Aircraft survivability

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Aircraft survivability
Place of Publication:
Arlington, VA
Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Office (JASPO)
Creation Date:
Summer 1998
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Three times a year


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Aeronautics -- Safety measures -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Aeronautics -- Safety measures ( fast )
United States ( fast )
Periodicals. ( fast )
newspaper ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Periodicals ( fast )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with 1998.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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656541464 ( OCLC )
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Aircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO), chartered by the U.S. Army Aviation & Missile Command, U.S. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, and U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command. JAS Program Ofce 735 S. Courthouse Road Suite 1100 Arlington, VA 22204-2489 Sponsor Dennis Lindell Editor-in-Chief Dale Atkinson Views and comments may be directed to the JAS Program Ofce. To order back issues of the AS Journal, send an email to On the cover: Sailors conduct maintenance on an MH-60S helicopter on the ight deck of hospital ship USNS Mercy. (U.S. Navy photo) AS Journal 16 / FALL 2TABLE OF CONTENTS4 NEWS NOTES by Dale Atkinson4 JCAT CORNER by Maj. Ron Pendleton, CW5 Mike Apple, and CAPT. David Storr6 WARHEAD EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT: ENDGAME MANAGER VALIDATIONby Greg Czarnecki, Ron Schiller, Mitch Shedden, and John HaasSince childhood, aircraft dog ghts have captured many of our imaginations. Even for those of us who have not seen actual combat, Hollywood movies have put us inside cockpits to experience the gut-wrenching drama of an enemy missile heading our way, the wailing missile warning alarm, and the pilots deployment of countermeasures immediately followed by a HARD high-g turn. But these pilot actions are not accidental. In actual combat, the outcomes of such events are inuenced by tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) that dictate countermeasure execution and timing in sequence with ight maneuvers. Simply put, TTPs are critical operational instructions by which U.S. military pilots y, ght, and win. In addition, TTP viability and effec tiveness are judged through ight tests supplemented by exhaustive modeling and simulation (M&S).10 EFFICIENT FLARE COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST INFRARED GUIDED THREATS by Yeondeog Koo, Unseob Jeong, and Wonseok ChoePortable infrared (IR) guided missiles have been the biggest threat to aircraft, especially low-speed helicopters, for the last several decades. The development of IR-based seekers for missile guidance has been an especially active research eld, resulting in various emerging and/ or advanced technologies, such as spin scan, conical scan, Rosetta scan, and image seekers [1]. Likewise, numerous aircraft countermeasures (CMs) against these threats, including ares, infrared countermeasures (IRCM), and directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM), have been developed. And as aircraft have had countermeasuring equipment installed, the seekers have adopted infrared counter-countermeasures (IRCCM).


Mailing list additions, deletions, changes, as well as calendar items may be directed to: DSIAC Headquarters 4695 Millennium Drive Belcamp, MD 21017-1505 Phone: 443/360-4600 Fax: 410/272-6763 Email: DSIAC is sponsored by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) and is operated by the SURVICE Engineering Company under Contract FA8075-14-D-0001. DSIAC Program Manager Ted Welsh Production Editor Eric Edwards Art Director Melissa Gestido Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, per DoD Ofce of Prepublication and Security Review, Case No. 16-S-2581. 3 AS Journal 16 / FALL14 YOUNG ENGINEER IN SURVIVABILITY : JAMIE EDWARDSby Linda MossThe Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO) is pleased to recognize Mr. James (Jamie) Edwards as its latest Young Engineer in Survivability. An accomplished operations research analyst, Jamie works in the Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD) of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.16 FINDING OIL-LOSS SOLUTIONS FOR ROTORCRAFT DRIVES by Stephen Berkebile, Jason Fetty, Robert F. Handschuh, and Brian DykasA helicopters drive system converts the high rotational speed from engine output shafting into the lower rotational speed and higher torque required by the main and tail rotors for ight, with accompanying changes in shafting orientation. Transmission gearboxes within the drive system contain gears and bearings that are subjected to punishing loads and contact stresses as they transmit several thousand horsepower. Proper supply of oil within the gearboxes is critical to the continuing function of the drive system under these strenuous internal conditions during ight. If this lubricant supply is compromised, degradation in the drives will rapidly lead to loss of power and a forced landing, or worse.21 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC RAM FOR AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY by Kangjie Yang, Young W. Kwon, Christopher Adams, and David LiuHydrodynamic Ram (HRAM) refers to the damage process due to high pressures generated when a kinetic-energy projectile penetrates a compartment or vessel containing a uid [1]. The large internal uid pressure acting on the walls of the uid lled tank can result in severe structural damage. The study of HRAM effects on fuel tanks used on military aircraft is vital if the designs can withstand HRAM loads due to a hostile environment.


AS Journal 16 / FALL NEW Website: 4 NEWS NOTESBy Dale Atkinson The aircraft survivability community has lost a pioneer in the eld of survivability and lethality simulation. On 25 February 2016, Earl E. Wilhelm passed away at the age of 86. Earl was born on 5 September 1927 in Okmulgee, OK. He graduated from the University of Oklahoma, achieving a masters degree in engineering physics. He began his career as a research specialist at the Boeing Company in 1964, initially becoming a specialist in weapon lethality and participating in warhead design and testing, where he was granted ve patents. His talents eventually progressed to aircraft survivability with his transition to aircraft vulnerability assessments. He became an expert in FASTGEN/COVART analyses and was a regular participant in the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO) Model Users Meetings (JMUM). In 1998, Earl was recognized by the Boeing Company as an Associate Technical Fellow (ATF). He retired from Boeing in 2013 with 48 years of service. He is survived by his wife, Chien-Chiu; his three children, Steve, Thomas, and Key; his stepson, Chi-Ju; and his granddaughter, Ella. Earl and his longstanding participation in the weapon system analysis community will be greatly missed. JCAT CORNERby Maj. Ron Pendleton, CW5 Mike Apple, and CAPT. David Storr The Joint Combat Assessment Team (JCAT), consisting of Army, Navy, and Air Force contingents, continues to adapt to the ever-changing worldwide operations to process evidence from aircraft hostile re incidents and give combatant aircraft unit commanders immediate threat data, while also providing data for engineering improve ments to reduce the loss of lives and aircraft. Since the withdrawal of the forwarddeployed JCAT assessors in late 2014, we all have pursued alternate means to collect hostile re damage data. For U.S. Air Force (USAF) JCAT, one source of these data is the aircraft battle damage reports submitted by deployed aircraft maintenance units. Another source is via increasing the working relationships with deploying depot liaison engineers. These active duty engineers operate downrange on a rotating basis, supporting maintenance units with aircraft repairs that exceed the published tech order limits. These individuals also reach back to structures engineering ofces at the stateside air logistics bases to design and substantiate structural repairs for all aircraft types. They are also trained in aircraft battle damage repair engineering, which is a valued experience factor for the combat forensic work of JCAT. Two depot liaison engineers were selected for, and have completed, the 2016 JCAT training curriculum. JCAT Phase 3, the Threat Weapons Effects (TWE) training, is conducted by a different Service each year, and this year was the USAFs turn. The event was conducted at the King Auditorium at Hurlburt Field as well as at locations in the Hurlburt/Eglin AFB complex. Approximately 200 personnel attended, including military and civilians in the survivability, intelligence, and aircraft operation elds. Subject-matter experts delivered briengs on various topics, such as design for combat rescue helicopter aircraft survivability; recent hostile re events; man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) cueing using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology; specicity in survivability requirement language; Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) trends in explosives; forensic collection techniques; warhead design and blast effects; air-to-air threats; anti-tank guided missile threats


5 NEW Website: AS Journal 16 / FALLto aircraft; and KC-46 ballistic and long-duration burn tests. And back by popular demand, this years TWE featured the Dynamics of International Terrorism (DIT) demonstra tion (as shown in Figures 1 and 2). It has been four years since TWE included the much-enjoyed demo, which is a live demonstration of the tactics and effects of terrorist enemy weapons, ranging from Molotov cocktails to improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to automatic small arms against a variety of targets, such as armor plating, vehicles, and human analogs. Attendees also enjoyed several tour opportunities, such as the Seekers & Sensors (Open Air & Seeker Test Van) Laboratory, Electronic Design & Fabrication Laboratory, Joint Preight Integration of Munitions and Electronic Systems (J-PRIMES) Test Facility, Foreign Targets Compound (formerly called Chicken Little), and the McKinley Climactic Laboratory. With the end of another successful TWE, efforts to plan and coordinate next years event have begun. The Navy JCAT falls under the NAVAIRSYSCOM Navy Reserve Unit NR NAVAIR In Service Engineering and Logistics (ISEL) and has the responsibility to organize, coordinate, and host next years event. The 2017 TWE Seminar is scheduled for 24 May in Fort Walton Beach, FL. The theme is Emerging Threats, and the 3-day brieng will cover threats that are of primary concern to Department of Defense (DoD) rotaryand xed-wing aircraft. In addition to planning the 2017 TWE Seminar, Navy Reserve ISEL Detachment Bravo has been coordinat ing an upcoming Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFT&E) event to take place at Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA. The LFT&E event is sponsored by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO) and is designed to demonstrate the weapons effects of a red surface-toair missile (SAM) against a U.S. xed-wing aircraft. The warhead has been acquired from the Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC) and will be shipped to the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) China Lake via the Navy Air Logistics Ofce (NALO). Navy JCAT will rely on this live-re scenario to demonstrate a threat SAM engagement against a currently operating xed-wing airframe. Additional ight control surfaces, fuel tanks, and aircraft systems will be staged in the vicinity of the detonation to serve as witness plates to take advantage of this unique LFT&E opportunity. Once complete, a thorough analysis and assessment will be conducted, and the results will be documented and used to train future JCAT assessors and provide survivability engineers data to support threat mitigation to future DoD aircraft and aircraft systems. The Army JCAT team remains busy keeping up with the ongoing events downrange, conducting assessments, and uploading the results into the Combat Damage Incident Reporting System (CDIRS) database on a regular basis. Along with conducting assess ments, the team continues to brief the students who come through the Professional Military Education (PME) courses at Fort Rucker, AL, and travel to unit locations to conduct unit briefs and pre-deployment briefs. With the current operations pace, the team is on par to brief more than 4,000 personnel this year. These briefs keep the aviation community aware of the efforts of the JASP and JCAT programs, emerging worldwide threats, and current tactical events. Article continued on page 9 Figure 1 DIT Demo at the 2016 TWE Figure 2 DIT Demo at the 2016 TWE


