreedombecausehewasthesonofafamousUSNavyadmiralwhoatthetimewascommanderoftheUSPacificCommand.He *TheresienstadtwasaNaziinternmentcampintheCzechRepublicvillageofTerezinduringWorldWarIIwhichwasusedasatranshipmentterminalforprisonersenroutetotheexterminationcampatAuschwitz,Poland.

PAGE 58

56ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalPostmodernism,theMetanarrative,andPrinciple-BasedLeadershipdeclined,accordingtohisbook,FaithofMyFathers,14andsufferedincreasedtortureasaresultofhisrefusal.JohnMcCainhadametanarrativeandabeliefsystemthatenabledhimtogetthroughhisdarkesttimeswheneverythingphysicalhadbeenstrippedawayfromhim.Bystayingtruetohismetanarrative,truetohiscompassprinciplesofhumility,honor,integrityandfaithhereflectedtheinfluenceofthegenerationswhohadgonebeforehim.Buoyedbythisassurance,hewasabletosurviveimprisonmentandtorture,andultimatelytothriveandtoserveuponhisreturntosociety.Hewrote:Gloryisnotconceit.Itisnotadecorationforvalor.Itisnotaprizeforbeingthemostclever,thestrongest,ortheboldest.Glorybelongstotheactofbeingconstanttosomethinggreaterthanyourself,toacause,toyourprinciples,tothepeopleonwhomyourely,andwhorelyonyouinreturn.Nomisfortune,noinjury,nohumiliationcandestroyit.Thisisthefaiththatmycommandersaffirmed,thatmybrothers-in-armsencouragedmyallegianceto.ItwasthefaithIhadunknowinglyembracedattheNavalAcademy.Itwasmyfathersandgrandfathersfaith.Afilthy,crippled,brokenman,allIhadleftofmydignitywasthefaithofmyfathers.Itwasenough.14(p257)REFERENCES 1.IrvingJA,KlenkeK.Telos,Chronosandhermeneia:theroleofthemetarnarrativeinleadershipthroughtheproductionofmeaning.IntJQualMeth.2004;3:1-31.Availableat:http://www.ualberta.ca/~ijqm/english/engframeset.html.2.LyotardJF.ThePostmodernCondition:AReportonKnowledge.Manchester,England:ManchesterUniversityPress;1984:14.3.HoweN,StraussW.Generations:TheHistoryofAmerica'sFuture,1584to2069. NewYork,NY:HarperCollins;1992.4.HoweN,StraussW.TheFourthTurning.NewYork,NY:BroadwayBooks;1997.5.HoweN,StraussW.MillennialsRising:TheNextGreatGeneration.NewYork,NY:VintageBooks;2000.6.GolemanD,BoyatzisR,McKeeA.PrimalLeadership.RealizingthePowerofEmotionalIntelligence.Boston,MA:HarvardBusinessSchoolPress;2002.7.CoveySR.PrincipleCenteredLeadership.NewYork,NY:SimonandSchuster;1991.8.CollinsJC.GoodtoGreat.NewYork,NY:HarperCollinsPublishers,Inc;2001.9.FieldManual6-22:ArmyLeadership:Confident,Competent,andAgile.Washington,DC:USDeptoftheArmy;October2006.10.CohenWA.TheStuffofHeroes.Atlanta,GA:LongstreetPress;2001.11.ShermanS.Rethinkingintegrity.LeaderLeader.2003;28:39-45.Availableat:http://leadertoleader.org/leaderbooks/L2L/spring2003/sherman.html.12.SimpsonJ,ed.OxfordEnglishDictionary.2nded.Oxford,England:OxfordUniversityPress;1989.13.FranklV.MansSearchforMeaning.NewYork,NY:Touchstone,SimonandSchuster;1984:105.14.McCainJ.FaithofMyFathers.NewYork,NY:RandomHouse,Inc;1999.AUTHORS COLCallahanisDeputyCommanderforClinicalServices,WalterReedArmyMedicalCenter.HeisslatedtobetheCommander,DeWittArmyCommunityHospital,FortBelvoir,Virginia,inthesummerof2008.COLMartinisChief,AllergyImmunologyDepartment,WalterReedArmyMedicalCenter,andtheAllergyImmunologySpecialtyConsultanttoTheArmySurgeonGeneral.SUGGESTEDREADING WongL.Generationsapart.XersandBoomersintheOfficerCorps.StrategicStudiesCenterU.S.ArmyWarCollege.October2000.Availableat:http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?PubID=281.LewisMR.Timetoregenerate.AgenXresponsetoDrWongsmonograph.November2000.Availableat:http://www.d-n-i.net/fcs/lewis_gen-x.htm.GolemanD.Leadershipthatgetsresults.HarvBusRev.2000;78(2):78-87.GolemanD.Whatmakesaleader?HarvBusRev.2004;82(1):82-91.GolemanD.EmotionalIntelligence.WhyitCanMatterMorethanIQ.BantamBooks;NewYork,NY:1995.

