Aircraft survivability

Material Information

Aircraft survivability
Place of Publication:
Arlington, VA
Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Office (JASPO)
Creation Date:
Summer 1998
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Three times a year


Subjects / Keywords:
Aeronautics -- Safety measures -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Aeronautics -- Safety measures ( fast )
United States ( fast )
Periodicals. ( fast )
newspaper ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Periodicals ( fast )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with 1998.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
656541464 ( OCLC )
TL553.5 ( lcc )

UFDC Membership

Digital Military Collection


This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text


Aircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO), chartered by the U.S. Army Aviation & Missile Command, U.S. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, and U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command. JAS Program Ofce 735 S. Courthouse Road Suite 1100 Arlington, VA 22204-2489 Sponsor Dennis Lindell Editor-in-Chief Dale Atkinson The views and opinions expressed in this journal are those of the authors and should not be construed as ofcial positions of the U.S. Government or its agencies. Reader views and comments may be directed to the JASPO. To order back issues of Aircraft Survivability, send an email to On the cover: 101st Airborne Soldiers During Operation Wheeler, Vietnam, 1967 (Photo Courtesy of the U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center; Vietnam War Photograph Collection). AS Journal 18 / SPRING 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 NEWS NOTES by Dale Atkinson 7 JCAT CORNER by CPT Lindsay Cain, CW5 Scott Brusuelas, and CAPT Matt Butkis 8 CH-53K TAIL DRIVE SYSTEM LIVE FIRE TEST & EVALUATION by Marty Krammer As part of the CH-53K Heavy Lift Helicopter Live Fire Test & Evaluation (LFT&E) Program, the LFT&E team recently completed a series of tests to assess the tail drive system (TDS) vulnerability to ballistic damage. The TDS comprises ight-critical components, including multiple tail drive shafts, couplings, support bearings, support mounts, and gearboxes, that provide a means for driving the tail rotor during ight. The live re tests were designed to support vulnerability analysis by helping to understand the CH-53K system vulnerability and impact to mission expected threat encounters. 12 MODERNIZING INTELLIGENCE THREAT SUPPORT TO AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY by Mary Anne Wells, Jason Luchkiw, Wayne McNutt, and Maj. Benjamin Wolak Threats to U.S. aircraft force modernization rise as adversarial weapons technologies improve and weapons proliferation increases. To survive in this game of cat-and-mouse, U.S. aircraft developers use threat assessments from the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) to evaluate future threats that may jeopardize aircraft and aircraft component survivability at system initial operating capability (IOC) through system sustainment. With threats increasing in magnitude and lethality at lightning pace, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) decided to modernize the method of providing threat assessments, replacing the System Threat Assessment Report (STAR) with the Validated Online Lifecycle Threat (VOLT). This shift from delivering static threat products to more dynamic web-based products has signicantly reduced intelligence produc tion time and will improve customer access to the most current IC threat assessments.


Mailing list additions, deletions, changes, as well as calendar items may be directed to: DSIAC Headquarters 4695 Millennium Drive Belcamp, MD 21017-1505 Phone: 443/360-4600 Fax: 410/272-6763 Email: DSIAC is sponsored by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) and is operated by the SURVICE Engineering Company under Contract FA8075-14-D-0001. DSIAC Program Manager Ted Welsh Copy Editor Eric Edwards Art Director Melissa Gestido Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, per DoD Ofce of Prepublication and Security Review, Case No. 18-S-0869. 3 AS Journal 18 / SPRING 17 AIRCRAFT COMBAT SURVIVABILITY EDUCATION AND EDUCATORS: A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE OVER 40 YEARS by Robert E. Ball In 1967, I, at age 32 (and with no military service or aircraft background other than an early fascination with the aircraft ghting in World War II), joined the faculty of the Department of Aeronautics at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), in Monterey, CA, as an Assistant Professor. My credentials were a B.S. (1958), M.S. (1959), and Ph.D. (1962) in structural engineering from Northwestern University; 5 years spent with two small engineering consulting rms near Pasadena, CA; and the development of a major NASA-Langley-funded digital computer pro gramknown as SATANSthat computed the geometrically nonlinear static and dynamic response of arbitrarily loaded shells of revolution (which was applicable to the Apollo space capsule during reentry). I was hired to teach 3035-year-old military aviators how aircraft structures are analyzed and designed so that these aviators would be better aircraft program managers later in their military careers. 25 2017 NDIA COMBAT SURVIVABILITY AWARDS by Robert Gierard Each year, the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Combat Survivability Division (CSD) recognizes superior contributions to combat survivability through annual awards for leadership, technical, and lifetime achievements. This years awards were presented at the Naval Postgraduate Schools (NPSs) familiar King Hall during the 2017 Aircraft Survivability Symposium in Monterey, CA, 79 November. The CSD also presented the inaugural Robert E. Ball Young Professional Award to specically recognize noteworthy contributions from earlyto mid-career professionals in the aircraft survivability community.


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 4 NEWS NOTES By Dale Atkinson FAIR WINDS AND FOLLOWING SEAS TO LCDR ROSS Navy LCDR Christian Ross nished his tour as the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) military Deputy Program Manager and Joint Live Fire (JLF)/ Aircraft Systems Joint Test Director in September 2017. As Joint Test Director, LCDR Ross managed and brought into publishing more than 25 JLF projects from 2009 through 2017. These projects have focused on maintaining awareness of emerging threats, such as advanced anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) and directed energy weapons; improving methods of test and evaluation (T&E) in a live re test and evaluation (LFT&E) environ ment; and providing responses to Warghter needs, thus increasing the capabilities of our ghting forces at home and abroad. LCDR Ross enlisted in the Navy in 1996 and received his commission as a naval ight ofcer in 2002. He completed two successful 7 th Fleet (ASIA) deployments as a navigator and tactical coordinator with the Patrol Squadron One (VP-1) Screaming Eagles. His follow-on tour was as a 7 th Fleet Task Group Watch Ofcer at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, providing mission support to deployed P-3C squadrons. LCDR Ross then embarked on the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) as the V3 (Hanger) and V2 (Launch and Recovery) division ofcer. He also earned his Launch and Recovery (Shooter) qualica tions, capping off a successful disassociated sea tour. He holds an Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) from the Naval Postgraduate School and will pursue a second career in government service. The JASP thanks LCDR Ross for his support over the last 2 years and congratulates him on his 20 years of distinguished military service. VOLPE PRESENTED 2018 AIAA SURVIVABILITY AWARD The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) has selected Dr. Vincent Volpe as the recipient for its 2018 AIAA Survivability Award. The awardwhich was presented at the organizations annual Science and Technology Forum and Exposition (SciTech 2018) in Kissimmee, FL, on 812 Januarywas in recognition of Vincents pioneering efforts as a founding member of the AIAA and National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Survivability Technical Committee (STCs), as well as more than 40 years of outstanding technical contributions to the aircraft survivability community. These contributions include extensive work in the preliminary and detailed design, test, analysis, manufac turing, and repairability of xedand rotary-wing aircraft, spacecraft, and surface vehicles. Vincent also has been a leader in live re testing and evaluation (LFT&E); advanced composite materials charac terization; development of survivability-enhancing design features; development of combat and environ mentally resistant material coatings; and determination of vehicle damage tolerance to a variety of ballistic, laser, infrared, and microwave threats. He also has helped develop innovative emerging technologies and multi-disci pline engineering integration; improve vehicle durability, safety, and damage diagnostics; and optimize susceptibility, vulnerability, and personnel force protection. Holding a B.S. in aerospace engineering and an M.S. in applied mechanics from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, as Navy LCDR Christian Ross Dr. Vincent Volpe


