Citation
Parameters (Carlisle, Pa.)

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Title:
Parameters (Carlisle, Pa.)
Series Title:
PB
Added title page title:
Journal of the US Army War College
Added title page title:
US Army War College quarterly
Added title page title:
US Army's senior professional journal
Added title page title:
U.S. Army's senior professional journal
Creator:
Army War College (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Carlisle Barracks, PA
Publisher:
U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1977-]
Three no. a year[ FORMER 1971-spring/summer 1972]
2 no. a year[ FORMER 1973-1976]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Military art and science -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Military art and science ( fast )
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Electronic journals.
Periodicals. ( fast )
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Electronic journals ( lcsh )
Periodicals ( fast )

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Began with 1971.
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Subtitle varies.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
785639003 ( OCLC )
72612715 ( LCCN )
2158-2106 ( ISSN )
ocn785639003
Classification:
355.005 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Digital Military Collection

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Full Text

PAGE 1

Contemporary Strategy & Landpower FOR THIS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS, VISIT US AT http://www.carlisle.army.mil/The Quarterly The US Army War CollegePARAMETERS (USPS 413530) US Army War College ATTN: Parameters47 Ashburn Drive Carlisle, PA 17013-5010 Periodicals Postage Paid VOL. 48 NO. 2 SUMMER 2018 VOL. 48 NO. 2 SUMMER 2018 Special Commentary: The Military as Social Experiment Jacqueline E. Whitt and Elizabeth A. PerazzoTeaching StrategyAndrew A. Hill and Stephen J. Gerras Jean-Loup SamaanNontraditional WarChristopher R. Spearin Erik J. Grossman Traditional WarBen S. Wermeling Patrick J. Savage

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Parameters Disclaimer: Parameters Parameters Editorial Board Members Contributing Editors Secretary of the Army Commandant Editor Managing Editor Assistant Editor

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Vol. 48 No. 2 Summer 2018 en-US3 en-USFrom the Editor FEATURES Special Commentary en-US5 en-USThe Military as Social Experiment: Challenging a Tropeen-USen-US Teaching Strategy en-US en-US Causation in Policy and Strategyen-USen-US 27 Comparative Strategy in en-US en-US Professional Military Educationen-USen-US Nontraditional War 39 Russias Military and en-US en-US Security Privatizationen-US en-US en-US and the Donbasen-USen-US Traditional War 63 Fighting Russia? Modeling en-US en-US the Baltic Scenariosen-US 77 The Conventionality of Russia s en-US en-US BOOK RREVIEWS Strategic Leadership en-US87 en-USen-US en-US Build a Team of Teamsen-USen-US en-US88 en-USen-US en-USen-US en-US90 en-USen-US en-USen-US

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2 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Military History 94 From Disarmament to Rearmament: Strategy and Policy Anglo-American Alliance: The Special Regional Studies 106 the Clash That Shaped the Middle East Defense Studies 110 112 Profession of Arms Thought and Fought the 114 116 118 Terror in France: The Rise of 120

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From the Editor Teaching Strategy Nontraditional War Traditional War

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SPECIAL COMMENTARY The Military as Social Experiment: Challenging a Trope T social experiment critique

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6 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 1 American Historical Review At War: The Military and American Culture in the Twentieth Century and Beyond

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SPECIAL COMMENTARY Whitt and Perazzo 7 4 6 Militia Exemption Books, 1801 Prologue The Devils Own Work: The Civil War Draft Riots and the Fight to Reconstruct America Military Necessity: Civil-Military Relations in the Confederacy American Journal of Legal History The Confederacy as a Revolutionary Experience The Collapse of the Confederacy Civil War History Americans All! Foreign-born Soldiers in WWI

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8 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 8 11 Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940 Integration of the Armed Forces Integration of the Armed Forces Working Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam Vietnam Generation Americas Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force

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SPECIAL COMMENTARY Whitt and Perazzo 9 14 G. I. Jane Washingtonian Washington Post Wilson Quarterly G. I. Jane