PAGE 59

OctoberDecember200757Chinesemilitaryphilosophersareresponsibleforthefoundationformuchoftodaysmilitarytacticsandstrategy.EversinceSunTzusTheArtofWarwastranslatedintoEnglishover200yearsago,Chinesemilitarythoughthasfurnishedandcontinuestounderliemanyofthefundamentalconceptsandessentialtacticsofmodernwarfarethroughouttheworld.Manycurrentpublicationssimplyrepresentvernacularlanguagetranslationsoftheancientclassics.However,otherauthorshaveselectivelyreorganizedandreformattedthematerialtofocusoncriticalproblemsandlessonsinlife.ThemostpopularcurrentversionsoftheChinesemilitaryclassicsselectivelyapplyprinciplesandconceptsfromChinesemilitarythoughttotheworldofbusiness.*Severalauthorshavetranscendedthecommontendencytoconceiveofbusinessactivitiesaswarfare,toapplytheseclassicsintheindividualsquesttosurviveandflourishwithincorporateculture.1(ppx-xi)AlthoughSunTzusTheArtofWaristhemostfamousworkonmilitaryoperationsandistheoldestmilitarytreatiseintheworld,Chinesemilitarythoughtismuchmoreextensive.ThesevenbookspreservedintheSevenMilitaryClassics,astraditionallyarrangedsincetheSungdynasty,areSunTzusArtofWar,Wu-tzu,MethodsoftheSsu-ma(Ssu-maFa),QuestionsandRepliesbetweenTandTai-tsungandLiWei-kung,WeiLiao-tzu,ThreeStrategiesofHuangShih-kung,andTaiKungsSixSecretTeachings.Inaddition,therecentlyrediscoveredSunPinsMilitaryMethods,anotherWarringStatestext,essentiallyconstitutesaneighthmilitaryclassic.OftheSevenMilitaryClassics,onlySun-TzusPing-fa,traditionallyknownasTheArtofWar,hasreceivedmuchexposureinthewest.RalphSawyerhasrecentlytranslatedandeditedTheArtoftheWarrior:LeadershipandStrategyfromtheChineseMilitaryClassics,arrangingthesewritingsthematicallytogivethereaderacomprehensiveintroductiontotheEasternwayofstrategy.1(ppx-xi)AccordingtoSunTzu,Warfareisthegreatestaffairofstate,thebasisforlifeitmustbethoroughlyponderedandanalyzed.1(p73)Effectiveleadershipwillcontinuetobecriticallyimportant.Physicianleadersandhealthcareadministratorswillbeforcedtodealwithincreasingchallenges,generallydoingmorewithlessintypicalmilitaryfashion.WecangleanexamplesfromSawyersrecentpublication,remindingourmodernhealthcareexecutivesandmedicalleadersofleadershipprinciplesfromancientChinathatareequallyapplicabletoday. LeadershipInsightsoftheChineseMilitaryClassicsforPhysicianLeadersandHealthcareAdministratorsCOLRobertW.Enzenaue,MC,ANGABSTRACTTritesayingsfromChinesemilitaryclassicsoftenfindtheirwayintoafter-dinnerfortunecookiesinmanyChineserestaurantsinAmerica.However,nooneshouldunderestimatethelessonsfromthoseChinesemilitaryclassics,andtheycertainlyshouldneverbetrivialized.LeadersatalllevelsofhealthcaremanagementcanlearntimelesslessonsspanningthreemillenniafromthewisdomofancientChinesemilitarywritings.LEADERSAREIMPORTANTThegeneralisthesupportingpillarofstate.Ifhistalentsareall-encompassing,thestatewillinvariablybestrong.Ifthesupportingpillarismarkedbyfissures,thestatewillinvariablygrowweak.TheArtofWar1(p150) *Asampleoftheseworksispresentedinasuggestedreadinglistattheendofthisarticle.

PAGE 60

58ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalLeadershipInsightsoftheChineseMilitaryClassics LEADERSPROVIDEAVISIONFORTHEORGANIZATIONLiChingsaid,Thesuccessfulemploymentofthemassesliesintheirbeingofonemind.Unificationofmindliesinprohibitingomensanddispellingdoubts.Shouldthecommandinggeneralhaveanythingofwhichheisdoubtfulorfearful,emotionswillwaver.QuestionsandReplies1(p117)LEADERSPLANFORTHEFUTUREIftheleaderofthearmyandcommanderofthemassesdoesnotfirstestablishhisplans,theproperequipmentwillnotbeprepared.SixSecretTeachings1(p88)Ifthegeneraldoesntcarefullycontemplatehiscourseofaction,hisstrategistswillabandonhim.HuangShih-kung1(p161)LEADERSPROMOTEPROPERVALUESWhenarulersactionsarecruellyviolent,hissubordinateswillbehastytoimplementharshmeasures.HuangShih-kung1(p81)Ingeneral,togovernthestateandorderthearmyyoumustinstructthemwiththeformsofpropriety,stimulatethemwithrighteousness,andcausethemtohaveasenseofshame.Forwhenmenhaveasenseofshame,inthegreatestdegreeitwillbesufficienttowagewar,whileintheleastdegreeitwillsufficetopreservethestate.Wu-tzu1(p172) LEADERSKNOWWHENTOREACTIfitisnotadvantageous,donotmove.Ifobjectivescannotbeattained,donotemploythearmy.Unlessendangered,donotengageinwarfare.TheArtofWar1(p75)Mountasuddenstrikeontheirdoubts.Attacktheirhaste.Forcethemtoconstricttheirdeployment.Launchasuddenstrikeagainsttheirorder.Takeadvantageoftheirfailuretoavoidharm.Obstructtheirstrategy.Seizetheirthoughts.Capitalizeontheirfears.Ssu-maFa1(p222)Ingeneral,whoeveroccupiesthebattlegroundfirstandawaitstheenemywillbeatease;whoeveroccupiesthebattlegroundafterwardandmustracetotheconflictwillbefatigued.Thusonewhoexcelsatwarfarecompelsmenandisnotcompelledbyothermen.TheArtofWar1(p214)

