AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITYpublished by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce12FALL ISSUE SURVIVABILITY ASSESSMENT & VULNERABILITY REDUCTIONTHE SURVIAC VULNERABILITY TOOLKITpage 12Integrated Survivability Assessmentpage 23Green On Board Inert Gas Generating System page 40
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.milAircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO) chartered by the US Army Aviation & Missile Command, US Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, and US Navy Naval Air Systems Command. JAS Program Ofce 735 S Courthouse Road Suite 1100 Arlington, VA 22204-2489 http://jaspo.csd.disa.mil Views and comments are welcome and may be addressed to the: Editor Dennis Lindell Assistant Editor Dale B. Atkinson To order back issues of the AS Journal, please visit http://www.bahdayton.com/ surviac/inquiry.aspx On the cover: A P-8A from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron ONE of NAS Patuxent River, Md., basks in the morning colors at Andersen AFB, Guam. Seen here, this P-8A is preparing to participate in exercise Valiant Shield 2012. The P-8A is the US Navys newest Anti Submarine Warfare platform, replacing the P-3C. (US Navy photo by LTJG Chandler Hasemeyer) T ableABLE of OF C ontentsO NTENTS 4 NEWS NOTESby Dennis Lindell7 JCAT C ornerORNER by CW5 Bobby Sebren and Lt Col Norman White, USAF10 TODAYS CHALLENGES OF AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY M odelingO DELING & S imulation IMULATION ( M&S)by Ron Ketcham12 T heHE SURVIAC V ulnerabilityUL NERABILITY T oolO OL K itI T by Tim Staley16 EX cellenceCELLENCE I nN S urvivabilityUR VIVABILITY T IMOTHY D. STALEYby Dale Atkinson18 M odelingODELING R ocO C K etE T P ropelledR OPELLED G renade RENADE ( RPG) E ffectsF FECTS in IN R otorcraftOTO RCRAFT A nalysisN ALYSIS by Harry Luzetsky and K. Renee Zdon23 I ntegratedNTEGRATED S urvivabilityU RVIVABILITY A ssessmentS SESSMENT by Dave Hall and Ron Ketcham26 F ireIRE S imulationIMULATION M odelO DEL D evelopmentE VELOPMENT andA ND T estingES TING by Jim Tucker and Jaime Bestard29 T heHE U seSE of OF LS-DYNA T hreatH REAT M odelsO DELS in IN P erformingE RFORMING P reR E T estES T P redictionsR EDICTIONS by Ronald Hinrichsen and Alex Kurtz32 P redictiveREDICTIVE T erminalE RMINAL B allisticsA LLISTICS for FOR F ragmentsR AGMENTS and AND P rojectilesR OJECTILES by David Dickinson
h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLMailing list additions, deletions, changes, and calendar items may be directed to: SURVIAC Satellite Ofce 13200 Woodland Park Road Suite 6047 Herndon, VA 20171 Fax: 703/984-0756 Email: E _JAS_FEEDBACK@bah.com Promotional Director Jerri Limer Creative Director Jerri Limer Art Director Michelle Meehan Technical Editor Alexandra Sveum Journal Design Donald Rowe Illustrations, Cover Design, Layout Dustin Hurt Kacy Littlehale Karim Ramzy Jill Schaljo-Russo Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, as submitted under OSD/DOT&E Public Release Authorization 13-S-0151. 37 VULNERABILITY REDUCTION (VR) OVERVIEW AND RECENT JASP INVESTMENTSby Ken Branham40 G reenREEN O nN B oardO ARD I nertN ERT G asA S G eneratingE NERATING S ystemY STEM ( GOBIGGS)by Lou Roncase46 P-8A W ingING L eadingE ADING and AND T railingR AILING E dgeD GE F ireI RE S uppression UPPRESSION S ystemYS TEM by Ryan Arthur48 EX cellenceCELLENCE I nN S urvivabilityUR VIVABILITY D ennisE NNIS B elyE LY by Eric Edwards50 I mprovementsMPROVEMENTS of OF O paP A Q ueU E A rmorsR MORS throughT HROUGH M aterialA TERIAL T reatmentsR EATMENTS and AND S ystemYS TEM A rchitecturesR CHITECTURES by Ryan Harris and Marc Portanova53 I mprovedMPROVED R otorcraftO TORCRAFT F uelU EL L ineI NE F ireI RE P rotectionR OTECTION / VR F iretraceI RETRACE sS F ireI RE P rotectionR OTECTION S ystemY STEM ( FPS) O ptimiP TIMI Z ationA TION by Marty Krammer56 A dvancesDVANCES in IN T ransparentR ANSPARENT A rmorR MOR S olutionsO LUTIONS for FOR S mallM ALL A rmsR MS T hreatsH REATS by Ryan Harris 58 S elfELF C ontainedONTAINED F ireI RE P rotectionR OTECTION S ystemY STEM (FPS)by Adam Goss and Peter Disimile60 E nhancedNHANCED P owderO WDER P anelA NEL (EPP) P assiveA SSIVE F ireI RE P rotectionR OTECTION T echniE CHNI Q ue UE U pdateP DATE by Dan Cyphers
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 4 N eE W s S N otesOTES by Dennis Lindell This is a double issue due to the Defense Technical Information Center having issues in getting SURVIAC under contract to continue Aircraft Survivability Journal work, which delayed the journal. We will return to our normal schedule with the Spring 2013 issue.A mericanMERICAN I nstitute NSTITUTE of OF A eronauticsE RONAUTICS and AND A stronauticsS TRONAUTICS ( AIAA) 53 rdRD S tructuresTRUCTURES S tructuralT RUCTURAL D ynamicsYNA MICS andAN D M aterialsA TERIALS C onferenceO NFERENCE (SDM) S urvivabilityU RVIVABILITY T echnicalE CHNICAL C ommitteeO MMITTEE (S TC)The AIAA hosted its 53rd SDM in the Sheraton Waikiki, Honolulu, HI from 23 26 April 2012. During this confer ence, the AIAA STC hosted a session on Air and Space Survivability, where ve articles were presented: Â„ Hydrodynamic Ram Model Development Survivability Analysis Requirements by M. D. Buck, J. J. Murphy, Jr., J. J. Bestard, and B. D. K K o cher Â„ Dynamic Analysis of Damage to the Aircraft Propulsion System Impacted by an Exploding Missile by S. K K S inha, G. J. Czarnecki, and R. L. Hinrichsen Â„ Assessing Survivability Increasing Technologies in the A-10 Aircraft by J. S. K K e mp and G. P. Rogers Â„ An Improved Prediction Model for Spacecraft Damage Following Orbital Debris Impact by J. E. Williamsen and W. Schonberg Â„ Effects of Weave Type on the Ballistic Performance of Aramid, UHMWPE, and Hybrid Fabrics by M. Shimek and E. P. Fahrenthold The STC held its bi-yearly meeting during the evening of 23 April 2012, where it brings together experts in survivability from the civilian and military aerospace communities to Â„ H elp develop and administer the survivability sessions during the yearly SDM, including the recruitment and review of conference papers Â„ A dminister and review nominations for the prestigious biennial AIAA Survivability Award Â„ C onduct professional development courses, produce books, and serve as journal and book reviews Â„ F ormulate technology assessment packages, standards, and other technical products Â„ D evelop and judge college student design competitions The 2013 conference (54th SDM) was announced during this meeting. The 54th SDM will be held in the Boston Park Plaza Hotel and Towers, Boston, MA, from 8 11 April 2013 with the theme of Materials Genome to Flightworthy Innovative Structures. The STC is actively recruiting members with survivability expertise, particularly in the areas of crew and occupant survivability as well as susceptibility and vulnerability analysis and reduction technologies. The STC needs members with expertise in rotorcraft and space craft survivability as well as those from the naval aviation and space communities. The AIAA committees are the workhorses of the institute, and participation offers incredible opportuni ties for networking, building your resume, and developing professionally. All STC members must be AIAA members. If you are interested in participating in the STC, please contact the STC chair elect, Mr. Jaime J. Bestard.R obertOBERT D rabantRABANT R etiresE TIRES Robert E. Darth Drabant is retiring after nearly 50 years of government service. Darth has been a leader of the Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness (JTCG/ME) Air Combat Effectiveness capability development, which is a sister organization to the JTCG for Aircraft Survivability (now JASP). Darth graduated from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Academy in 1967, from the University of Colorado with an MS in aerospace engineering in 1969, and then from the Air Command and Staff College in 1979. Darths active duty USAF career markedly contributed to the Combat Air Force (CAF) capability. He started as an appointee to the assistant chief of staff for studies and analysis in air-to-air support of the F XX w hich became the F-15. He was also part of the Freedom Fighter Source Selection, which became the F-5E; and, the Lightweight Fighter Source Selection, which became the F-16A and Navy F/A-18A. Darth worked Foreign Materiel Exploitation, estab lished the Red Eagle operations at the target tracking radar, directly supported tactical operations, and later wrote the Initial Operational Testing and Evaluation report for the F-117A.
5 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLUpon retiring from active duty in 1986, Darth continued his support to the CAFrst as an operations analyst at the Lockheed Skunk Works, and then in a series of increasingly responsible operations analysis and supervisory positions at Nellis Air Force Base. Darth is now retiring as the technical director of the 53rd Test and Evaluation Group. Darth supported the JTCG/ME from 1978 to 1980, and then again since 1989. He led the development and support of the Joint Anti Air Model (JAAM)used across the services for the air combat tactics development, evaluation, and trainingthrough 14 major releases from 1997 to 2012. JASP congratulates Darth on his distinguished career, thanks him for his contributions to our community, and wishes him the best in the civilian adventures that await him!JOEL WW ILLIAMSEN RECEIVES THE 2012 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS (AIAA) SURVIVABILITY A WW A RD On 25 April 2012, Joel Williamsen was honored with the AIAA Survivability Award for 2012. He received the award at the Awards Luncheon held in conjunction with the AIAAs 53rd Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference held 23 26 April 2012 at the Sheraton Waikiki in Honolulu, HI. The citation for the award reads as follows: For enhancing spacecraft, aircraft, and crew survivability through advanced meteoroid/orbital debris shield designs, on-orbit repair techniques, risk assessment tools, and live re evaluation. The award consists of an engraved medal, a certicate of citation, and a rosette pin. Since 2003, Dr. Williamsen has led a variety of Institute for Defense Analysis (IDA) tasks related to aircraft and spacecraft survivability, serving as task leader for the Fixed Wing Aircraft Survivability Group, Congressional Active Protection System testing, and Survivability Investment Programs for the Director, Operational Test & Evaluation (DOT&E) of the Ofce of Secretary of Defense, as well as four separate National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft vulnerability assessment panels for the NASA Engineering Safety Center. He was the lead live re evaluator for F-22 and F-35 aircraft, and led the develop ment of the recent DOT&E policy, requiring aircraft crew and passenger casualty analyses. Under the DOT&Es Survivability Investment Program, Dr. Williamsen has actively supported the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) for a number of years, serving as a member of the senior advisory committees for both the JASP and the Joint Live Fire Program. Before working at IDA, Dr. Williamsen formed the Center for Space Systems Survivability at the University of Denver. One of his projects included the design of the protection systems for the comet crossing Deep Impact spacecraft, design and test of damage-resistant metallic thermal protection systems for future re-useable launch vehicles, and analysis and test of the anti-satellite system. He also served as an advisor to the Air Force for commercial spacecraft survivability in support of the Schriever Air Force Base, CO space war games. Prior to that, Dr. Williamsen helped design the orbital debris shielding for the International Space Station, led in NASA risk assessment software development, and received several patents in spacecraft repair and shield design. He began his career as a tactical warhead design engineer for the U.S. Army Missile Command, and holds several more patents in shaped charge warhead development. It truly is a most prestigious award, Dr. Williamsen said. Im honored to have been considered, and grateful for the support of my colleagues, friends, and family, which made the award possible.R andyANDY S hortHORT E arnsA RNS C ivilianI VILIAN S erviceE RVICE AW ardA RD Rear Admiral Randolf L. Mahr Commander, Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division and Assistant Commander for Research and Engineering, Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, MD recently presented Randy Short with the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his outstanding leadership and support to the eet during the Operation TOMODACHI HUMANITARIAN AID/DISASTER RELIEF efforts following the Japanese earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Randy has been serving as the national director for the Combat Survivability Division (CSD) at the Naval Air Systems Command since October 2006. He is responsible for all aspects of combat survivability for the Navy and Marine Corps air vehicles. His division works across multiple geographic sites, principally located at Patuxent River, MD and China Lake, CA. The Patuxent River location is responsible for combat survivability capability platform integration across 15 aircraft models as well as subject matter expertise in radar
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 6 cross section (RCS), infrared (IR), and acoustic and visual signatures. At the China Lake location, the Weapons Survivability lab conducts vulnerability testing from coupon level to full article live re test and evaluation of aircraft under simulated ight conditions. China Lake also maintains subject matter expertise in vulnerability and susceptibility modeling and simulation. Randy has over 7 years of civilian experience and 21 years of active duty service in the Navy. He served in a variety of technical and program management positions throughout Naval Aviation. Randy began his career in the Navy ying anti-submarine warfare missions throughout the Pacic and Indian Ocean operational areas as a tactical coordinator and mission commander in the P-3C Orion from June 1983 to June 1986. He graduated from the Naval Test Pilot School in June 1987. From June 1987 to August 1991, he performed develop mental ight tests for a variety of P-3 and C-12 special mission programs. During this time, he transitioned to the Aeronautical Engineering Duty Ofcer Program, where he held a variety of positions in aircraft development programs until his retirement from active duty in December 2002. His rst assignment as a civilian was lead combat survivability engineer, where he was responsible for all aspects of technology development and implementation for an Advanced Development Program Ofce. During this assignment, Randy led the development and integration of survivability enhancements on high value platforms composed of advanced IR and RCS signature suppression, advanced countermeasures technologies, and state-of-the-art vulnerability reduction technologies. Randy also serves as the Navys principal member on the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program, overseeing multiple Joint Service Projects in combat survivability improvements for the Navy, Marine Corps, Army, and Air Force platforms. He is also a board member of the National Defense Industrial Association CSD. Congratulations on a job well done, Randy!B oeinOEIN G T echnicalECHNICAL F elloE LLO W D ennisE NNIS Williams WILLIAMS receivesR ECEIVES lifetime LIFETIME achievementA CHIEVEMENT a A W ardA RD Technical Fellow Dennis Williams recently received a lifetime achievement award from the National Society of Black Engineers for his accomplishments and years of work to improve the survivability of combat aircraft. Dennis, who works for the Systems Engineering Operations Analysis group with Boeing Defense, Space & Security in St. Louis, was awarded the Golden Torch Award for Lifetime Achievement in Industry during the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) national confer ence on 31 March 2012 in Pittsburgh. The award recognizes those who have made signicant engineering impacts, served as role models for others, and helped advance opportunities for African Americans in industry. I am indeed humbled by being selected for this most prestigious award, said Dennis, a 30-year Boeing employee. This would have not been possible without the support of NSBE focals, the Boeing Company, mentors, and family. This is indeed the pinnacle of ones professional career being recognized in this manner, and I hope it serves to inspire others. As a technical lead on the systems engineering and mission effectiveness teams for the P-8A and K K C -46A development programs, Dennis is responsible for analyzing the survivability and directing the incorporation of design hardening features and techniques into combat aircraft platforms. He also provides guidance in helping to capture new business for the company. In addition to his involvement in NSBE, Dennis is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the National Defense Industrial Association, as well as being involved in various community-related activities. Dennis earned a BS in mathematics from Voorhees College in 1981, and an MS in mathematics from Southern Illinois University in 1988.