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10 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Contemporizing the Social Experiment Critique 16 18 Republican Platform 2016 Washington Examiner Armed Forces & Society

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SPECIAL COMMENTARY Whitt and Perazzo 11 Federalist

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12 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Jacqueline E. Whitt Elizabeth A. Perazzo

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TEACHING STRATEGY Stuff Happens: Understanding Causation in Policy and Strategy ABSTRACT \035\003KLV\003DUWLFOH\003SURYLGHV\003VWUDWHJ\\000PDNHUV\003ZLWK\003D\003PXOWLSOH\003 FDXVDWLRQ\003IUDPHZRUN\003IRU\003DQDO\\000VHV\003LQ\003FRPSOH[\003HQYLURQPHQWV\003ZLWK\003 ORZ\003WROHUDQFHV\003IRU\003QHJDWLYH\003RXWFRPHV\021\003:LWK\003WKLV\003IUDPHZRUN\017\003OHDGHUV\003 FDQ\003GHYHORS\003VROXWLRQV\003ZLWK\003RXWFRPHV\003VXUSDVVLQJ\003WKH\003HIIHFWLYHQHVV\003RI\003 VLQJOH\003FDXVDW\LRQ\003DSSURDFKHV\021 C Vibrio cholera 1 Vibrio cholera

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14 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Reasons Causes

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TEACHING STRATEGY Hill and Gerras 15 Downfall: the End of the Imperial Japanese Empire A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities

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16 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Modes 4 Regularity and Probability: Patterns, Patterns Everywhere 6 Oxford Handbook of Causation Causation: a Very Short Introduction Statistics Surveys Handbook of Data Analysis Military Review

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TEACHING STRATEGY Hill and Gerras 17 8 Treatise of Human Nature 11 Counterfactuals: If not for . . Uncontrolled: The Surprising Payoff of Trial-and-Error for Business, Politics, and Society Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from the Data Oxford Handbook of Causation Naked Statistics Oxford Handbook of Causation Oxford Handbook of Causation Uncontrolled Treatise of Human Nature The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable Oxford Handbook of Causation

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18 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 14 16 The Guns of August 18 Oxford Handbook of Causation Uncontrolled Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us about Who We Really Are The Guns of August

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TEACHING STRATEGY Hill and Gerras 19 Physicalism: Inside the Black Box of Causation New Yorker

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20 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Disposition: Hidden Causes The Operations Process Not Naval War College Review Emergence Oxford Handbook of Causation

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TEACHING STRATEGY Hill and Gerras 21 Application

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22 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Process in Administrative Organization

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TEACHING STRATEGY Hill and Gerras 23

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24 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Conclusion The Battle of Algiers The Neuroscience of Intelligence G is for Genes: The Impact of Genetics on Education and Achievement The Battle of Algiers

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TEACHING STRATEGY Hill and Gerras 25 Andrew A. Hill Stephen J. Gerras

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TEACHING STRATEGY Comparative Strategy in Professional Military Education Jean-Loup Samaan Israels Foreign Policy beyond the Arab World I comparative strategy Concept 1 Political Research: Methods and Practical Skills Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

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28 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 4 Trends 6 The Diffusion of Military Power: Causes and Consequences for International Politics Extended Deterrence and the Prevention of War The Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany between the World Wars The Ideology of the Offensive: Military Decision Making and the Disasters of 1914 American Political Science Review class of events Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences

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TEACHING STRATEGY Samaan 29 8 Challenges Evaluating the Impact of the Department of Defense Regional Centers for Security Studies The Ties that Bind? A History of NATOs Academic Adventure with the Middle East Journal of Strategic Studies Military Orientalism: Eastern War through Western Eyes Journal of Strategic Studies Political Studies

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30 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 my 11 as al-Amn al-Watani watan 14 Strategy and Ethnocentrism The Foundations of the Arab State, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, Analyzing Strategic Nuclear Policy Paix et guerre entre les nations International Security

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TEACHING STRATEGY Samaan 31 16 of case selection bias International Security The Psychology of Nuclear Proliferation: Identity, Emotions, and Foreign Policy World Politics

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32 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 benchmarking bias leadership variable bias omitted variable bias 18 Theory and Methods in Political Science

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TEACHING STRATEGY Samaan 33 Suggestions Strategy: A History International Security

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34 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 strategic culture Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965 Perception and Misperception in International Politics Sources of Military Doctrine The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics International Studies Quarterly The Soviet Strategic Culture: Implications for Limited Nuclear Operations Cultural Norms and National Security: Police and Military in Postwar Japan Culture of National Security.