PAGE 61

OctoberDecember200759LEADERSTAKERESPONSIBILITYIfyoufailedtodirectthemtovictory,accepttheblameyourself.Ssu-maFa1(p171)LEADERSSHOWINITIATIVEThusthehighestrealizationofwarfareistoattacktheenemysplans;nextistoattacktheiralliances;nexttoattacktheirarmy;andthelowestistoattacktheirfortifiedcities.TheArtofWar1(p105)Iftheenemyopensthedoor,youmustracein.Attackwhattheylovefirst.Donotfixanytimeforbattle,assessandreacttotheenemyinordertodeterminethestrategyforbattle.TheArtofWar1(p107)LEADERSHAVEINSIGHTThusitissaidthatonewhoknowstheenemyandknowshimselfwillnotbeendangeredinahundredengagements.Onewhodoesnotknowtheenemybutknowshimselfwillsometimesbevictorious,sometimesmeetwithdefeat.Onewhoknowsneithertheenemynorhimselfwillinvariablybedefeatedineveryengagement.TheArtofWar1(p106)KingWuaskedtheTaiKung,BeforeengaginginbattleIwanttofirstknowtheenemysstrengthsand weaknesses,toforeseeindicationsofvictoryordefeat.Howcanthisbedone?TheTaiKungreplied,Indicationsofvictoryordefeatwillbefirstmanifestintheirspirit.Theenlightenedgeneralwillinvestigatethem,fortheywillbeevidencedinthemen.SixSecretTeachings1(p225) LEADERSARECREATIVEItisthenatureofthearmytostressspeed,totakeadvantageoftheenemysabsence,totravelunanticipatedroads,andtoattackwhentheyarenotalert.TheArtofWar1(p107)LEADERSARESINCEREKingWeisaid,Howcanwecausethepeopletoalwayslistentoorders?SunPinsaid,Alwaysbesincere.MilitaryMethods1(p140)Ifthegeneralcanthinkofhisofficersasifthirsty,hisplanswillbefollowed.HuangShih-kung1(p161)

PAGE 62

60ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalLeadershipInsightsoftheChineseMilitaryClassicsLEADERSARECONSISTENTIfordersareconsistentlyimplementedtoinstructthepeople,thenthepeoplewillsubmit.Ifordersarenotconsistentlyimplementedtoinstructthepeople,thenthepeoplewillnotsubmit.Onewhoseordersareconsistentlycarriedouthasestablishedamutualrelationshipwiththepeople.TheArtofWar1(p138)Ifthelawsandordersarenotclear,rewardsandpunishmentsnottrusted,whensoundingthegongswillnotcausethemtohalt,norbeatingthedrumtoadvancethenevenifyouhadamillionmen,ofwhatusewouldtheybe?Wu-tzu1(p139)LEADERSPROVIDECLEAREXPECTATIONSOFPERFORMANCEIfhisinstructionsarenotpreciseandtrusted,theofficersandmenwillnotbetrained.SixSecretTeachings1(p88) LEADERSAREHONEST,TRUSTWORTHY,ANDFAIRAccordingly,whenrighteousnessovercomesdesire,onewillflourish;whendesireovercomesrighteousness,onewillperish.SixSecretTeachings1(p78)Ingeneral,withregardtothepeople:rescuethemwithbenevolence,engageinbattlewithrighteousness,makedecisionsthroughwisdom,fightwithcourage,exercisesoleauthoritythroughcredibility,encouragethemwithprofits,andgainvictorythroughachievements.Thusthemindmustembodybenevolenceandactionsshouldincorporaterighteousness.Ssu-maFa1(p103)Thegeneralcannotbewithoutcredibility.Ifheisnottrustedthenhisorderswillnotbeimplemented.Ifhisordersarenotimplemented,thenthearmywillnotbeunified.Ifthearmyisnotunifiedthenitwillnotattainfame.Thecredibilityisthefeetofthearmy.MilitaryMethods1(p160)Onlybenevolencecanattractpeople.However,ifoneisbenevolentbutnottrustworthy,thenonthecontraryhewillvanquishhimself.Treatmenasmen,beuprightwiththeupright,employappropriatelanguage,andusefireonlywhereitshouldbeused.Ssu-maFa1(p137)TheMilitaryPronouncementsstates,Theexemplarygeneral,inhiscommandofthearmy,governsmenashewouldwanttobetreatedhimself.Spreadinghiskindnessandextendinghisbeneficence,thestrengthofhisofficersisdailyrenewed.Inbattletheyarelikethewindarising,theirattackislikethereleaseofapent-upriver.HuangShih-kung1(p146)Ifhetransfershisangertotheinnocent,thewholearmywillbeafraid.HuangShih-kung1(p161)