AS Journal 16 / FALL 6 Since childhood, aircraft dog ghts have captured many of our imaginations. Even for those of us who have not seen actual combat, Hollywood movies put us inside cockpits to experience the gut-wrench ing drama of an enemy missile heading our way, the wailing missile warning alarm, and the pilots deployment of countermeasures immediately followed by a HARD high-g turn. But these pilot actions are not accidental. In actual combat, the outcomes of such events are inuenced by tactics, tech niques, and procedures (TTPs) dictating countermeasure execution and timing in sequence with ight maneuvers. Simply put, TTPs are critical operational instructions by which U.S. military pilots y, ght, and win. In addition, TTP viability and effectiveness are judged through ight tests supplemented by exhaustive modeling and simulation (M&S). Figure 1 Instrumented Aircraft with Missile Test Stand in PlaceWARHEAD EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT: ENDGAME MANAGER VALIDATION by Greg Czarnecki, Ron Schiller, Mitch Shedden, and John Haas At the end of the M&S chain is Endgame Manager. Endgame Managers role is to assess the nal outcome of engagements where missiles get a little too close. Endgame Manager assessments have to be correct to assure TTP credibility and the greatest probability of aircraft and pilot survival. At the request of the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center (AFLCMC) and by direction of the Director of Operational Test & Evaluation (DOT&E) and the Joint Live Fire (JLF) Program, the 96th Test Group (96 TG) and the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) for Weapons Development joined forces to verify Endgame Manager credibility for aggressive missile-aircraft engagement scenarios. The 96 TG (supported by Skyward Ltd.) assumed overall project leadership, including responsibilities for test planning, test design assistance, test guidance, early damage assessments, data analysis, and reporting. NAWCs


7 AS Journal 16 / FALL responsibilities included missile and aircraft test asset provisioning, test design, and test execution. Signicant technical contributions were also provided by AFLCMC (including test design assistance and pretest predic tions), the Joint Combat Assessment Team (JCAT) and the 388th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron (AMXS) (which provided post-test damage investiga tion, including estimates of damage effects on the aircraft operation), and a weapons program ofce (which provided test hardware and test design guid ance). Together, this team performed warhead-aircraft tests and assessments necessary to verify the credibility of Endgame Manager.TEST SCENARIOSWhile fully realistic scenarios include the relative motion of both missile and aircraft, an initial assumption was that Endgame Manager credibility could be assessed via a static ground test. (Missile-aircraft velocity vectoring within Endgame Manager was already understood as accurate.) To this end, the test design process began. The team selected an F-16 as the target aircraft based on the availability of full-up aircraft test hardware and a detailed aircraft geometry model. The team also selected warhead types/sizes and engagement conditions to provide challenging conditions for Endgame Manager. Primary warhead-selection factors included blast yield and fragment size/count. Engagement conditions (missile-aircraft orientations and separation distances) were selected to adhere with expected encounter scenarios and to produce tests that caused signicant, but noncatastrophic, combined blast/fragmentation damage to the aircraft. Team members considered several test design concepts before settling on two test scenarios that involved missiles with similar fragment types but different explosive yields. Each test would have the warhead (complete with surrogate fore and aft bodies) detonated while stationary above the aircraft. Blast and fragment spray for Test #1 would be directed toward the aircrafts aft right quarter. That for Test #2 would be directed toward the forward left quarter. Separating the damage zones prevented ambiguities of test results, allowed rapid back-to-back tests, and reduced range time/cost. AFLCMC used Endgame Manager to assist in test design by ensuring that engagement paths and interactions were representative of expected conditions and that resulting damage would provide useful V&V data. The burst point location was determined by using Endgame Managers fuzing methodology in conjunction with trajectories provided by the weapons program ofce. Endgame Managers Forced Miss mode used the velocity vector and orientation for both target and threat along with horizontal and vertical miss distances to calculate a burst point. Endgame Manager then sent the threat down its trajectory containing the Point of Closest Approach (PCA). The burst point derived from Endgame Manager matched the PCA generated by weapons program ofce data with some offset due to the threat-specic fuze delay. This offset was used to ensure testing at a burst point that produced useful data (i.e., a signicant amount of warhead fragment hits, but not so many that the aircraft was completely devastated). Once representative missile-aircraft positions/ orientations were identied and locked in, AFLCMC set missile and aircraft velocities to zero to generate predictions of the static ground-test outcome. Predictions included the blast pressure prole, fragment spray pattern on the aircraft, fragment sizes, and fragment velocities.PLANNING, PROVISIONING, AND TEST EXECUTIONWhile the 96 TG prepared and coordi nated the test plan, NAWC obtained missile and full-up F-16 test assets. Test preparations continued with missile fore and aft body acquisition/fabrication, missile test stand fabrication, and instrumentation setup (as shown in Figure 1). Instrumentation consisted of an array of thin fragment-time-of-arrival plates afxed to the aircrafts upper skin and redundant arrays of blast pressure gauges at varying radii from planned detonation center. Aircraft fuel tanks were lled with water. This action allowed projectile-induced hydrodynamic ram without risking fuel re that might destroy the aircraft before damage could be assessed. After a few pretests to gather early data and verify suitability of the test setup, NAWC positioned the Test #1 missile above the aircraft exactly as modeled. Although the test was limited to an endgame assessment, missile-aircraft engage ment circumstances remained combat representative. Test #2 went much the same. All data necessary for Endgame Manager validation were obtained.POST-TEST ANALYSISAircraft damage assessment began immediately after Tests #1 and #2. These assessments began by capturing dimensioned photographs and recording positions of all fragment penetrations. Damage assessment continued with high-resolution 3-D laser scans of the


AS Journal 16 / FALL 8 entire aircraft surface. When con trasted with baseline 3-D scans, the locations and dimensions of every change to the aircraft surface were quantied, including every fragment hole, dent, and element of blast deformation. As illustrated in Figure 2, the 3-D scans were then correlated with Endgame Manager damage predictions by projecting an orthogonal coordinate system on the F-16 scan. This correla tion/project allowed denition of x,y,z coordinates for every point on the aircraft and the test setup (e.g., pressure transducer location) with a high degree of accuracy. Impact points predicted by Endgame Manager were translated into this aircraft scan coordinate system and then overlaid onto the scan data as a separate computer-aided design (CAD) layer. This action enabled qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the number of predicted vs. actual impacts in a given area. The 3-D scans also dened sensor locations and (with precisely known distances) ensured the accuracy of fragment velocity calcula tions for model validation. Upon conclusion of testing, JCAT and the 388 AMXS arrived to assess the total extent of aircraft damage and estimate damage effects on aircraft operation. Damage assessments began with Test #1. Blast damage and each element of fragment damage were traced along their shotlines to determine damaged components. Components damaged by blast/fragmentation were noted by JCAT and functionally identi ed by the 388 AMXS. Findings were recorded directly on 3-D scans of the damaged aircraft to eliminate ambiguity. Once all damages were noted, the 388 AMXS considered Test #1 damage as a whole and rendered an estimate of how the overall damage state would affect aircraft operation had this been an actual combat incident. JCAT and the 388 AMXS performed a similar analysis for the stand-alone Test #2 damage state. Beyond Endgame Manager, results of this detailed damage analysis are being used to assess the credibility of fault trees within aircraft vulnerability assessment codes.SUMMARYThrough joint-Service collaboration, warhead damage effects data were gathered for validation of Endgame Manager. Not only was care taken to allow direct correlation of tested and modeled engagement scenarios, but application of a high-resolution laser scanner ensured precision of all measurements critical to the projects success. These high-resolution scans also proved useful to the JCAT team for documenting damaged systems without ambiguity. Ultimately, scanned data provided a valuable, permanent, and quantiable archive of each test event. In addition, should future analyses be required, or if questions arise about the test, scanned data can be revisited for additional measures. At the end of the day, every possible engagement condition and TTP counter measure and maneuver are graded via M&S. Endgame Manager makes the nal determination of whether a TTP passes or fails. Validation of Endgame Manager, through data produced by this effort, provides greater condence that Example Photo Laser Scan Point Cloud Generated Mesh Figure 2 Photographed, Scanned, and CAD-Generated Damage for Analysis


9 AS Journal 16 / FALL TTP countermeasures are effective and that pilots called upon to employ them have the best odds of successfully accomplishing their mission and returning safely home to their families. May the odds be ever in their favor! ABOUT THE AUTHORS Mr. Greg Czarnecki is the Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Team Lead for the 96 TGs Aerospace Survivability and Safety Ofce. For the past 35 years, he has supported aircraft survivability testing and modeling. Mr. Czarnecki holds an M.S. in materials engineering from the University of Dayton and is a member of JASPs subject-matter expert team for aircraft vulnerability reduction. Mr. Ron Schiller is the Range Engineering Section Head for NAWCWDs Weapons Survivability Laboratory. He has supported surviv ability LFT&E efforts at China Lake for the past 20 years. Mr. Schiller holds a B.S. in mechanical engineering from California State University, Fresno, and an M.S. in mechanical engineering from California State University, Northridge. Mr. Mitch Shedden is a vulnerability analysis engineer for the Combat Effectiveness and Vulnerability Analysis Branch, AFLCMC/EZJA. For the past 5 years, he has provided M&S subjectmatter expertise in support of LFT&E for Acquisition Category I programs. Mr. Shedden holds a B.S. in mechanical engineering and an M.S. in materials science engineering from Ohio State University. Mr. John Haas is the Vice President of Technical Services for Skyward, Ltd. His 25-year career in aircraft survivability/ vulnerability testing and analysis has included ballistic live re test and evaluations of numerous Air Force and Navy aircraft, as well as programs to assess threat weapon characterizations, evaluate materials, and evaluate vulnerability reduction concepts. Mr. Haas holds a B.S. in engineering physics from Ohio State University and an M.B.A. from Wright State University. In addition, the team maintains both NIPR ( ASDAT) and SIPR ( https://www.usaace. htm) websites to provide information on aviation survivability along with trending data from current operations. The biggest contributions to the portals are the weekly intelligence summary (INTSUM) and the quarterly newsletter, and both products can be found on the teams SIPR portal. The team works diligently to maintain its knowledge management efforts and anticipates more than 100,000 aviation survivability product downloads this year. With the recent realignment to the requirements directorate (TCM-AB), Army JCAT has been nding new ways of helping the information ow from the warghter to the requirement writers for the Army. Along with those efforts, the Aviation Shoot Down Assessment Team (ASDAT) has been working on the development of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) for future conicts with technology-savvy adversaries. ASDAT has visited all the sister Services tactics schools to collaborate and collect information on the development of these TTPs while sharing what is learned with each visit. This initiative will pay huge dividends for the survivability of our aircrews and help the aviation commu nity as a whole. Finally, Army JCAT has undergone some personnel changes this year. We are welcoming CW3 Chris Crawford, who comes from the TACOPS course at Fort Rucker, as well as CW3 Mike Clark, who recently joined us from the 82nd Combat Aviation Brigade. Both of these individuals have a wealth of knowledge and experience from multiple deploy ments downrange and are eager to help the JCAT program. We are also saying farewell to the current ASDAT Chief, CW5 Mike el Jefe Apple, who has been selected and assigned to the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) G-3 Aviation Resources Management Survey (ARMS) team at Fort Bragg, NC. The team appreciates his tireless efforts and wishes him and his wife blessings on their next adventure. At the same time, the team welcomes his replacement, CW5 Scott Brusuelas, who comes from the 101st Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB) at Fort Campbell, KY, where he served as the brigade Tactical Operations (TACOPS) ofcer. He also has spent time ying OH-58Ds and UH-60Ms on multiple deployments. JCAT Corner continued from page 5