7 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLD aveAVE F ansler ANSLER John (Dave) Fansler, a respected member of the aircraft survivability community, passed away on 3 June 2012 from chronic heart failure. He was 86 years old. Dave was born 9 June 1925 in Stamford, CT. He joined the Army in 1943 and was part of the D-Day Normandy Beach invasion force. As a survivor of D-Day and subsequent missions, Dave experi enced a lifelong, heartfelt passion for soldiers defending their country. Dave completed his education in mechanical engineering at Perdue University, thanks to the GI Bill. He dedicated his entire career to work that aimed to protect vulnerable soldiers. Dave was an airframe designer at the Martin Company, where his contributions included work on the P6M jet seaplane, the B-57 jet bomber, and the Titan booster for the Gemini program. He later worked at Sikorsky Aircraft for 25 years, planning and managing all phases of helicopter survivability and crashworthiness. Jim Foulk wrote that Dave also spent a couple years as the rst full-time employee, helping the SURVICE Engineering Company start up their survivability and vulnerability business. Up until his 83rd birthday, Dave continued to work as a consultant on various projects related to helicopter survivability. Alan Coyne from Sikorsky wrote that Dave was a long-time Sikorsky employee, who had his hands in the survivability and crashworthiness of pretty much every aircraft for the last 40 to 50 years. He even came out of retirement to help us out here on the CH-53 KK e arly on in the program though CDR, with a focus on the armor, servos, fuel cells, and the live re program. Dave was an Army WWII veteran who fought on D-Day Omaha Beach. Dave had a wealth of knowledge, was a great guy, and most importantly, he was a great friend to many of us. Dave was also a good friend to many of us in the survivability community, and we will miss him.CORRECTION NOTICEIn the previous issue of Aircraft Survivability (Spring 2012), we incorrectly stated that the cover photo depicted an F-35 conducting a combat patrol in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. The image actually shows the F-35 Lightning II Program in the test phase, as the model is not yet opera tional. Aircraft Survivability apologizes for this mistake. P astAST Y earEAR C hanH AN G esE S Welcome to the JCAT Corner! In the last year, Joint Combat Assessment Team (JCAT) has seen many changes while continuing to provide the highest level of support that our deployed warghters deserve and expect. Army JCAT has been in action on more than just the battleeld, as they organized and hosted Phase 1 of the Joint-Combat Assessor Training at Fort Rucker, AL. JCAT also provided two instructors to Phase 2 at China Lake, CA, and organized and hosted Phase 3, commonly known as the Threat Weapons and Effect (TWE) Seminar held at Hurlburt Field and Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), FL. Providing these instructors was no small undertaking as the team has had a signicant amount of turnover. The Army JCAT Team Chief, Chief Warrant Ofcer (CW5) Bobby Sebren just returned to the seat after a yearlong deployment as the 10th Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB) Tactical Operations Ofcer in Regional Command (RC) East, Afghanistan. This was the rst of many changes that the team has endured. CW5 Michael K K e lley stepped in to temporarily lead the team until CW5 Brendan K K e lly was signed into Fort Rucker. JCAT C ornerORNER by CW5 Bobby Sebren and Lt Col Norman White, USAF
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 8 CW5 Michael K K e lley then departed on a 1-year unaccompanied assignment to the 2nd Combat Aviation Brigade, Republic of KK o rea, where he served as the CAB Tactical Operations Ofcer as well as the Chief Warrant Ofcer of the Brigade. CW4 Richard Malvarose retired and relocated to his home state of California, married his high school sweetheart, and is now pursuing a career in Real Estate while spending more meaningful time with his family. We also had to say goodbye to our longest serving Aircraft Combat Forensics Ofcer, CW4 Chris Chance. Chris has been involved with the survivability community for most of his 26 year military career, and directly involved through JCAT Army for over 5 years. Chris maturity, knowledge, and never stop attitude will be missed and extremely hard to replace. In the span of 3 months, CW4 Chance has retired, been selected for CW5, moved the family to their new home, and begun a new career once again in the survivability commu nity! This is the kind of tenacity that will be missed. CW5 Brendan K K e lly has also joined the retired ranks after a long and distinguished career, culminating as the ASDAT team chief. His leadership will be missed, along with his eloquent brieng style. Rest assured, you will see more of Brendan in the future as he plans to continue his work in Aviation Survivability, this time in a coat and tie. Three new arrivals precede a promotion and two more retirements. JCAT Army was fortunate to have CW4 Jason Watson, CW4 Wayne Grimes, and CW3 Nels Bergmark join the team as new Aviation Combat Forensics Ofcers. All of these ne ofcers bring a wealth of knowledge and experience developed over an impressive assignment history. CW4 Bryon McCrary was promoted to CW5 on 1 March 2012 at K K a ndahar Air Base, Afghanistan. CW5 McCrary is working as the 82nd Airborne Divisions Director at the Personnel Recovery Coordination Center. Please keep CW4 McCrary and all of the deployed JCATers in your prayers. CW4 Jim McDonough and CW4 John Cappadoro both retired this summer and have teamed together to start a home services business in the Enterprise, AL and Fort Rucker area. We wish them great success and will feel the absence of their extensive knowledge and expertise. If change is the only constant, the Army is not the only service to feel those effects. The Air Force (USAF) lost three valuable JCAT members this year. Lieutenant Colonel (Lt Col) Jeff Ciesla, a critical member of the JCAT planning and operations team, transferred to the C-17 reserve unit in Dayton, OH and left for C-17 pilot upgrade training on 3 March 2012. During his 6 years in JCAT, Lt Col Ciesla was instrumental in enhancing a generation of USAF JCAT deployers, hand-picking the last 3 years of candi dates. Not only did he nurture each new recruit, he evaluated their potential and training. Due to this hands-on approach, Lt Col Ciesla was able to select the best of the best to deploy. Additionally, he always brought jointness to the team; he made every decision with JOINT in mind. Lt Col Ciesla, we will miss you. Also, Maj Greg Thompson decided to retire after a long and dedicated career. Maj Thompson is another experienced player on the USAF side, who kept the nancial part of our support in line. Without Maj Thompsons almost daily updates and input, JCAT would have encountered many roadblocks in getting funding over the last 6 years. Maj Thompson will be missed, too. Finally, a key member of the civilian JCAT team has retiredMs. Pat Reeder, a long-time USAF security manager, but more importantly, our friend. Her attention to detail kept us in line, keeping the TWE running smoothly in a highly challenging classied environment. The USAF JCAT team dedicated a conference room at Wright-Patterson AFB in her honor, along with a plaque thanking her for helping the JCAT accomplish TWE every year. We wish her well. The Navy (USN) continues to provide unparalleled support to the Marines in RC-Southwest (SW) as Lieutenant Commander (LCDR) Shawn Denihan assumed the seat of the JCAT Ofcer in Charge, Afghanistan. Lieutenant (LT) Jason Michaels accompanies LCDR Denihan in RC-SW and will soon redeploy back to the US. LTJG Jack Olah checked on board Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar this week and will soon replace LT Michaels. Commander (CDR) David Storr has assumed the duties of the JCAT LNO, working with the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW). CDR Storr began an extended mobilization in October 2011 and is currently assigned to MCAS Miramar, CA. LCDR Pete Olsen is also assigned to 3rd MAW and handles all mobilization and operational readiness requirements for USN JCAT and Forward Figure 2 Pat Reeder retires Figure 1 Bryon McCrary promoted to CW5
9 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLDeployed Combat Repair units. Additionally, LCDR Olsen is supporting a survivability initiative requested by NAVAIR 4.1.8 to analyze combat damage to the CH-53 platform using CDIRS (Computerised Design IFD Rainfall System) data. This initiative is expected to be the rst in a series of analyses that will expand to other platforms. The annual JCAT Phase 2 training was conducted 26 30 March 2012 of this year. Sixteen students participated in this years class held at Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division in China Lake, CA. In addition to the regular NR NAVAIR CASTL Det B staff, the USN provided four additional instructors to support this training. Navy JCAT also continues a ne tradition by having another JCAT lead selected for promotion to ag ofcer! Congratulations to Rear Admiral Upper Half K K i rby D. Miller. In summary, change is constant, but one thing does not changeJCAT continues to provide a service to our warghters that is unmatched across the Department of Defense!O nN G oinOIN G C hanH AN G esE S While continuing to support all air operations in Afghanistan, JCAT is facing some signicant challenges in the coming 18 months. First, as the forces draw down, there is much concern as to where and how JCAT assets should be positioned. Currently, a small group of JCAT members are going through all available scenarios for future JCAT footprints in Afghanistan, led by CDR Dave Storr, LCDR Pete Olsen, and Lt Col Norm White (USAF). Since JCAT provides the critical combat forensic analysis on weapons effects, even as the number of combat troops drops dramatically, the air assets will still be ying numerous sorties; it is not a linear withdraw with manpower and air assets. At present, we have two JCAT personnel in the area of responsibility (AOR) with both Afghanistan and Iraq tour experi ence: LCDR Pete Olsen (JCAT LNO) and Captain (Capt) Dan K K e nan. They bring a plethora of combat forensic analysis experience to the AOR at a critical time. Capt Dave Liu and Capt Will Vu (USAF) have rotated back to the continental US after 6-month tours, both having made great contributions on many evaluations. Capt Gabe Jacobson replaced Capt Liu, and Capt K K e nan replaced Capt Vu. Both Capt K K e nan and LCDR Olsen are provid ing training/mentorship to Capt Jacobson while he ramps up. The USAF is pleased to announce that Chief Master Sergeant (CMS) Rick Hoover came back on full-time orders this spring to provide stewardship to the ongoing effort in selecting replacements for ve recent retirements/transfers in the USAF community. Working in conjunction with Lt Col White, CMS Ricks background is absolutely critical when vetting experi ence levels of the various applicants. There are some very talented personnel that have applied to USAF JCAT, which makes the selection process even more challenging. USAF JCAT hopes to have all the slots lled by early July 2013, with some in-house training slated for an August 2013 time frame. As some of you know, Army CW5 Brendon K K e lly retired this spring. He will be thoroughly missed; however, CW5 Bobby Sebren agreed to come back for another tour as Aviation Shoot Down Assessment Team (ASDAT) (JCAT) lead, ably lling the position in Fort Rucker. The US Army JCAT hosted the Threat, Weapons, and Effects Symposium in April 2012, putting on an outstanding event. The briengs were exactly the type of threat analysis this community warrants. The live re weapons demonstrations on the range were very well planned and executed. Not only were the weapons effects demonstra tions enjoyable, but educational. The Army JCAT personnel treat this event as real-world, wearing the same uniforms used in the AOR. More importantly, their vast experience really came out when they gave rst-hand instruction to all attendees. The collective experience of Army JCAT/ASDAT personnel brings invaluable real-world knowledge to all who attended. We thank them as they are true combat forensic professionals in every sense of the word. Figure 3 CW4 Chris Chance is instructing Brigadier General (Brig Gen) Peter Sefcik in the aiming of a man-portable air defense weapon, while Lt Col Chuck Larson USAF JCAT Ofcer in Charge) looks on. Brig Gen Sefcik is the mobility assistant to the Air Force Material Command/ Aeronautical Systems Center Commander, who is responsible for the USAF JCAT Reserve unit. Brig Gen Sefcik has taken a hands-on approach to his role, learning the JCAT mission and tools.