5 AS Journal 18 / SPRING well as a Ph.D. in applied mechanics from the Polytechnic Institute of New York (now New York University), Vincent began his career at Grumman Aerospace Corporation in 1974, where he investi gated the structural response and formulation of advanced organic and metal matrix composite materials and structures. He became a pioneer in the area of laser and microwave effects on advanced composites structures, and much of this work is still state-of-the art after four decades. In 1983, he was chosen to form and direct Grummans rst Survivability Group in the Engineering Directorate, where he managed efforts to address overall aircraft system survivability and all design aspects that would enhance susceptibility and vulnerability. While at Grumman, Vincent also worked on the preliminary and detailed design, testing, and repair of numerous military and civil aircraft, spacecraft, land, and marine systems. These systems included the F-14A/D, E-2C, A-6E/F, B-1A, EF-111, A-10, X-29, OV-1, and J-STARS, as well as the M1 and M2/M3 armored vehicles and foreign military hydrofoils. Nonmilitary systems included the DC-8 engine nacelles and empennage struc tures for the Boeing 757 and 737; NASAs Space Shuttle Wing, Space Station, and Hubble Telescope programs; and the DeLorean automobile. Throughout these efforts, Vincent provided a balanced and integrated engineering systems approach to produce effective, affordable, durable, and survivable vehicles. On several occasions, he also participated in joint technology exchange programs with U.S., British, German, French, Swedish, Israeli, and Italian aerospace companies, thus further extending the companys reputation internationally. From 1994 through 1997, Vincent was associated with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Division as well as the Arkwin Corporation. At Pratt and Whitney, he worked as a senior project engineer on a variety of advanced composites engine nacelle programs, including the Airbus 330 and Boeing 777 aircraft. At Arkwin, he was Vice President of Engineering, responsible for product design, test, and engineering support for numerous civil and military aircraft hydraulic components for a multitude of General Electric aircraft engines, xed-wing aircraft (Boeing 737 and 777, Gulfstream IV, F-22, V-22, and B-2), and several military and commercial helicopters. Vincent joined the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in 1997, where he serves as the project leader for Rotary Wing Aircraft LFT&E programs. He is respon sible for the technical oversight and evaluation of all military helicopter programs LFT&E activities, including the Navys CH-53E/K, CMV-22B, VH-92A, H-1 Upgrades, and MH-60S/R; the Armys CH-47F, AH-64D/E, UH-60M/V, and OH-58D/F; the Air Forces Combat Rescue Helicopter; and Special Operations Aviation Aircraft. In support of the Ofce of the Secretary of Defense, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E), he performs evaluation analyses, prepares and provides overall survivability assess ments with pertinent technical information for the preparation of their LFT&E and Integrated Survivability Evaluation write-ups for Beyond Low Rate Initial Production Reports and Annual Reports to the Secretary of Defense and the U.S. Congress. In addition, he has supported selected activities on the Navys MV-22 and F-18 and the Air Forces F-22, C-130, B-2, and B-1B aircraft by providing expert opinions on structural response/failure, advanced composite materials, ballistic testing, directed energy effects, and overall system survivability/vulnerability. Currently, Vincent is working with a team of engineers in the review, analysis, and preparation of a series of reports for DOT&E for the combat data analysis of xedand rotary-wing aircraft collected for the Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan, and ongoing conicts. These reports provide relevant statistics, lessons learned, and recommendations for the subject aircraft. Vincent is also involved with the advancement of the technical coopera tion between military and civil aviation agencies (including the Federal Aviation Administration, the Department of Homeland Security, NASA, and the Transportation Security Agency) in the areas of low-power laser and ballistic protection. In addition to his direct work responsibili ties, Vincent has remained actively involved with the aircraft design and survivability technical community in numerous ways. He has been an invited speaker for the Naval Postgraduate School; for the AIAA lectures at the Polytechnic, Stony Brook, and Hofstra Universities in New York; and for numerous technical meetings and symposia. Moreover, he has made more than 70 presentations at various aircraft survivability and structures conferences and symposia and has authored more than 80 papers and reports (including numerous articles in the Aircraft Survivability journal). Also, as mentioned previously, Vincent was a founding member of the AIAA and NDIA STCs, served as the third AIAA STC Chairman, and has been the Chairman/key organizer for several National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Aircraft Survivability symposia and workshops. Congratulations, Vincent, on this well-deserved award.


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 6 NEWS NOTES By Dale Atkinson MIKE WEISENBACH RETIRES After 33 years of federal service, Mike Weisenbach has retired. Mike started his government career in 1984, after graduating from the University of Notre Dame with a B.S. in aerospace engi neering. His rst assignment was at the Development Planning Directorate of the Aeronautical Systems Center at Wright Patterson AFB, OH. Under the tutelage of Gerry Bennett, Mike started making vulnerability estimates for conceptual aircraft designs. He also began his focus on the cross-Service application of vulnerability and surviv ability models and simulations (M&S), and he started working with the Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS) as a project engineer, leading projects that would improve survivability M&S for all Services and industry. From 1994 to 1999, Mike used his expertise in M&S to support live re test and evaluation projects, where he supported the C-17 and F-22 LFT&E programs. It was during this period that he began working with Hugh Grifs, whom he credits as being the second major inuence on his career. Mike then accepted a JTCG/AS central ofce position, which was collocated with the Aerospace Survivability Research Facility (now part of the 704 Test Group). As the Deputy Program Manager for the Methodology Subgroup, Mike made it his rst priority to capture a concept begun by the Air Force Studies and Analyses organization to host a meeting of model users, develop ers, and managers. Originally, these meetings were referred to as DEAFCRAB meetings (which reected the names of the models discussed at the meetingDREAM, ESAMS, ALARM, FASTGEN, COVART, RADGUNS, AJEM, and BRAWLER). In 2003, the JTCG/AS became the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program, the Methodology Subgroup became the Survivability Assessment Subgroup, and DEAFCRAB became the JASP Model Users Meeting (JMUM). After being executed continuously since 1998 in various formats, JMUM was designated as a JASP Core Function in 2016. Mikes leadership in the JTCG/AS and JASP M&S activities over the past 20 years have helped to institutionalize the concepts of M&S capability, credibility, and usability, which will continue to serve the Department of Defense for years to come. Thank you for all your efforts in aircraft survivability, Mike, and congratulations on your retirement. LEVELLE MAHOOD PASSES Levelle Mahood, 81, passed away peacefully on 15 November 2017 at home after a long illness. Levelle was a fuel system survivability expert who travelled with me to Vietnam in 1967 as part of an Air Force team of experts from the Flight Dynamics Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Here, we gained additional insight into the causes of aircraft losses, which we then applied to Air Force aircraft, such as the F-4, F-105, F-15, A-10, and C-130. Later, back at Wright-Patterson, I can still remember seeing him in a C-130 fuel tank cutting re and explosion suppres sion foam with an electric knife to make it t. He became a renowned fuel system survivability expert and worked at Northrop-Grumman for many years. Levelle is survived by his wife, Dottie, of 55 years and his two children. Mike Weisenbach


7 AS Journal 18 / SPRING As usual, the Joint Combat Assessment Team (JCAT), consisting of Army, Air Force, and Navy contingents, has been busy getting the mission accomplished. This quarter was lled with travel, including trips to Virginia, Maryland, and Hawaii. These trips provided excellent opportunities for learning from other organizations, for continued training, and for spreading the word about the JCAT mission. The following are a few highlights from each of the trips. In November, JCAT participated in the National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) Combat Incident Database (CDIB) Stakeholder Summit. This event provides a venue to capture current and future customer needs and fully understand the present and future requirements for the CDIB database. Attending this summit provided JCAT an opportunity to get a glimpse into the CDIB database to highlight areas for improvement in our own Combat Damage Incident Reporting System (CDIRS). Lessons learned from the CDIB that would signicantly improve CDIRS include connecting incidents to live re test and evaluation (LFT&E), including medical evaluation data, and continual data review and clean up. Additionally, the summit provided a forum for discussion to address how the aircraft incident reporting community would upscale data capture with signicantly more events, how to handle coordinated attacks, and how to deal with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) and cyber data capture. In December 2017, JCAT travelled to Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, to conduct a Joint Live Fire (JLF) exercise. The Army JCATwhich included CW5 Scott Brusuelas, CW4 Bart Schmidt, CW4 Mark Chamberlin, CW3 Mike Clark, and Greg Fuchs were joined by Navy JCAT members CAPT Matt Butkis, CDR Jay Kiser, and LTJG Dan Rolfe for this exercise. Over the course of 3 days, the team observed the JLF event and assessed the munitions effects on xed-wing aircraft components. The components will be used as training aids at the Aircraft Combat Forensics Lab at Fort Rucker, AL. The xed-wing platform is a new addition to the Fort Rucker training facility and will be used to support JCAT training, as well as other professional military education courses conducted at Fort Rucker. This hands-on training reinforces the skills necessary to conduct aircraft combat damage collection and assessment of foreign weapons effects on U.S. aircraft and strengthens the JCAT relationship between its Service components. Finally, JCAT attended the U.S. Pacic Command (PACOM) Combined Information Data Network Exchange (CIDNE) in Hawaii. CIDNE offers a platform to host, collect, integrate, and analyze various data sets across multiple applications and security domains across the operational spec trum. The purpose of JCAT participation was twofold: initiate Aircraft Combat Damage Reporting (ACDR) initiatives for PACOM and communicate the JCAT capability throughout the PACOM community. The trip was successful on all fronts (including escaping this winters below-zero temperatures). In addition to all the traveling, JCAT had some hails and farewells this quarter. In December 2017, the Army component of JCATthe Aviation Shoot Down Assessment Team (ASDAT)bid farewell to CW3 Chris Crawford. Chris served with ASDAT since 2015 and has been reassigned to Fort Carson, CO. While assigned to ASDAT, Chris served as a lead action ofcer for the Aviation Radio Frequency Survivability Validation (AVRFSV) Quick Reaction Test (QRT). The results of this test have greatly impacted the survivability of Army aviation, as well as the Joint rotarywing community, against foreign radar threat systems. His hard work and dedication served the QRT, ASDAT, and JCAT well. We wish Chris and his family good luck! Finally, Air Force JCAT is excited to add LTC Andrew Roberts to the team. Andrew comes from HQ AFMC A4, where he worked on establishing Repair Network Integration across the mainte nance enterprise. He has a background in aircraft maintenance, acquisitions, and engineering development/eld support. On the civilian side, he works for GE Healthcare in Milwaukee, WI, and is President of Fisher House Wisconsin, helping to provide a home away from home for military families in their time of need. Welcome, Andrew! JCAT CORNER By CPT Lindsay Cain, CW5 Scott Brusuelas, and CAPT Matt Butkis