AS Journal 16 / FALL 10 By Yeondeog Koo, Unseob Jeong, and Wonseok Choe EFFICIENT FLARE COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST INFRARED GUIDED THREATS There are currently three major IRCCM capabilities: intensity rise time, line-of-sight (LOS) rate change, and spectral distribution discrimination [15]. „ en Intensity Rise Time Although an aircraft has constant IR intensities, ares have abruptly increasing intensities right after burning. This increase is to get sufcient intensities before separating from the aircraft. Accordingly, a missile seeker has an intensity rise time trigger, enabling the seeker to recognize a are when its intensity increases abruptly and discontinue tracking it. „ en LOS Rate Change IRCCM seekers can distinguish an aircraftred are as a decoy by measuring the angular velocity of two objects when a are separates rapidly from the aircraft right after ring. Thus, to delude the seeker, the aircraft must operate and launch ares in an effective manner. „ en Spectral Distribution Discrimination Seekers have IRCCM to detect ares by compar ing the intensity ratios of an aircraft and ares in the nearand mid-IR regions. An aircraft has relatively constant intensities in the two IR regions, but ares have high Portable infrared (IR) guided missiles have been the biggest threat to aircraft, especially low-speed helicopters, for the last several decades. The development of IR-based seekers for missile guidance has been an especially active research eld, resulting in various emerging and/or advanced technolo gies, such as spin scan, conical scan, Rosetta scan, and image seekers [1]. Likewise, numerous aircraft countermeasures (CMs) against these threats, including ares, infrared countermeasures (IRCM), and directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM), have been developed. And as aircraft have had countermeasuring equipment installed, the seekers have adopted infrared counter-countermeasures (IRCCM). U.S. Air Force Photo


11 AS Journal 16 / FALL intensities in the near IR. Therefore, ares have been developed recently to increase the intensities in the mid-IR region, providing similar ratios to an aircraft. This following sections discuss effective are operation methods against LOS rate change of IRCCM. First, we introduce the experimental approaches that were conducted to characterize ight features of ares and an aircraft regarding the LOS rate change of IR seekers. The rst set of experiments, are ring, was performed to acquire trajectory and speed characteristics of ares with different conditions. The focus of the second set of experiments was on LOS rate change measurement using an actual IR seeker. Based on the analysis of these experiments and their resulting data, several are ring management approaches are suggested to maximize aircraft survivability. EXPERIMENTSFlare Firing ExperimentsFor this study, are trajectories from an actual ring test were studied, while previous studies have relied on simula tion data [3, 6]. In the case of the simulation, the model was designed such that the are weight and velocity decrease as the simulation time elapses, while the acceleration value reaches its maximum at burn-out time. For this study, the actual are range, speed, and acceleration were obtained by the ring test. In the experiment, conventional-type ares were red to the horizontal direction from a hovering helicopter, and video was taken in the direction perpendicular to the are motion direction. Based on this video, the effective time of the are was mea sured to be approximately 4 s. The video was subdivided into 0.1-s intervals, and the distance was measured horizontally and vertically using some reference value of helicopter specica tions for 4 s. The trajectory is shown in Figure 1, with just are movements and no helicopter velocity elements. The trajectory equations were approximated by using polynomial interpolation. The horizontal and vertical speeds are shown in Figure 2, where the initial speed is 50 m/s and the nal horizontal speed is almost 0.Relative Speeds of Helicopter and Flares Viewed From the Missile Assuming the helicopter speed to be 120 nm (60 m/s), the relative speeds of the helicopter and the ares viewed from the incoming missile were analyzed for 4 s, with the are ring angle varying from 0 to 150 (see Figures 35). The angles of the incoming missile were also supposed to be from 0 to 150. In the analysis, the are speeds obtained in the experi ments were applied, being attenuated for 4 s. In the gures, the relative speed of the helicopter and ares can be seen to decrease as ares are red in the direction similar to the helicopter movement, regardless of missile viewing angles. The speed is approxi mately 30 m/s, which is 50% of the helicopter speed (60 m/s), except when ring backward. The maximum values are similar to helicopter speed (60 m/s). The relative horizontal positions of the two were measured for 4 s in different ring angles (see Figure 6). The vertical values are changed to 40 m for 4 s in Figure 1. The values in Figure 6 were used to measure the length of time that the target and ares simultaneously stay in the eld of view (FOV) of a missile, assuming 2 (see Table 1). The longer the time in the FOV, the better the decoying. One reason is that the smaller the separation rate of the ares and target, which is LOS rate change, the better it is against the IRCCM seeker. Another reason is that the seeker cannot track a target normally when seeing the target and the ares simultaneously. Table 1 shows the longer time length as the are ring angle gets closer to the helicopter heading direction. Figure 1 Flare Trajectories (Horizontal and Vertical Ranges) Figure 2 Relative Speeds (Incoming Missile Angle: 30 )


AS Journal 16 / FALL 12 LOS Rate Change ExperimentThe trajectory sensing performance and LOS rate change function of an IR missile were tested in the laboratory (the setup of which is shown in Figure 7). The seeker used in the experiment was one of the units under test. Two IR sources were located 10 m from the seeker and heated to 2,000 C. The heat sources areas, which were assumed to be a helicopter and are, were changed to control IR intensities. It is generally known that are IR intensities are 210 times greater than helicopter intensities in near IR [1]. In some experiments, the intensi ties were reported to be 50100 times greater. In this study, the IR intensities of the are varied between 10 and 110 times greater than the intensities of the helicopter. The helicopter IR source, which has a weak intensity, was xed in a location, and the are source was moved along the tangential direction of the seeker with different speeds and intensity. The seeker was checked to determine whether to track the strong IR source, the are. The maximum speed at which the tracker could keep tracking the weak source was recorded at different are intensities. In the experiment, the angular velocities were increased according to two intensities ratios. The measured angular velocities and LOS rate changes are shown in Figure 8. ANALYSISIn studying the trajectories of ares red from a helicopter, the separation speed viewed from an incoming missile was found to be approximately 30 m/s, which is half of the helicopter speed (except when red in backward directions). The actual LOS rate change tested in the laboratory was betweem 2.3 and 6.3/s. By applying these two values mathemati cally, we can conclude the are decoy distance is 270750 m from the helicop ter. Thus, the are can delude an incoming missile if the missile is further than this distance from the aircraft. In a high-speed aircraft, the are ring speed is relatively small compared to the aircraft. Therefore, the separation speed of the two will be the same as the aircraft speed regardless of ring angles. Assuming the aircraft speed to be 300 m/s, the are decoy distance is 10 times that of a helicopter. Therefore, considering the missile effective range (3,0005,000 m), it is nearly impossible to delude the missile by are. To increase the surviv ability of high-speed aircrafts, installing ares with improved aerodynamic characteristics could be considered to minimize air resistance and increase are speed near to the aircraft speed. These effects can increase the effectiveness by decreasing the separation speed [5, 7]. Range FOV 30 60 901,000 m 35 m 2.52.7 s 0.92.3 s 0.82.2 s 2,000 m 70 m 3.54 s 2.54 s 1.73.2 s 3,000 m 105 m 4 s 3.54 s 2.64 s 4,000 m 140 m 4 s 4 s 3.34 sTable 1 Length of Time Staying in the FOV of Missile (Target and Flare Simultaneously) Figure 3 Relative Speeds (Incoming Missile Angle: 30) Figure 5 Relative Speeds (Incoming Missile Angle: 150) Figure 4 Relative Speeds (Incoming Missile Angle: 90) Figure 6 Relative Horizontal Positions of Helicopters and Flare for 4 s


13 AS Journal 16 / FALL The ultimate measure to protect an aircraft against IR missiles is to re ares several times repeatedly. IR seekers, seeing are appearance, operate in three steps: are detection, CCM tracking, and normal tracking [13]. If a are is red again before the seeker transits back to the normal tracking mode (in the case of exceeding the LOS rate change), it is considered possible to delude the seeker. The time interval is predicted to be related to the signal process period of the seeker, which is a unique specication for each seeker. Considering the aircraft-speed-calibrated ight trajectory of ares [6], two ares per 0.1 s will be able to mask the aircraft detection by the LOS rate change function. The number of times the two rounds of ares with a 0.1-s ring interval are suitable and the amount of time interval that is needed are related with the missile ight time and effective are time. Flares should be effective during missile ight. For example, if we assume the missile ight time to be 6 s, two rounds of ares with a 0.1-s interval should be red and repeated two times more with a 1-s interval between repetitions. Generally, passive missile warning sensors are widely used because of their covertness, but they also have the disadvantage of not knowing the missile distance and arrival time. Adding active sensors can control the numbers of ares ring because the arrival time is known. This addition/control will increase the effectiveness and also reduce false alarms.CONCLUSIONBased on the experimental results from obtaining the relative are speeds separated from a helicopter under various conditions and measuring the LOS rate change function, the following conclusions regarding effective are ring techniques are made. For low-speed aircraft, such as helicopters, ring one round of are can be effective against LOS rate change-based IRCCM seekers. With aircraft operational factors, such as safety, not considered, ring in the forward direction showed better results than ring in the back ward direction. In the case of high-speed aircraft, IRCCM seekers can easily differentiate ares from aircraft due to high LOS rate change. Installing aerodynamically designed ares can help reduce the detection probability. Finally, for both lowand high-speed aircraft, ring two rounds of ares with a 0.1-s interval and repeating the ring several times is considered to be highly effective. ABOUT THE AUTHORSDr. Yeondeog Koo works for the Agency for Defense Development in South Korea. He was the project manager for the Mission Equipment Package research and development (R&D), including Aircraft Survivability Equipment (ASE) for helicopters, and he is experienced in R&D and the test and evaluation (T&E) of various ASE, including the computer, missile warning system, radar warning system, laser warning system, and chaffs and ares. Dr. Unseob Jeong is currently the team leader for the Agency for Defense Developments Electronic Warfare Systems and is a former project manager for the ASE system R&D for helicopters. Mr. Wonseok Choe manages and develops the Electronic Warfare Experiment Laboratory for the Agency for Defense Development. References[1] Deyerle, M. Advanced Infrared Missile Counter-Countermeasures. Journal of Electronic Defense January 1994. [2] Viau, C. R. Implementation of Intensity Ratio Change and Line-of-Sight Rate Change Algorithms for Imaging Infrared Trackers. Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XXIII, Proceedings of SPIE vol. 8355, 2012. [3] Forrai, David P., and James J. Maier. Generic Models in the Advanced IRCM Assessment Model, P roceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference 2001. [4] Viau, C. R. Expendable Countermeasure Effectiveness Against Imaging Infrared Guided Threats. Second International Conference on Electronic Warfare, Bangalore, India, 2012. [5] Koch, Ernst-Christian. Pyrotechnic Countermeasures: II. Advanced Aerial Infrared Countermeasures. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics vol. 31, no.1, 2006. [6] Baqar, S. Low-Cost PC-Based High Fidelity Infrared Signature Modeling and Simulation. Ph.D. thesis, Craneld Defense and Security, 2007. [7] Labonte, Gilles, and W. C. Deck. Infrared Target-Flare Discrimination Using a ZISC Hardware Neural Network. Jo urnal of Real-Time Image Processing 2010. Figure 7 Experimental Setup Figure 8 Measured LOS Rate Change