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 10 by Ron KK etchamM&S has been a signicant resource employed by each of the three services to enhance the survivability and effectiveness of our military air platforms in combat. There is no doubt that the use of survivability M&S has resulted in many aircraft and lives being saved, and has increased mission effectiveness by raising the likelihood that aircraft will reach their mission objectives. Since the 1980s, the Department of Defense (DoD) has recognized the contributions that M&S makes to lethality, training, testing, survivability, and many other areas that support the warghter. For survivability-related M&S, the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) has played a signicant leadership role in managing the survivability M&S toolset. Despite expanding requirements, JASP has advanced the application, methodology, and credibility of M&S with relatively xed budgets over the past decade. Today, JASP, M&S developers, and users face certain challenges, which this article reviews in further detail. GG rowing Requirements M&S is always undergoing revision to address new demands and a changing battle space. As technologies, threats, and tactics evolve, models must evolve with them. Models require routine periodic upgrades for advances in propulsion, sensors, countermeasures, and networks. New capabilities are also being added to the M&S toolset to address new threats, such as directed energy weapons, which are comprised of lasers and high-powered microwave weapons. New capabilities must also be developed to address new man dates, such as incorporating crew and passenger survivability onto current methodologies. For M&S to continue to remain relevant, we must meet these new and expanding requirements. M&S Credibility Whenever an M&S is used within the DoD, there is a require ment for verication, validation, and accreditation of the model and associated input data for its intended purpose. While the need to verify and validate (V&V) software is broadly understood and practiced, the V&V of associated input data is often underval ued or overlooked. The V&V of input data is as important, and in many cases even more important, to the credibility of the model results as the V&V of the software. Consider our key vulnerability applica tions, AJEM (Advanced Joint Effectiveness Module) and COVART (Computation of Vulnerable Area Tool), which are both examples of highly data-driven tools. The results from both of these applications are signicantly impacted by data sets within large program-specic databases. These data sets include the following: 1. T arget Model A geometric layout of every componentdown to the individual hydraulic line and the avionics box of circuit boards that shield that line from warhead fragments and other projectiles that will impact the survivability of the aircraft. 2. C ritical Components A list of all components that impact platform survivability and data regarding all damage mechanisms that can cause failure. A model requires a Pcd/h (Probability of component dysfunc tion given a hit) for each of the different damage mechanisms (impact and penetration, hole size, energy) for each component. 3. F ault Tree The logic tree that determines aircraft survivability, depending on the function of individual critical components. 4. T hreat Data Warhead and projectile composition The collection of these program-specic data les requires megabytes, if not gigabytes, of data. The likelihood of bad data is signicant, and data errors TODAYS CHALLEN GG E S OF AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY Modeling & Simulation (M&S) SA INTRO
11 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL are just as likely to be potentially damaging to the output of a model as a bug in the software code. There is no more valid truism in M&S than gar bage in, garbage out. Affordability As stated earlier, the budgets for M&S development and maintenance have been relatively xed. The JASP allocation to M&S has not even kept up with ination for the last decade. It is very doubtful that this will be changing soon. How do we continue to address new requirements and ensure current models remain relevant and credible with a xed, or even declining, budget? We must nd affordable solutions. One example of a project that is demon strating a drive for affordability is the Suite of Antiair K K i llchain Models and Data (SA KK MD); this is a joint effort of the Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness (JTCG/ME) and the JASP, which are both Director, Operational Test and Evaluation invest ment programs. The JTCG/ME has always had a requirement to supply lethality and survivability Pk (Probability of kill) data for the warghter and other users. Their primary methodology for doing this was the development of Pk/I (Probability of kill given Intercept) tables for each required weapon-target pair. This weapon-target pair aggregated data was done with a high delity model that was a costly and labor-intensive effort. In fact, the JCTG/ME did not have the resources to keep pace with annual warghter specied data requirements. Then, a new requirement for survivability data greatly increased the required number of weapon-target pair data sets, taxing an already strained budget and methodology. The JTCG/ME and JASP began to work together to nd a solution. The members of these two organizations are the subject matter experts (SME) for the lethality and survivability communi ties across the three services. There were a lot of obstacles to this problem, but the project team began to see a solution in the development of a methodology that would generate a Pk on demand, as opposed to the costly and lengthy process of generating Pk/I tables, which is the goal of the SA KK MD and the specic model called Endgame Manager (EM). While this effort is still in the development stage, it is beginning to show promise. One aspect of particular noteworthiness is the focus on both models and data. The development team of SMEs has realized that the data will drive this answer, and they are creating a process to rigorously V&V all data that is supplied with the tool. In the end, it may be found that this was not only to be the more affordable solution, but it may also be a more credible approach to this need as well. Another affordability aspect to EM is that while EM will function alone, it is intended as a plug-in module to other applications, such as JAAM (Joint Anti Air Model) and the mission model EADSIM (Extended Air Defense Simulation). EM will take encounter geometry from the calling application and return a Pk ( i.e., Pk on demand), which eliminates the need for these applications to develop, or otherwise independently estimate the endgame result. Models also benet directly from the data collection and V&V provided by the SMEs of the JTCG/ME and JASP, therefore reducing costs. The SA KK MD development is also looking for additional, potential users of the SA KK MD. The initial release of the SA KK MD methodology and data are currently available on the classied JTCG/ ME Joint Antiair Combat Effectiveness (J-ACE) DVD released in July 2012. Annual updates are funded. J-ACE distribution is through the JTCG/ME Distribution Center at Tinker AFB.
T heHE SURVIAC V ulnerabilityU LNERABILITY T oolkitO OLKIT by Tim StaleySA FEATURE
13 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL by Tim Staley The Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) Vulnerability Toolkit is a suite of software available to the community to perform vulnerability and lethality analyses. The toolkit provides a one-stop shop for the tools that analysts need to perform a wide range of vulnerability analyses, including pre-test predictions, concept evaluation, trade studies, and requirements compliance. While the Computation of Vulnerable Area Tool (COVART) is the primary piece of software included on the toolkit, there are a number of other tools included in the distribution. These tools are devel oped and maintained by a wide cross-section of the Department of Denfense (DoD) community, including the Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC), Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). The current version of the SURVIAC Vulnerability Toolkit includes the following models, along with several other minor utilities: Â„ C OVART 6.2.1 Â„ F ASTGEN 6.1 Â„ B RL-CAD 7.12.4 Â„ F ATEPEN 3.3.8 Â„ P rojPen 2.3 Â„ S hazam 3.3 Â„ V ulnView 3.2 COVART is the primary tool for Air Force and Navy xedand rotary-wing aircraft vulnerability analyses; although, it has also been used for vulnerability analyses of orbital vehicles and lethality assess ments against ground and small boat targets. The toolkit is capable of assess ing the vulnerable area and Probability of kill (Pk) for single kinetic-energy penetra tors, shaped charge jet penetrators, and high-explosive threats ( e.g., MANPADS [man-portable air defense system] and proximity-fused warheads). COVART has a long history that dates back to the late 1960s, but has steadily evolved over the years by adding new capabilities and methodologies. This gradual evolution has allowed the user community to maintain the subject matter expertise and unique infrastruc ture that have evolved over decades. This continuity also allows for condence that comes from familiarity with the tool, and a long pedigree of use on legacy systems. At the same time, the improvements to the code allow the community to increase analysis capabilities to assess a changing threat environment and address the evolution and improvements in both red and blue weapon systems designs and technology that has occurred over that time period. The development of COVART has always tried to balance this dichotomy of new capabilities against the impact of change on the analyst.M odulariODULARI Z ationA TION One of the most signicant modications to COVART was the move to a modular structure that allows the integration of shared libraries and methodologies. Modularization has allowed the leverag ing of technical expertise, as well as funding, in the development and improvement of specic methodologies. Many of the other models included in the toolkit are also part of COVART as modules. Figure 1 depicts the primary modules that make up COVART 6.2. The models of particular interest are those that are shared among other vulnerability and lethality tools within the DoD. This modularization allows the larger tools and frameworks, such as COVART and the Advanced Joint Effectiveness Model (AJEM), to be tailored to t the needs of their individual users and communities, while being consistent in the underlying methodologies and functionalities that are shared across those communities. The use of these modules within COVART has demon strated that this sharing and reuse of methodologies as modules is feasible and achieves the goals of leveraged develop ment. FASTGEN (FAST shotline generator), BRL-CAD, ProjPen (projectile penetration), and FATEPEN (fast air target encounter penetration mode) are all modules used by multiple tools within the DoD. FASTGEN and BRL-CAD perform the ray tracing functionality required by COVART and allow it to natively support the two target geometry formats most widely used within the DoD on both Windows and Linux systems. FASTGEN is managed by the Aeronautical Systems Center, Combat Effectiveness and Vulnerability Figure 1 COVART6 Structure
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 14 Analysis Branch (ASC/ENDA) and is used primarily for xed-wing air targets. It utilizes target geometry built using sets of element primitives (triangles, quadri laterals, cones, etc .). This geometry is usually created in a commercial com puter-aided design (CAD) package and exported into FASTGEN. BRL-CAD is itself a suite of tools, with the ray tracing library being utilized by COVART. In contrast to FASTGEN, BRL-CAD relies primarily on constructive solid geometry to create the target description and is typically used for rotary-wing aircraft and ground targets. BRL-CAD is open source, but is actively supported and maintained by ARL. FASTGEN and BRL-CAD are both used by the Endgame Manager software that is being developed by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program and Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness (JTCG/ME), and BRL-CAD is also used within AJEM. The ProjPen library is used for prediction of penetration and incendiary function ing of armor piercing and armor piercing incendiary (API) rounds (refer to Figure 2 for an example). Originally based upon the JTCG/ME Penetration Equation Handbook ProjPen has been signicantly updated in recent years to improve the accuracy and validity of the ballistic limit, residual velocity, and incendiary functioning predictions. Work has recently been completed to allow ProjPen to better model ball rounds, which are of particular interest in current operations and has been a longstanding capability gap for ballistic penetration predictions. The toolkit includes the ProjPen library for use with COVART, as well as a graphical user interface (GUI) and a separate batch mode version for stand-alone operation. In addition to its integration with COVART, ProjPen is used as a module by AJEM. The FATEPEN library is used for the prediction of compact fragments and long rods. The model is able to predict ballistic limit, residual velocity, and penetrator mass loss, including fragment shatter of a wide range of penetrator and target materials at impact velocities up to 16,000 feet per second  (refer to Figure 3 for an example). Applied Research Associates (ARA) developed and maintains FATEPEN, and NSWC Dahlgren Division manages the library. The toolkit includes the FATEPEN library for running within COVART, as well as a GUI for stand-alone operation. FATEPEN is also used as a module in several other DoD tools, including AJEM. C urrentURRENT I mprovementsM PROVEMENTS Just as COVART has evolved and improved to arrive at its current state, development is continually ongoing. The current improvements are focused on improving the ability to predict the initiation of aircraft res due to ballistic impact and more accurate representation of threat blast effects. Fire has historically been one of the largest contributors to aircraft vulnerabil ity and also has been a difcult phenomenon to model. The effort to model ballistically-induced aircraft res has focused on the re prediction model (FPM). The FPM began in the early 1990s as the dry bay re model and was developed in support of live re testing and evaluation (LFT&E). In 2002, it was merged with the ground vehicle re model and renamed FPM. Since then, it has undergone many renements and improvements; the most signicant change is the current modularization effort. Much like with COVART, the FPM is being restructured to be able to use modules, including ProjPen and FATEPEN. In addition to integrating existing modules, the ignition portion of the FPM is being packaged as the IGNITE module for integration into COVART. COVART will provide the data along the shotline for use by IGNITE. Additionally, ProjPen will provide data for API round functioning and fragment ash as well as an empirical ash module (FragFlash), respectively. IGNITE will then determine the overlap of the function/ash cloud and fuel droplet cloud predicted within IGNITE to determine the overall Probability of ignition (Pi). The COVART analyst will then be able to assign target Pk based upon this Pi. This signicant improvement surpasses the current capabilities within COVART, which require a signicant amount of ofine calculation by the user and oversimpli cation and averaging of data to be able to put it into a form usable by COVART. While it has long been known that the blast pressures generated from high-explosive threats are not uniform, there have been limited options for modeling this effect within COVART. Currently, COVART only allows for Figure 2 Preand Post-Impact Images of an API Impacting an Aluminum Plate and Functioning Figure 3 Impact Radiographs for a Steel Cube Impacting an Aluminum Plate 
15 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLvarying the Pk as a function of distance from the burst point in either a uniform spherical manner or as an ellipse. As Figure 5 shows, neither of these representations is accurate, since the blast overpressure varies, not only as a function of polar zone angle, but the shape also changes as a function of distance. The modications to COVART will allow scaling factors to be dened for each threat that allow the blast to be scaled as a function of both polar zone and distance from the burst point. This modication will ensure that the Pk from blast is not being underestimated in those zones of high pressures, nor underestimated in other zones. The objective of the SURVIAC Vulnerability Toolkit is to provide the necessary tools to the aircraft vulnerability analysis commu nity so that they can quickly and accurately assess vulnerability posture of present and future aircraft, and ensure that vulnerability reduction remains in the trade space with other survivability and performance attributes of the systems. The software included in the toolkit continues to improve and evolve to aid the community, and it will continue to do so for decades to come. References Yatteau, Jerome D., Richard H. Z Z e rnow, Gunnar W. Recht, K K a rl T. Edquist. FATEPEN Version 3.0.0, Volume I Analysts Manual. Applied Research Associates, Littleton, CO, 2005.  Ib id Figure 4 COVART 6.3 Structure with IGNITE Integration Figure 5 Blast Iso-pressure Curves for a Statically Detonated Threat
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 16 EX cellenceCELLENCE I nN S urvivabilityUR VIVABILITY T IMOTHY D. STALEYby Dale AtkinsonThe Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) is pleased to recognize Timothy D. Staley for his Excellence in Survivability. Tim is a systems analysis engineer in the Combat Effectiveness and Vulnerability Analysis Branch at the Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, and is also the Air Force co-chair for the JASP Survivability Assessment Subgroup. Tim is responsible for providing technical assessments and subject matter expertise to Air Force and Joint programs in the area of ballistic, chemical, and biological vulnerability, hardness, modeling, and simulation. Tim graduated from the University of K K e ntucky in December 2001 with a BS degree in mechanical engineering. He then took a job at Wright-Patterson, where they sent him back to school for a MS in mechanical engineering, which he received in December 2003. Since 2004, Tim has been the COVART (Computation of Vulnerable Area Tool) model manager, taking over the development of the vulnerability/ survivability integrated module set (VSIMS), an effort that included 10 different pieces of software. This effort eventually led to COVART6, which utilizes software modules that are shared across the Department of Defense vulnerability and lethality modeling and simulation community. The VSIMS effort also paved the way for the modularization of the re prediction model and the creation of a shared re ignition model, which is currently underway. Since 2005, Tim has been the Air Force lead for ballistic vulnerability reduction and live re test and evaluation (LFT&E) for the F-35 program. He provides oversight of the vulnerability analyses conducted in support of LFT&E and specication compliance, and helped lead analysis of the F-16C to dene veriable values for compliance with the Joint Operational Requirements Document, which used the F-16 for comparison purposes. Tim is also a member of the LFT&E integrated product team, which was responsible for planning and executing the largest live re test program in history, including the rst ever full-up system level (FUSL) test for a xed-wing platform. During the same time period, he also supported LFT&E for the C-5 AMP/RERP (avionics/engines) and the C-130 AMP program, and was the Air Force lead for the vulnerability analysis of the JCA (C-27J). Since 2009, Tim has been the aeronautical system center lead for chemical and biological (C/B) hardness and decontamination for the F-35 air vehicle system, which helps ensure that the F-35 is capable of continuing the ght even in a hostile C/B contaminated environment. In this role, he also supported the planning for the largest FUSL C/B test for a US xed-wing aircraft, which will occur in 2016. Tim has received a number of awards and letters of appreciation, including the Ofce of the Secretary of Defense Achievement Award in 2009 from the Defense Standardization Program Ofce for work on the rst-ever combat environment standard for body armor (MIL-STD-3027). The MILSTD-3027 standard provides the military with unique requirements for ballistic threat protection, and enables
17 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL all services whose mission require ments include the use of the intercep tor body armor system to accurately specify and verify standard militaryunique requirements in body armor procurements. He also received several awards and letters from the F-35 Lightening II Program Ofce, including Team of the Q Q u arter and Team of the Year for 2010 as a member of the F-35 Mission Effectiveness team, supporting vulnerability reduc tion, LFT&E, and C/B activities. Tim appreciates the opportunity to work with international partners in the area of vulnerability and weapons effectiveness through his support to the Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness with their ongoing partnership with the Republic of K K o rea, where he had the opportunity to travel to KK o rea twice to share and present information on COVART. Through the Technical Cooperation Program, he is also working with the U KK and Australia to collaborate on improving system-level vulnerability analysis, and enhancing and validating re modeling capabilities. Tim lives in Oakwood, OH with his wife, Tracy, and their two sons. His hobbies include lm and digital photography, and playing music. Tim plays a number of instruments, including guitar, bass and steel guitar, in a number of local bands and also plays bass at his church. Tim has also written several articles for JASPs Aircraft Survivability Journal including one in this issue. It is with great pleasure that the JASP honors Timothy Staley for his Excellence in Survivability contributions to JASP, the survivability discipline, and the warghter.