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 8 by Marty Krammer CH-53K TAIL DRIVE SYSTEM LIVE FIRE TEST & EVALUATION As part of the CH-53K Heavy Lift Helicopter (shown in Figure 1) Live Fire Test & Evaluation (LFT&E) Program, the LFT&E team recently completed a series of tests to assess the tail drive system (TDS) vulnerability to ballistic damage. The TDS comprises ight-critical components, including multiple tail drive shafts, couplings, support bearings, support mounts, and gearboxes, that provide a means for driving the tail rotor during ight. The live re tests were designed to support vulnerability analysis by helping to understand the CH-53K system vulnerability and impact to mission expected threat encounters. The live re testing of the TDScon ducted at the Weapon Survivability Laboratory (WSL), Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, located at China Lake, CAincluded the following: CH-53K Horizontal TDS Components Test (LF05). CH-53K Pylon TDS Components Test (LF06). OVERVIEW OF THE CH-53K TDS As illustrated in Figure 2, the CH-53K TDS transmits torque while accommo dating angular and axial deections of the tail boom from the main transmis sions tail take-off (TTO) output ange and directs it toward the tail rotor. The horizontal segment of the TDS conguration spans nearly 40 ft and consists of six drive shafts, four hanger bearing assemblies, six multi-disc diaphragm couplings, and one splined disconnect coupling. The tail pylon segment of the TDS spans nearly 20 ft and consists of the intermediate gearbox (IGB), pylon drive shaft, two diaphragm couplings, and the tail gearbox (TGB). The IGB and TGB are each tted with updated technology, including emergency Figure 1. CH-53K Heavy Lift Helicopter.


9 AS Journal 18 / SPRING lubrication and gearbox health monitoring (vibration) capabilities. Each gearbox is designed to handle 30 min of secondary (emergency) gearbox lubrication in the event the primary oil system is compromised and pressure loss occurs. Compared to the CH-53E, the CH-53K TDS is designed to reduce the number of parts, reduce servicing needs, simplify installation and removal, and provide improved ballistic tolerance capability against threats encountered in combat. TEST OBJECTIVES The live re testing performed veried CH-53K Air Vehicle Specication (AVS) vulnerability design requirements and determined TDS ight-critical compo nents vulnerability and capabilities after being hit by ballistic threats. Production CH-53K TDS components were evaluated after being hit while under representative operational conditions (loads and speeds), includ ing pilot actions over a 30-min y-home scenario. The testing performed helped determine the structural integrity, dynamic stability, and load-carrying capability of TDS components after damage. The testing addressed the following questions: What is the CH-53K system-level vulnerability (attrition, forced landing kill levels) to ight-critical systems given a hit by expected threats? Does the component or system continue to function after taking a hit? Can a 30-min post-impact ight operation be maintained? Can any modications be made to reduce vulnerability on the CH-53K? TEST SCENARIO The testing of the TDS required additional consideration of mission scenarios when dening the test conditions. To fully represent and best assess the TDS performance after a hit, a CH-53Ks 30-min y-home spectrum (FHS) was formulated by selecting a subset of ight maneuvers or regimes from the CH-53Ks usage spectrum. The 30-min period identi ed for LFT&E is considered a suitable time for the CH-53K to leave a hostile region and return and land in a safe area of operation. The FHS represents the helicopters time spent at each maneuver, torque uctuations within each maneuver, potential torque uctuations when transitioning from one maneuver to another, and the rotating speeds of the TDS compo nents. To accommodate the WSL facilitys test equipment and capabili ties, steps were taken that simplied the TDS loading process for test operation. An equivalent 30-min CH-53K y-home spectrum was generated, reducing the number of ight regimes from 23 down to 8 equivalent steps. Regimes or maneu vers having similar power magnitudes were combined and averaged, adjust ing for the number of cycles and times operated. As shown in Figure 3, the mission scenario used for LFT&E represented the CH-53K being hit Figure 2. CH-53K TDS Description Figure 3 CH-53K TDS 30-min FHS


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 10 while in a Hover-Out-of-Ground-Effects (HOGE) condition, then transitioning and climbing, cruising, and ying for 30 min prior to landing. Two dynamic xtures (shown in Figures 4 and 5), were specically developed for the testing. They included a prime mover T-64 turboshaft helicopter engine, industrial reduction gearbox, and a water brake dynamometer to generate and apply torsional loads and speeds necessary to replicate dynamic operation of the CH-53K TDS FHS specied in Figure 3. Each test began by operating the TDS in the HOGE ight condition and then shooting the targeted TDS component. Once hit, attempts were made to continue operations of the damaged TDS component for an additional 30-min FHS of operation and determine the TDS ballistic tolerance and performance capability. Aircraft TDS sensors were monitored live and recorded during testing to determine the TDS health status during operation. The type of sensors included in testing were hanger bearing temperatures and vibrations, as well as gearbox (IGB, TGB) oil tempera ture, oil pressure, vibrations, and chip detector. HORIZONTAL TDS TESTING (LF05 SERIES) As mentioned previously, testing was conducted at the WSL main site, addressing system-level vulnerability and ballistic tolerance of the TDS against ballistic threats (Figure 6). A total of 17 ballistic tests were per formed on TDS components, including shots taken on the tail drive shafts, couplings, bearings, and mounts. Shot selections on TDS components focused on maximizing each threats ability to remove material during penetration. Testing explored both shaft and coupling ballistic tolerance to singleaperture wounds and the percent of circumference removed under dynamic conditions. Tests performed fully evaluated the TDSs performance over mission-representative ight spectrum conditions. The testing showed favorable results for the TDSs ability to withstand damage and maintain operation for 30 min. PYLON TDS TESTING (LF06 SERIES) Testing was conducted at the WSL main site, addressing system-level vulnerability and ballistic tolerance of the TDS against ballistic threats (Figure 7). A total of 23 ballistic tests were performed on TDS components, including shots taken on the IGB, TGB, pylon shaft, and coupling components. Shot selections on components focused on maximizing threat penetration and material removal on coupling, pylon shaft, and gearbox internal gear teeth, shafts, and bearings. Testing demon strated each gearboxs ability to maintain operation for 30 minutes after a hit for times when the loss of Figure 5. Pylon TDS Test Setup Figure 4. Horizontal TDS Test Setup


11 AS Journal 18 / SPRING lubrication occurred with the primary system and activation of the emer gency lubrication system was initiated. Test results were favorable, demon strating each components high resilience to damage and ability to maintain operation for 30 min. CONCLUSION Overall, the results of the CH-53K TDS live re testing described herein were favorable, and in many cases the TDS performed better than predicted. The testing conducted is considered the most realistic combat helicopter system-level testing performed. The dynamic test capabilities developed and the approach taken provided a complete mission-level live re evaluation and understanding of TDS vulnerability and capabilities to ballistic threats. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Mr. Marty Krammer is an aircraft vulner ability engineer at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division in China Lake, CA, currently leading live re test and evaluations activities on the CH-53K and CMV-22 programs. With more than 27 years of experience, he has supported numerous aircraft vulnerability reduction and live re test programs, including AV-8B, F-15, F-14, F/A-18, JSF, AH-1, UH-1, H-60, V-22, and CH-53, and has provided subsequent recommendations to reduce the vulnerability of these aircraft. Specializing in aircraft re, fuel tank self-sealing, and explosion protection, Mr. Krammer also serves as the Navy co-chairman of JASPOs Vulnerability Reduction and Analysis Subgroup, as well as the Navy Deputy Test Director for the Joint Live Fire Aircraft program, investigat ing vulnerability issues associated with elded Navy aircraft. He holds bachelors and masters degrees in mechanical engineering from California State University, Chico and California State University, Northridge, respectively. Figure 6. LF05 Horizontal TDS LFT&E Coupling Evaluation Figure 7. LF06 Pylon TDS LFT&E TGB Evaluation


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 12 Threats to U.S. aircraft force modernization rise as adversarial weapons technologies improve and weapons proliferation increases. To survive in this game of cat-and-mouse, U.S. aircraft developers use threat assessments from the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) to evaluate future threats that may jeopardize aircraft and aircraft component survivability at system initial operating capability (IOC) through system sustainment. With threats increasing in magnitude and lethality at lightning pace, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) decided to modernize the method of providing threat assessments, replacing the System Threat Assessment Report (STAR) with the Validated Online Lifecycle Threat (VOLT). This shift from delivering static threat products to more dynamic web-based products has signicantly reduced intelligence production time and will improve customer access to the most current IC threat assessments. MODERNIZING INTELLIGENCE THREAT SUPPORT TO AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY by Mary Anne Wells, Jason Luchkiw, Wayne McNutt, and Maj. Benjamin Wolak Photo by Justin Weisbarth, U.S Air Force