PAGE 63

OctoberDecember200761Thegeneralcannotbutberighteous.Ifheisnotrighteousthenhewillnotbesevere.Ifheisnotseverethenhewillnotbeawesome.Ifheisnotawesomethenthetroopswillnotdieforhim.Thusrighteousnessistheheadofthearmy.Thegeneralcannotbutbebenevolent.Ifheisnotbenevolentthenthearmywillnotconquer.Ifthearmydoesnotconquer,itwilllackachievement.Thusbenevolenceisthebellyofthearmy.ThegeneralcannotbewithoutVirtue.IfhelacksVirtuethenhewillnothaveanystrength.IfhelacksstrengththeadvantagesoftheThreeArmieswillnotberealized.ThusVirtueisthehandsofthearmy.MilitaryMethods1(p160) LEADERSPROVIDETIMELYREWARDANDPUNISHMENTWhenthebestowingofrewardsdoesnotextendpasttheday,theimpositionofpunishmentsisasquickasturningtheface,andtheyarenotaffectedbythemannorsubjecttoexternalthreats,thisisthegeneralofthearmysvirtue.MilitaryMethods1(p183)Ingeneral,inemployingrewardsonevaluescredibility.Inemployingpunishmentsonevaluescertainty.Whenrewardsaretrustedandpunishmentsinevitablewherevertheeyeseesandtheearhears,thenevenwheretheydonotseeorhearthereisnoonewhowillnotbetransformedintheirsecrecy.SincetherulerssincerityextendstoHeavenandEarth,andpenetratestothespirits,howmuchthemoresotomen?SixSecretTeachings1(p181)Victoryinwarliesinestablishingawesomeness.Establishingawesomenessliesinunitingstrength.Unitingstrengthliesinrectifyingpunishments.Byrectifyingpunishments,rewardsareilluminated.WeiLiao-tsu1(p183)Rewardsshouldnotbedelayedbeyondtheappropriatetime,foryouwantthepeopletoquicklyprofitfromdoinggood.Whenyoupunishsomeonedonotchangehisposition,foryouwantthepeopletoquicklyseetheharmofdoingwhatisnotgood.Ssu-maFa1(p182)Ifgoodandevilaretreatedalike,themeritoriousofficerswillgrowweary.HuangShih-kung1(p161)Thegeneralcreatesawesomenessbyexecutingthegreat,andbecomesenlightenedbyrewardingthesmall.Prohibitionsaremadeeffectiveandlawsimplementedbycarefulscrutinyintheuseofpunishments.Therefore,ifbyexecutingonemantheentirearmywillquake,killhim.Ifbyrewardingonemanthemasseswillbepleased,rewardhim.Inexecuting,valuethegreat;inrewarding,valuethesmall.Whenyoukillthepowerfulandthehonored,thisispunishmentthatreachesthepinnacle.Whenrewardsextenddowntothecowherds,grooms,andstablemen,thesearerewardspenetratingdownwardtothelowest.Whenpunishmentsreachthepinnacle,andrewardspenetratetothelowest,thenyourawesomenesshasbeeneffected.SixSecretTeachings1(p181)(Continued)

PAGE 64

62ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalLeadershipInsightsoftheChineseMilitaryClassics LEADERSUPHOLDTHEHIGHESTSTANDARDSOFETHICALBEHAVIORTheTaiKungsaid,Iftherulerlacksmoralworth,thenthestatewillbeindangerandthepeopleinturbulence.IftherulerisaWorthyorSage,thenthestatewillbeatpeaceandthepeoplewellordered.SixSecretTeachings1(p129)Ifheisgreedy,treacherywillbeunchecked.Ifheispreoccupiedwithwomen,thentheofficersandtroopswillbecomelicentious.HuangShih-kung1(p161)LEADERSSELECTGOODSUBORDINATESANDASSOCIATESIfthegeneralreliessolelyuponhimself,hissubordinateswillshirkallresponsibility.HuangShih-kung1(p161)WhenWorthyministersarebroughtinsidethegovernment,depravedoneswillbeoutside.Whendepravedministersareinside,Worthyministerswillperish.Whenwithinandwithoutlosewhatisappropriate,disasteranddisorderwilllastthroughgenerations.HuanhShih-kung1(p135)KingWenaskedtheTaiKung,Howdoestherulerofthestateandleaderofthepeoplecome tolosehisposition?TheTaiKungsaid,Heisnotcautiousaboutwhomhehasasassociates.SixSecretTeachings1(p134)LEADERSHAVELOYALFOLLOWERSNowonewhoisnotlovedandcherishedinthemindsofhismencannotbeemployedbyme;onewhoisnotrespectedandfearedinthemindsofhismencannotbeappointedbyme.Lovefollowsfrombelow,awesomenessisestablishedfromabove.Iftheylovetheirgeneraltheywillnothavedividedminds;iftheyareawestruckbytheirgeneraltheywillnotberebellious.Thusexcellingatgeneralshipismerelyaquestionofloveandawesomeness.WeiLiao-tzu1(p143)Whenthegeneralregardshistroopsasyoungchildren,theywilladvanceintothedeepestvalleyswithhim.Whenheregardsthetroopsashisbelovedchildren,theywillbewillingtodiewithhim.TheArtofWar1(p186) TienChisaid,Arenotrewardsandpunishmentsthemosturgentmattersforthemilitary?SunPinsaid,Theyarenot.Nowrewardsarethemeansbywhichtogivehappinesstothemassesandcausesoldierstoforgetdeath.Punishmentsarethemeansbywhichtorectifythechaoticandcausethepeopletofeartheirsuperiors.Theycanbeemployedtofacilitatevictory,buttheyarenoturgentmatters.MilitaryMethods1(p183)