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 18 by Harry Luzetsky and KK R enee Z Z d onThe RPGwith its low expense, high proliferation, and proven effectiveness against rotorcraftis a serious threat that must be considered in rotorcraft survivability assessments. The Aerospace Industries Association has estimated rotorcraft losses in Operations ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) and IRA QQ I F REEDOM (OIF) to be as high as 40% for the RPG (compared to 20% for small arms).  Although the survivability features of rotorcraft have improved since their rst days in combat, these improvements have been somewhat overshadowed by recent losses caused by RPGs; therefore, it is imperative that survivability practitioners understand the RPG threat, its damage mechanisms, and current analytical modeling techniques available to assess rotorcraft vulnerabilities and support trade studies of survivability enhancement technologies (passive and active). B ackA CK G roundR OUND Although originally designed for the use against tanks and armored personnel carriers, RPGs have become an effective asymmetric threat in modern-day conicts against rotorcraft. A descendant of the World War II Panzerfaust, todays RPG-7 (shown in Figure 1) is relatively inexpen sive, prolic, and effective at defeating both ground and rotary-wing vehicles. It is a muzzle-loaded, shoulder-red grenade launch system that uses a variety of n-stabilized grenades. The system has optical sights with effective ranges of ~300 meters (m) for moving targets and ~500 m for stationary ones. The maximum range of ~920 m is the point at which the grenades are designed to self-destruct.  Figure 2 shows an RPG launch simulation to demonstrate its power. The rst documented rotorcraft shot down from an RPG dates back to the Vietnam Conict, when one was used against a UH-1E gunship on 6 August 1966.  Through trial and error, the Vietcong and North Vietnamese Army continued to rene how to engage rotorcraft. Typically, they would target rotorcraft during static or slow-moving operations, such as hover and forward ight transitioning, and would ambush landing zones with a barrage of small arms re combined with RPG salvos. Tactics then expanded to include targeting rotorcraft in forward ight at low altitudes and occasionally long-range attacks employing fragment spray from a self-destructing RPG. Although these tactics were not that successful due to difculty in establishing range, angle of attack, and ight time, multiple salvos improved the probability of impact by allowing attackers to adjust their aim points based on the results of previous launches. Ultimately, hundreds of rotorcraft were damaged or destroyed by RPGs during the conict.  Additionally, efforts to counter these threats were limited because of inadequate technolo gies; efforts instead focused on improving survivability against small arms, which accounted for more losses than the RPG at the time. Additional instances of RPG events against rotorcrafts occurred in subse quent years, but it was not until the infamous 1993 Black Hawk Down incident in Somalia that the effects of M odelinODELIN G R ocket OCKET P ropelledR OPELLED Grenade GRENADE (RP GG )Effects in Rotorcraft Analysis Figure 1 RPG Weapon Figure 2 RPG Launch Simulation 
19 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL RPGs on rotorcrafts gained notoriety and efforts began in earnest to address rotorcraft survivability to this threat.  By early 2000, with the increased use of RPGs against rotorcrafts in Iraq and Afghanistan, including the eventual downing of two Chinooks in 2002 during Operation ANACONDA, efforts to improve rotorcraft survivability against RPGs were in full swing.U nderstandinNDERSTANDIN G theTH E T hreat HREAT Although understanding tactics which essentially have not changed since Vietnamhas proven useful in countering RPGs, understanding the associated threat damage mechanisms has become critical for addressing rotorcraft survivability. To identify rotorcraft vulnerabilities to the RPG, a series of threat characterization tests, funded by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce, was conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) from 2004 through 2006. The test objectives were to characterize threat damage mechanisms and support the development of an analytical model for vulnerability evaluations.  The RPG-7M warhead was characterized in a series of arena tests (shown in Figure 3) in which blast and fragmentation patterns were mapped, while damage sequencing was dened through a series of in-ight tests. To determine the interaction between the copper jet and the warhead detonation, a static detonation against a fuel tank was conducted with and without a blast shield (refer to Figure 4). Blast event forward motion of the blast, warhead fragments, and synergistic effects between the jet and warhead blast and fragments were found to be minimal. Finally, a series of in-ight tests was conducted to determine the effects of RPG motion on the damage, and some forward biasing resulting from the forward velocity was detected. Additionally, the rocket motor assembly was found to act as a secondary damage mechanism, producing more damage than the copper jet and static blast combined. The impact energy associated with the copper jet was determined to be comparable to that of the rocket motor assembly, since although the copper jet had a low mass with a relatively high velocity, the motor assembly had a high mass with a relatively low velocity. The tests identied that the analytical model could be constructed by sequencing the damage events in order of occurrence copper jet penetration, blast interaction, fragmentation impacts, and rocket motor assembly penetrationwhile the nite element (FE) software would account for forward biasing due to the RPGs forward velocity. M odelODEL D evelopmentEVELOPMENT All RPG-7M damage mechanisms, including blast, fragmentation, copper jet, and rocket body impact, were included in the modeling approach. Accuracy of the resultant model was assessed through correlation with data from a 2005/2006 AH-1F Cobra Tail Structure RPG test. Livermore Software Technology Corporations LS-DYNA (shown in Figure 5) was selected as the modeling tool. It was determined that the impact of an RPG on a rotorcraft structure could be segmented into four discrete sequential events: (1) the copper jet penetration through the structure, (2) the fragmenta tion spray of the warhead to the exterior of the structure, (3) the blast from the high explosive, and (4) the penetration of the rocket motor assembly. To facilitate this sequencing approach, the RPG model was constructed in segmentscopper jet, warhead fragments, blast, and rocket motor assemblyand then assembled as a whole. The warhead was modeled with various azimuth fragment rings with an embedded copper core, which was attached to a rocket motor assembly model. The blast element was modeled separately and based on the results of warhead blast pressure mapping. All model development was based on the results of the static characterization tests, and forward biasing due to the forward velocity of the RPG was accounted for by the software. Figure 5 Assembled LS-DYNA RPG Model Figure 3 APG Warhead Arena Tests Figure 4 Copper Jet/Blast Interaction on SARAP Fuel Tank
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 20 An FE model of an AH-1F Cobra tail structure (refer to Figure 6) was developed to evaluate the RPG model functionality in predicting structural damage on typical rotorcraft structures. Although the model functioned appropriately in interacting with the structure, the pressures generated by the model for exterior and interior elements did not correlate well with the test results (refer to Figure 7); therefore, the overall results underestimated the extent of damage to the structure. This underestimation was believed to be a result of how the RPG blast effects were coupled with the structural model, which was affected by the use of a Lagrangian mesh (as opposed to an Eulerian) to shorten model run times. Despite this underestimation, the model was effective in mapping the damage to the aircraft components and systems, and is suitable for supporting vulnerabil ity assessments, as long as its limitations are recognized. For example, the model addresses only structural aspects and not components or systems regarding degree of damage. Broadening the models capability would require the inclusion of critical components. The model would have to be modied to account for the various damage mechanisms that can produce failure of the critical components and systems. Also, the model does not consider mechanics of the plasma jet, which would have to be modied for armoredtype structures. Nonetheless, the model is an effective method for identifying both component and structural elements affected by the RPG impact and estimating overall structural damage. V ulnerabilityULNERABILITY M ethodoloE THODOLO G yY Three approaches have been developed for using the RPG model and test data to assess the vulnerability of rotorcrafts to RPG threats. In the rst approach (depicted in Figure 8), the RPG is used to characterize the damage (type and extent) inicted onto the aircraft. Once the degree and extent of damage are dened, the impact to aircraft operation is determined. This determination is accomplished by considering direct effects of the damage to the structure, components, and systems, as well as indirect effects, such as how damageinduced structural softening affects critical drive train alignment. Engineering analytical techniques are used to perform these evaluations, which include determining the residual load capability, dynamics, and lost system function ( e.g., hydraulics, electrical, ight controls, etc .). The sum of all the failures is related to aircraft operational performance to determine vehicle end effects, such as mission abort, forced landing, or attrition. In this Figure 8 Analytical Assessment Approach Figure 6 FE Model of AH-1F Cobra Tail Structure Figure 7 RPG Modeled Event NASTRAN Residual Capability Estimate Structural Damage Determine Aircraft Kills Performed in Various Locations to Cover Entire Vehicle Based on Most Probabilistic Hit Points Determine Critical Component Kills Mechanical Test Data Structural Geometry Failure Criteria Structure Analytical Damage Assessment Component Analytical Damage Assessment Ballistic Test Data System Conguration System Orientation Dynamics Redundancy Quantify Vulnerable Area for Structure Quantify Vulnerable Area for Components Apply Survivor Rule Multiple Iterations (Vary Blast and Fragment) System by System Evaluation Aircraft Platform Vulnerability
21 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLapproach, there is a heavy reliance on FE methodologies to determine damage effects on structure and components. The main metric used is vulnerable area, which is translated into an overall vehicle kill probability. To ensure that overlapping areas are not double counted, resulting in an articially high vulnerable area, the vulnerable areas from both components and structures are summed using the survivor rule. For example, if a critical component and structural kill both occupy an area consisting of 5 ft2, the survivor rule would allow the greatest vulnerable area to be no greater than 5 ft2, even though the area contributed by the component could be 2 ft2 and that from the structure would be 4 ft2. In the second approach (depicted in Figure 9), the RPG model is used in combination with empirical data to develop vehicle damage templates, which are used to identify failed and/or damaged structure and components. The model is primarily used to assess damage effects on the structure and identify those components and systems affected by the impact, while empirical data are used to develop the damage templates for the critical components and systems. With damage templates established, the remaining assessment procedure is the same as that in the rst approach. The third approach (depicted in Figure 10) comprises the use of damage templates developed using only empirical data. Once established, these templates are used to identify the extent and types of damage expected for the threat in a specied impact location. With the damage areas identied, the remaining assessment process is the same as the rst two approaches. Figure 9 Analytical/Empirical Assessment Approach Figure 10 Empirical Assessment Approach NASTRAN Residual Capability Estimate Structural Damage Determine Aircraft Kills Performed in Various Locations to Cover Entire Vehicle Based on Most Probabilistic Hit Points Determine Critical Component Kills Empirical Based Damage Template Mechanical Test Data Structural Geometry Failure Criteria Analytical Damage Assessment Ballistic Test Data Quantify Vulnerable Area for Structure Quantify Vulnerable Area for Components Apply Survivor Rule Multiple Iterations (Vary Blast and Fragment) Aircraft Platform Vulnerability NASTRAN Residual Capability Determine Aircraft Kills Performed in Various Locations to Cover Entire Vehicle Based on Most Probabilistic Hit Points Determine Critical Component Kills Estimate Structural Damage Empirical Based Damage Template Quantify Vulnerable Area for Structure Quantify Vulnerable Area for Components Apply Survivor Rule Aircraft Platform Vulnerability
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 22 Based on current model capabilities and limitations, each approach provides a similar level of delity in determining the vulnerability of a rotorcraft to the RPG, identifying areas for enhancement, and supporting sensitivity trade studies. Selection of the approach is dependent upon the availability of empirical data, the ability to validate the damage-predic tive capability of the model for structural elements, and assessment execution time constraints. The rst approach is best suited for instances where empirical data are lacking, but it requires a signicant effort to validate the struc tural damage-predictive capability. The second approach provides a mixture of analysis and empirical data, where analysis is used to determine the potential for component and structural kills, characterize damage effects, and develop data bridges between empirical data from various sources ( e.g., tests and combat) and the actual aircraft congura tion. The third approach applies when there is an abundance of empirical data applicable to the given threat and vehicle.S usceptibilityUSCEPTIBILITY The Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Centers (SURVIAC) recent development of the Tank and Helicopter RPG Encounter Analysis Tool (THREAT) has provided a means to assess RPG encounters and return a Probability of hit (PH) for the event.  The PH is dependent upon the presented area of the vehicle and a set of input parameters that inuence the RPGs impact location. These parameters include threat accuracy, maximum range, aim point, and attack aspect. THREAT provides the ability to determine the probability of impact on a rotorcraft and conduct sensitivity studies for PH as a function of range and aim point. In conjunction with the vulnerability assessment, overall vehicle survivability can be dened as PS=1-Probability of kill=1-(PH)(Probability of kill per hit).C onclusionsONCLUSIONS Tools and methodologies exist to evaluate the susceptibility and vulnerability of a rotorcraft to the RPG threat. Determining a rotorcrafts survivability to this threat can inuence the way the rotorcraft is used in particular operational environ ments, provide guidance on ways to enhance the vehicle survivability, and assess the ability of systems and protective features to buy their way onto a particular platform. References Colucci, Frank, Beating Ballistic Threats, Avionics Today Oct. 1, 2008.  G rau, Lester, For All Seasons: The Old But Effective RPG-7 Promises to Haunt the Battleelds of Tomorrow, Foreign Military Studies Ofce, Fort Leavenworth, K K S 2006.  H ambling, David, Brutal Chinese Weapon, Tailor-Made for Insurgents, http://www.wired.com/ dangerroom/2007/03/dangerous_new_c/, Mar. 26, 2007.  Va n Nortwick, John and Alan Barbour, A Chronology Of Marine Helicopters In Vietnam 1962-1975, USMC Combat Helicopter Association POP-A-SMO KK E http://www.popasmoke.com/ chronology.html.  R ottman, Gordon, The Rocket Propelled Grenade Osprey Publishing Ltd., Great Britain, 2010.  E shel, Colonel David, Deadly Scourge of the US Helicopter Pilots in Iraq, Defense Update International Defense Online Magazine http:// defense-update.com/newscast/0207/analysis/ analysis-100207.htm, 2007.  G lembocki, E. G. and H. R. Luzetsky, RPG Damage Effects Modeling and Simulation, JASPO Report Number V-04-03, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems (under contract to the SURVICE Engineering Company as an agent for the US Army Evaluation Center), May 2007.  S tewart, Rodney, RPG Encounter Modeling, SURVIAC Bulletin Volume 27, Issue 1, 2012.