AS Journal 16 / FALL 14 His career in survivability began in 2003, when he was a high school student contractor at ARL, and he continued to work part time at the laboratory throughout his college years. During that period, he collaborated with senior scientists and engineers to develop and employ computer models and simula tions for assessing the vulnerability of Army combat systems, both ground and air, to conventional threats. In 2008, after graduating from the University of Maryland with a double major in mathematics and economics, Jamie transitioned to full-time employ ment in SLADs System Engineering and Experimentation Branch (SEEB). Since then, he has worked on projects managed by the major tri-Service survivability/vulnerability (S/V) pro grams (e.g., JASP and Joint Live Fire [JLF]) as well as performed S/V and lethality research in ARL/SLAD core mission areas. Now, with 13 years of combined empirical and analytical experience in S/V, Jamie is a technical project leader in SEEB. His most recent assignments include conducting live-re testing to rene analytical methods for predicting shock-induced detonation of warhead explosive materials. This predictive capability is an important factor for determining lethality in a Live Fire Test & Evaluation (LFT&E) program for a major Army air-defense missile system. The following sections describe some of Jamies accomplishments in S/V, reecting his technical abilities, work experience, and professional involvements.FUEL SYSTEM VULNERABILITYJamie was introduced to the vulner ability of fuel systems when assigned to a JASP project to determine ballistic limits, hole sizes, and leak rates for self-sealing bladder materials by testing. For that work, he became procient with the FATEPEN and ProjPen models, and his understanding of the predictive inuences of the models inputs was instrumental in ensuring that the appropriate parameters were measured in those tests. Jamie is also an acknowledged expert on the Fire Prediction Model (FPM). He has performed sensitivity studies on the effects of varying FPM inputs (e.g., striking velocity, air gap distance, function type, and interior (target) geometry) on the models estimates of fuel ignition and re sustainment, and he has run FPM for target-specic vulnerability analyses, including ground systems. For example, he generated air gap tables used to assess res on missile-launcher and jammer systems for the Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness (JTCG/ME) and the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) for an Army studies program. He is also responsible for pre-shot predictions with FPM, most recently for the JASP-sponsored fuel subsystem ullage vulnerability test on the triService C-12 airplane.The Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO) is pleased to recognize Mr. James (Jamie) Edwards as its latest Young Engineer in Survivability. An accomplished operations research analyst, Jamie works in the Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD) of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. YOUNG ENGINEER IN SURVIVABILITY JAMIE EDWARDS by Linda Moss


15 AS Journal 16 / FALL In addition, Jamie led the JASPsponsored FPM Ignite verication and validation (V&V) program, partnering with Air Force, Navy, and industry (SURVICE Engineering Company) representatives to identify and x discrepancies between the source code and documentation, x implementation errors, and validate the model via simulation. He also serves as the Army representative for the FPM Conguration Control Board and is currently involved in planning efforts for the Next-Generation Fire Model. Jamie also developed inputs to the JASP and JTCG Joint Data Repository. This database allows for a unied collection of impact ash and hydrodynamic ram parameters, as well as types of incendiary functions by projectiles, to help standardize test and measurement practices. Reports and data contained in this repository are available for model development and validation.PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)In the area of PPE, Jamie has conducted tests and performed analyses on multiple programs for the Warghter, including a comprehensive statistical assessment of selected hard bodyarmor plate designs for the Project Manager for Soldier Protection and Individual Equipment (PM-SPIE) and the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E). Rigorous ballistic testing was conducted to characterize ballistic performance and to show with high condence the probability of no perforation along with the upper tolerance limit of the back-face defor mation. Performing logistic regression using general linear models/maximum likelihood estimation, Jamie developed the response curves of the probability of perforation as a function of striking velocity and computed the parameter estimates of the response curves and the associated standard deviations to obtain condence intervals on the ballistic limits. This assessment helped lead DOT&E to establish standard body-armor test procedures and criteria. Jamie was also instrumental on several PPE programs, including characterizing the ballistic performance of the Improved Outer Tactical Vest (IOTV) collar and research studies to (1) evaluate different free-air mounting methods for testing soft body armor and (2) determine whether the phenomenon called shatter gap occurred when testing certain bullets against hard body-armor plates.MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATIONJamie implemented this response curve methodology for material characteriza tion of the target-threat interactions to improve the modeling capability of ProjPen. He developed the test plans, led range personnel on ballistic testing, and conducted analyses to get the required data to update the tri-Service penetration equations. Along the way, he also developed a mathematical method for obtaining unbiased measure ment of residual velocity during ballistic testing when only a single high-speed camera is available. CARGO ON/OFF LOADING SYSTEM (COOLS) ARMORJamie led the statistical analysis for the Armys CH-47F Chinook LFT&E program to determine the ability of the aircrafts ballistic protection system (BPS) integrated with the COOLS ooringto shield against small-arms threats. BPS and COOLS are product improvements new to the CH-47F. From the ballistic testing, Jamie computed ballistic limit parameter estimates of the response curves that provide the probabilities of armor penetration as a function of striking speed and obliquity. These functions are the underpinning of the CH-47F force-protection analysis (i.e., the level of ballistic protection afforded to the aircrew and passengers by the helicopter) and produced major improvements in vulnerability assess ment resolution and accuracy. MISCELLANEOUS Outside of work, Jamie is pursuing a masters degree in applied mathematics at Towson University. In addition, since 2011, he has served in several capacities for the Chesapeake Chapter of the American Statistical Association, including membership chair, newsletter editor, vice president, and, currently, president. He is also an accomplished guitar player for the local band The Rivals. He also enjoys spending time in the mountains of western Maryland with his wife, Tara.ABOUT THE AUTHORMs. Linda Moss is the Statistics Team Leader in the System Engineering and Experimentation Branch of ARL/SLAD. She has more than 30 years in ballistic testing, methodology, and analyses of ground and air systems for both survivability and lethality programs. Currently, she serves on the JASP Vulnerability Assessment and Reduction committee. Ms. Moss holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in statistics from Virginia Tech and the University of Delaware, respectively.


AS Journal 16 / FALL 16 FINDING OIL-LOSS SOLUTIONS FOR ROTORCRAFT DRIVESby Stephen Berkebile, Jason Fetty, Robert F. Handschuh, and Brian DykasCOVER STORY A helicopters drive system converts the high rotational speed from engine output shafting into the lower rota tional speed and higher torque required by the main and tail rotors for ight, with accompanying changes in shaft ing orientation. Transmission gearboxes within the drive system contain gears and bearings that are subjected to punishing loads and contact stresses as they transmit several thousand horsepower. Proper supply of oil within the gear boxes is critical to the continuing function of the drive system under these strenuous internal conditions during ight. If this lubricant supply is compromised, degradation in the drives will rapidly lead to loss of power and a forced landing, or worse.U.S. Navy Photo


17 AS Journal 16 / FALL THE PROBLEM OF PROPER LUBRICATIONOil in a power transmission or gear box serves multiple purposes. The primary roles are lubrication of contacting surfaces and temperature regulation by removal of heat. Under normal operat ing conditions, an extremely thin lm of oil separates gear and bearing surfaces, preventing direct metal-to-metal contact, reducing friction, and allowing the components to operate through billions of cycles. Unfortunately, even with the reduced friction, contact between highly loaded components at high speeds in the gearbox causes substantial heat generation. One way to dissipate this heat, however, is through advection by the gearbox oil. Under normal rotorcraft operations, this gearbox oil is recirculated and cooled to keep heat generation low and remove excess heat. An oil-out condition occurs when the primary oil ow to a gearbox is inter rupted. This condition may result from a ballistic impact or any other event that blocks, impedes, or removes the oil supply to transmission components. Loss of the primary oil ow can result in an immediate or rapid failure of the drive system due to the reduced heat dissipation, increased friction (resulting in additional heat generation), and material degradation in the highly loaded gear and bearing contacts. Thermal growth in components leads to a decrease in gear backlash, which eventually causes binding and thermal runaway of these components. Seized gears can prevent the rotors from turning, so autorotation to a safe landing is not always possible in the event of loss of lubrication. These events affect not just military aircraft, but civil aircraft as well. Recent transmission oil-loss incidents have caused emergency landings and fatalities. These incidents include a 2008 Sikorsky S-92 incident in which a transmission oil loss caused a forced emergency landing, a 2009 Sikorsky S-92 incident in which a transmission oil-loss event caused an aircraft crash and resulted in 17 fatalities, and a 2012 Eurocopter EC 225 incident in which a lubrication system failure caused a forced emergency landing [1, 2].LOSS-OF-LUBRICATION PERFORMANCEArmy rotorcraft drive systems are subject to loss-of-lubrication design certication requirements, as described in ADS-50-PRF, which states that the drive systems are required to operate after loss of primary oil ow for a minimum of 30 minutes at cruise conditions (approximately 50% power rating) [3]. However, the Army desires the ability to run for a longer period of time after a loss-of-lubrication condi tion. Future platforms are planned to have longer endurance and range capabilities, requiring corresponding improvement in loss-of-lubrication performance to enable long-distance exit from hostile areas, ideally exceed ing half-mission range. The certication requirements of modern rotorcraft have resulted in oil-out performance of transmissions receiving considerable attention, and the rotorcraft community has increased scrutiny of this survivability aspect over the past few years as a result of the high-prole mishaps. Accordingly, government and industry organizations have increased research and develop ment in transmission oil-out behavior. Improving the oil-out survivability of the existing eet is a great challenge, since modifying the gearbox and constructing new drop-in gearboxes both require extensive ight certication beyond the design and prototyping, and with no guarantee that the requirement will be achieved. In some cases, the 30-minute requirement has been met by the addition of secondary emergency lubrication systems external to the gearbox. However, secondary systems add complexity and weight to the vehicle, especially if they contain their own lubricant supply, and thus they are not always feasible. Progress has recently been made in the design of a new transmission, with the Augusta-Westland AW189 main gear box lasting more than 50 minutes during its certication [4]. Augusta-Westlands holistic approach in combining materials and design elements demonstrates that improvement is possible with a new design. Nonetheless, developing solutions that can be applied to new and existing systems with little or no internal modication would also be desirable.PAST AND CURRENT EFFORTSOver the last 15 years, loss-of-lubrica tion research has been conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on a test facility originally intended to conduct surface contact fatigue experiments on gears (see Figure 1). NASAs initial work in this area produced some inconsistent results [5], so a larger test series was conducted that concentrated on making the test section of the gearbox more like that of a high-speed, aerospace gearbox [6]. During this series of approximately 60 tests, many congura tions were assessed, including