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TEACHING STRATEGY Samaan 35 International Security Review of International Studies International Studies Review The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States, and War Israels Strategic Doctrine Parameters The Soldier and the Changing State: Building Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas Regimes Military Integration after Civil Nuclear Strategy International Security

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36 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 CISS Insight Security Studies The National Security of Small States in a Changing World

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TEACHING STRATEGY Samaan 37 Conclusion

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Russias Military and Security Privatization 2018 Christopher R. Spearin Private Military and Security Companies and States: Force Divided O 1 4 6 New Yorker American Conservative International Business Times Washington Post

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40 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 8 competitive interactions among and within state and non-state actors that fall between the traditional war and peace duality 11 Montreux Document armed guarding and protection of persons and objects, such as convoys, buildings and other places Special Warfare International Organization Montreux Document: On Pertinent International Legal Obligations and Good Practices for States Related to Operations of Private Military and Security Companies

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Spearin 41 14 16 Performance of Commercial Activities 18 government governance private Daedalus Atlantic Department of Defense Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background and Analysis Defence Studies Parameters 18 Performance of Commercial Activities Governance Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues Security & Development

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42 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 military companies nonmilitary Journal of Slavic Military Studies Private Security Contractors and New Wars: Risk, Law, and Ethics Russias New Tools for Confronting the West: Continuity and Innovation in Moscows Exercise of Power Survival Parameters Foreign Policy Journal of Slavic Military Studies Cross-Domain Coercion: The Current Russian Art of Strategy Russias New Generation Warfare in Ukraine: Implications for Latvian Defense Policy War on the Rocks Cross-Domain Coercion Russias New Generation Warfare in Ukraine. Cross-Domain Coercion

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Spearin 43 they have exceeded the power of force of weapons in their effectiveness Logistic Support and Insurgency: Guerrilla Sustainment and Applied Lessons of Soviet Insurgent Warfare: Why It Should Still Be Studied Asia News The Markets for Force: Privatization of Security across World Regions Multilevel Regulation of Military and Security Contractors: The Interplay between International, European and Domestic Norms Eurasia Daily Monitor

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44 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 41 Foreign Policy Foreign Policy Economist

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Spearin 45 mercenary 44 46 Montreux Document International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers Montreux Document 48 Hearing on Department of Defense Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, Before the Senate Armed Services Committee Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 Private Military and Security Companies and States: Force Divided International Studies Quarterly Management System for Quality of Private Security Company Operations Requirements with Guidance International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self-Regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

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46 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 should sell should buy Evolving Contingency Contracting Market The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security Wall Street Journal New York Times

PAGE 49

NONTRADITIONAL WAR Spearin 47 Montreux Document Montreux Document Montreux Document Guardian Montreux Document Private Military Companies: Options for Regulation 2001

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48 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Montreux Document Montreux Document Montreux Document Mercenaries, Pirates, and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extraterritorial Violence in Early Modern Europe Law Interpreter Interpreter Moscow Times Economist

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Spearin 49 61 Montreux Document Montreux Document Private Military Survival

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Russias Frozen Conflicts and the Donbas 2018 Erik J. Grossman T 1 Security Index

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52 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 4 6 Battle against Fate Communist and Post-Communist Studies Foreign Policy Orbis Parameters

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Grossman 53 Transdniestria, Moldova 8 De Facto Anthropology Today Post-Soviet Affairs

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54 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 11 South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Georgia, Part I 14 American Interest Third World Quarterly

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Grossman 55 16 South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Georgia, Part II 18 Europe-Asia Studies

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56 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 International Affairs