13 AS Journal 18 / SPRING THREAT SUPPORT Intelligence threat support to aircraft survivability is at the core of the National Air and Space Intelligence Centers (NASICs) mission to create integrated, predictive intelligence, in the Air, Space, Cyberspace domains, enabling military operations, force modernization and policy making [1]. Force modernization and weapon system development are complex processes with a high degree of uncertainty and require an in-depth understanding of current and future threat environments. NASIC and the IC support this process by providing assessments, projections, and estimates of adversary capabilities, technologies, and forces to enable Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS); Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE); and defense aquisition decision-making. Threat information is key to supporting many acquisition functions, including cost analyses, risk analyses, analyses of alternatives (AoAs), test plan development, modeling and simulation, tradeoff analyses, sustainment strate gies, and survivability analyses. Providing detailed threat assessments and data is key to developing and elding survivable systems and prevent ing program delays and cost increases, which can be incurred by unanticipated threat developments late in the acquisition lifecycle. Providing intelligence threat support early in the aquisition lifecycle reduces program cost, program time schedule, and performance risk. Because of the way the PPBE process works, a signi cant percentage of an acquisition programs budget is committed prior to examining current and future technolo gies that could be adapted to build future U.S. weapon systems. Once the aircraft program enters the Engineering & Manufacturing Development phase of the lifecycle, the majority of a programs costs are committed, meaning a major design change incurred by unanticipated threats would be difcult to mitigate and could delay the schedule [2]. Intelligence threat support is required by Department of Defense (DoD), Service (e.g., Air Force), and DIA directives and instructions [36]. Intelligence threat support is required to support the Material Development Decision (MDD), Milestone (MS)-A, Development Request for Proposals (Dev RFP) Release, the MS-C decision, and the Full-Rate Production (FRP) decision. Figure 1 shows these milestones and decision points and highlights intelli gence threat support requirements during the entire defense aquision lifecycle [3, 7, 8]. Historically, the milestone-based STAR was used as the authoritative baseline threat assessment. In 2015, the USD(AT&L) implemented Better Buying Power (BBP) 3.0, which mandated that the DoD better anticipate and plan for responsive and emerging threats by building stronger partnerships of acquisition, intelligence and require ments communities [9]. As part of this initiative and revisions to DoD Instruction 5000.02, the STAR was phased out in 20152017 and replaced Figure 1. Defense Acquisition Lifecycle and Intelligence Threat Support Requirements [ 3, 7, 8 ].


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 14 with the new VOLT and Defense Intelligence Threat Library (DITL). The VOLT and DITL emphasize reducing latency and improving intelligence data integration [to better] inform portfolio planning, technology development, system design, product improvement and technical refresh, and decisions on obsolescence and retirement [8]. Compared to the milestone-based, static STAR product, the VOLT and DITL are intended to be more dynamic webbased products and services. The VOLT process was designed on the premise of speeding up delivery of threat informa tion to the acquisition and requirements communities through the use of the DITL, which includes Threat Modules of pre-approved foundational intelligence to support more rapid threat analysis and decision-making. Concurrent with streamlined publication and approval procedures, the VOLT process goal is to reduce the production timeline of threat assessments for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs). VOLT COMPONENTS The VOLT is a more modular and exible product and service, tailorable to a wider range of acquisition and require ments stakeholders ranging from USD(AT&L) and the Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) to individual program managers, system engineers, and capability planners. As detailed in the following subsections, the primary elements of the VOLT include the Threat Steering Group (TSG), the VOLT Report, the DITL, and Critical Intelligence Parameters (CIPs). TSG The TSG is the primary deliberative and working body to coordinate and validate intelligence threat support [3, 7]. The TSG is responsible for preparation and review of the VOLT Report and develop ing CIPs [4, 7]. TSG membership typically includes the IC, capability sponsor, capability developer, and test and evaluation representatives. The VOLT is tailorable to customer require ments and returns the most accurate threat picture when TSG members are provided system and mission descrip tions with high levels of detail early in the process. This approach allows the TSG time to preselect DITL Threat Modules and other sources of informa tion relevant to the program. The TSG also develops, reviews, and approves CIPs for inclusion in the VOLT to provide strategic warning for decision-makers. VOLT REPORT The VOLT Report is a regulatory document dened as the authoritative threat assessment tailored for and normally focused on one specic acquisition category (ACAT)I, II, or IIIprogram and authorized for use in the defense acquisition management process. VOLT Reports involve the application of DITL Threat Modules and other IC authoritative intelligence information and data and are to be written to articulate the relevance of threats to a specic acquisition program or planned capability [7]. For U.S. Air Force programs, engineers and intel ligence analysts in NASICs Threats to DoD Force Modernization Flight at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, assess threats to aircraft at required decision points and milestones throughout the acquisition lifecycle, providing the VOLT Report as means of presenting adver sary threat to an aircraft program from aircraft conception through sustainment. Upon review by the TSG, validation for a specic program VOLT Report is completed by DIA or a Service (e.g., the Air Force), determinant of the programs ACAT level. Upon validation, the VOLT Report may be used as an authoritative threat assessment for program mile stones and decision points during each phase of the defense acquisition lifecycle, as follows. Materiel Development Decision (MDD) and the Materiel Solution Analysis Phase. During this phase, a VOLT Report typically supports an AoA and selection of the Materiel Solution, Draft Capabilities Development Document (CDD), Test and Evaluation Strategy, and System Performance Specication. Because nal materiel solutions are yet to be approved, specic system congura tion and detailed intelligence mission data (IMD) requirements are typically not known. The program, however, could identify the likely IMD types (e.g., radar, thermal, acoustic, electronic warfare, integrated reprogramming, geospa tial intelligence, etc.) based on the intended operational mission. Aircraft systems are dependent on a variety of scientic and technical intelligence products throughout every stage of their lifecycle; however, IMD provides essential data for modeling the system, developing algorithms, designing sensors, and testing and evaluating the system. It is important for systems to consider IMD as early as possible in the acquisition process. Ideally, IMD considerations will inform technology transition decisions and development planning efforts [7]. MS-A and the Technology Maturation and Risk Reduction (TMRR) Phase. VOLT Reports provided during this phase, prior to source selection, support technology development and aid potential


15 AS Journal 18 / SPRING contractors in determining materials or methods during RFP, aid in developing the CDD, and will likewise aid the acquisition commu nity in choosing a design proposal that would possibly eliminate or mitigate threats. When the program approaches MS-B and as the design matures, IMD requirements may need to be rened and submitted to the intelligence production centers, such as NASIC [7]. Dev RFP Release/MS-B and the Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase. An updated VOLT Report is required to support the Dev RFP Release and the Preliminary Design Review (PDR). During the PDR, the program establishes the system baseline and underlying architectures to meet requirements specied in the CDD. The VOLT Report also supports development of the Test and Evaluation Master Plan (TEMP), Lifecycle Sustainment Plan, and an updated Cost Analysis Requirements Description (CARD) and risk assess ment for the EMD phase. During the EMD phase, the VOLT Report further supports the Critical Design Review (CDR) to establish a system-level product baseline prior to system fabrication, demonstration, and test [7]. MS-C and Beyond. VOLT Reports written for MS-C and at the FRP decision provide insight into new threats after the system design is nalized, helping the sustainment community develop, design, and fund modications to elded weapon systems to keep them survivable. These reports also help determine performance gaps that will support planning on the next upgrade to the weapon system. The test commu nity also relies on the VOLT Report to support operational test and evaluation by mimicking real-world operational scenarios that are key to ensuring aircraft survivability and mission effectiveness. DITL The primary source of threat information for the VOLT comes from the DITL. Hundreds of Threat Modulesdened as comprehensive, authoritative, and validated assessments of foreign threatsare produced by IC subjectmatter experts (SMEs), validated by DIA, and maintained in the DITL [7]. Threat Modules project threat capabili ties out 20 years and are currently organized under the following 7 threat topic areas: 1. Chemical, Biological, Radioactive, and Nuclear 2. Counter Sensor 3. Cyberspace 4. Strategy/Doctrine/Employment 5. Platform/Target 6. Sensor 7. Weapons. Threat Modules also contain Threat Roadmaps, which show a progression of technology and provide a visual depiction of adversary capabilities in relation to state-of-the art weapons technology. These Threat Roadmaps, especially when annotated with state and nonstate actors having the capabili ties described, provide information that help developers and mission-planners within the acquisition community design for survivability. CIP s Finally, a key component of the VOLT is the CIP, which provides warning intelligence to acquisition and requirements decision-makers. CIPs focus on the technical capabilities of foreign threat systems and on critical foreign capabilities that have not yet been achieved by an adversary, but if developed would pose a signicant threat to U.S. weapon systems. CIPs, written against a programs Key Performance Parameters (KPPs) and Key System Attributes (KSAs), are generally established by the acquisition, intelli gence, and requirements communities. Most programs have at least one threshold parameter at which a threat to the aircraft survivability, performance, or its mission cannot be tolerated. CIPs address issues of signicant concern to a program, and, if breached, they will force a decision to act (change design and/or operational environment) or not to act (assume risk) upon the program. CIPs assure the program that the IC will monitor and report on any emergence of signicant technical or mission capabil ity that crosses the threshold or parameters addressed in the CIP. If a CIP report threshold is breached, the TSG and decision-makers are informed immediately. SUMMARY Staying abreast of current and emerging threats will enable the development, production, and sustainment of more survivable aircraft for the U.S. Warghter. Early intelligence threat support to the defense acquisition lifecycle is advantageous in reducing program cost, schedule, and perfor mance risk. The new VOLT and DITL are improving acquisition, intelligence, and requirements partnerships and allowing the IC to operate more efciently, while providing more timely intelligence to decision-makers.