23 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLI nteNTE G ratedRATED S urvivabilityU RVIVABILITY A ssessmentS SESSMENT by Dave Hall and Ron KK e tchamIt has been 10 years since the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) embarked on the development of a process to conduct integrated survivability assessments (ISA). Early in 2002, the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) tasked JASP to develop an ISA process to integrate survivability OT&E and live re testing and evaluation (LFT&E) assessments so that they could provide an overall survivability assessment of a system under test, rather than writing separate LFT&E and OT&E reports to Congress. ISA refers to a consistent process that combines, into an integrated whole, the evaluation of all factors that affect the ability of a vehicle to successfully operate in a threat environment. The factors include not only designed-in features of the aircraft and its on-board systems, but it also includes those assets off-board the aircraft that support its survivability. These off-board assets include suppression and defeat of enemy aircraft defenses, off-board jamming assets, standoff weapons, etc. Survivability measurement is through a combination of analytical and test methods, consistent with the develop ment phase of the system under test. ISA, therefore, needs to evaluate the ability of the air weapon system to operate in a hostile multi-threat environ ment, using its own native assets as well as off-board assets to survive and perform its mission. Since the assess ment must be done within mission context, it is important to identify specic mission-threat scenarios, or vignettes, within which to evaluate the system under test. Ideally, consistent vignettes and survivability metrics would be used throughout each phase of system acquisition, from requirements development, system development, test and evaluation, to elding. H istoryISTORY In response to the DOT&E direction, JASP instituted a project called Integrated Survivability Assessment (M-2-07). Funded between FY02 and FY05, the project developed the ISA process, including a checklist of survivability features, a hierarchy of survivability metrics, a description of how the metrics could be evaluated using modeling and simulation (M&S) and testing and evaluation (T&E) resources, and examples of the process were developed along with an HTMLbased handbook as a guide to inserting ISA into the test and evaluation master plan development process. In developing the ISA process, JASP expended efforts to ensure that it would be adaptable for use during all phases of system development, making use of the appropriate M&S and T&E resources. The idea was that the ISA process would be a tool to enhance system survivability for use by requirements ofces, program analysts, system developers, testers, and potentially for tactics development. Under the ISA project, the JASP investi gated the current capabilities of test ranges and joint service survivability M&S to support the process, developed recommendations for improvement to both, and developed plans for lling the deciencies in survivability M&S. In FY04 and FY06, JASP also funded an ISA demonstration program for the MultiMission Maritime Aircraft (MMA), now designated the P-8. Specic mitigation actions were identied for both M&S and T&E to support the ISA process. Estimated levels of effort (LOE) to accomplish the M&S related actions were included in a report that summarized recommenda tions for JASP funding under the Survivability Assessment Subgroup and for actions requiring additional funding beyond the projected JASP out-year budget. These mitigation actions were submitted as proposals for funding; however, none of those recommended
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 24 projects were selected for funding. Other sources of funding were pursued, including a POM-Plus-Up proposal for JASP, and funding under the Acquisition M&S Master Plan, neither of which were successful. A nal brieng on the ISA process and its application was given at the JASP Principal Member Steering Group in March 2006. The ISA process development was successful in that it documented the basic model-test-model approach to evaluating air system survivability, with consistent metrics and measurement methods that are applicable throughout the phases of system development. JASP initiated a demonstration of the ISA process for the P-8 program, which has been continued by P-8 under program funding. The JASP project also identied areas in both modeling and testing that required improvement and developed initial LOE estimates for making those improvements. The ISA process development was unsuccessful in that the improvements for the M&S deciencies identied by the JASP project were not funded by JASP; specic test facility deciencies that were identied have not been systemati cally funded for improvement; no outside funding source was identied to make those improvements; and interest in the ISA process faded at JASP starting around FY07. In part, some of this lack of success can be attributed to a perceived Department of Defense-wide push around FY07 to replace testing with M&S, as opposed to using M&S to improve the T&E process. That miscon ception on the part of some in high places led to the perception that M&S was not achieving their advertised potential, when in fact, that advertised potential was misguided from the start. WhereWHERE isIS ISA N oO W ?There has been one aspect of JASPinitiated ISA efforts that is showing promise. In 2002, JASP joined with the Navys MMA, now the P-8, to be the rst program to exercise and demonstrate an ISA process. While funding and other resource issues thwarted the effort considerably, a complete ISA assessment is expected to be accomplished over the next year. The initial part of this effort was dedicated to developing the process to be used and identifying key models. Figure 1 captures this process with a dark blue block that represents each simula tion to be employed in the effort, while colored blocks represent various groups of data as initial inputs or owing between simulations. Light blue blocks represent data characterizing the target platform, purple blocks represent threat data, and orange blocks represent data describing the environment. An input data block with arrows leading to more than one simulation does not necessarily mean that the same data parameters or input le format are used; in fact, this is generally not the case. The data, however, must be consistent. For example, while ight paths for each platform and threat are used in multiple models, these models may, and often do, use different geometric systems; therefore, the identical ight path may need to be transformed to these different systems. This gure does not show additional data that is required for a mission-level model and is not common to any of the other models. Only one change has been made to the above plan. At the time of the plan, the mission-level model was not selected; however, it has now been identied as Suppressor. The mission-level model runs and analyses will cap the ISA demonstra tion and are expected to begin shortly. Table 1 summarizes the purpose of each of these M&S tools. This process will capture the combined analyses of vulnerability and susceptibility, and the results will feed up to the mission level. Once all models are up and running and the integrated database is established, the P-8 program can then conduct trade studies over the entire scope of surviv ability, and measure the impacts of those trades using the Suppressor results. At the time of this article, the P-8 vulnerability analysis is near completion. RADGUNS and ESAMS are being run for engagement results; the results of these ESAMS and COVART vulnerability analyses are being combined in SHA ZZ A M to generate engagement Probabilities of kill (Pk), which will then be input into Suppressor. It would be incorrect, however, to merely focus on the Suppressor results. At each step of this process, metrics are being collected and used to provide insights to the program. These metrics are summa rized as follows: 1. M ission-level survivability a. Vignettes (missions) accomplished, broken down into the percentage of vignettes for which the mission can be accomplished considering the constraints imposed by survivability considerations ( i.e., resources available to accomplish the mission without losing aircraft, or with Table 1 MMA ISA Model Set Survivability Analysis Function Model(s) Vulnerability FASTGEN/COVART RF SAM Engagement ESAMS Air Defense Artillery Engagement RADGUNS Engagement Endgame SHA ZZ AM M ission-Level Interactions SUPPRESSOR
25 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLacceptable losses, if such losses can be dened). This metric should be considered the principal metric of an ISA. b. Threat shot opportunities against the force, both on the aircraft under test and on all supporting assets 2. E ngagement-level survivability a. Threat Pk envelopes, with and without countermeasures, and with and without maneuvers, to determine engagement-level Pkb. Robustness ( i.e., for what percentage of engagement conditions can the mission be performed and the aircraft recovered?) to ensure that systems are not point designs, but are operationally effective and suitable over a wide range of mission and scenario assumptions 3. E ngagement-level susceptibility a. Threat air-to-air and surface-to-air missile launch and/or intercept envelopes, with and without countermeasures and with and without maneuvers b. Threat gun systems effective envelopes, with and without countermeasures 4. V ulnerability a. Probability of aircraft damage and/ or kill given a hit (or close intercept) by various threat mechanisms, including projectiles or single fragment and proximity-fuzed missiles b. A list of components/systems considered vulnerable to various damage mechanisms 5. Pe rsonnel survivability a. Expected number of personnel casualties given a hit by a threat projectile or missileT heHE F utureUTURE The ISA process has taken several years to mature and provide usable results; however, future programs can benet from the infrastructure built with the MMA program. Using the M&S tools in the JASP toolset, with the addition of a mission-level analysis, tool like Suppressor, a set of metrics can be evaluated that provide the capability to conduct tradeoffs of survivability features across the entire suite of survivability enhancement technolo giesfrom vulnerability, to countermeasures, to signatures, to cooperative tactics. While there are still M&S technical issues to address ( e.g., accurately predicting the effects of electronic countermeasures on threat systems, or accurately predicting the effects of certain kill mechanisms in the presence of vulnerability reduction technologies) with careful consideration of test results, it is possible to conduct a full trade study of aircraft survivability technologies in a mission context. The key to the long-term success of the ISA process is the integration and evaluation of common survivability metrics across all acquisition program phases of development. If common metrics are used for requirements development, system development, and T&E, it will ensure the most cost-effec tive survivability suite for the aircraft and reduce the burden on the program as the system matures. To reach this goal will require a commitment to continually enhance survivability M&S and T&E capabilities until we can support a model-test-model approach at the mission level, with multiple assets in play, to evaluate the vignettes that will measure the true effectiveness of an aircrafts survivability suite. Figure 1 The MMA ISA Process (As Initially Planned) Geometric Model FASTGEN Shotline File COVART Fault Tree Fault Tree Component Descriptions Component PK Tables Shielded Component Pk/h SHAZAM Engagement Pks Mission Model Vulnerable Area MOSAIC ESAMS RADGUNS Detonation Point Encounter Conditions Encounter Conditions Warhead IR Signature Atmosphere RF Signature Flight Path Countermeasures Burst Pks
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 26 by Jim Tucker and Jaime BestardModeling and simulation (M&S) of real-world physical events is a must within the survivability community. As with any type of modeling in the survivability discipline, the intent is not necessarily to replace testing, but to help ll in gaps that cannot be tested. Without question, a properly run test event can generate useful data and uncover phenomena previously unconsidered; however, most subsystemand vehicle-level test events are costly and are typically limited with respect to the threats, velocities, and other conditions. These limitations can make it difcult for the analyst to make decisions that can support the development or improvement of a simulation model, whether a model of a single damage mechanism or a general vulnerability code requiring volumes of input. Modeling and testing have been success fully used hand-in-hand for live re test and evaluation (LFT&E) pre-shot predic tions, range safety evaluations, and post-test analysis; however, vulnerability and specication (or LFT&E tests) are not sufcient to generate and apply test data for understanding basic physical relation ships, using these relationships to develop simulation models, and nally having sufcient data to validate these models. This article presents an overview of re model development and testing neces sary for creating and/or validating a model for simulating liquid fuel ignition and res from ballistic threats.F ireIRE M odelinODELIN G S copeC OPE andA ND D efinitionE FINITION It is important to understand the current intent of re modeling within the ballistic survivability discipline. The intent of any model is to systematically represent a real-life event, just as a test is a physical simulation of a real-life event. Fire models may range from simple probabilistic models to highly-detailed mathematical models. Probabilistic models ( e.g., models based on simple logic-tree deduction and user-assigned probabilities) can determine an answer in seconds; however, highly detailed computational-uid-dynamics mathematical models involving complex dynamics can take days to simulate a single, short-lived event and produce a deterministic result. The logic-tree model may produce rough-order answers for many events, and the complex determinis tic models may present a highly rened and detailed single-point answer. For aircraft re vulnerability assessment and test support, the execution of many simulations is needed to address the long list of permutations that can occur during a simple fuel tank penetration event. Parameters ( e.g., threat velocity, impact obliquity, yaw, function characteristics, material types, material thicknesses, fragment irregularity, fuel temperature, dry-bay airow/clutter/volume, etc .) determine whether an ignition can occur and re sustainment and damage will result. Because we want to evaluate potentially thousands of event permuta tions, a highly detailed, complex computational uid dynamics model is currently impractical from a setup and runtime consideration. Yet, simple probabilistic or two-dimensional zonebased deterministic models are not accurate enough. So, as with any discipline applying M&S, we are faced with the decision of sacricing accuracy with schedule and cost. Currently, and for the foreseeable future, an engineering-level model for simulating and predicting re is considered the most appropriate level of modeling and ts between the logic-tree and the highly detailed modeling approach. By selfimposed denition, an engineering-level model for re must address each of the critical elements of an ignition and re sequence through the use of simplied physics-based computations and the use of empirical data to identify and predict probabilistic trending and projected results. A single-point answer will not address any of these items. F ireIRE S imulationIMULATION M odel ODEL D evelopmentE VELOPMENT and AND T estinE STIN G
27 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL T estEST D ataATA for FOR D evelopmentE VELOPMENT andA ND V alidationA LIDATION The survivability community sometimes tries to piggy-back onto larger-scale tests, such as system-level LFT&E, to obtain physical data in support of simulation model development. Unfortunately, adding extra instrumentation to an existing test, or just sampling at a faster rate, does not automatically lead to advances in understanding physical phenomena or developing algorithms for simulation. The problem is that largerscale tests are conducted to evaluate events from a macro level and not necessarily the detailed physical phenomena at the micro level. For example, a test to determine if a wing will fail due to hydrodynamic ram typically focuses on specic parameters to determine that end effect ( e.g., aerodynamic loading, projectile velocities, fuel levels, etc .). It is extremely difcult and usually cost prohibitive for these types of tests to focus on a single aspect of a phenomenon due to limitations in resources, test article geometry, etc. Additionally, these subsystemand system-level tests do not have the resources to repeat the test enough times to capture the small variations in underlying parameters with any statistical signicance. Unless a re model uses Monte Carlo algorithms, where a probability distribu tion is sampled for each parameter, each run will produce the same result in a deterministic fashion. The approximate physics-based algorithms and averaged empirical data used in the engineeringlevel models may generate results that may not perfectly match a single test event. Fire test results, however, are often not so deterministic. For example, a particular 12.7-mm armor-piercing incendiary (API) B32 round used in one test may be at the extreme end of the function cloud duration (due to origins, manufacturing, or unknown variances), and it may not be as well represented in the models empirical data; therefore, when trying to compare the nal result of a single test with the output from a single deterministic computer simulation, one may not necessarily be comparing the same things. To try to overcome this problem, at best, we can take all the measurements from the test and run the model numerous times. The known inputs can be varied by the amount of uncertainty in the measurements, and further parametric studies can be conducted for unknowns. This approach can easily lead to hundreds (or more) runs per scenario, depending on the number of parameters and levels. The outcome of these simulations will likely be a number of simulations that match the test results and a number that do not. Unfortunately, this does not add much evidence to help judge a models credibility; as in many cases, we are looking at the end result and not interim computations. In trying to model a ballistic ignition event and subsequent re, there are a number of sub-models simulating the different phenomena and then an overarching architecture that communi cates among these sub-models. Validating each of the sub-models is the only way to begin validating an entire code. We must compare intermediate data generated by calculations in the supporting subroutines used to generate the nal answer. Comparisons of these data are useful for multiple reasons. First, comparisons are more straightforward because the data are usually less subjective. Also, if errors in the model are discovered in the intermediate calcula tions, there is a potential for a leap in model improvement since results from these intermediate calculations are inputted into downstream calculations. Additionally, the impacts of model assumptions or empirical data can be judged independently for validity instead of being confounded in the nal result.D efininEFININ G What WHAT D ataA TA toT O C ollectO LLECT Instrumentation requirements should be goal-driven. If one is testing to determine ignition, then the testing should focus on gathering as much information as possible on the threat orientation, threat function/ash (including duration, extents, and strength), and fuel spurt timing, as well as distinguishing between threat effects and fuel burning. The test must capture the entire sequence of events in detail. This approach provides context to better understand what is going on and why. And with repeated tests of the same scenario, more insight into the uncontrollable parameters ( e.g., variances in APIs) is gained. If the goal is model validation, then instrumentation should focus on the phenomena that the sub-models are attempting to simulate. The choice of what particular pieces of instrumentation to use should be left to the instrumentation engineers, but with the concurrence of test engineers and other involved specialists. The analysts and model developers need to clearly dene what needs to be measured, and the instrumentation engineers should dene what data they can collect. Equally important is clearly dening what will not be achieved by the test if certain data cannot be collected as desired. This step can sometimes be a go/no-go point for the test program. What cannot happen is simply a handoff of requirements with data delivered at the end of the project.