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Grossman 57 Donbas, Ukraine mos maiorum Journal of Contemporary European Studies Russian Social Science Review

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58 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Daily Beast Voskresnoye vremya Europe-Asia Studies

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Grossman 59

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60 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Policy Recommendations

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NONTRADITIONAL WAR Grossman 61 Comparative European Politics

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62 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Conclusion

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TRADITIONAL WAR Fighting Russia? Modeling the Baltic Scenarios 2018 Ben S. Wermeling R 1 4 Closing NATOs Baltic Gap Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics: Threats and Potential Responses Russia Military Strategy: Impacting 21st Century Reform and Geopolitics Russias Approach to Cyber Warfare Zeszyty Naukowe AON Reinforcing Deterrence on NATOs Eastern Flank: Wargaming the Defense of the Baltics Strategic Landpower and a Resurgent Russia: An Operational Approach to Deterrence NATOs Enhanced Forward Presence

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64 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 6 Modeling Choice and Explanation 8 Military Power Prism Reinforcing Deterrence The Military Applications of Modeling Numbers, Predictions, and War: Using History to Evaluate The Calculus of Conventional War: Dynamic Analysis without Lanchester Theory The Science of War: Defense Budgeting, Military Technology, Logistics, and Combat Outcomes

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TRADITIONAL WAR Wermeling 65 11 Military Power Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle Military Power The Evolution of Modern Land Warfare: Theory and Practice

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66 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Russian Military Capability in a Ten-Year Perspective

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TRADITIONAL WAR Wermeling 67 14 Reinforcing Deterrence

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68 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Scenario 1. NATOs Defense versus Russias Invasion (2016) Scenario 2. NATOs Defense versus Russias Expanded Capabilities (2017) 16 Regional Development in Estonia 2014 Russia Military Analysis National Interest Military Balance

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TRADITIONAL WAR Wermeling 69 Scenario 3. NATOs Enhanced Forward Presence versus Russias Expanded Capabilities (2018) 18 NATOs Enhanced Forward Presence Stars and Stripes

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70 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Russias Expanded Force (2018) Breakthrough Attempt Fraction of Forward Garrison Exposed Depth of Forward Defenses Width of Assault Velocity of Assault Ground Gained by Attacker Breakthrough Depth, width, velocity, and ground in kilometers per day (km/day) 0.10 10 5 1.67 14.23 Yes 0.10 30 5 5.00 18.82 No 0.10 50 5 8.33 20.12 No 0.25 10 5 1.67 16.95 Yes 0.25 30 5 5.00 22.35 No 0.25 50 5 8.33 23.87 No 0.40 10 5 1.67 20.93 Yes 0.40 30 5 5.00 27.50 No 0.40 50 5 8.33 29.34 No Fraction of Forward Garrison Exposed Depth of Forward Defenses Width of Assault Velocity of Assault Ground Gained by Attacker 0.10 10 15 1.2 7.55 0.10 30 15 2.0 13.45 0.10 50 15 2.6 17.26 0.25 10 15 1.3 8.70 0.25 30 15 2.2 15.35 0.25 50 15 2.9 19.53 0.40 10 15 1.5 10.02 0.40 30 15 2.6 17.38 0.40 50 15 3.3 22.49 *For each case, 50 percent of defenders are in reserve, moving at a velocity of 20 km/day. Combat Maneuver Personnel Aggressor 11,600 1985.4 Defender 11,870 1985.2

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TRADITIONAL WAR Wermeling 71 Scenario 4. NATOs Enhanced Forward Presence versus Russias Planned Capabilities (2020) Scenario 5. NATOs Expanded Forward Presence versus Russias Planned Capabilities (2020) Stars and Stripes Postimees