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 16 ABOUT THE AUTHORS Ms. Mary Anne Wells is an intelligence analyst with more than 20 years of engineering and intelligence experience as a government employee and contractor at NASIC. Her experience includes serving as a STAR and VOLT author for large aircraft and as an SME/ all-source weapons analyst for several weapons disciplines. Ms. Wells has a bachelors degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Akron and a masters degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Dayton. Mr. Jason Luchkiw is an intelligence analyst with more than 10 years of intelligence experience. He is currently serving as an all-source analyst at NASIC. Mr. Luchkiw holds a bachelors degree in economics and political science from Temple University and a masters degree in strategic intelligence from National Intelligence University. Mr. Wayne McNutt is an intelligence analyst with more than 17 years of intelligence experience. His experience includes serving as a STAR and VOLT author for large aircraft and as an SME/ all-source weapons analyst for several weapons disciplines. He retired from military service in 2017, after having recently served as a Non Commissioned Ofcer in Charge for the Threats to DoD Force Modernization Flight at NASIC. Mr. McNutt holds a bachelors degree in information technology from the University of Phoenix and a masters degree in intelligence, security studies, and analysis from Angelo State University. Maj. Benjamin Wolak is a program engineer and intelligence analyst with more than 15 years of engineering and intelligence experience. He is currently serving as an Air Force Reservist at NASIC and as a government employee at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Maj. Wolak holds a bachelors degree in mechanical engineering from the Michigan Technological University and a masters degree in business administration from Boston University. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors recognize Mr. James Reed, Mr. Paul Siemens, Dr. James Sturckler, and Mr. David Turich for their review and contributions to this article. References [1] National Air and Space Intelligence Center. National Air and Space Intelligence Center About Us. About-Us/ accessed 12 February 2018. [2] Defense Acquisition University. Defense Acquisition University. accessed 12 February 2018. [3] Department of Defense. Operation of the Defense Acquisition System. Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02. http://www.esd. dodi/500002_dodi_2015.pdf accessed 12 February 2018. [4] Defense Intelligence Agency. DIA Directive 5000.200. accessed 12 February 2018. [5] U.S. Air Force. Integrated Life Cycle Management. Air Force Instruction 63-101, Files/FormsPubsRegs/Pubs/AFI63-101.pdf accessed 12 February 2018. [6] U.S. Air Force. Intelligence Support to the Acquisition Life-Cycle. Air Force Instruction 14-111, production/1/af_a2/publication/a14-111/ a14-111.pdf accessed 12 February 2018. [7] Defense Acquisition University. Intelligence Support to Acquisition. Chapter 7 in Defense Acquisition Guidebook https:// dag/CH07.01 accessed 12 February 2018. [8] Defense Acquisition University. DAU Wall Chart, ver. 5.0. wp-content/uploads/2014/09/DefenseAcquisition-Wall-Chart-18-Apr-2017.pdf accessed 12 February 2018. [9] Kendall, Frank. Implementation Directive for Better Buying Power 3.0 Achieving Dominant Capabilities through Technical Excellence and Innovation. Memorandum, betterBuyingPower3.0(9Apr15).pdf accessed 12 February 2018. NASIC Facility (U.S. Air Force Photo)


AIRCRAFT COMBAT SURVIVABILITY EDUCATION AND EDUCATORS: A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE OVER 40 YEARS By Robert E. Ball COVER STORY 101st Airborne Soldiers During Operation Wheeler, Vietnam, 1967 (Photo Courtesy of the U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center; Vietnam War Photograph Collection). Robert E. Ball


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 18 Then, in 1971 the Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Aeronautical Commanders established the tri-Service Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS). The JTCG/AS was established largely because of the relatively high number of xedand rotary-wing U.S. aircraft approximately 4,100 from all three Servicesthat had been lost to enemy re in the 19641973 Southeast Asia (SEA) conict. Many, if not most, of these aircraft had not been designed to survive in the type of man-made hostile environment they ultimately encoun tered. As a consequence of these heavy losses, one of the major goals assigned to the JTCG/AS was to establish ACS as a new design discipline for U.S. military aircraft so that new (or modied) U.S. aircraft would have a much better probability of surviving future conicts than their predecessors had in past conicts. A few years after the JTCG/AS was established, the organization offered to fund me to develop a computer program for the dynamic structural response of the fuel tanks on the B-1 bomber when hit by a bullet or warhead fragment. The penetration of the bullet or frag ment through the contained fuel causes a large transient uid pressure on the walls of the tank, known as hydraulic (then) and hydrodynamic (now) ram. It was then that I learned about the goals of the JTCG/AS, particularly the goal to establish ACS as a design discipline for aircraft. To me, as a structures engineering teacher who learned how to analyze and design structures at Northwestern, the JTCG/AS design discipline goal created the need for the development of a new formal ACS educational program that would teach those who may affect the survivability of U.S. military aircraft the fundamentals of this new design discipline. It was evident that this discipline needed to be similar to the existing aircraft design disciplines, such as structures, fuel systems, ight controls, aerodynamics, and propulsion, each with its common terminology, metric assessment methodology, design technology, and a set of requirements validated by testing. It should be broad in concept and coverage, and it must become an integral part of system engineering for military aircraft because it can have a major impact on all of the other aircraft design disciplines (e.g., rugged structures; signicantly more re/explosion/leak protection for fuel systems; redundant and separated self-repairing ight controls; highly maneuverable, agile, and stealthy aerodynamic shapes; and stealthy propulsion), as well as the operational tactics of military aircraft. So where should this new discipline be developed and taught? This question of location was signicant because, in the mid-1970s, military subjects, such as combat survivability, were not particu larly popular at most U.S. schools, colleges, and universities. And the answer that I came up with was none other than the NPS Department of Aeronautics. Because many NPS graduates are eventually assigned to work in, and often lead, the engineering ofces involved in the development of U.S. military aircraft, they will have an opportunity to inuence an aircrafts design for survivability. Furthermore, NPS has a vested interest in establish ing and operating a course whose intent is to enhance the survival of military pilots. (And, incidentally, what ESTABLISHING THE FIRST AIRCRAFT COMBAT SURVIVABILITY (ACS) EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM In 1967, I, at age 32 (and with no military service or aircraft background other than an early fascination with the aircraft ghting in World War II), joined the faculty of the Department of Aeronautics at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), in Monterey, CA, as an Assistant Professor. My credentials were a B.S. (1958), M.S. (1959), and Ph.D. (1962) in structural engi neering from Northwestern University; 5 years spent with two small engineering consulting rms near Pasadena, CA; and the development of a major NASA-Langley-funded digital com puter programknown as SATANSthat computed the geometrically nonlinear static and dynamic response of arbitrarily loaded shells of revolution (which was applicable to the Apollo space capsule during reentry). I was hired to teach 3035-year-old military aviators how air craft structures are analyzed and designed so that these aviators would be better aircraft program managers later in their military careers.


19 AS Journal 18 / SPRING exceptional students the NPS Department of Aeronautics has had. Eighteen of the students in my courses eventually became NASA astronauts, and one, VADM David Dunaway [an ACS thesis student of mine], became Commander of NAVAIR. Several others reached ag rank, and many led major DoD/Service ofces.) So, I approached the department chair and asked if it was okay if I started a new elective course in aircraft combat survivability. He asked, What is that? After I made a presentation to the department faculty on what ACS was all about, I was given the okay to proceed. I next approached the rst head of the Naval Air Systems Commands (NAVAIRs) recently established Survivability Division, CAPT Wendy Rivers, and his right-hand man, Dale Atkinson, with my proposal to develop and teach the fundamentals of ACS at NPS. CAPT Rivers, Dale, and the JTCG/AS leadership all agreed that the course should be developed and taught at NPS. Consequently, around 1975, I started the development of the unclassied (but distribution-limited) NPS graduate-level course entitled Aircraft Combat Survivability (AE3251), which I believe was the rst formal course in ACS in existence (see Figure 1). My rst action item was to get some help, and quickly. I coerced two Navy aviator students, Robert Nosco (an A-7 pilot) and Karl Krumbholz (a P-3 pilot), into working with me as M.S. thesis students. We then began a search for available material to use in our development and presentation of the ACS fundamentals. This search was complicated, however, by the fact that much of the previous work in ACS was classied. In addition, although much of the ACS terminology at the time was common between the three Services, there were differences that needed to be addressed if ACS was to become a design discipline for all Services. As with any design discipline, a common terminology is essential. Fortunately, the two most important ACS fundamentals for surviving a man-made hostile environment had already been established. Namely, an aircraft can survive in combat if it can: Avoid being hit by any damage (causing) mechanisms associated with the enemys weapons (e.g., bullets, warhead fragments, blast waves, and incendiaries) Withstand any hit(s) by the damage mechanisms that do occur. Likewise, the two existing terms associated with these two fundamen tals were: Susceptibility the inability to avoid being hit by a damage mechanism. Vulnerability the inability to withstand any hit(s) that do occur. Bob concentrated on susceptibility, Karl took on vulnerability, and I began developing the unclassied course notes to be handed out to the students. The rst offering of AE3251 was in the fall of 1977. Twenty-six curious military aviatorsmany of whom had been shot at (and some even shot down) in the SEA conictarrived wondering what this new course was all about. The students seemed to like it, fortunately, and they ended up teaching me more than I taught them about military aircraft and surviving in combat. The course quickly became a biannual course (and a required course for students in the Aeronautical Engineering [Avionics] curriculum), and it has been taught at the NPS twice a year for nearly all of the past 40 years. In early 1978, shortly after the initial presentation of AE3251, Dale Atkinson suggested that he, John Morrow (from the Naval Weapons Center in China Lake, CA), and I develop a JTCG/AS-sponsored short course on ACS that was based upon AE3251, but with considerable presentation partici pation by others within the ACS community. In the late spring of 1978, the rst short course was held in a packed auditorium at the NAVAIR Headquarters in Washington, DC, and a second short course was presented at NPS a few months later. At least one short course per year then followed for most of the next 40 years at NPS and other pertinent DoD and Service locations. A typical 5-day short course at NPS in the mid-1990s was held in an auditorium lled with Figure 1. An ACS Course Being Taught at NPS.