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 28 Model developers working together with test planners is imperative and is something we are improving on as a community.I nterpretinNTERPRETIN G F ireI RE T estE ST D ataA TA Regardless of the process used to establish test requirements, the process to interpret the data is essentially the same. First, re test data must be analyzed to ensure they are describing the event. It should not be assumed that test data are correct. Any photographer who has been disappointed by the failure of a photo to capture a scene has experienced the limitations of instrumen tation or setup. These same types of issues apply to examining test data. Were there any variances in procedure or test parameters from the plan in the test event being considered? Are there good signal-to-noise ratios on the data traces? Do the data self-corroborate? When the data traces are laid out on a single timeline, does the timing line up with the instrumentation locations? Taking into account lag time, do data traces match what is seen on video? Finally, what are the measurement uncertainties of the different instruments? The requirements to analyze data do not change, even if the data have already been distilled into a nal report. Fire is an extremely complex event, and distilling individual events into tabulated data is not an exact (or trivial) science. For validation or model development, signicantly more information is needed than a simple spreadsheet summary; denitions and observations can vary across tests, and subjective interpreta tion is almost always required. For example, a test program without color high-speed video would likely have trouble distinguishing ash/function from ignition from a ash re. Without additional corroborating data, it would not be credible to draw conclusions about ignition from this series. The bottom line is that the model developer or validation team must have access to, and thor oughly review, the original test data to fully understand each test event. If an analysis simply states that a re occurred, without at least giving threat velocities, obliquities, accurate damage geometry, and material thickness, it will not be sufcient to support development of or comparison to model algorithms. Finally, when interpreting data for model development and validation, one should not take repeat results and attempt to make them quantitative. It is exceptional for system-level test programs to conduct enough repeated tests of the same scenario to calculate probabilities of any damage mechanisms ( e.g., ignition). Most test scenarios are not repeated, and some are tested a total of three or four times. Unfortunately, with re testing, we sometimes call three out of three (a 100% probability) and one out of three (a 33% probability) of ignitionor even worse, one for one (a 100% probability) and zero for one (a 0% probability) of ignition. In reality, it takes collecting many data points, identifying a con dence level, and completing a statistical analysis to establish the probability. And even then, the statistical analysis may show that there are not enough data to meet the desired condence level. The only choice at that point is more testing.C onclusionONCLUSION If the survivability community wants to conduct tests or experiments to develop models and validate portions of complex models, then it needs to continue shifting its mindset. The focus needs to be on repeatability and measurability of underlying phenomena. The community needs to focus on controlled experiments as opposed to large-scale demonstrations. Test programs focusing on re over the past few years have made signicant strides, but more is needed. We need to focus on experiments that break down the re chain of events into elements that, from a physical modeling perspective, can be looked at from an algorithm level rst and then followed by routines and modules. Only then can the overall model be judged.
29 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLT heHE U seSE of OF LS-DYNA T hreatH REAT M odelsO DELS in Performing Pretest Predictions by Ronald Hinrichsen and Alex KK u rtzThe Summer 2009 issue of the Aircraft Survivability Journal published an article entitled, LS-DYNA Models of Selected Guided and Unguided Threats, which presented a summary of the methodology used in LS-DYNA threat model development and a list of the models available. This article presents three experiences in the use of some of the LS-DYNA models in performing pretest predictions on selected projects.  P rojectR OJECT 1The rst project highlighted was a collaborative effort performed between the Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, where there was interest in predicting man-portable air defense system (MANPADS) damage on an aluminum wing structure of a typical commercial aircraft. The project involved a building block approach, where selected wing panels were modeled with the MANPADS, impacting at various angles of obliquity, with and without detonation. Figure 1 depicts a typical case of a MANPADS impacting at an obliquity angle, Figure 2 shows the damage resulting from the MANPADS impacting a panel at 75, with and without detonation. Following the initial panel study, the dry wing tip of a typical commercial aircraft wing was modeled and impacted with the MANPADS at various angles. Figure 3 shows the model just before it impacts the aircraft structure. Figure 4 shows the resulting damage inicted by the MANPADS detonating on the lower skin of the wing tip at a 60 angle. The nal LS-DYNA simulation of this collaborative effort was to model the hydrodynamic ram (HRAM) that resulted from a MANPADS impact on a fuel-lled wing structure. This simulation was for the case where the MANPADS impacted at 0 and the warhead did not detonate. Figure 5 shows a time lapse of HRAM damage that resulted from the impact. Note that a coupled technique was used, where the uid was modeled using a xed Eulerian mesh. In Figure 5, the red indicates the fuel, and the blue represents the air. Figure 1 LS-DYNA Model of MANPADS Impacting Stiffened Wing Panel Figure 3 LS-DYNA Model of MANPADS Engaging Wing Tip of Typical Commercial Aircraft Figure 4 Bottom and Top Views of MANPADS Detonating with 60 Obliquity Figure 2 Impact at =75, With and Without Detonation
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 30 Figure 6 shows the HRAM damage that resulted from a MANPADS impact to the fuel-lled wing. Note the signicant bulging, cracking, and separation of the upper skin and closeout rib. P rojectROJECT 2The second project highlighted is a Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce-funded collaborative effort between the Navy and the Air Force, where the overall objective was to support the validation of LS-DYNA characterizations and modeling techniques that assess damage on turbine engine disks due to MANPADS. The Navy and Air Force evaluated and compared the current LS-DYNA modeling techniques with test data to identify strengths and shortfalls. Pretest predictions were made to support test data collection denition, and post test analysis was conducted to improve modeling capabilities. The turbine engine components used in the project were chosen to represent a class of turbine engines, large high bypass ratio fan engines. Test components were readily available and obtainable at reasonable cost. Four tests were performed in the spin xture at China Lake. All of the tests were performed using actual disk and blade hardware. Two tests used at plates as surrogates for engine cowling and structure. The other tests were performed with a representative fabricated built-up structure, and in the other, actual engine hardware was used. The threat that was used in each of the tests was the SA-7 MANPADS, launched at the target using the Missile Engagement Threat Simulator (METS gun). During the rst two tests on the at plate conguration, the warhead detonated in one test and did not detonate in the other. Similar results occurred on the tests of the surrogate built-up and actual structures. Having detonating and non-detonating warheads was seen as a very positive result, as it allowed for comparison of both live and inert warhead models. Additionally, during the inert warhead events, the high speed video captured details that otherwise would have been missed had the warhead detonated. This project showed that the SA-7 MANPADS models led to mixed results. In some cases, they matched the test results, and in others, they did not. The mixed results may have been due to uncertainty in the target or threat material properties. Figure 7 shows a schematic of the set up for the at plate tests. The spin xture is shown at the right with a disk mounted. The Letter A indicates the planned shot line, B indicates an aluminum plate, C indicates a stainless steel plate, and D indicates a mild steel plate. Each of the plates was represen tative of typical materials and thicknesses associated with engine cowling and support structure. The spin xture was used to spin the disk at a rate consistent with that found in large high bypass ratio fan engines. The LS-DYNA model was spun at the same rate and prestressed to represent the stress state at that rate. The shot highlighted here was one in which the MANPADS did not detonate, but impacted the rst plate at the same angle and velocity as that of the test. Figure 8 shows a comparison of the damage to the three plates, with the actual test plate on the left and the model on the right. The model was run for a total of 30 milliseconds, which is a very long time for an explicit time integration model. At the end of the simulation, the disk rim had broken into some small pieces and four large pieces, the largest comprising approximately 1/3 of the whole rim. Figure 9 shows a comparison of the simulation (right) with the Figure 5 Time Lapse of HRAM Damage at T=1.4, 4.2, 5.6 msec Figure 6 HRAM Damage Resulting from MANPADS Impacting Fuel-lled Wing Figure 7 Flat Plate Test Conguration Figure 8 Flat Plates After Missile Penetration
31 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLdisk pieces that were recovered after the test (left). Note that the rim pieces were similar in size. The bore split along a crack during the test and ended up as a long piece.P rojectROJECT 3The nal project highlighted here was performed in support of the live re test of an aircraft having large turbofan engines. The pretest analysis shown was done on a generic wing pylon being attacked by a MANPADS. Figure 10 shows snapshots of the simulated engagement. The upper-left frame is at the beginning of the simulation, while the lower-right frame shows the damage at the end of the simulation. The intermediate frames show the damage just before and during the warhead detonation. S ummaryUMMARY andA ND C onclusionON CLUSION This article presented experiences in the use of some of the LS-DYNA threat models in performing pretest predic tions on three projects. The projects described in this article were chosen due to the generic nature of the targets so that the article would be approved for public release. These projects are not the only ones that have used the models. Other notable projects are the large engine vulnerability to the MANPADS program, where General Electric used one of the MANPADS models against a large high bypass turbofan engine; the Joint Cargo Aircraft Live Fire Testing and Evaluation (LFT&E) program, where RHAMM Technologies, LLC. used many of the unguided threat models as well as one of the MANPADS models against the joint cargo aircraft wing; and a study by Bell Helicopter, where they used one of the unguided threat models against one of their airframes. In conclusion, in each case, the pretest predictions performed using the LS-DYNA threat models did a credible job in predicting what was actually observed during the tests. The models are available for use by others who wish to perform analyses on other targets of interest. The models are now in SURVIAC, TEL: 937/255-3828. References Cleared for Public Release 5 April 2012; Case Number 88ABW-2012-2023. Figure 9 Disk Pieces After Rupture Figure 10 MANPADS Engaging a Generic Pylon
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 32 by David DickinsonWhen aircraft are evaluated for survivability, one aspect of the assessment is the ability of the aircraft to sustain damage from kinetic energy based threats. This article describes work related to developing fast running methodologies ( i.e., engineering models) for predicting the penetration and damage capability of small caliber projectiles and warhead fragments. B ackA CK G roundR OUND Perhaps the rst warrior who cobbled together a shield speculated whether it could truly protect him from the arrows of his opponent. Techniques may have been implemented to increase effectiveness and reduce splitting, such as testing multiple wood varieties or even augmenting wood with a layer of leather or metal. Of course the opponent was likewise debating if his arrow should y faster, weigh more, or have a stronger, more durable tip to be effective. The introduction of the modern scientic process for assessing the penetration of projectiles is generally credited to the French engineer J. V. Poncelet.  While Poncelet is generally best known for work in the areas of geometry and applied mechanics, he also made important contributions to the mechanics of materials.  He postulated on a law of resistance for the penetration of projectiles into targets analogous to resistance to uid dynamics ow, assuming that the impactor did not deform or lose signicant weight during the penetration process. Given his interest in soils or sand as target mediums, these assumptions served him well and his formula continues to be used in various modied forms. Poncelet correlated the resisting force with impact speed and the cross-sectional area of the projectile along with two constants that needed to be determined from experimentation. In spite of the advent of the applied science of terminal ballistics, experimen tal testing has ourished and continues to the present time, providing a direct answer for specic survivability or lethality questions. Figure 1 shows an early test with a fragmenting warhead at what became the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Dahlgren Division, which is located in Dahlgren, VA. Conducting this series of tests at various distances and aspects provided a lethal missdistance prole around the target. Projectile testing was also conducted against a variety of materials to provide the planner/user with a look-up table of penetration capability with the assump tion that it could be extrapolated to a measure of lethality/survivability or threshold protection level. Figure 2 illustrates an example of such a table.  This table indicates an early interest in providing guidance to the weapon user. Testing has always been expensive, requiring scarce or difcult to obtain resources, and results can be limited due to the inability to accurately reproduce some engagement conditions. To more completely evaluate the target-threat combinations, tools have been developed to predict the capability of the impactor to penetrate and damage the target. One such tool, terminal ballistics, is critical to all air, land, and sea vehicles as well as stationary fortications. The interest developed in terminal ballistics was initiated with the introduction of aircraft as a weapon carrier, such as the Italian Caproni Ca 30 and the British Bristol TB-8 , against anti-air guided weapon systems like the German Ruhrstahl X X 4. This initial interest regarding aircraft survivability was second only to that related to the atomic weapons program in the period after World War II leading up to 1960.  To analyze a target requires the ability to estimate the structure and conditions that the impactor (projectile or fragment) will encounter as it engages and works its way P redictiveREDICTIVE T erminal ERMINAL B allisticsAL LISTICS for Fragments and Projectiles Figure 1 Test against Biplane at Dahlgren
33 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL through the target. This analysis involves developing a series of plates to represent the target, such as those shown in Figure 3. L. G. Ullyatt describes the rst formal approach to vulnerability as involving the creation of a detailed set of orthogonal engineering drawings on paper, or MylarTM, and hand-tracing the trajectory of interest completely through the target, recording the intersected material, material thickness, and angle of impact.  Early predictive work appears to be focused on larger projectiles and armor penetration  and references formulae taken from the 1937 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. In what was perhaps the rst aircraft survivability symposium , presentations were made on criteria for penetration, loss of speed during the penetration process, and the slowdown of fragments and projectiles through uids. Ullyatt indicates that the rst methodology utilized by the aircraft survivability community to predict penetration was the set of equations collectively known as the THOR equations. The THOR equations were one of the products of Project THOR , which started in 1948 as a joint project of the Philadelphia Ordnance District, Department of the Army, and the Ballistic Research Laboratories of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). The projects purpose was to perform statistical analysis and evaluation of nine controlled fragmentation shell types red in selected positions around 152 B-25 aircraft at APG. The nine shell types represented three fragment masses with three fragment velocities each. Ballistic testing with projectiles and fragment simulating projectiles started in the early 1950s to develop and rene predictive equations. The rst publication appeared in 1954 as a document focused on the ballistic limit for small caliber projectiles.  The rst report in the series that focused on fragments was published 2 years later.  An additional four reports were published on projectiles and an additional 11 reports were published on fragments under the THOR series, with an eventual transition from the corporate lead of the Johns Hopkins University Institute for Cooperative Research to the Thor Division of the Falcon Research and Development Company. Ullyatt indicates that in the 1960s, the hand shotlining process began to be converted over to the computer and the process of developing a digital represen tation of thousands of geometric elements (illustrated in Figure 4) was initiated. The target models mathemati cally describe the spatial distribution of target materials and structures of a target. Along with digital representation, the automation of the calculation for the penetration process began. T riRI -S ervice ERVICE F ocusO CUS In the same time frame as the digital reformation, the Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness (JTCG/ME) was estab lished to ensure the standardization of weapons effectiveness data among the services. The Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS) was established a few years later, and subsequently re-chartered as the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP). Both organizations continue to collaborate on areas of mutual interest. Figure 4 Digital Target Representation Figure 3 Plate Representation of a Potential Impactor Path through a Target Figure 2 Penetration Capability of Caliber .30 Projectiles