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72 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Planned Force (2020) Breakthrough Attempt Fraction of Forward Garrison Exposed Depth of Forward Defenses Width of Assault Velocity of Assault Ground Gained by Attacker Breakthrough Depth, width, velocity, and ground in kilometers per day (km/day) 0.10 10 5 1.67 15.87 Yes 0.10 30 5 5.00 20.93 No 0.10 50 5 8.33 22.36 No 0.25 10 5 1.67 18.90 Yes 0.25 30 5 5.00 24.87 No 0.25 50 5 8.33 26.55 No 0.40 10 5 1.67 23.36 Yes 0.40 30 5 5.00 30.63 Yes 0.40 50 5 8.33 32.66 No Fraction of Forward Garrison Exposed Depth of Forward Defenses Width of Assault Velocity of Assault Ground Gained by Attacker 0.10 10 15 1.20 8.40 0.10 30 15 2.10 14.65 0.10 50 15 2.80 18.58 0.25 10 15 1.40 9.30 0.25 30 15 2.40 16.33 0.25 50 15 3.10 20.99 0.40 10 15 1.60 10.70 0.40 30 15 2.70 18.89 0.40 50 15 3.50 24.17 *For each case, 50 percent of defenders are in reserve, moving at a velocity of 20 km/day. Combat Maneuver Personnel Aggressor 15,120 1991.3 Defender 14,220 1988.3

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TRADITIONAL WAR Wermeling 73 Modeling Results

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74 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Examining Other Factors Reinforcing Deterrence Land Use/Cover Area Frame Survey 2012: The 2006 Lebanon Campaign and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy We Were Caught Unprepared: The 2006 Hezbollah-Israeli War Certain Victory: The U.S. Army in the Gulf War

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TRADITIONAL WAR Wermeling 75 Recommendations Military Power Offense and Defense Military Power

PAGE 79

TRADITIONAL WAR The Conventionality of Russias Unconventional Warfare 2018 Patrick J. Savage Georgetown Security Studies Review R 1 4 Irregular Warfare (IW) Joint Operating Concept (JOC), Mao Tse-tung on Guerrilla Warfare

PAGE 80

78 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 6 Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States Logistic Support and Insurgency: Guerrilla Sustainment and Applied Lessons of Soviet Insurgent Warfare: Why It Should Still Be Studied

PAGE 81

TRADITIONAL WAR Savage 79 8 Southern Africa in the Cold War, Post-1974 The Shaba Invasions Shaba II: The French and Belgian Intervention in Zaire in 1978 Namibia: SWAPOs ArmyOrganization, Tactics, and Prospects Cold War History

PAGE 82

80 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 11 14 Case Study: Donbas since 2014 The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union Soviet Military Interventions since 1945: With a Summary in Russian Little Green Men: A Primer on Modern Russian Unconventional Warfare, Ukraine 2013 Caucasian Review of International Affairs

PAGE 83

TRADITIONAL WAR Savage 81 16 18 Lessons from Russias Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine Lessons Lessons

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82 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Lessons Survival Lessons Lessons

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TRADITIONAL WAR Savage 83 The Kremlins Irregular Army: Ukrainian Separatist Order of Battle

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84 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Novorossiya Kremlins Irregular Army

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TRADITIONAL WAR Savage 85 Novorossiya

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By Chris Fussell with C. W. Goodyear Reviewed by James P. Farwell, national security expert; associate fellow, Department of War Studies, Kings College, London. J New York: Portfolio, 2017 298 pages $27.00 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP

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88 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By Brian D. Laslie Reviewed by Dr. Ryan Wadle, professor of comparative military studies Military Education I Architect of Air Power Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2017 254 pages $39.99

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Book Reviews : Strategic Leadership 89 Architect of Air Power

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90 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Reviewed by Lionel Beehner, assistant professor at the Department of Defense and Security Studies at the United States Military Academy at West Point T The Art of Command Art of Command Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2017 364 pages $80.00

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Book Reviews : Strategic Leadership 91

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92 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018

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Book Reviews : Military History 93 MILITARY HISTORY By Cathal J. Nolan Reviewed by Major Nathan K. Finney, visiting fellow at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute A The Allure of Battle, Allure of Battle Allure of Battle The Allure of Battle New York: Oxford University Press, 2017 728 pages $34.95