AS Journal 16 / FALL 18 materials, shrouding, and gear designs. This work resulted in establishment of a loss-of-lubrication test procedure and rig conguration with considerably better repeatability during testing in terms of time-to-failure and facility temperatures recorded. Once the test procedure and facility setup were established, enhanced testing was initiated, including deter mining the temperatures of the gear teeth during operation. In one study, gears were instrumented with thermo couples connected via slip rings to have on-component data during normal and loss-of-lube conditions, which has been useful in understanding gear bulk temperatures as compared to the static temperature measurements made in the gear shrouding. A recent development has been the addition of high-speed infrared imaging system to measure full-eld temperatures of the gears while in operation (10,000 RPM) [7]. An example of the infrared temperature measurement of the spur gears during operation is shown in Figure 2. The temperature of the gear teeth is critical during failure, as can be seen in the glowing of gears seconds before failure in Figure 3. Current and future work by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and NASA combines approaches from both macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints and includes experimental work as well as efforts in modeling and simulation. One of the key unknown parameters is the heat generation while in oil-out conditions. Work directed toward a better understanding of how this parameter impacts loss-of-lubrication performance is needed to advance and improve loss-of-lubrication behavior. Penn State University has developed a multiphysics simulation that couples computational uid dynamics and tribology (the study of friction and wear) modelling using heat generated [8]. This Army-supported project continues to advance the delity of the simulation. Another unknown is the detailed progression of microscopic material degradation during failure. Insight into these chemical and physical mecha nisms will inform materials selection in the future. As a part of these efforts, a current Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) project seeks to establish and rapidly transition an improved portfolio of technologies to increase transmission performance after the loss of the primary lubrication system, with the ultimate goal of increasing vehicle survivability and extending this period to at least half-mission duration. Many concepts to reduce heat generation, increase heat rejection, increase material tolerance to higher tempera tures, and increase material resistance to damage have been considered and assessed over the past 2 years. This collaboration between the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and NASA was created to accelerate the work under way among various government and industry organizations and to join broad expertise and laboratory resources in a more unied, joint effort. The overall objectives are to: „ en Identify and screen promising candidate technologies falling within the realm of lubricant science and tribological surfaces. Figure 2 Spur Gear Temperature During Loss of Lubrication Measured by IR Emission Figure 3 Spur Gears Operating After Oil Shutoff Glowing From Frictional Heating Shortly Before Failure Figure 1 High-Speed Spur Gear Rig for ComponentLevel Evaluation


19 AS Journal 16 / FALL „ en Determine the effectiveness of screened technologies at the component level in spur gear testing. „ en Perform a full-scale loss-of-lubrica tion experiment on an H-60 transmission, incorporating screened technologies as appropriate, to demonstrate improved performance when compared to a baseline. „ en Record data from a suite of instru mentation to provide critical data that will be useful for verication and validation of emerging multi physics simulation tools. Choosing technologies to implement requires consideration of several factors, such as cost, ease of implemen tation, and compatibility between the technologies. Although operating the ight-qualied full transmission allows freedom to include system-level and mature approaches, the intent is to develop cutting-edge enabling technolo gies with potential for implementation in multiple platforms within a 3to 5-yr time period. With this goal in mind, the technologies selected for nal imple mentation are intended to be widely applicable across platforms, even if those technologies will require further qualication and optimization efforts before use in a vehicle.FINDING LOSS-OF-LUBE TECHNOLOGIESThe approach that we have taken to identify and develop promising loss-oflubrication technologies is designed to rapidly move those technologies along the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) path. The approach begins with screening emerging technologies using coupon-level methods. Then those showing promise are implemented at the component level, followed by a nal selection and simultaneous evaluation of a suite of technologies at the system level. In this way, the tradeoffs between simpler and inexpensive coupon evaluation can be balanced with the greater delity of the more complex and costly gear evaluation. The approach is nevertheless ambitious considering the desired schedule and distributed scope. The coupon-level evaluation is con ducted at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory on a high-speed tribometer, an instrument that allows for precise control over contact conditions between two objects (such as the ball and disc shown in Figure 4). The ball-and-disc tribometer can be used to simulate specic gear or bearing conditions and make a rapid determination of experimental parameters, such as lubricant properties, alloy properties, or the smoothness of the surface nish, as demonstrated in Figure 5. When the lubricant supply is stopped, one can extract a time-to-failure, as shown in Figure 6. The component-level evaluation occurs on the spur gear rig at NASA Glenn Research Center, shown in Figure 1. The results of operation without oil can be seen in the glow of the gear teeth caused by frictional heating in Figure 3 and in the gears after failure shown in Figure 7. During these evaluations, we have taken care to ensure the conditions during coupon-level screening match well to those of the spur gear rig, and, as a result, the agreement between the two methods has been good. We anticipate similar results in the full transmission test to be conducted at the Patuxent River Naval Air Station in 2017. Thus far, we have selected an aero space lubricant with a phosphonium ionic liquid additive, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a method of mirror-nish polishing called supernishing, and the integration of hybrid bearings (contain ing silicon nitride ceramic rollers and Cronidur 30 steel rings) as the most promising technologies for integration into the full transmission test that can realistically be implemented within the Figure 6 Time-to-Failure for Coupon Evaluation of Standard (MJII, A555) and Novel Lubricants (UES, SP3, AHTL) Figure 4 Coupon-Level Evaluation of Technologies With a Ball-on-Disc Tribometer Figure 5 Coupons Demonstrating Different Surface Finishing Technologies


AS Journal 16 / FALL 20 scope of this project. Each of these technologies has demonstrated increased time-to-failure during our couponand component-level evalua tion. The causes for why these technologies are providing an improve ment in oil-out time are still being investigated. Furthermore, work continues on identifying, understanding, and optimiz ing loss-of-lubrication technologies sponsored by parent organizations, and this list may evolve before nal imple mentation in the full transmission. For example, gear coatings developed under another SBIR project are currently being investigated. Beyond the anticipated outcome of the full transmission test and the identication of several promising technologies (and determina tion of candidates that should not be used), much has been learned about the details of the physical processes during a loss-of-lubrication event. The data collected at all three levels (coupon, component, and system) will be used to direct the advance of models and simulations for design and in the identication of promising directions for future material and lubricant development. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge others who have made, and continue to make, signicant contributions to the current JASP effort. These individuals include Radames Colon-Rivera, Kevin Radil, Mark Riggs, Nikhil Murthy, Kelsen LaBerge, Timothy Krantz, and Eric Hille.ABOUT THE AUTHORSDr. Stephen Berkebile conducts research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory in tribology and lubrication sciences. He currently leads several projects studying lubricants, coatings, and materials for loss of lubrication and increasing power density, as well as the basic chemical and physical processes at work in high-speed contacts between materials. Dr. Berkebile has a Ph.D. and an M.S. in physics from Karl-Franzens-Universitt Graz/University of Graz and a B.A. in physics and German from Manchester College. Mr. Jason Fetty is an aerospace engineer at the Aviation Development Directorate Aviation Applied Technology Directorate. He has worked in research and development of drive system technologies for Army rotorcraft since 2001, including participating in several major 6.3 drive system efforts, as well as multiple efforts involving gearbox loss-of-lubrication performance. Mr. Fetty has a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Virginia Tech. Dr. Robert F. Handschuh is the Chief of the Rotating and Drive Systems Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center and the former leader of the Drive Systems Team. He has more than 30 years of experience with NASA and Department of Defense rotorcraft drive system analysis and experimental methods conducting research in high-speed gearing including windage, loss-oflubrication technology, and hybrid gearing. Dr. Handschuh has a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Case Western Reserve University and a M.Eng. in mechanical engineering from the University of Toledo. Dr. Brian Dykas leads the research in propulsion drives at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory. He has more than 10 years of research experience in the tribology of propulsion mechanical components. Dr. Dykas holds a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Case Western Reserve University. References[1] SKYbrary. Accident and Serious Incident Reports: Rotary. index.php/Accident_and_Serious_Incident_ Reports:_Rotary, accessed 10 January 2016. [2] Transportation Safety Board of Canada. Aviation Investigation Report A09A0016. 12 March 2009. [3] U.S. Army Aviation and Troop Command. Aeronautical Design Standard: Rotorcraft Propulsion Performance and Qualication Requirements and Guidelines. ADS-50-PRF, 15 April 1996. [4] Gasparini, G., N. Motta, A. Gabrielli, and D. Colombo. Gearbox Loss of Lubrication Performance: Myth, Art or Science? European Rotorcraft Forum 2014 Southampton, UK, 2014. [5] Handschuh, R. F., and W. Morales. Lubrication System Failure Baseline Testing on an Aerospace Quality Gear Mesh. NASA/ TM-2000-209954 and ARL-TR-2214, NASA Glenn Research Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2000. [6] Handschuh, R., J. Polly, and W. Morales. Gear Mesh Loss-of-Lubrication Experiments and Analytical Simulation. NASA/TM-2011217106, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, 2011. [7] Handschuh, R. F. Thermal Behavior of Aerospace Spur Gears in Normal and Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions. American Helicopter Society 71st Annual Forum Virginia Beach, VA, 2015. [8] McIntyre, S., Q. Yu, R. Kunz, L. Chang, and R. Bill. A Computational System Model for Gearbox Loss-of-Lubrication. American Helicopter Society 70th Annual Forum Quebec, Canada, 2014. [9] Handschuh, R., J. Polly, and W. Morales. Gear Mesh Loss-of-Lubrication Experiments and Analytical Simulation. NASA/TM-2011217106, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, 2011. Figure 7 Spur Gears After a Complete Loss-ofLubrication Evaluation