PAGE 65

OctoberDecember200763LEADERSINSPIRETHEIRFOLLOWERSNowwhatItermgoverningwellmeanscausingthepeoplenottohaveanyselfishinterests.Ifthepeopledonothaveselfishinterests,thenAllunderHeavenwillbeonefamily.WeiLiao-tzu1(p93)Ingeneral,onthebattlefield,soontobecomeagraveyard,ifthesoldiersarecommittedtofighttothedeaththeywilllive,whereasiftheyseektostayalivetheywilldie.Wu-tzu1(p115)Ifyoutreatthemdeferentially,thentheofficerswilldieforyou;theofficerswilldie,buttheirnameswillbetransmitted.Ifyouencouragethemwithfundamentalpleasures,theywilldiefortheirnativeplaces.Ifyouimportunethemwithfamilyrelationships,theywilldiefortheancestralgraves.Ifyouhonorthemwithfeasts,theywilldieforfoodanddrink.Ifyouhavethemdwellintranquility,theywilldieintheurgencyofdefense.Ifyouinquireabouttheirfebrilediseases,theywilldieforyoursolicitude.MilitaryMethods1(pp172-173)Ifonecancausehismenthemselvestowanttofight,thennoonewillbeabletoopposetheirardor.QuestionsandReplies1(180)Thegeneralcreatesawesomenessbyexecutingthegreat.SixSecretTeachings1(p181) (Continued)LEADERSREWARDSUPERIORPERFORMANCENowtheessenceofemployingthearmyliesinrespectingtheformsofproprietyandmakingsalariesgenerous.Whentheproperformsofproprietyarefollowed,wiseofficerswillbeattracted.Whensalariesaregenerous,righteousofficerswillregarddeathlightly.Thus,ifwhengrantingsalariestotheWorthyyoudonotbegrudgetheexpense,andwhenrewardingtheablearenotdilatory,thenthestrengthofyoursubordinateswillbeunited,whileyourenemysstatewillbereducedasthecapableabandonhim.Thewaytoemploymenistohonorthemwithrankandsupplythemgenerouslywithmaterialgoods,forthentheofficerswillcomeoftheirownaccord.Welcomethemaccordingtotheformsofpropriety,stimulatethemwithrighteousness,andthentheofficerswilldieforthestate.HuangShih-kung1(p173)Whentherulerregardsthegoodasgoodbutdoesntadvancethem,whilehehatestheevilbutdoesntdismissthem;whentheworthyarehiddenandcovered,whiletheunworthyholdpositions,thenthestatewillsufferharm.HuangShih-kung1(p82)Ingeneral,ifinwarfareyouarevictorious,sharetheachievementandpraisewiththetroops.Ssu-maFa1(p171)

PAGE 66

64ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalLEADERSTAKECAREOFTHEIRFOLLOWERSKingWensaidtotheTaiKung,Iwouldliketolearnabouttheaffairsofadministeringthestate.IfIwanttohavetherulerhonoredandthepeoplesettled,howshouldIproceed?TaiKung,Justlovethepeople.KingWen,Howdoesonelovethepeople?TaiKung,Profitthem,donotharmthem.Helpthemtosucceed,notdefeatthem.Givethemlife,donotslaythem.Grant,donottakeaway.Givethempleasure,donotcausethemtosuffer.Makethemhappy,donotcausethemtobeangry.SixSecretTeachings1(p84)Inordertostimulatethesoldiers,thepeoplesmaterialwelfarecannotbutbeample.Theranks ofnobility,thedegreeofrelationshipindeathandmourning,theactivitiesbywhichthepeoplelive,cannotbutbemadeevident.Onemustgovernthepeopleinaccordwiththeirmeanstolife,andmakedistinctionsclearinaccordwiththepeoplesactivities.Thefruitsofthefieldandtheirsalaries,thefeastingofrelativesthroughtheritesofeatinganddrinking,themutualencouragementinthevillageceremonies,mutualassistanceindeathandtheritesofmourning,sendingoffandgreetingthetroopsthesearewhatstimulatethepeople.WeiLiao-tzu1(p173)Ingeneral,withregardtothepeople:rescuethemwithbenevolence.Ssu-maFa1(p103)Whenbestowingyourbeneficenceuponthepeopleyoucannotbegrudgetheexpense.Thepeoplearelikecowsandhorses.Frequentlymakegiftsoffoodandclothing,andfollowupbylovingthem.SixSecretTeachings1(p132)Thecommander-in-chiefsmethodfocusesuponwinningthemindsofthevaliant;rewardingandprovidingsalariestothemeritorious;andhavinghiswillpenetratetothemasses.HuangShih-kung1(p144)Thehegemonsgovernedtheirofficersbyvirtueofauthority,bondingthemthroughtrust,motivatingthemwithrewards.Whenthattrustdeclinedtheofficersgrewdistant,andwhenrewardsbecameinadequatetheywouldnotsubmittoorders.HuangShih-kung1(p97)Nowtheessenceofemployingthearmyliesinrespectingtheformsofproprietyandmakingsalariesgenerous.Whentheproperformsofproprietyarefollowed,wiseofficerswillbeattracted.Whensalariesaregenerous,righteousofficerswillregarddeathlightly.ThusifwhengrantingsalariestotheWorthyyoudonotbegrudgetheexpense,andwhenrewardingtheablearenotdilatory,thenthestrengthofyoursubordinateswillbeunited,whileyourenemysstatewillbereducedasthecapableabandonhim.HuangShih-kung1(p173)LeadershipInsightsoftheChineseMilitaryClassics