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94 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Allure of Battle Allure of Battle From Disarmament to Rearmament:The Reversal of By Sheldon A. Goldberg Reviewed by Dr. Raymond A. Millen, professor of security sector, Peacekeeping and Stability Institute, US Army War College A From Disarmament to Rearmament Athens: Ohio University Press, 2017 352 pages $79.95

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Book Reviews : Military History 95

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96 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 From Disarmament to Rearmament By Mark Bowden Reviewed by Dr. Russell W. Glenn, Director, Plans and Policy, G2, US Army Training and Doctrine Command M Phase Line Green Fire in the Streets New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2017 594 pages $30.00

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Book Reviews : Military History 97 Black Hawk Down

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98 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By J. P. Harris Reviewed by Dr. Douglas V. Johnson II, research professor emeritus, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College T Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2016 552 pages $42.75

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Book Reviews : Military History 99

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100 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By John T. Kuehn Reviewed by Captain Albert F. Lord Jr., USN Retired, Director of the Joint T Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2017 310 pages $35.00

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Book Reviews : Military History 101

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102 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 STRATEGY AND POLICY The Chessboard & the Web: Strategies of Connection in a Networked World By Anne-Marie Slaughter Reviewed by Dr. Jos de Arimatia da Cruz, professor of comparative politics and international studies at Georgia Southern University and adjunct research professor at the US Army War College. T interconnected, and more complicated when dealing with foreign profound with the democratization of technology and globalization. Thus, leaders worldwide are realizing governing has also become more The Chessboard & the Web trained to think of the world as a chessboard, analyzing the decisions of powerful states and anticipating rival states reactions in the endless game of strategic advantage. That is the old way of thinking about international affairs. Political science and international affairs has been dominated by the realist perspective. From this perspective, in which the state is the primary unit of analysis, state power is derived from its individual attributes, self-interests, and autonomous behaviors regarding other states in the international system. The emerging international system Web view or networked view. According to this view of the world, the primary unit of analysis is not the state but rather people, and state power is derived from relationships and connections. In this networked world, digital technology is playing a major role in global governance. Disasters, political crisis, terrorist acts, coups, and other issues used to take months to be broadcast to the world. States, in essence, were able to get away with certain malfeasances due to the lack of transparency and accountability. But as Slaughter succinctly points out, to communicate information to and from anywhere instantaneously, nation-state is more permeable. Vegas: what happens somewhere rarely remains there ( A World in Dis, 2017, 226). In the network world, different parts of government by the head of the state and the foreign ministry, and instead creating networks of both private and civic actors (37). Given that the world is being transformed from one of a chessboard game to a networked game, one fundamental question of Slaughters asks how actors are connected, how patterns of connections form, and how network ties determine New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017 269 pages $26.00

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Book Reviews : Strategy and Policy 103

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104 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By Andrew Mumford Reviewed by Conrad Crane, Chief of Historical Services for the US Army Heritage and Education Center, US Army War College T Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2017 248 pages $104.95

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Book Reviews : Strategy and Policy 105

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106 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 REGIONAL STUDIES the Clash That Shaped the Middle East By Fawaz A. Gerges Reviewed by Alma Keshavarz, associate, Small War Journals-El Centro F Making the Arab World Ikhwan Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018 528 pages $29.99

PAGE 109

Book Reviews : Regional Studies 107

PAGE 110

108 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By Bernard D. Cole Reviewed by June Teufel Dreyer, professor, Department of Political Science, University of Miami A Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2016 304 pages $34.95

PAGE 111

Book Reviews : Regional Studies 109

PAGE 112

110 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 DEFENSE STUDIES By John Nixon Reviewed by Dr. Christopher Bolan, professor of Middle East security studies, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College J New York: Blue Rider, 2016 256 pages $14.76

PAGE 113

Book Reviews : Defense Studies 111

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112 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By Reed Robert Bonadonna Reviewed by James D. Scudieri, PhD, chief, Military History Institute, US Army Heritage and Education Center T Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2017 341 pages $27.95