21 AS Journal 16 / FALL U.S. Marine Corps P hotoHydrodynamic Ram (HRAM) refers to the damage process due to high pressures generated when a kinetic-energy projectile penetrates a compartment or vessel containing a uid [1]. The large inter nal uid pressure acting on the walls of the uid lled tank can result in severe structural damage. The study of HRAM effects on fuel tanks used on military aircraft is vital if the designs can with stand HRAM loads due to a hostile Kangjie Yang, Young W. Kwon, Christopher Adams, and David Liu MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC RAM FOR AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITYMany types of threats could result in HRAM damage to aircraft fuel tanks, including armor-piercing rounds from small arms re or fragments from missile warhead detonations. Statistics from Operation Desert Storm indicated that 75% of aircraft losses were attributable to fuel system vulnerability, with HRAM being one of the primary kill mechanisms [2]. A ruptured aircraft fuel tank and its damaged surrounding structures would likely require a long downtime for depot-level maintenance, as opposed to quick patch repairs of the entry wall panel. In other words, HRAM damage results in lower aircraft availability and higher cost of recovery. In some cases, HRAM could also lead to catastrophic attrition of the aircraft due to the cascading effect of fuel tank failure [3]. To design structures to withstand the HRAM loads, or to develop the HRAM mitigation techniques for existing aircraft, it is necessary to rst predict the pressures distribution inside the tank at the different phases of the HRAM phenomenon. The goal for HRAM research is to develop ways to eliminate the extensive damage to the entry and exit walls of the fuel tank immediately after being


AS Journal 16 / FALL 22 impacted by a projectile. The objective of the study described herein was to model and simulate HRAM using a nite element (FE) technique [4] to analyze the dynamic response of a tank structure and conduct parametric studies on factors affecting tank wall response during the initial phase of the HRAM event. The model will enable a better understanding of how various parameters affect the pressure waves generated in the uid, as well as the dynamic response of the coupled structure. For the parametric studies conducted, the emphasis was mainly on the structural exit wall response, where critical components or main structural members of the aircraft are typically located in close proximity.REVIEW OF HRAMIn most nonexploding projectile impacts, in which the projectile penetrates and then traverses through a uid-lled tank, the HRAM phenomenon can be described in four distinct phases [2]: „ en Shock Phase: the initial impact of the projectile into the entry wall of the fuel tank „ en Drag Phase: the movement of the projectile through the uid „ en Cavitation Phase: the develop ment of the cavity behind the projectile as it moves through the uid and the subsequent cavity oscillation and collapse „ en Exit Phase: the penetration of the projectile through the exit wall and tank (when there is sufcient energy remaining). Each phase contributes to structural damage of the tank walls via a different mechanism, and the extent of damage depends on numerous factors, such as projectile shape and velocity, uid level in the impacted tank, obliquity of impact, and the material of the fuel tank [5]. The high cost of performing experiments to understand HRAM phenomenon has led to extensive efforts in developing numerical techniques for computational simulation. Such efforts have been attempted for the past 30 years, with earlier efforts trying to simplify the phenomenon into a structural response problem, with boundary conditions representing the applied loads from the pressure eld generated by ram effects. Subsequent efforts attempted to solve the nonlinear sets of hydrodynamic equations using numerical techniques by coupling the uid and structure interaction.MODELING PROCEDURESThe HRAM model consists of Lagrangian mesh for the tank and projectile and Eulerian mesh for the uid inside the tank. The simulation of HRAM required an extremely ne Euler mesh and small sampling times to capture the propagation of shock waves in the uid, thereby resulting in large les and long computational times. For a computational model simplication, a generic 200-mm x 200-mm x 200-mm cubic tank impacted by a 10-mm-diameter spherical projectile was developed. Subsequent parametric studies on the tank wall response and uid pressures during the different phases of the HRAM event were presented with this simplied uid-lled tank model. This simplied model is generally much smaller than a typical fuel tank in aircraft. However, regardless of the size and simplication, the present model shows all the important HRAM characteristics. The projectile impacting at the center of the tanks entry wall was a 4-g, 10-mm-diameter, solid steel sphere. It was considered as a rigid material. One reason for selecting a projectile with a spherical surface was to prevent the tumbling of the projectile during the drag phase, which would have resulted in signicant pressure uctuations in the uid causing erratic response to the coupled tank walls. The 200-mm3 tank was discretized with 9,600 quadrilateral shell elements with four grid points, as shown in Figure 1. The element size was set to 5 mm and was assigned properties dened as an isotropic, elastic-plastic material (the properties of which are provided later). The uid in the tank was discretized with three-dimensional (3-D) solid eight-node hexahedron Eulerian elements. A total of 64,000 Eulerian elements made up the box with 5-mm element lengths. The uid level and properties were varied for the different cases investigated. The mesh size for the Eulerian uid elements was chosen to be similar to the Lagrangian tank shell elements, so the nodes are coincident to one another at the coupling surface. This condition is necessary for proper coupling of the Lagrangian and Eulerian elements to avoid unnecessary problems arising from the failure of the coupling surfaces. As shown in Figure 2, two models were constructed for the purpose of this study. The rst model (Model 1) was for the investigation of the shock phase of the HRAM, with the projectile outside the tank impacting the entry wall at a prescribed velocity. For this model, the Figure 1 Lagragian Tank Model Consisting of 9,600 Shell Elements (left); Lagragian Tank Model cutaway (right)


23 AS Journal 16 / FALL displacement of the tank walls due to projectile impact and the subsequent ram pressure of the propagating hemispherical shock wave in the uid from the impact point are of interest. For the second model (Model 2), the projectile initial starting position is ush to the inner surface of the entry wall at the impact point, simulating the projectiles position immediately after penetrating the entry wall. The initial velocity of the projectile is less than 250 m/s due to retardation of the projectile by the entry wall. Model 2 is used to study the uid pressures and tank wall response during the drag phase. The initial loads and boundary conditions for the two models are tabulated in Table 1. An important aspect of uid structure interaction problem is the coupling of the surfaces between the structure and uid mesh. For Model 2, the projectile was coupled to the uid by the general coupling technique while the uid and tank surfaces were coupled together using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) coupling technique. In MSC Dytran, the general coupling mode allows the motion of a structure through a xed Eulerian mesh, such as the movement of the projectile through the uid. The Lagrangian structure, which is the projectile in this case, acts as a moving ow boundary for the uid in the Eulerian domain while the uid in turn acts as a pressure load boundary on the projectile. For the ALE coupling technique used to dene the interaction between the tank and uid, the Eulerian mesh is now allowed to move and follow the motion of the Lagrangian mesh at the interface, since the nodes between the two meshes are now physically coupled together. When the tank walls start to displace, the uid Euler mesh also moves together. Due to the motion of the Euler mesh, a compressive force is exerted on the adjacent uid element. The compressed uid element in turn exerts a pressure load back on the structural tank wall elements [6]. Tracer elements were dened at various locations within the model to collect data required for time-history plots of the tank wall displacement, velocity and stresses, and the uid pressures for analysis. Locations of the tracer elements are illustrated in Figure 3. There were nine tank shell elements across the entry, left, and exit walls, and there were three uid hex element tracers. For ease of comparison and analysis, the graphs plotted were obtained from the middle node and element of each wall, labeled No. 1, 5, and 7 for the tank structure and Fluid 2 for the uid pressures output. The material properties and constitutive models for baseline Model 1 and 2 are summarized in Table 2.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONEven though a typical HRAM event consists of four phases, it was decided this study would analyze the impact phase separately using Model 1, as the failure process of projectile penetration and the subsequent material failure are still not well modeled at present. To avoid the unclear nature and the possible ambiguity in the results, it was determined that the modeling of projectile penetration into and out of the tank be omitted from the simulation. Data collected to plot the time history for the tank walls displacement, Figure 2 Model 1 and Model 2 Schematics L oads and Boundary Conditions DescriptionDisplacement Model 1: Bottom surface of tank is xed Model 2: Bottom surface of tank is xed Projectile Initial Velocity Model 1: 300 m/s Model 2: 250 m/s Contact Model 1: Master-slave surface contact between projectile and tank Model 2: Adaptive master-slave contact between projectile and tank Coupling (between uid and projectile) Model 1: Nil Model 2: General coupling Coupling (between uid and tank) Model 1: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) coupling Model 2: ALE couplingTable 1 Loads and Boundary Conditions Model 2 Model 1 Y X


AS Journal 16 / FALL 24 velocity, and effective stress were taken from the nodes and elements output at the center of each wall. The gauges corresponded to shell element gauge no. 1, 5, and 7 (as shown in Figure 3). Similarly, the uid pressures generated during the shock and drag phase were plotted using data collected from uid gauge no. 2. Baseline Model 1The baseline Model 1 simulation was set up for a 100%-water-lled tank impacted without penetration at the center of the entry wall by a spherical rigid projectile with an initial velocity of 300 m/s. Even though this is a hypothetical situation, because the projectile would likely penetrate the entry wall in an actual experiment, this simulation provided some insight to the tank wall behavior during the initial shock phase of the HRAM event. The event was simulated for 1 ms with a sampling rate of 20 s for data collection. For comparison purposes, the following discussion compares Model 1 to an empty tank impacted under the same conditions. Entry wall X-displacement and X-velocity plots are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. The X-direction corresponds to the major component of the entry wall, as the direction of projectile velocity impacting the entry wall is in the positive X-direction. It was observed the peak displacement of the entry wall for the 100%-lled baseline Model 1 is higher at around 9 mm as compared to 7 mm for the empty tank. An interesting phenomenon observed for Model 1 was the entry wall displacing in the negative X-direction at around 0.06 ms after impact, indicating the entry wall bulging outward. The X-component velocity time-history plot shown in Figure 5 indicates a much larger peak value of around 210 m/s in the negative X direction right after projectile impact. Figure 4 (left) Entry Wall X-Displacement for Model 1 F igure 5 (right) Entry Wall X-Velocity for Model 1 Property Tank FluidDensity (kg/m3) 2,700 1,000 Elastic Modulus (GPa) 70 N.A. Bulk Modulus (GPa) N.A. 2.2 Von Mises Yield Strength (GPa) 20 N.A. Mass (kg) N.A. N.A. Thickness (mm) 2.0 N.A. Poisson Ratio 0.33 N.A.Table 2 Summary of Material Properties and Constitutive Model Figure 3 Location of Tracer Elements