PAGE 67

OctoberDecember200765LEADERSSETTHEEXAMPLEANDLEADFROMTHEFRONTIfyouleadthemeninpersonyoursoldierswillbecomethemostvaliantunderHeaven.HuangShih-kung1(p146)Nowwhenthearmyistoilingonthemarchthegeneralmustestablishhimselfasanexample.Intheheathedoesnotsetupanumbrella;inthecoldhedoesntwearheavierclothes.Ondifficultterrainhemustdismountandwalk.Onlyafterthearmyswellisfinisheddoeshedrink.Onlyafterthearmysfoodiscookeddoesheeat.Onlyafterthearmysrampartsarecompletedoesherest.Hemustpersonallyexperiencethesametoilandrespite.Inthisfashioneventhroughthearmyisinthefieldforalongtime,itwillbeneitheroldnorexhausted.WeiLiao-tzu1(p153)WhenWuChIengagedShininbattle,whereverheencampedthearmydidnotflattenthepathsbetweenthefields.Youngsaplingsprovidedprotectivecoveringagainstthefrostanddew.Whydidheactlikethis?Becausehedidntplacehimselfhigherthanothermen.Ifyouwantmentodieyoudontrequirethemtoperformperfunctoryactsofrespect.Ifyouwantmentoexhausttheirstrengthyoudontholdthemresponsibleforperformingtherites.Thusinantiquityanofficerwearingahelmetandarmordidntbow,showingpeoplethatheisnottroubledbyanything.Toannoypeopleyetrequirethemtodie,toexhausttheirstrength,fromantiquityuntiltodayhasneverbeenheardof.WeiLiao-tzu1(p153)Nowthosewhocommandthearmymustsharetastesandattitudeswiththeofficersandmen, andconfrontbothsafetyanddangerwiththem,forthentheenemycanbeattacked.Thusthearmywillattainfullvictory,andtheenemywillbecompletelydestroyed.Heiswiththeminsafety,heisunitedwiththemindanger.Thushistroopscanbecombinedbutcannotbeforcedapart.Theycanbeemployedbutcannotbetiredout.Withhisbeneficenceheceaselesslygathersthemtogether,withhisplansheconstantlyunitesthem.Thusitissaidthatwhenyoucultivatebeneficencetirelessly,withoneyoucantaketenthousand.HuangShih-kung1(p154)Inantiquity,whenoutstandinggeneralscommandedarmies,therewasonceacasewherethe commanderwaspresentedwithacaskofsweetwine.Thegeneralhaditpouredintotheriverandsharedthedrinkingofthewinewiththeofficersandmenasitfloweddownstream.Nowacaskofwineisunabletoflavorariverofwater,buttheofficersoftheThreeArmieswereallmotivatedtofighttothedeathbecausetheflavorandtastereachedthempersonally.HuangShih-kung1(p153)TheMilitaryPronouncementsstates,Whenthearmyswellshavenotyetbeencompleted,thegeneraldoesnotmentionthirst.Whentheencampmenthasnotyetbeensecured,thegeneraldoesnotspeakaboutfatigue.Whenthearmyscookstoveshavenotyetbeenlit,thegeneraldoesnotspeakabouthunger.Inthewinterhedoesntwearafurrobe;inthesummerhedoesntuseafan;andintherainhedoesntsetupanumbrella.Thisistermedtheproperformofbehaviorforageneral.HuangShih-kung1(p154)(Continued)