PAGE 115

Book Reviews : Defense Studies 113

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114 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By Jack McDonald Reviewed by Robert J. Bunker, adjunct research professor, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College J Enemies Known and Unknown Ethics, Law and Justifying Targeted Killings: The Obama Administration at War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017 318 pages $27.95

PAGE 117

Book Reviews : Defense Studies 115 perspectives on transnational war and the second half looks at targeted killings and their effects (9). Chapters focus on (1) war, warfare, and (3) law/legal argument impacts on politics/policy decisions relating to to attrition and targeted killings of al-Qaeda personnel; (5) Americas pluralist views on liberal values and human rights obligations which are in variance with the opinions of many of its close allies; (6) the rule of law as a constitutive element related to the use of targeted killings by the United States; (7) the targeting of known and unknown individuals by means of personality strikes and signature strikes respectively; attempts at protecting themselves from harm; and (9) an analysis of the preceding chapters as they relate to the war against the Islamic State. Throughout the book chapters, which are both descriptive and analytical in nature, the author ties in his thematic arguments. These relate to the constructivist approach followed in the work related to the the construction of categories of permissible violence, the role of knowledge and truth in these categories, and how they can inform our study of US strategy and warfare (viii). The main argument derived from this approach is that the status quo use of violence embraced by the Obama administrationderived from an adherence to the rule of lawis in some ways more disturbing than that of the policies of the earlier Bush administration. Critiques of the work are relatively benign and perhaps oblique. rootsrepresents an analytical approach that is in variance with more traditional American international relations perspectives formed around neorealism and neoliberalism. While each has a place, this focus of the area to have more resonance. Thus, it may be a hard sell to this audience. A second comment relates to the authors two very similar books, based on his Obama administration research, published within the same time frame. McDonald is no doubt facing the publish or perish dilemma all career academics must contend with but it begs the question whether the nuanced emphases of his two booksthe cohesive or hypocritical administration arguments related to the uses of armed drones and the both to be read to gain a broader knowledge in this subject matter. topical areas. In summation, Enemies Known and Unknown is a thoroughly researched, balanced, and well-written constructivist work that has utility for the defense community scholars who must grapple with new forms of war and our enemies who utilize them as well as our conduct of military operations and emerging interpretations of international law related to

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116 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Edited by Michael L. Gross and Tamar Meisels ethics, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. I n Soft War Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017 282 pages $34.95

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Book Reviews : Defense Studies 117

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118 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 By Gilles Kepel Reviewed by Dr. W. Andrew Terrill, professor emeritus, US Army War College G The Global Islamic Resistance Call Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017 217 pages $29.95

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Book Reviews : Defense Studies 119

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120 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018 Edited by Anders Themnr Reviewed by Whitney Grespin, peace operations analyst at the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) at the US Army War College T Warlord Democrats Uppsala, Sweden: Zed, 2017 254 pages $25.00

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Book Reviews : Defense Studies 121

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122 Parameters 48(2) Summer 2018

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The US Army War College US Army War College Quarterly Parameters e-mail: The US Army War College Quarterly Parameters Parameters Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals US Government Periodicals Index LexisNexis Government Periodicals Index Worldwide Political Science Abstracts Lancaster Index to Defence & International Security Literature PAIS Bulletin Book Review Index Parameters Subscriptions: Address Changes: Parameters Reprint Requests: Parameters Commentaries and Replies: Parameters

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Contemporary Strategy & Landpower FOR THIS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS, VISIT US AT http://www.carlisle.army.mil/The Quarterly The US Army War CollegePARAMETERS (USPS 413530) US Army War College ATTN: Parameters47 Ashburn Drive Carlisle, PA 17013-5010 Periodicals Postage Paid VOL. 48 NO. 2 SUMMER 2018VOL. 48 NO. 2 SUMMER 2018Special Commentary The Military as Social Experiment: Challenging a TropeJacqueline E. Whitt and Elizabeth PerazzoTeaching StrategyAndrew A. Hill and Stephen J. Gerras Jean-Loup SamaanNontraditional WarChristopher R. Spearin Erik J. Grossman Traditional WarBen S. Wermeling Patrick J. Savage