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 20 approximately 150 U.S. attendees from both industry and the DoD/military. One particularly notable short course presenter was Dave Hall of the Naval Air Warfare Center in China Lake, CA, who for many years presented the How to Do a Survivability Assessment lectures on the nal day of the course. In 1982, CAPT Chuck Cromer, the head of NAVAIRs on-site ofce at McDonnell Aircraft Company in St. Louis, MO (and my one and only Ph.D. [structures] student), invited me to give a personal ACS short course presentation that was similar to the presentations I had been making for NPS and the JTCG/AS. He wanted to directly expose the engineers and managers at McDonnell to the ACS fundamentals I had been developing. I accepted the invitation, knowing that the presentation would give me an opportunity to talk directly to those who can impact the survivability design of McDonnell aircraft. I also knew that I would learn from them as well. Soon after, other military aircraft and engine companies wanted similar presenta tions. So, over the next 18 years, I presented approximately 40 of these on-site, 5-day, 20-hour short courses at nearly all of the major military aircraft and engine companies (with most companies requesting more than one presentation). As the years passed, the course notes grew in size and content, and by 1985, they were published under my author ship as a 400-page textbook titled The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design in the relatively new American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Education Series (see Figure 2). Approximately 10,000 copies of the textbook were sold between 1985 and 2003. In 1986, the JTCG/AS also funded development and production of a 50-minute (distribution-limited) video titled Threat Effects in Aircraft Combat Survivability. The video, which was produced by Robert E. Ball, Jr. (with the SURVICE Engineering Company), contains unique combat and gun-camera footage, as well as lethality and survivability test analysis video, demonstrating the effects of threats on combat aircraft. The video has under gone several updates over the past 30+ years. (Authorized readers can obtain a copy of the current version from the Defense Systems Information Analysis Center [DSIAC] by sending an email to ). In 1989, I introduced the rst Surface Ship Survivability (ME3950) course for the Department of Mechanical Engineering (ME) at NPS. The course, which was developed at the request of several individuals within the surface ship survivability community, was based upon the fundamentals for ACS. A few years later, the course materials were transferred to a new ship design sequence of ME courses introduced by Prof. Charles Calvano, and ME3950 was removed from the ME course catalog. (For more information on the surface ship survivability design discipline, readers are referred to a Naval Engineers Journal article by Ball and Calvano [1994], which can be accessed at doi/10.1111/j.1559-3584.1994.tb02798.x/ abstract.) In 1994, AE3251 was the rst NPS course taught as part of the new NPS Distance/Distributed Learning Program, in which off-campus DoD employees could earn an M.S. degree. The program used live video teleconferenc ing (VTC) to connect one or more distant sites with the live class at NPS. The rst site chosen was the NAVAIR Headquarters in Washington, DC, with several more military sites, including the Air Force Materiel Command and the Army Aviation and Troop Command, eventually included. Also, for many years, non-NPS students could take AE3251 for NPS graduate-level credit as a correspondence course using specially prepared self-study materials and the AIAA ACS textbook. In 2000, I retired from teaching ACS both at NPS and the JTCG/AS short course to concentrate on writing and eventually publishing (in 2003) the 900-page second edition of the AIAA textbook (see Figure 3). Approximately 6,300 hard copies (with attached CDs) and 2,300 CD-only copies have been sold so far. In addition, a few years later, in 2007, the book was selected for the AIAA Summereld Book Award, named in honor of Martin Summereld, founder and initial editor of AIAAs Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics book series. (Note that Government employees can obtain a copy of the AIAA textbook from DSIAC at and others can purchase a copy from AIAA or most bookstores.) Figure 2. First Edition of the ACS Textbook.


21 AS Journal 18 / SPRING CONTINUING AND EXPANDING ACS EDUCATION AFTER 2000 Although the development of an ACS educational program at NPS may appear to be seamless, it was not all smoothgoing after 2000. Some major help was needed along the way, and most of that help was provided (rst) by Mark Couch and (later) Christopher Adams. When I left NPS and teaching to nish the second edition of the textbook, someone was needed to take over the NPS and JTCG/AS courses. Mark Couch was that someone. He was a Navy MH-53E pilot who had taken my NPS course in the early 1990s when he was an M.S. graduate student in the NPS Aeronautical Engineering program. In 1999, Mark was assigned to the Navys military faculty member billet in the NPS Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and while there, he earned a Ph.D. in aeronautical and astronautical engineering, with his research focused on helicopter aeromechanics. Shortly after Mark arrived in 1999, I approached him with an offer he couldnt refuseto become the ACS teacher at NPS. Thankfully, he agreed to do this while he continued to teach his regularly assigned courses and worked on his Ph.D. In addition, to better serve the students at NPS, he expanded the ACS course to include reliability and systems safety engineer ing, and NPS gave it a new course title of Aircraft Combat Survivability, Reliability and System Safety Engineering (AA4251). In addition to this new course being offered as an in-resident course, Mark, with the help of Andy Cibula (also an NPS graduate) at the JTCG/AS and Ken Goff at NAVAIR, resurrected the NPS VTC ACS course and greatly increased the number of students by setting up new VTC sites at Patuxent River, China Lake, Lakehurst, Aberdeen Proving Ground, WrightPatterson Air Force Base (AFB), Crystal City, Quantico, and Boeing-Philadelphia. After Mark graduated with his Ph.D. in 2003, he was reassigned to another duty station and departed NPS, leaving NPS temporarily without an ACS teacher. Then another major change at NPS occurred soon after Mark left. In 2004, as a result of a possible Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) action, the NPS Aeronautical Engineering program, which included a requirement for an ACS course similar to NPS AA4251, was moved to the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH. A few of the NPS Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics faculty moved to AFIT with the transfer of the Aeronautical Engineering program; the rest either remained at NPS as part of the new Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE) Department or retired. Unfortunately, due to the loss of a major source of aviator students to AFIT, the requirement for a new ACS teacher at NPS to teach AA4251 was not lled, and the NPS ACS course went into hiberna tion. The future of ACS education in 2004 did not look promising at NPS or AFIT. However, the JTCG/ASnow known as the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP)short course did continue to be offered annually by Kevin Crosthwaite of the Survivability/ Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) from 2003 through 2005. Fortunately for ACS education, in 2005 Chris Adams was assigned to NPS as the Associate Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Science (GSEAS). Chris had taken my NPS ACS course and was a thesis student of mine in the mid-1990s. When he returned to NPS as Associate Dean, he discovered that the ACS course was no longer being taught there. He was so concerned that the remaining aviator students at NPS were not learning about ACS that he approached the MAE Chair and volunteered to resurrect and teach AA4251, in addition to performing his normal responsibilities as Associate Dean. The MAE Chair at the time, Knox Millsaps (who now is the Director of the Division of Aerospace Sciences Research in the Ofce of Naval Research), wisely approved Chriss proposal. Chris not only took on the extra load of teaching AA4251, but he made a major modication to it. Because there were not as many aviator students left at NPS to take his ACS course, he developed a broader, multi-platform combat surviv ability course that would appeal to NPS students from all major military plat forms: aircraft, surface ships and submarines, spacecraft, and eventually ground vehicles. This new course became Combat Survivability, Reliability, Figure 3. Second Edition of the ACS Textbook.