PAGE 68

66ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournalLeadershipInsightsoftheChineseMilitaryClassicsIfyoumustfightagain,swearanoathandassumeaforwardposition.Ssu-maFa1(p171)Ifthegeneralisntcourageous,theofficersandtroopswillbeterrified.HuangShih-kung1(p161)Ifyouarerespectfulthetroopswillbesatisfied.Ifyouleadinpersontheywillfollow.Whenordersareannoyingtheywillbeignored.WhenCommandsareissuedinpropermeasuretheywillbeseriouslyregarded.Whenthedrumbeatisrapidtheywillmovequickly;whenthedrumbeatismoremeasuredtheywillmoveaccordingly.Whentheiruniformsarelighttheywillfeelquick;iflustroustheywillfeelstalwart.Ssu-maFa1(p138)Thusthosewhoengageincombatmusttakeleadinginpersonastheirfoundationinordertoincitethemassesandofficers,justasthemindcontrolsthefourlimbs.Iftheirmindsarenotincited,thentheofficerswillnotdieforhonor.Whentheofficerswillnotdieforhonor,thenthemasseswillnotdobattle.WeiLiao-tzu1(p142)Thegeneralsharesheatandcold,laborandsuffering,hungerandsatietywiththeofficersandmen.Therefore,whenthemassesoftheThreeArmieshearthesoundofthedrumtheyarehappy,andthentheyhearthesoundofthegongtheyareangry.Whenattackingahighwallorcrossingadeeplakeunderahailofarrowsandstones,theofficerswillcompetetobefirsttoscalethewall.Whenthenakedbladesclash,theofficerswillcompetetobethefirsttogoforward.Itsnotbecausetheylikedeathandtakepleasureinbeingwounded,butbecausethegeneralknowstheirfeelingsofheatandcold,hungerandsatiety,andclearlydisplayshisknowledgeoftheirlaborandsuffering.SixSecretTeachings1(p171) REFERENCES1.TheArtoftheWarrior:LeadershipandStrategyfromtheChineseMilitaryClassics.SawyerRD,trans-ed.Boston,MA:ShambhalaPublications,Inc;1996.AUTHOR COLEnzenauerisanactivememberoftheReserveComponentasaSeniorFlightSurgeonwiththeColoradoArmyNationalGuard.HeservedinBaghdadinsupportofOperationIraqiFreedomandpriortothatinAfghanistanwithaSpecialForcesbattalioninOperationEnduringFreedom.HeisaProfessorofOphthalmologyandanAssociateProfessorofPediatricsattheUniversityofTennesseeCollegeofMedicineinMemphis,Tennessee.HeisalsoapracticingpediatricophthalmologistattheHamiltonEyeInstitutewiththeUTMedicalGroup,Inc.

PAGE 69

OctoberDecember200767 BingS.SunTzuWasaSissy:HowtoConquerYourEnemies,PromoteYourFriends,andWagetheRealArtofWar.NewYork,NY:HarperBusiness;2004.BrahmLJ.DoingBusinessinChina:SunTzustheArtofWarAsaMeansofUnderstandingHowtheChineseDoBusiness.Boston,MA:TuttlePublishing;2004.ChanMWLuke.SunzisArtofWarandManagementStrategy.Lincoln,Nebraska:iUniverse.com;1998.ChenB,ChanMWLuke.SunziontheArtofWaranditsGeneralApplicationtoBusiness.Lincoln,Nebraska:iUniverse.com;1998.ChuChin-Ning.WorkingWomansArtofWar:WinningWithoutConfrontation.Clearwater,Florida:AMCPublishing;2001.GagliardiG.SunTzusTheArtofWarPlustheArtofManagement..:ClearbridgePublishing;2000.GagliardiG.SunTzusTheArtofWarPlustheArtofMarketing.Seattle,Washington:ClearbridgePublishing;2000.SumTzuontheArtofWarABusinessStrategyHandbook.GilesL,trans.Austin,Texas:HaleFredPress;1991.Kheng-HorK.SunTzusBusiness&ManagementSeries:ApplyingSunTzusArtofWarinCustomerService,CorporatePlanning,HumanResourceManagement,Marketing,SellingandWinning.Philadelphia,Pennsylvania:CoronetBooks,Inc;2002.KrauseDG.TheWayoftheLeader:ApplyingthePrinciplesofSunTzuandConfucius,AncientStrategiesfortheModernBusinessWorld.NewYork,NY:PerigeeBooks,BerkleyPublishingCo;1997.KrauseDG.TheArtofWarforExecutives.NewYork,NY:PerigeeBooks,BerkleyPublishingCo;1995.LundellD.SunTzusTheArtofWarforTradersandInvestors.NewYork,NY:McGraw-HillTrade;1997.MichaelsonGA,MichaelsonSW.SunTzuforSuccess:HowtoUsetheArtofWartoMasterChallengesandAccomplishtheImportantGoalsinYourLife.Avon,MA:AdamsMediaCorporation;2003.MichaelsonGA,MichaelsonSW.SunTzusStrategiesforSelling:HowtoUsetheArtofWartoBuildLifelongCustomerRelationships.NewYorkNY:McGraw-Hill;2003.MichaelsonGA.SunTzu:TheArtofWarforManagers;50StrategicRules.Avon,MA:AdamsMediaCorporation;2001.TeckFC,GrinyerPH.SunTzuonManagement:TheArtofWarinContemporaryBusinessStrategy.Oxford,England:Butterworth-Heinemann;1996.WuRusong,WangJongtu,Ju-SungWu.SunZisArtofWarandHealthCare.MilitaryScienceandMedicalScience.Beijing,China:NewWorldPress;1997. SUGGESTEDREADINGLeadershipLeadershipAbilityLeadershipInitiative

PAGE 70

68ArmyMedicalDepartmentJournal TheUSArmyMedicalDepartmentCenterandSchool,FortSamHouston,Texas