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 34 As part of the standardization process, JTCG/ME established a working party for kinetic energy penetrators, which began to review the existing methodology.  This working party would become the penetration equations panel, developing the JTCG/MEs Penetration Equations Handbook for Kinetic-Energy Penetrators  (rst published in 1977) with R. Recht as author or co-author on seven of the 16 references. The handbook would be last ofcially updated in 1986 with ad hoc updates appearing occasionally. In the late 1970s, the NSWC Dahlgren Division, under the sponsorship of the Air and Surface Weaponry Technology Program of the Ofce of Naval Research, started testing and developing methodol ogy for fragment impacts that well exceeded the impact speed regime of existing test data and engineering models. Testing (refer to Figure 5) revealed that fragment breakup and the subsequent residual debris would be of particular importance.  The early modeling work by J. Yatteau and R. Recht [15, 16, 17] and subsequent continued development by J. Yatteau, G. Recht, and R. Z Z e rnow  have produced the fast air target encounter penetration (FATEPEN) methodology for predicting the sequen tial transformations in a penetrator ( i.e., changes in weight, speed, and orienta tion) and corresponding target damage as the penetrator passes through the series of spaced plates and/or uid volumes. Figure 6 illustrates the general case of high velocity spaced plate target penetration as it is idealized by FATEPEN. KK e y items from Figure 6 are the primary (generally largest) residual piece from the impactor, two classes of smaller residual pieces from the impactor, and the debris from the impacted plate. Figure 6 also illustrates one of the prime focuses of the development of FATEPEN, which is the region where the residual impactor does not exit the target plate as a single piece, but the impact produces a cloud of debris. In the nomenclature of FATEPEN, the penetrator is described as having shattered. The degree of this breakup and the threshold for the onset of shatter can be an important consideration. The core penetration models have been developed, as much as possible, by applying the laws of mechanics to the dominant terminal ballistic loading and response mechanisms as revealed by penetration experiments and rst principle code calculations. Some of these models pertain to ideal impact geometries, such as unyawed cylinders impacting plates at normal obliquity. The ideal models are extended to non-ideal impact geometries by employing supplemental relationships to approximate effects of impact geom etry on the dominant penetrator and target inertial and strength properties. Additional relationships are included to provide for rational and smooth transitions between ideal models as functions of the appropri ate encounter variables. For example, a function of penetrator normalized length is used to interpolate between penetration predictions from the compact fragment model and those from the long rod penetration model in the code. Empirical model parameters are incorporated as Figure 5 Post-test Photographs of a Damaged Plate Array (Main Picture) and Flash XX Radiographs Taken between Plates (Inserts) Figure 6 General Case of Fragment Transformation as Predicted with FATEPEN between Plates (Inserts)
35 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLneeded to account for loading and response effects that could not be modeled either because of their complex ity or because of time constraints. The empirical parameter values in FATEPEN are collectively one of the greatest assets of the code. Evaluation of these param eters, either through testing or rst principle code calculations, furnishes a straightforward means for extending the code to new penetrators, target materials, and structures. The empirical parameter values also provide a very useful legacy for the many penetration experiments used in developing and validating the models and computer code. From the original focus on compact fragments at higher speeds, testing and analysis have expanded to include very small particles to larger fragments of various shapes and impact speeds around the ballistic limit. Impactor and target materials include most materials utilized today and short-term solutions that exist for user-dened materials. FATEPEN is available as a stand-alone, graphic user interface-driven code for assessing simple fragment plate combinations and also as a module to higher level survivability/lethality/ effectiveness codes, such as the Computation of Vulnerable Area Tool (COVART) and the advanced joint effectiveness model (AJEM). The development of FATEPEN is currently being led and maintained by the JTCG/ME, executing through the Lethality and Effectiveness Branch of NSWC. As mentioned previously, the Penetration Equations Handbook has had the occasional ad hoc update. For the projectile methodology, in particular, some updates would appear as changes in the equations coded with COVART (and subsequently AJEM). In 2005, the JTCG/ME funded a task to review the penetration equations as coded to see what areas needed improvement. Yatteau and Z Z e rnow completed this task in 2006.  In an effort to bring this set of equations under tighter conguration control and to provide a better platform for improvements, the COVART team extracted the projectile penetration methodology from the current version of COVART and formed a module, which was named ProjPen in 2006. Subsequently a 2007 task, funded by JASP and JTCG/ME, made improvements to ProjPen.  The 2007 improvement task for armor piercing projectilescon ducted by Yatteau, Z Z e rnow, Recht, and Vavrickfocused on improvements for the ballistic limit of intact projectiles, intact cores, and broken cores. Utilizing predictions from the shock physics code CTH, benchmarked against unyawed test data, and estimates of ballistic limits and residual properties were obtained for yawed projectiles and an identied deciency in the methodology corrected. Figure 7 is an illustration from Vavricks calculations with CTH showing the effect of impact orientation on the penetration process for three different yaw values. In FY11, improvements were made for ball rounds to account for their different failure mechanism.  The ongoing analytical work is also supported by joint live re testing from the air and ground programs as illus trated in Figure 8. Testing continues to provide insight into physical phenomena.S ummaryUMMARY Terminal ballistics has been an important aspect of survivability process since the rst warrior tried to protect himself from the enemy through a trial and error process. It continues through todays methods of focused experimentation and shock physics code analysis, leading to ongoing improvements of fast-running models that produce reliable estimates for complex targets and threats. Figure 7 Predictions for Residual Speed Utilizing CTH Figure 8 7.62mm Round Traveling at 2,400 ft/s Impacting a 0.25 in. Aluminum Alloy Plate at 45deg Obliquity
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 36 References Poncelet, J.V. (1929). Cours de Mecanique Industrielle Paris.  T imoshenko, S.P. (1983). History of Strength of Materials New York: Dover Publications.  O rdnance Department U.S.A. (1917). Description and Rules for the Management of the U.S. Magazine Rie (1898) and Magazine Carbine (1899) Caliber .30 Washington D.C.: Government Printing Ofce.  C ross, R. (1987). The Bombers: The Illustrated Story of Offensive Strategy and Tactics in the Twentieth Century New York: Antheneum.  U .S. Army Material Command. (1962), Engineering Design Handbook, Elements of Terminal Ballistics AMC.  K K l opcic, J.T., & Reed, H.L. (1999). Historical Perspectives on Vulnerability/Lethality Analysis Aberdeen: ARL-SR-90.  B ethe, H.A. (1942). An Attempt at a Theory of Armor Penetration Philadelphia: Frankford Arsenal.  B allistics Research Lab. (1948). Report on the First Working Conference on Aircraft Survivability. Aberdeen Proving Ground: Ballistics Research Lab.  I nstitute for Cooperative Research of the Johns Hopkins University. (1954). Project THOR History and Current Activities Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University.  M allick, J. (1954). A Suggested Technique for Predicting the Performance of Armor-Piercing Projectiles Acting on Rolled Homogeneous Armor (THOR 14) Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Institute for Cooperative Research.  I nstitute for Cooperative Research of the Johns Hopkins University. (1956). A Comparison of Various Materials in their Resistance to Perforation by Steel Fragments, Empirical Relations (THOR 25) Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Institute for Cooperative Research.  R echt, R. (1973). Quasi-Empirical Models of the Penetration Process Aberdeen Proving Ground: JTCG/ME.  A erial Target Vulnerability Subgroup. (1977). Penetrations Equations Handbook for Kinetic-Energy Penetrators (JTCG/ME-77016) Aberdeen Proving Ground: Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness.  D ickinson, D. L., Investigations of High Velocity Fragments Impacting Plate Arrays, NWSC TR-79-66, Naval Surface Weapons Center, Dahlgren, VA, March 1979.  Y atteau, J. D., High Velocity Multiple Plate Penetration Model, Denver Research Institute, Denver, CO, NSWC-TR-82-123, Naval Surface Weapons Center, Dahlgren, VA, February 1982.  R echt, R. F., High Obliquity Ballistic Perforation Models (Program FPIIM), Denver Research Institute, Denver, CO, Final Report, Contract N60921-86-D-A070, Task B009, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA, March 1988.  Y atteau, J. D., J. A. Dunn, and D. L. Dickinson, Terminal Ballistic Impact Fracture of Steel Cubes, Applied Research Associates, Inc., Littleton, CO for Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA, NSWC TR 91-397, March 1994.  Y atteau, J. D., R. H. Z Z e rnow, and G.W. Recht, Compact Fragment Multiple Plate Penetration Model (FATEPEN 2), Volume I Model Description, Volume II Users Manual, April 2012.  Y atteau, J. D., and R. H. Z Z e rnow, Comparisons Between JTCG/ME Projectile Penetration Equations and Penetration Test Results, Applied Research Associates, Inc., Littleton, CO for Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA, April 2006.  Y atteau, J. D.*, R. H. Z Z e rnow**, G.W. Recht**, and D. J. Vavrick***, Projectile Penetration Module Improvements, *Ballistic Impact Engineering, LLC, Conifer, CO, **Applied Research Associates, Inc., Littleton, CO, ***Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA, March 2008.  R echt, G.W., ProjPen Ball Round Improvements, Applied Research Associates, Inc., Littleton, CO, March 2011.
37 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL by KK en BranhamDr. Robert E. Balls The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design affectionately known as the Bible for combat aircraft survivability, denes aircraft vulnerability as the inability of an aircraft to withstand the man-made hostile environment.  The goal of VR is to remove this inability to survive, or at least minimize, the potential damage from an impact caused by a man-made threat or weapons systembe able to continue to y, complete the mission, and return to base even after a hit. The rst thing that typically comes to mind for most people when they think VR is armorslapping on enough metal and/or composite structure to be able to withstand a hit from a bullet, missile, or warhead fragment ( i.e., threat projectile); however, to accomplish the stated goal, there are many other techniques and solutions to consider. The previously mentioned reference actually lists six survivability enhancement concepts to be considered:1. Component Redundancy 2. C omponent Location 3. P assive Damage Suppression 4. A ctive Damage Suppression 5. C omponent Shielding 6. C omponent Elimination or Replacement  Three of these concepts are denitely within the scope of the JASP mission: active damage suppression, passive damage suppression, and component shielding. Responsibility for the other areas lies within the acquisition community, its systems engineers at the program desks, and design engineers at the manufacturers. The stated JASP mission is to achieve increased affordability, readiness, and effectiveness of tri-service aircraft through the joint coordination and development of survivability (susceptibility and VR) technologies and assessment methodologies. JASP is the only Department of Defense organization with a dedicated element of their mission to reduce the vulnerability of joint aircraft. JASPs goal is to assist in the transition of emerging technologies that spring forth from the research laboratories and the research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) organizations for actual installation and use on aircraft platforms. This article attempts to succinctly summarize some of the emerging VR technologies in which JASP has had a nancial and/or program investment, using terminology easy to follow, even for those unfamiliar with the discipline. A quick review of the JASP-sponsored VR projects over the last decade portrays a plethora of focus areas beyond the six major concepts listed above. There have been a total of 96 projects, either completed or currently in process. Table 1 provides a breakdown of the projects, binned by a single, overarching goal. Of course, many of the projects could easily be classied in several different categories; however, each was binned according to its main objective. Overall within the VR subgroup, the majority of projects that JASP supports are focused toward VULNERABILITY REDUCTION (VR) OVERVIE WW and Recent JASP Investments Table 1 JASP VR Projects by Category Major Area Number of Projects MANPADS/RPG 18 Fire Suppression (Passive and Active) 18 Armor (Transparent and Opaque) 15 Aircraft Structures 11 Fuel Containment 8 Hydrodynamic Ram 7 Engine or Propulsion System 5 Unmanned Aircraft System 4 Administrative (Roadmaps, etc .) 3 Battle Damage and Repair 2 Other 5 VR INTRO
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 38 advancing armor concepts and re suppression, both passive and active. During the past several years, a greater emphasis has been placed on the man-portable air defense system (MANPADS) and rocket propelled grenades (RPG) area, with a direct increase in the number of projects and corresponding dollar investment. This increase is a direct result of lessons learned from theater and in support of the war ghter. In the recent congressionally-mandated Rotorcraft Survivability Study, it was shown that these weapons systems and the ensuing conagrations were the biggest killer of aircrew and aircraft vehicles in the air aspect of the war. In previous years, there had not been a lot of focus put on those threats. MANPADS was thought to be an overmatching weapon with no chance of survival, especially for rotorcrafts, and RPGs were not thought of as a credible weapon against aircraft; however, we have seen this is not true in either case. In addition to a lack of full system and live re testing of these threats against current air vehicles, a lot of capability gaps were also identied by the aviation survivability modeling and simulation (M&S) community. A specic need was identied to develop a robust data set for use in modeling, including hit point prediction and analysis; therefore, a joint JASP/JLF-Air (Joint Live Fire Aircraft System) MANPADS roadmap was developed to help identify these gaps and provided direction for future investment funding. Lessons learned from M&S will be used in future aircraft design and in evaluating upgrades to current platforms and determining their vulnerability against these weapons. For the 18 projects listed in Table 1 under the MANPADs/RPG area, 14 of the projects involved surface-to-air missiles and the other four were RPGs. Due to the success of the MANPADS roadmap, a current JASP project is developing an RPG roadmap, similar in scope and focus. The following two projects in terms of size are re suppression, both passive and active, and armor. Within the re suppression projects, the number of passive systems investigated far exceeded the active systems. Passive systems relieve some of the cockpit burden of the aircrew, who are being overwhelmed in theater by the multiple defensive systems added recently ( e.g., missile warning systems or hostile re indicator) with their corresponding aural alerts or cockpit symbology. Some examples of very successful passive systems being developed with the help of JASP nancing include enhanced Powder Panels and the Firetrace system. The Powder Panel system is based on an extinguishant pre-positioned between the aircraft skin and an interior panel. The extinguishing agent is released upon projectile penetration. The Firetrace system, which contains pre-pressured extinguishant and tubing run through critical areas, is actually being installed in the main landing gear wheel well area of the V-22. This Firetrace system is also being considered on other platforms in other locations (see pages 46 47 and 53 55 in this journal for an example of modifying this technology for a specic use). Examples of other signicant investigations of re suppression include wireless re detectors and smart nozzles. Smart nozzles direct the re retardant toward the actual re in the proper amount, thereby saving extinguishing agent and aircraft weight. The actual study of the ignition process and droplet characteristics has been funded, which is important for determining the process and probability of a re igniting. When discussing armor systems, the goal is either reduction in weight at a given protection level or maintaining current weight with improved performance. Armor projects can generally be placed into one of two major sub-categories: transparent and opaque. As with the previously discussed re suppression systems, JASP has helped fund many successes in transparent armor. The Protective Group has developed an exceptional product, which has pro gressed beyond the low rate production phase of acquisition, and is currently being elded on two aircraft ( i.e., the CH-47 cockpit look down window and the H-60 sliding cockpit wing). JASP is funding a couple other projects in transparent armor with the Army Research Laboratory and Boeing. Both of these projects are looking at different ways to continue weight reduction while improving ballistic protection. On the opaque armor side, one of the goals is to incorporate the armor as an integral part of the aircraft frame or skin, allowing the reduction or complete elimination of parasitic panels that are added or removed to the airframe, as needed. With parasitic panels, there are voids or dead spots that provide reduced protection ( e.g., attachment points) and require many maintenance man-hours to install and remove. Spaced armor which uses a hard surface or plate to break up the projectile, and then has a catch material or plate set at a dened distance to stop penetration after the projectile has tumbledis another concept currently being optimized. Other goals with opaque armor include improving the performance of the ceramic base material or selectively identifying only those critical areas or components of the aircraft systems that require enhanced protection. Once identied, signicant weight saving can be achieved by only making the armor for those smaller areas. Radius of curvature is currently a limiting factor in developing armor in this scenario, and JASPO is funding investments to resolve that problem.