25 AS Journal 16 / FALL This result corresponds to the time when the entry wall starts to bulge. The subsequent velocity of the entry wall after deforming outward was lower compared to the empty tank. The effective entry wall stress (i.e., the von Mises stress) reached a 11% higher peak value for Model 1 but over a shorter duration of time than the empty tank. The exit wall response to HRAM is of main interest in this study as it is an area on the aircraft where main structural components and load-bearing members are likely to be located. Graphs for exit wall response were plotted from data collected from the center node of the exit wall panel. The X-displacement plot in Figure 6 shows a peak displacement of around 2 mm experienced by the exit wall at the end of the simulation, a value which is much higher than was experienced by the empty tank. The exit wall for Model 1 started deforming earlier at approximately 0.13 ms. This is approximately the time where the initial shock wave due to projectile impact at the entry wall impinged onto the exit wall, causing it to displace. The presence of uid in the tank actually resulted in a much smaller velocity and effective stress at the exit wall. Peak stress at the center of the exit wall registered a much lower value of approximately 100 MPa, as compared to 500 MPa for the empty tank. Besides the propagation of shock wave through the aluminum tank structure, a hemispherical shock wave was observed to propagate in the uid toward the exit wall. This ram pressure generated by the impact of the projectile in the shock phase was recorded by the three uid tracer elements, whose locations are shown in Figure 3. Data for the ram pressure collected by the uid element pressure tracer are plotted in Figure 7 (with the inset gure showing the uid gauge locations). The graph showed a peak pressure of 7 MPa, as recorded by uid gauge 1, which is located nearest to the impact point. This ram pressure was found to weaken signicantly as it propagated through the uid medium, reducing to a magnitude of 0.9 MPa near the exit wall, as recorded by uid gauge 3. As the shock wave moved across the uid toward the exit wall, its energy was dissipated across a larger volume of uid, thereby resulting in a drastic reduction in ram pressure. The rapid weakening of the initial shock wave due to geometric expansion about the impact point and its short duration indicated the left and exit walls of the tank are unlikely to experience signicant pressures from the impact shock wave. The simulation for baseline Model 2 was set up for a 2-mm-thick 100%-waterlled tank, with the initial position of the spherical projectile centered and ushed to the inner surface of the entry wall and given an initial velocity of 250 m/s. Model 2 was developed to assist in understanding the structural response of the tank walls during the drag and cavitation phase of HRAM. All displacement, velocity, and effective Figure 6 Exit Wall X-Displacement for Model 1 Figure 7 (Shock Pressure Generated by a 300-m/s Spherical Projectile for Model 1


AS Journal 16 / FALL 26 stress values plotted were obtained from the center node or element of the tank walls. Because the collapse of the cavity would most likely occur at a much later time, the cavitation collapse pressure and its subsequent effect on the tank walls were omitted from this study. Instead, the effects on tank walls due to the drag phase pressure and the formation of the cavity in the uid were the main interest. The exit wall response graphs were plotted from the start of simulation up to 1.5 ms, just before the projectile impacted the exit wall. The exit wall started to move and deform at approximately 0.13 ms into the simulation due to the initial shock wave impinging onto the exit wall. At approximately 1 ms into the simulation, the rate of displacement of the exit wall registered an increase, as observed from the steeper gradient of the displacement time-history plot of the exit wall. Correspondingly, there was a sharp increase in the exit wall X velocity after 1 ms, as illustrated in Figure 8. This increase is due to the projectile approaching the exit wall and the high-pressure region in front of the projectile during the drag phase, exerting a greater pressure on and prestressing the exit wall before projectile impact. The prestressing of the exit wall before the projectile impact is further illustrated in Figure 9. Likewise for the exit wall velocity, the effective stress has the peak value after 1 ms, when the projectile approached the exit wall. The exit wall registered a peak velocity of 7 m/s and a peak stress of approximately 94 MPa prior to projectile impact. Figure 10 shows the drag phase uid pressure recorded by uid gauge 2, located in the middle of the tank near the shotline. A peak pressure of approximately 5 MPa was registered as the projectile approached uid gauge 2 at around 0.5 ms. The drag phase pressure rise was gradual and occurred over a longer period of time, as compared to the initial shock phase pressure. As the projectile moved past uid gauge 2, the pressure recorded went to 0, indicating the formation of a cavity behind the projectile path. The cavitation phase of HRAM, which includes the oscillation and the subsequent collapse of the cavity, is not en part of this study, as it would occur after the simulation had ended. An interesting parameter that the numerical simulation provided for drag phase analysis was the cavity evolution when the projectile traverses the uid towards the exit wall. The Model 2 simulation fringe plot of material fraction in the uid Euler mesh obtained at a 0.4-ms interval is shown in Figure 11. The maximum cavity diameter measured from the fringe plot at 2 ms was found to be approximately 60 mm. The bulging of the entry and exit wall was also observed. Figure 9 Effective Stress Fringe Plot Showing Prestressed Exit Wall During the Drag Phase for Model 2 Figure 8 Exit Wall X-Velocity for Model 2


27 AS Journal 16 / FALL Parametric Studies Conducted for Model 1 and Model 2Parametric studies were conducted on Model 1 and 2 to understand how different factors could affect the exit wall response. For Model 2, even though the simulation end time was set at 2 ms, peak values that were tabulated were chosen from the start of simulation until the point before the projectile impacted the exit wall. The uid level was varied for Model 1 and 2 to study the effects of free surface on the shockwave propagation and the resultant exit wall response. With the rest of the parameters and impact conditions kept constant, the uid level was varied for 80% and 60% uid levels. This variation was made possible by adjusting the initial condition of the uid elements lling the tank. The exit wall response and uid pressures for Model 1 and Model 2 are tabulated in Table 3 and Table 4, respectively. For Model 1, it was observed the lower uid levels resulted in a lower exit wall displacement but higher velocity and stress. The shock phase ram pressure was also reduced signicantly from 1.61 MPa in the fully lled tank to a mere 0.45 MPa in the 60%-lled tank. This was due to the presence of free surface distorting the hemispherical formation of the shock wave at the impact point. The reduction of exit wall displacement is more evident in Model 2 from 4.7 mm for the fully lled tank to 2.7 mm for the 60%-lled tank. The peak stress at the Figure 10 Drag Phase Fluid Pressure Output From Fluid Gauge 2 (Model 2) Parameters PercentFilled Level Maximum Displacement (m) Peak Stress (MPa) Shock Phase Ram Pressure From Fluid Guage 2 (MPa) Peak Velocity (m/s)Fluid Level Variation100 0.002035 104.802 1.61365 12.7263 80 0.002027 170.765 1.3469 19.1264 60 0.001714 240.244 0.45185 19.2642 Table 3 Model 1 Exit Wall Response to Varying Fluid Levels Figure 11 Cavity Evolution in Model 2 Parameters PercentFilled Level Maximum Displacement (m) Peak Stress (MPa) Peak Fluid Drag Pressure From Fluid Gauge 2 (MPa) Peak Velocity (m/s)Fluid Level Variation100 0.00471648 94.074 4.64315 6.85024 80 0.00398923 102.79 4.27619 6.23109 60 0.00274174 109.94 3.0948 4.98805 Table 4 Model 2 Exit Wall Response to Varying Fluid Levels


AS Journal 16 / FALL 28 exit wall for the three different uid levels shows a lesser variation as compared to Model 1. Peak drag phase pressure was also observed to be higher for a 100%-lled tank at 4.63 MPa compared to 3.09 MPa for a 60%-lled level. Projectile mass was varied from 2 g to 6 g. Results are tabulated in Tables 5 and 6. Model 1 results showed projectile mass having a strong effect on the exit wall response during the initial shock phase. Peak displacement, stress, velocity, and ram pressures were all found to increase signicantly. By increasing the mass from 4 g to 6 g, the peak stress recorded a considerable increase from 105 MPa to 172 MPa. However, for Model 2, the variation in projectile mass on exit wall response was not proportional to the mass. The peak uid drag pressure was also found to be of similar magnitude for the 4-g and 6-g projectile. Nevertheless, some correlation was observed for the peak stress and velocity at the exit wall for Model 2, where a higher projectile mass resulted in a higher peak stress and velocity. The initial velocity of the projectile was also varied from 100 m/s to 500 m/s. The results for Model 1 and 2 exit wall response are tabulated in Tables 7 and 8, respectively. Model 1 results indicated a strong inuence of projectile velocity on the exit wall response and uid ram pressures. A projectile impacting the tank at a higher velocity of 500 m/s resulted in a drastic increase in peak stress and velocity at the exit wall. The ram pressure from projectile impact saw an increase from 1.61 MPa for the baseline Model to 2.39 MPa for a 500-m/s projectile. It was evident the exit wall response and uid pressure were even more sensitive to projectile velocity for Model 2. With an increase in velocity from 250 m/s to 500 m/s, the displacement of the exit wall saw an increase from 4.72 mm to 5.89 mm. Similarly, as shown in Figure 12, drag phase pressure doubled due to the projectile velocity increasing from 250 m/s to 500 m/s. The elastic modulus of the tank material was varied from 40 GPa to 70 GPa, while keeping the rest of the parameters constant. Examination of the data presented in Table 9 revealed no particular trend for displacement and velocity for the different elastic modulus. However, there was a noticeable trend for both displacement and velocity for the variation in elastic modulus shown in Table 10. The X-displacement plot for the exit wall showed the 100 GPa tank had a larger displacement initially but was eventually Parameters Mass Maximum Displacement (m) Peak Stress (MPa) Peak Fluid Drag Pressure From Fluid Gauge 2 (MPa) Peak Velocity (m/s)Projectile Mass2 0.00295588 68.2312 2.68013 4.07203 4 0.00471648 125.866 4.64315 8.3379 6 0.00478961 170.508 4.52462 13.4958 Parameters Mass (g) Maximum Displacement (m) Peak Stress (MPa) Shock Phase Ram Pressure From Fluid Guage 2 (MPa) Peak Velocity (m/s)Projectile Mass2 0.00128098 70.5868 1.0475 7.32631 4 0.00203513 104.802 1.61365 12.7263 6 0.00243127 172.462 2.02303 16.4221 Table 5 Model 1 Exit Wall Response to Varying Projectile Mass Table 6 Model 2 Exit Wall Response to Varying Projectile Mass en-GBParametersen-GB Projectile en-GB Velocity en-GB (m/s)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Shock phase en-GB Ram Pressure en-GB From Fluid en-GB Gauge 2 (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Projectile Velocity 100 0.000660054 29.5669 0.46631 2.78716 300 0.00203509 104.802 1.61365 12.7263 500 0.00255664 406.831 2.39176 34.2576 Table 7 Model 1 Exit Wall Response to Varying Projectile Initial Velocity en-GBParametersen-GB Projectile en-GB Velocity en-GB (m/s)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Fluid Drag en-GB Pressure From en-GB Fluid Gauge 2 en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Projectile Velocity 100 0.00123423 32.48 2.72262 1.61611 250 0.00471674 125.866 4.64315 8.3379 500 0.00589209 157.726 10.6443 20.3856 Table 8 Model 2 Exit Wall Response to Varying Projectile Initial Velocity