PAGE 71

SUBMISSIONOF M ANUSCRIPTSTOTHE A RMY M EDICAL DEPARTMENT J OURNAL The UnitedStatesArmyMedicalDepartmentJournal ispublishedquarterlytoexpandknowledgeofdomesticandinternational militarymedicalissuesandtechnologicaladvances;promotecollaborativepartnershipsamongtheServices,components,Corps, andspecialties;conveyclinicalandhealthservicesupportinformation;andprovideaprofessional,highquality,peerreviewed printmediumtoencouragedialogueconcerninghealthcareissuesandinitiatives. R EVIEW P OLICY Allmanuscriptswillbereviewedbythe AMEDDJournalsEditorialReviewBoardand,ifrequired,forwardedtotheappropriate subjectmatterexpertforfurtherreviewandassessment. I DENTIFICATIONOF P OTENTIAL C ONFLICTSOF I NTEREST 1. Relatedtoindividualauthorscommitments: Eachauthorisresponsibleforthefulldisclosureofallfinancialandpersonal relationshipsthatmightbiastheworkorinformationpresentedinthemanuscript.Topreventambiguity,authorsmuststate explicitlywhetherpotentialconflictsdoordonotexist.Authorsshoulddosointhemanuscriptonaconflict-of-interest notificationsectiononthetitlepage,providingadditionaldetail,ifnecessary,inacoverletterthataccompaniesthe manuscript. 2. Assistance: AuthorsshouldidentifyIndividualswhoprovidewritingorotherassistanceanddisclosethefundingsourceforthis assistance,ifany. 3. Investigators: Potentialconflictsmustbedisclosedtostudyparticipants.Authorsmustclearlystatewhethertheyhavedone sointhemanuscript. 4. Relatedtoprojectsupport: Authorsshoulddescribetheroleofthestudysponsor,ifany,instudydesign;collection,analysis, andinterpretationofdata;writingthereport;andthedecisiontosubmitthereportforpublication.Ifthesupportingsource hadnosuchinvolvement,theauthorsshouldsostate. P ROTECTIONOF H UMAN S UBJECTSAND A NIMALSIN R ESEARCH Whenreportingexperimentsonhumansubjects,authorsmustindicatewhethertheproceduresfollowedwereinaccordancewith theethicalstandardsoftheresponsiblecommitteeonhumanexperimentation(institutionalandnational)andwiththeHelsinki Declarationof1975,asrevisedin2000.IfdoubtexistswhethertheresearchwasconductedinaccordancewiththeHelsinki Declaration,theauthorsmustexplaintherationalefortheirapproachanddemonstratethattheinstitutionalreviewbody explicitlyapprovedthedoubtfulaspectsofthestudy.Whenreportingexperimentsonanimals,authorsshouldindicatewhetherthe institutionalandnationalguideforthecareanduseoflaboratoryanimalswasfollowed. G UIDELINESFOR M ANUSCRIPT S UBMISSIONS 1.Articlesshouldbesubmittedindigitalformat,preferablyanMSWorddocument,eitherasanemailattachment(with illustrations,etc),orbymailonCDorfloppydiskaccompaniedbyoneprintedcopyofthemanuscript.Ideally,amanuscript shouldbenolongerthan24double-spacedpages.However,exceptionswillalwaysbeconsideredonacase-by-casebasis.In general,4double-spacedMSWordpagesproduceasinglepageof2columntextinthe AMEDDJournal productionformat. 2.The AmericanMedicalAssociationManualofStyle governsformattinginthepreparationoftextandreferences.Allarticles shouldconformtothoseguidelinesascloselyaspossible.Abbreviations/acronymsshouldbelimitedasmuchaspossible. Inclusionofalistofarticleacronymsandabbreviationscanbeveryhelpfulinthereviewprocessandisstronglyencouraged. 3.Acompletelistofreferencescitedinthearticlemust beprovidedwiththemanuscript.Thefollowingisasynopsisofthe AmericanMedicalAssociationreferenceformat: Referencecitationsofpublishedarticlesmustincludetheauthorssurnamesandinitials,articletitle,publicationtitle, yearofpublication,volume,andpagenumbers. Referencecitationsofbooksmustincludetheauthorssurnamesandinitials,booktitle,volumeand/oreditionif appropriate,placeofpublication,publisher,yearofcopyright,andspecificpagenumbersifcited. Referencecitationsforpresentations,unpublishedpapers,conferences,symposia,etc,mustincludeasmuchidentifying informationaspossible(location,dates,presenters,sponsors,titles). 4.Eithercolororblackandwhitephotographsmaybesubmittedwiththemanuscript.Colorproducesthebestprintreproduction quality,butpleaseavoidexcessiveuseofmultiplecolorsandshading.Digitalgraphicformats(JPG,GIF,BMP)andMSWord photofilesarepreferred.Printsofphotographsareacceptable.PleasedonotsendphotosembeddedinPowerPoint.Images submittedonslides,negatives,orcopiesofX-rayfilmwillnotbepublished.Forclarity,pleasemarkthetopofeach photographicprintontheback.Tapecaptionstothebackofphotosorsubmitthemonaseparatesheet.Ensurecaptionsand photosareindexedtoeachother.Clearlyindicatethedesiredpositionofeachphotowithinthemanuscript. 5.Theauthorsnames,ranksoracademic/certificationcredentials,titlesorpositions,currentunitofassignment,andcontact informationmust beincludedonthetitlepageofthemanuscript. 6.Submitmanuscriptsto: USARMY M EDICAL D EPARTMENT C ENTER &SCHOOL ATTN :MCCSHSASTE 135 1750G REELEY R OAD F ORT SAM H OUSTON,TX78234-5078 DSN471-6301 Comm210-221-6301 Fax:DSN471-2226Comm210-221-2226 Email:amedd.journal@amedd.army.mil