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 22 and Systems Safety Engineering (MAE4751). Chris knew this change would require many changes to the ACS course he took in the 1990s. He also knew that the NPS students to whom he would be teaching this new course would probably know a lot more about ships and submarines, spacecraft, and ground vehicles than he did. This was a risky venture, but Chris had the ability to successfully pull it off. His new NPS multi-platform combat survivability course has been taught twice a year since 2005. Chris also developed a different, asynchronous, video-based, Internetaccessible course for Joint Combat Assessment Team (JCAT) personnel, and he has advised several thesis students looking at a wide range of survivability and lethality research projects. In 2007, Mark retired from the Navy and joined the Institute of Defense Analyses (IDA), working on aircraft survivability issues. Once there, he became active again in the JASP short course presen tations. Eventually, he and Chris joined forces, and they are now the lead instructors for the JASP ACS short course, which continues to be taught annually. The next offering of the JASP ACS short course (coordinated by DSIAC) will be on 2729 March 2018 at Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego, CA. As for me, after nishing the second edition of the textbook in 2003, I started the part-time development of a standalone, CD-based, Survivability Self-Study Program (SSSP). The JASP-funded SSSP, which was com pleted in 2009, provides a relatively quick, easy, and effective way to learn about the fundamentals of the ACS discipline. Nearly all of the material in the program has been taken from the prologue and chapter 1 of the textbook. (Readers can obtain a copy of the SSSP from DSIAC at .) Finally, in 2011, Chris, Mark, and I began the development of a combat survivabil ity educational program for Army and Marine ground vehicles, titled The Fundamentals of Ground Vehicle Survivability and Force Protection (GVS&FP), under the sponsorship of the Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFT&E) Ofce. I worked on developing the fundamentals for a ground-vehiclefocused textbook based upon my work in ACS and ship survivability. Chris developed a short course with additional invited presenters (which has been offered annually since 2014), and Mark served as an advisor and presenter. At the end of 2016, I fully retired from all combat survivability activities, and the GVS&FP educational program was transferred to the U.S. Armys Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) at the beginning of FY18. ESTABLISHING AN ACS EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AT AFIT The transfer of the NPS Aeronautical Engineering program from NPS to AFIT in 2004 created a need for an AFIT course similar to the earlier NPS ACS course. To meet that need, ACS education received another stroke of good fortune in 2007 when (then) MAJ Richard Huffman, a new AFIT Assistant Professor with a fresh Ph.D., accepted the responsibility for teaching Combat Aircraft Survivability (ASYS640) as part of the weapons specialty sequence. Rich took the opportunity to revamp the course curriculum and integrate it into the survivability research programs at Wright-Patterson and Eglin AFBs. The weapons specialty sequence includes four graduate-level courses in weaponeering, explosives, warhead design, and aircraft survivabil ity to provide the students with a holistic approach to the aircrafts mission, exposure, and kill chain. Thanks to Richs efforts, ACS education became a permanent part of AFIT. During his 4 years there, he taught ACS to more than 150 students and advised 19 M.S. and 3 Ph.D. students, including his successor at AFIT, David Liu. The current AFIT ACS professor is Andrew Lingenfelter, who conducted his Ph.D. research under Dave Lius guidance. Due to the military assignments process, AFITs ACS professors receive new assignments every 3 to 4 years, but they nonetheless continue to remain dedicated to the ACS discipline after departing to other assignments. Currently, all three instructors actively participate in the JASP ACS short course even though only Andrew is still at AFIT. Since 2013, the AFIT has conducted more than $500,000 worth of ACS research, has sponsored six M.S. students and one Ph.D. student, and has been published in numerous peerreviewed ACS-related journals and conference proceedings. Additionally, AFIT has partnered with WrightPatterson AFB units to jointly leverage resources for unique ballistic testing and research opportunities. The ACS course is one of the most popular and soughtafter courses at AFIT due to the tremendous foresight and work of Rich Huffman, Dave Liu, and Andrew Lingenfelter.


23 AS Journal 18 / SPRING OTHER OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACS EDUCATION To my knowledge, currently there is no other ACS course (covering all aspects of designing for survival in combat) offered at a degree-granting institution other than the ones at NPS and AFIT. I understand the U.S. Naval Academy briey offered an undergraduate course in ACS sometime in the late 1980s or early 1990s (using the rst edition of the AIAA ACS textbook), and I know that ACS was taught at the Naval Academy for a few years around 2011 by Brian Forney (a student of Chriss), who was assigned to teach at the Academy. The only other educational activity related to the design for ACS that I am familiar with is the research and 5-day Aircraft Survivability short course on the design of military aircraft for combat survivabil ity started by Prof. John Fielding in the 1990s at Craneld Universitys College of Aeronautics in England. Like me, John has remained active after his retirement in 2010, but his short course at Craneld is being carried on by others. In addition, there are a few civilian organizations that teach one or more aspects of ACS, usually in a short course format. These include the radar, infrared and electro-optic, and elec tronic warfare courses taught by Georgia Tech as a part of its Professional Education program. In the military operations world, there is a special U.S. Army educational/training program known as tactical operations (TACOPS), which is heavily involved with improving the survivability of Army aviation in combat. In the early 1990s, after Operation Desert Storm, the Army identied a need for an aviation tactical ofcer who specialized in the use of aircraft survivability equipment (ASE) and an ofcer who specialized in electronic warfare (EWO). Subsequently, the aviation TACOPS ofcer career track was created in 1993. In 2003, the multi-week TACOPS Ofcers Course was established at Fort Rucker, AL, under the direction of CW5 Greg Fuchs. Eventually, the subjects of ASE and EWO were absorbed into the 6-week TACOPS course, which continues to use the AIAA ACS textbook as one of its major sources of ACS fundamentals. The most recent educational opportunity in combat survivability is the 8-hr classied short course Aerospace Survivability, for aircraft and space craft, being offered for the rst time during the AIAA Defense Forum, 1011 May 2018, at Johns Hopkins University. The instructors are David Liu, Andrew Lingenfelter, and Steven Broussard (from Boeing). (Note: If any readers are aware of other formal ACS educational offerings, I would be most grateful if they would email me at .) CONCLUSIONS Over the past 40 years, approximately 5,000 students have taken either the ACS academic course at NPS or AFIT or the JTCG/AS-JASP short course; and nearly 19,000 ACS hard-bound books (rst and second editions) and CDs (second edition) have been sold. Overall, ACS education is in great shape now, with highly capable ACS educators who have dedicated their careers to the ACS discipline and a leadership that believes in the value of that discipline. As discussed throughout this article, numerous organizations and individuals have been involved over the past 40 years, and they deserve special recognition for this success. They include: The leadership of the JTCG/AS and JASP (currently led by Dennis Lindell) and the overseeing LFT&E Ofce (initially led by James OBryon and currently led by Sandra Ugrina) for providing intellectual and nancial support over the past 40 years. Individually, I would like to thank Dale Atkinson for his vision, encouraging support, and mentoring from the beginning of this 40-year endeavor; Lowell Tonnessen for his wisdom, insight, and support while at IDA; and the many ACS practitioners in industry, the Services, and the military who taught me what ACS is all about. The current generation of ACS primary educatorsMark Couch, Chris Adams, Rich Huffman, Dave Liu, and Andrew Lingenfelterfor saving the ACS educational program from a certain death and broadening it into a platform combat survivability program. Without their dedication, there would likely be no ACS educational program available to the DoD agencies and the military aviation industry today. The many ACS short course volunteer lecturers who, although not always experienced in giving ACS presenta tions to large groups of students, enthusiastically participated in the program, thus ensuring its success. Short course presenters who have been particularly active over the recent past include Alan Brown (past Director of Engineering at Lockheed), Bill Dooley and Dave Legg from NAVAIR, and Greg Fuchs, along with others, from the Armys Aircraft Shoot Down Assessment Team (ASDAT) and the multi-Service JCAT.


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 24 The ACS educational program is now on its way to its 50 th anniversary. As new threats emerge over the next 10 years, the ACS discipline must continue to evolve to defeat those threats. New educational materials need to be developed to cover topics such as advanced anti-air weapons (including improved guns and guided missiles); new weapons with different damage mechanisms (such as lasers and cyber attacks); and the new topics of cyber survivability, aircraft recoverability, and force protection. Adding this new material will keep our ACS educational program relevant, timely, and essential. Finally, I am convinced that the work of this current generation of ACS educa tors over the next 40 years will result in new generations of dedicated ACS educators who will strive to ensure that the aircrews that operate in a manmade hostile environment can accomplish their mission and return home, thanks to the combat survivability that has been intentionally built into their aircraft. And even if there is no one on board, we most likely will still want the aircraft back in one piece. And even if we dont expect the aircraft to return, it must survive long enough to reach the intended target. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. Robert E. Ball is an NPS Distinguished Professor Emeritus who has spent more than 33 years teaching ACS, structures, and structural dynam ics in NPSs Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. As discussed, he has been the principal developer and presenter of the fundamentals of ACS over the past four decades and is the author of the seminal ACS text The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design (rst and second editions), published by AIAA. In addition, his more than 55 years of experience have included serving as president of two companies (Structural Analytics, Inc., and Aerospace Educational Services, Inc.) and as a consultant to Anamet Labs, the SURVICE Engineering Company, and IDA. Dr. Ball holds a B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in structural engineering from Northwestern University. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND APOLOGIES The author wishes to thank Christopher Adams, Mark Couch, and Andrew Lingenfelter for their contributions to this article. The author would also like to apologize for any errors or omissions in this personal perspective40 years is a long time to hold on to so many memories. What: The DoD CBRN Survivability Conference is an intensely educational two-day symposium for those that support programs with CBRN survivability requirements and want to learn more. This conference aims to leverage DoD and industry resources by forming strategic collaborative partnerships. Attendees will help develop specic solutions to challenges posed by operational environments and allow stakeholders to share the path forward to establishing and implementing CBRN survivability initiatives. When: 45 April 2018 Where: Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate, Orlando, FL Registration Fee: None Website: SURVIVABILITY CONFERENCECBRN