29 AS Journal 16 / FALL overtaken by tanks with lower modulus, as seen in Figure 13. This is an interesting phenomenon, which warrants further investigation. Values for peak stress and shock phase ram pressure for Model 1 did see a correlation, with the stiffer tank with modulus of 100 GPa experiencing a higher stress and larger ram pressure at 143 MPa and 2.03 MPa, respectively. Moving to Model 2, the effect of varying Youngs modulus was minimal for the exit wall displacement and velocity. However, the correlations for peak stress and drag phase pressures were more apparent, with the stiffer tank experiencing a larger stress but smaller drag pressures. The next parametric study conducted on Model 1 and 2 was the variation in the density of the tanks material. With the baseline Model 1 and 2 having the density of 2,700 kg/m3, material density was changed to 1,500 kg/m3 and 4,500 kg/m3 to evaluate its effect on the structural response at the exit wall. The results obtained are summarized in Tables 11 and 12. Data from Table 11 indicated no discernible effect of material density on displacement and stress. It was observed that the baseline Model 1 has the highest displacement and stress, but the difference in value for the different material density was small. Some correlations were observed for shock ram pressure and velocity, with the denser material at 4,500 kg/m3 having a smaller ram pressure of 1.09 MPa and peak velocity of 10.7 m/s. For Model 2, the simulation model found that varying material density has almost negligible effects on the exit wall displacement. Peak stress and velocity also see small changes even though density was varied from 1,500 kg/m3 to 4,500 kg/m3. Figure 12 Drag Phase Pressure for Different Projectile Velocities (Model 2) en-GBParametersen-GB Elastic en-GB Modulusen-GB (GPa)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Shock Phase en-GB Ram Pressure en-GB From Fluid en-GB Gauge 2 (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Tank Material Modulus 40 0.00180311 72.9672 1.04987 11.6687 70 0.00203509 104.802 1.61365 12.7263 100 0.00181285 142.944 2.0287 9.30065 en-GBParametersen-GB Elastic en-GB Modulusen-GB (GPa)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Fluid Drag en-GB Pressure From en-GB Fluid Gauge 2 en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Tank Material Modulus 40 0.00502539 73.4471 5.35703 9.39117 70 0.00471648 125.866 4.64315 8.3379 100 0.00435498 152.739 3.00561 7.25874 Table 9 Model 1 Exit Wall Response for Varying Tank Material Modulus Table 10 Model 2 Exit Wall Response for Varying Tank Material Modulus Figure 13 Exit Wall X-Displacement for Different Elastic Modulus (Model 1)


AS Journal 16 / FALL 30 For the nal investigative choice, the density of the uid was varied from 800 kg/m3 to 1,200 kg/m3, with the baseline Model 1 and 2 having the density of water at 1,000 kg/m3. Results for this study are tabulated in Tables 13 and 14. The effect of uid density on the shock phase of the HRAM for Model 1 saw no consistent trend at the exit wall, especially for stress, velocity, and ram pressure. Even though displacement of the exit wall for lower uid density seemed to be higher, the difference is perceived to be small. Results for shock phase ram pressure were also inconsistent, with the more dense and less dense uids both having a smaller ram pressure than the baseline Model 1. As for the drag phase analysis for Model 2, varying uid density was observed to have little effect on the exit wall displacement. However, the less dense uid allowed the projectile to reach the exit wall earlier. With lower uid density of 800 kg/m3, the projectile reached the exit wall after 1.4 ms, approximately 0.5 ms faster than the denser uid with a density of 1,200 kg/m3.CONCLUSIONSHRAM is a complex phenomenon that is still not well understood. However, computational models can now provide an alternative to experimental testing in the understanding of HRAM by coupling the tank mesh to uid mesh to simulate the uid structure interaction. In particular, FE Models 1 and 2 provided some insights into the dynamic response of the tank structure and uid pressures at the early phases of the HRAM phenomenon. For the studies conducted with Models 1 and 2, the examination and analysis of the data collected revealed the following observations. „ en The initial shock wave pressure upon projectile impact is unlikely to have detrimental effects on the exit wall of tank due to its rapid extinction in the uid. „ en The presence of free surface with lower lling levels reduced both the initial shock pressure and subse quent drag phase pressures. „ en The projectile mass has a strong effect on the exit wall response during the shock phase, but once the projectile penetrates the entry wall, the drag phase was not correlated to different projectile masses. „ en The velocity of the projectile had the largest inuence on the exit wall response and uid pressures, as the kinetic energy of the projectile is proportional to the square of its velocity. Therefore, when projectile velocity was increased to 500 m/s, all data collected for analysis observed a en-GBParametersen-GB Densityen-GB (kg/men-GB3en-GB)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Shock Phase en-GB Ram Pressure en-GB From Fluid en-GB Gauge 2 (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Tank Material Density 1,500 0.00187647 93.5504 2.08677 13.448 2,700 0.00203509 104.802 1.61365 12.7263 4,500 0.00151676 98.4064 1.08979 10.6776 en-GBParametersen-GB Densityen-GB (kg/men-GB3en-GB)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Fluid Drag en-GB Pressure From en-GB Fluid Gauge 2 en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Tank Material Density 1,500 0.00466953 124.526 4.70424 9.52921 2,700 0.00471648 125.866 4.64315 8.3379 4,500 0.00465953 109.789 5.27148 7.03468 en-GBParametersen-GB Densityen-GB (kg/men-GB3en-GB)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Shock Phase en-GB Ram Pressure en-GB From Fluid en-GB Gauge 2 (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Fluid Density 800 0.00208119 126.662 1.16409 14.1915 1,000 0.00203512 104.802 1.61365 12.7263 1,200 0.00178056 105.41 1.5171 14.2918 en-GBParametersen-GB Densityen-GB (kg/men-GB3en-GB)en-GB Maximum en-GB Displacement en-GB (m)en-GB Peak Stress en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Fluid Drag en-GB Pressure From en-GB Fluid Gauge 2 en-GB (MPa)en-GB Peak Velocity en-GB (m/s) Fluid Density 800 0.00463453 129.618 3.99885 10.0071 1,000 0.00471674 125.866 4.64315 8.3379 1,200 0.00475732 142.476 5.35016 13.8578 Table 11 Model 1 Exit Wall Response for Varying Tank Material Density Table 12 Model 2 Exit Wall Response for Varying Tank Material Density Table 13 Model 1 Exit Wall Response to Varying Fluid Density Table 14 Model 2 Exit Wall Response to Varying Fluid Density


31 AS Journal 16 / FALL huge increase, especially during the drag phase. „ en The tank material with a higher Youngs modulus resulted in a larger shock pressure but smaller drag phase pressures. „ en Effective stress experienced by the exit wall was signicantly greater for the stiffer tank. „ en Varying tank material density had little effect on the exit wall response during the drag phase. „ en Increasing the density of uid in the tank resulted in higher drag phase pressures. „ en As expected, the projectile was observed to reach the exit wall at a later time with increased uid density. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Mr. Kangjie (Roy) Yang is a mechanical engineer at Singapore Technologies (ST) Aerospace Limited, where he supports the Engineering and Development Centres (EDCs) work on military projects and the Republic of Singapores Air Force eet of aircraft. He holds a degree in mechanical engineering (majoring in aeronautical engineering) from Nanyang Technological University and is pursuing postgraduate studies at the National University of Singapore and Naval Postgraduate School. Dr. Young W. Kwon is a Distinguished Professor in the Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department of the Naval Postgraduate School. His research interests include multi-scale and multi-physics computational techniques for material behaviors, composite materials, fracture and damage mechanics, nanotechnology, and biomechanics. He has authored or co-authored more than 300 technical publications, including textbooks on FE methods using MATLAB and multiphysics and multiscale modeling. He is an ASME fellow and is the Technical Editor of the ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology as well as the Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications. He holds a Ph.D. from Rice University. Mr. Christopher Adams is the Director of the Center for Survivability and Lethality at the Naval Postgraduate School, where he currently teaches combat survivability. He is a former Associate Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, as well as a former thesis student of Distinguished Professor Emeritus Robert Ball. He also accumulated more than 20 years of operational ight experience in F-14s and EA-6Bs, serving multiple tours in Iraq and Afghanistan. Mr. Adams holds a B.S. degree in aerospace engineering from Boston University and an M.S. degree in aerospace engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School. Maj. Dave Liu is an assistant professor of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), leading the schools aircraft combat survivability education and research program. Prior to this experience, he was deployed as a member of the Joint Combat Assessment Team in Afghanistan, where he collected aircraft combat damage data for U.S. and coalition air assets. References[1] Kimsey, K. D. Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Ram. ARBRL-TR-02217, U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, February 1980. [2] Varas, D., J. Lpez-Puente, and R. Zaera. Experimental Analysis of Fluid-Filled Aluminium Tubes Subjected to High-Velocity Impact. International Journal of Impact Engineering vol. 36, pp. 8191, 2009. [3] Bestard, J., M. Buck, B. Kocher, and J. Murphy. Hydrodynamic Ram Model Development Survivability Analysis Requirements. 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 20th AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Conference 14th AIAA, 2012. [4] MSC Software Corporation. Dytran 2010 Theory Manual. Santa Ana, CA, 2010. [5] Ball, R. E. The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design. Second edition, Reston, AIAA, pp. 328330, 2003. [6] Bharatram, G., S. Schimmels, and V. Venkayya. Application of MSC/DYTRAN to the Hydrodynamic Ram Problem. MSC Users Conference, Universal City, CA, pp. 1316, 1995.


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