25 AS Journal 18 / SPRING Each year, the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Combat Survivability Division (CSD) recognizes superior contributions to combat survivability through annual awards for lead ership, technical, and lifetime achievements. This years awards were presented at the Naval Postgraduate Schools (NPSs) familiar King Hall during the 2017 Aircraft Survivability Symposium in Monterey, CA, 79 November. The CSD also presented the inaugural Robert E. Ball Young Professional Award to specically recognize noteworthy contributions from earlyto mid-career professionals in the aircraft survivability community. 2017 NDIA COMBAT SURVIVABILITY AWARDS by Robert Gierard Figure 1. 2017 Combat Aircraft Survivability Symposium Awards at NPS. From left to right: Ken Foulke, Eva Nickelson, Carl Wolf, and Mark Miller.


AS Journal 18 / SPRING 26 PROFESSOR ROBERT E. BALL YOUNG PROFESSIONAL AWARD FOR COMBAT SURVIVABILITY This inaugural award was named for the NPSs Distinguished Professor Emeritus Dr. Robert E. Ball, the quintessential aircraft survivability expert, educator, and mentor. As mentioned previously, the award is presented to an earlyto mid-career person who has made a signicant technical, analytical, or tactical contribution to any aspect of aircraft survivability. Earlyto mid-career is dened as 35 years of age or younger at the time of award. Ms. Eva Nickelson, a technical staff member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, was presented this years young professional award in recognition of her career devoted to analysis and testing of air vehicle survivability in support of the Air Force Red Team, within the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Ofce. Ms. Nickleson specializes in air-to-air systems modeling, with expertise in modeling ghter/strike air vehicles, radio frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) sensors, electronic countermeasures, and weapons capabilities. Her work has made major contributions in shaping the future of Air Force combat capabilities. COMBAT SURVIVABILITY AWARD FOR TECHNICAL ACHIEVEMENT This award is presented to a person who has made a signicant technical contribution to any aspect of surviv ability. It may be presented for a specic achievement or for exceptional technical excellence over an extended period. Individuals at any level of experience are eligible for this award. Mr. Mark Miller, an aircraft design and observables subject-matter expert at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (Skunk Works), was presented this years award in recognition of his sustained technical leadership in the develop ment of stealth technologies and their integration into survivable weapons systems, such as the rst operational manned very low observable aircraft, the F-117A; the pathnding Darkstar (or Tier 3 Minus) unmanned air vehicle program; as well as numerous other manned and unmanned aircraft that cannot yet be acknowledged. RADM ROBERT H. GORMLEY COMBAT SURVIVABILITY AWARD FOR LEADERSHIP The Gormley award is presented to a person who has made major leader ship contributions to combat survivability. The individual selected must have demonstrated outstanding leadership in enhancing overall combat survivability or played a signicant role in a major aspect of survivability design, program management, research and development, test and evaluation, modeling and simulation, education, or the development of standards. The emphasis of this award is on demonstrated superior leadership over an extended period of time. Mr. Carl Wolf, a Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) and Air Force senior aircraft program manager and survivability technology expert, was presented this years award in recognition of his sustained leadership roles in the transition of stealth technologies from development to operational status in weapons, as well as manned and unmanned aircraft programs for both the Air Force and the Navy. His leadership has contrib uted to the combat survivability and effectiveness of numerous aircraft, including the A-10A, F-16A, F-15C, F-117A, B-2A, F-35, the Presidential helicopter, and the Air-Launched Cruise Missile. His 40-year military and civilian career included key senior leadership positions within the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition (SAF/AQL), NAVAIR, and the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Ofce. COMBAT SURVIVABILITY AWARD FOR LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT This award is presented to a person who has made signicant technical and leadership contributions through out his/her professional career, spanning many or most of the numer ous facets of aircraft combat survivability. This award is nominated by the executive board and is intended to recognize an individuals lifetime of accomplishments and dedication to the aircraft survivability community, as well as the aircrews we all serve. This years lifetime achievement award is presented to Mr. Kenneth Foulke from NAVAIR (retired) in recognition of his susceptibility reduction expertise and his more than 54 years of military and civilian service and leadership in combat survivability technology development and integration. Mr. Foulke is an acknowledged expert and leading force behind Navy stealth technologies and designs, with extensive experience in every aspect of low radar signature programs, from concept formulation and design to


27 AS Journal 18 / SPRING specication and test to production line quality assurance and maintainability. Congratulations to all four of our 2017 awardees for their many accomplish ments and contributions. LOOKING AHEAD TO 2018 It is not too early to consider who among our ranks is deserving of recognition this coming November at the 2018 NDIA Aircraft Survivability Symposium, which will again be held in Monterey, CA. Who among your own staffs and organizations has demonstrated technical or leadership achievements in the survivability community and is deserving of consideration for one of these annual NDIA awards? The CSD will publish award nomination deadlines and submission procedures later in 2018, but there is no need to wait to make a nomination or to discuss the process further. Please contact Mr. Robert Gierard at or 310-200-1060. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Mr. Robert Gierard is Chairman of the NDIA CSD Awards Committee. JASPO and DSIAC are pleased to announce that the 23 rd JASP Model Users Meeting (JMUM) will take place at the Air Force Institute of Technology in Dayton, OH, on 1214 June 2018. We are looking forward to a full 3-day classied agenda with a plenary session, breakout meetings, and new technical content. The purpose of the JMUM is to provide model users, manag ers, stakeholders, and others with the latest developments and updates on JASP-sponsored models and other models used throughout the aircraft survivability (suscepti bility and vulnerability) technical community. Attendees will be briefed on the latest software developments, upgrades, and threat model updates. We are actively soliciting session topics and presentations to enhance your meeting experience. If you know of a topic you would like to see on the agenda or if you are interested in presenting, please contact DSIACs Alfred Yee at 937-255-4608 or at alfred.yee@ Registration information, security clearance instructions, and the preliminary agenda are avail able at SAVE THE DATE, 1214 JUNE 2018 JMUM 2018


DSIAC HEADQUARTERS 4695 MILLENNIUM DRIVE BELCAMP, MD 21017-1505 CALENDAR OF EVENTS Information for inclusion in the Calendar of Events may be sent to: DSIAC Headquarters 4695 Millennium Drive Belcamp, MD 21017-1505 Phone: 443/360-4600 Fax: 410/272-6763 Email: To update your mailing address, fax a copy of this page with changes to 410/272-6763 or scan and email it to PRSRT STD US POSTAGE PAID BEL AIR MD Permit N o 50 DSIAC HEADQUARTERS 4695 MILLENNIUM DRIVE BELCAMP, MD 21017-1505 CALENDAR OF EVENTS APRIL CBRN Survivability Conference 45 April in Orlando, FL cbrnsurvivability2018 2018 Threat Weapons and Effects (TWE) Training 1012 April at Eglin AFB, FL 2018 Spring Simulation Multi-Conference (SpringSim18) 1518 April in Baltimore, MD Aircraft Airworthiness and Sustainment Conference 2326 April in Jacksonville, FL Propulsion Safety and Sustainment Conference 2326 April in Jacksonville, FL Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Technology Symposium 2326 April in Portland, OR 2018 IEEE Radar Conference 2327 April in Oklahoma City, OK AAAA Mission Solution Summit 2527 April in Nashville, TN AUVSI XPONENTIAL 2018 30 April to 3 May in Denver, CO Public/Enter.aspx MAY 2018 Armament Systems Forum 710 May in Indianapolis, IN events/2018/5/7/2018-armament-systems-forum 2018 Simulation and Training Community Forum 8 May in Dayton, OH AIAA Defense Forum 810 May in Laurel, MD International Forum for the Military Simulation, Training and Education Community 1517 May in Stuttgart, Germany AHS International Forum 74 1417 May in Phoenix, AZ 61st Annual Fuze Conference 1517 May in San Diego, CA 33rd Annual National T&E Conference 1517 May in Solomons, MD annual-national-test-evaluation-conference ASME V&V Symposium 1618 May in Minneapolis, MN 2018 SOFIC 2124 May in Tampa, FL 65th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting 2124 May in Long Beach, CA index. html JASP FY19 Proposal Review 2224 May in Atlanta, GA SpaceOps 2018 28 May to 1 June in Marseille, France JUNE Defense and Aerospace Test and Telemetry Summit 47 June in Orlando, FL 23rd JASP Model Users Meeting 1214 June in Dayton, OH events/2018-jasp-model-users-meeting AIAA AVIATION 2018 2529 June in Atlanta, GA