39 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLThe next area of VR investment falls under the general term of aircraft structures, which is an all-encompassing denition and includes a very diverse set of programs. Several rewall investiga tions, including the use of intumescing material designed to swell quickly, have been completed. Dynamic loading of wing structures and bonded wing survivability has been looked at, as well as the are buckets and issues with the weapons bays and their unique protec tion requirements. Material sciences are not to be excluded; self-sealing polyure thanes have been studied in addition to the effects of thermal degradation of composite structures. Two current projects are looking at the cockpit seats themselves, trying to integrate armor, vibration mitigation, and ergonomic human factors engineering elements into a one cost effective solution. Although closely related to re suppres sion, there were enough projects under the fuel containment heading to warrant their own category. The signicance of investing in this area, and re suppression in general, was manifested in the previously mentioned 2009 congressio nally-mandated Rotorcraft Survivability Study. In that report, the leading cause of death for aircrew in theater was attrib uted to re. Uncontained fuel would obviously be a huge contributor, whether it was a result of fuel cell rupture immedi ately following a crash or while airborne with a fuel line separated due to a threat projectile or other object, and igniting an airborne re. To mitigate the potential for in-ight issues, engineers consider ideas such as fuel tank inerting and fuel line sleeves that act as both re suppression and/or line sealing. The use of hydraulic fuses to reduce re potential and the loss of the hydraulic system are currently being tested. The fuel containment vessel itself is under scrutiny through the development of a high performance fuel bladder that can better stand impact forces and seal more efciently and effectively when penetrated. Self-healing fuel cell mem branes and spray on sealant to adjacent dry bays may also be an effective mitigation factor. JASP is currently funding all of these proposals. Another area to be studied that is not fully understood is the effects of hydrodynamic ram (HRAM). HRAM refers to the internal uid pressure that acts on the walls of the compartment and is caused by the impact and penetration of the penetrator through the uid.  This phenomenon is a signi cant damage mechanism to aircraft structures and is extremely hard to model in computer simulations. JASP has teamed with Boeing and the Air Force 46 TG at Wright Patterson Air Force Base to develop a highly deformable structure for a full scale drop test article to further study this event, and with several other investments in the M&S area. Additionally, JASP has funded ve projects that are specically related to VR in the engine and propulsion systems. An up and coming focus area in the last couple years is the VR efforts toward unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs). As their battleeld contribution continues to grow, along with their cost and weaponization abilities, UAVs can no longer be considered expendable assets. The time has come to start looking at extending their survivability and life spans. An overarching direction or roadmap will need to be developed within the community to help drive this requirement and help prioritize funding decisions. At the opposite end of the spectrum, battle damage and repair (BDAR) programs for the three services are well established with appropriate procedures documented. No JASP funding has gone into BDAR programs for several years. Wrapping up the remainder of the projects are a few administrative projects not easily binned into one of the other categories. Some of the projects briey mentioned in this article are discussed further, in more detail elsewhere in this journal. This simplistic overview of aircraft VR, and the wide range of technology areas that JASP is helping to fund, should have provided some appreciation that protecting our iers, both crew and passenger, is more than just slapping armor to the side. References Ball, Robert E., The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design, Second Edition, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 2003.  Ib id  Ib id .
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 40 GreenGREEN O nN B oardO ARD I nertN ERT GasG AS Generatin GENERATIN G S ystemY STEM ( GG OBI GGGG S )by Lou RoncaseVR FEATURE
41 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLPhyre Technologies, Inc. of El Segundo, CA has developed an alternative method of ullage inerting that has the potential to outperform, be lighter, cheaper, and greener than the traditional membrane-based ullage inerting systems currently installed on our military and civilian aircraft. Phyre built a prototype GOBIGGS system that the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) tested, which was sponsorship at the Weapons Survivability Lab (WSL) in China Lake, CA. BACK GG ROUND Ullage Inerting has been an aircraft safety issue since the advent of ying. These issues were accentuated in military aircraft during the Vietnam War when as many as 50% of all combat aircraft losses were attributed to re. Because of the large vulnerable area of the fuel containment system on these aircraft, ullage/fuel-related res had to account for the major portion of these combat losses. The commercial aircraft industry has also been subjected to losses directly related to explosive fuel vapors that were accidentally ignited. Three accidents have been attributed to ullage explosions. The most costly commercial ullagerelated accident occurred on 17 July 1996 when TWA Flight 800 exploded during its climb out from JF KK International Airport, killing all 230 people on board. An electrical short in the center wing tank ignited the ullage gasses causing catastrophic structural failure.  The National Transportation Safety Board has made the elimination of explosive mixture in fuel tanks in transport category aircraft its number one item on its Most Wanted List in 1997. Ullage inerting systems have evolved over time. The earlier inerting systems approached the explosive ullage problem using different techniques, but every system provides a mechanism of eliminating one of the legs of the re triangle (refer to Figure 1) or bringing the parameter below the ammability limit. The current operational requirement for military aircraft to be deemed inert is that the oxygen level must be below 9% by volume. Commercial aircraft inerting systems are required to keep the oxygen content below 12% by volume. One of the early system designs consists of lling the fuel cell with exible open cell polyurethane foam ( e.g., on C-130, A-10, and early F-15). This system quenched the ignition source by removing the heat or ignition leg of the re triangle. The system is heavy, and the foam has to be replaced periodically. Another ullage protection method installs a liquid nitrogen inerting system that converts the liquid nitrogen to a gas. Such a system distributes the nitrogen-rich gas to the fuel cells, venting the explosive ullage overboard, which eliminates the oxidizer leg of the re triangle. This type of system is very heavy and only the larger aircraft ( e.g., C-5) can accommo date the 2,000 pound burden. The current state-of-the-art is a membrane-based system developed for the medical industry to provide oxygen enriched air for the patients. The system divides the supplied air particles by their molecular weight into oxygen-enriched air and nitrogen-enriched air (NEA). The membrane is biased to allow the nitrogen molecule (molecular weight 28) to pass through and not the oxygen molecule (molecular weight 32). The NEA is pumped into the fuel cell, displacing the oxygen and the explosive ullage gasses that again are vented to the atmosphere. Although this type of system is consider ably lighter than the liquid nitrogen converter system, it is still relatively heavy and performance and maintenance issues are well documented. Phyere has developed a novel approach to eliminate the explosive ullage issue in aircraft using a catalytic reaction to remove the oxygen by burning off the hydrocarbons, initially eliminating two of the three legs of the re triangle. As the oxygen level decreases to near 0%, the hydrocarbons will regenerate; however, without the oxidizer leg of the re triangle, the tank is inert. Carbon dioxide rich gas is then returned to the fuel cell. The system is considered green as it is a closed loop system, and no gasses are vented to the atmosphere at any time during the inerting system operation. This also means there is no requirement for bleed air from the 12 10 8 6 4 2 0Fuel Vapor %101520 05 Oxygen % Fuel Vapor Flammability Limit Oxygen Flammability Limit Flammable Non-FlammableFUELHEATOXYGEN Figure 1 Flammable Limits of Oxygen and Fuel Vapor by Lou Roncase
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 42 engine or engine control systems. The system can be right sized to inert every aircraft type from large commercial passenger and military cargo aircraft to small rotorcraft. Phyre built this system and demonstrated it during 2010 and 2011 under the JASP Program V-10-02, GOBIGGS Fuel Tank Inerting. JASP V-10-02 GG O BI GGG G S FUEL TANK INERTIN GG The objective of the GOBIGGS Fuel Tank Inerting JASP program was to collect data supporting the operational effectiveness of the GOBIGGS system during a re-fueling scenario. This approach was the most taxing to an inerting system as rapid ofoad of fuel creates a large explosive ullage in a short period of time. This approach also simulates a steep dive from high to low altitude in an empty, or near empty, fuel cell by introducing clean air into the fuel cell. The surrogate fuel cell used during this test was an A-3 Skywarrior center bay refueling tank that has a maximum capacity of 1,236 gallons (refer to Figure 2). Testing was conducted at the WSL China Lake, CA during its two phases. GG OBI GGGG S SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONFigure 3 depicts the GOBIGGS system main components, which are three blowers, two heat exchangers, the catalyst, and a control system. Note that the schematic in Figure 3 does not illustrate the control system. For this test series, the control system software was run off of a laptop computer. Eight thermocouples provided the only inputs to the control system. For the purposes of the JASP testing, spark arrestors were installed because of the close proximity of the GOBIGGS unit to the fuel cell. These may or may not be required in an aircraft installation. The system is designed to be autonomous and initiates at aircraft start up. After a brief warm-up period, the catalyst will burn off the small amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons present in the fuel cells ullage space. At this point, the catalyst essentially shuts down and keeps the ullage oxygen level at 1% or less. The catalysts chemical reaction increases as air displaces the used fuel from the tank and continues to maintain the oxygen level below 1%. The control system will detect the heat being generated in the catalyst and schedules the heat exchanger and recirculation blowers accordingly. The oxygen free air is returned to the tanks. When the catalyst is operating, the hydrocarbons will also be reduced. The GOBIGGS unit that Phyre built for this test series measured 16W x 19H x 30L with considerable excess free space internal to the housing. Figure 4 shows a picture of the inside of the unit. Figure 2 GOBIGGS Test Setup Figure 4 GOBIGGS Unit Gas Analyzer Control Signal Power Thermocouple Ullage Flow Cooling Gas Flow Porous Flame Arrestor P0 Catalyst/HX1 Heat Exchanger HX2 P2 P1 Condensation T(PO in) T(Cat) T(Ullage) T(Fuel) T(HX2 out) Hot, O2/fuel free gas Cool, O2/fuel free gas GIBIGGSUllage Figure 3 GOBIGGS Schematic
43 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL GG OBI GGGG S TESTIN GG P HASESPhase 1 testing was the initial shake down of the prototype GOBIGGS unit. This test allowed Phyre the opportunity to put their system through an initial operational check. This test also provided an opportunity for the instrumentation engineers from WSL to gather initial gas sampling data to ensure all required data items could be monitored and recorded. Phase 2 testing consisted of eight individual test runs. Three tests were conducted under a near empty fuel cell condition, and ve test runs were conducted in a rapid fuel ofoad condition. The rate of ofoading fuel was 3 gallons per second. The fuel tank was near empty in approximately 6.5 minutes. The remainder of this article describes the results of each type of test conducted. For this test series, Phyre monitored and recorded the following gas samples to analyze the inerting process. The gasses were sampled at the input line to the GOBIGGS systemessentially the ullage in the tankand on the return line of the GOBIGGS system. Table 1 illustrates the measured parameters. For the purpose of this test, two Enerac Model 700 Exhaust Gas Analyzers were used. Table 2 illustrates the input parameters to the GOBIGGS control system and the collected Phyre system monitor param eters. Phyre recorded the ullage pressure for this test series for safety reasons. They observed no pressure differences from ambient during any of the tests.Run 1 Inerting an Empty Tank Containing Residual FuelThis test was conducted to characterize empty tank inerting. It is an important test as large cargo and commercial aircraft often y without fuel in the center wing tank to facilitate extra cargo loads or for short duration ights. The catalyst temperature was maintained at or below 480F. Ullage ow began with the catalyst at 325F. The fuel tempera ture was estimated to be approximately 75F. During this rst test, the ullage oxygen content was lowered to 12% and 9% in 215 and 310 seconds respectively. Figure 5 illustrates the measured oxygen, carbon dioxide, and 40*CxHx of this test run. The bottom graph depicts GOBIGGS blower speeds. The Enerac 700 measures dry gas values. The oxygen results were corrected to account for water vapor, using the known ratio of moles of water to carbon dioxide and the corrected results are illustrated by the magenta lines. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations showed a modest rise until the oxygen content from the catalyst reached 0%, at which time the carbon monoxide concentration began to rise faster. No nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide was detected so these data points were not of consequence. Figure 6 illustrates these four parameters against the oxygen prole.Run 2 Inerting Capability of GG O BI GGG G S d uring Rapid Ofoad of Fuel This test event was the rst test run to characterize inerting during rapid fuel ofoad with the catalyst temperature maintained at or below 540F. Ullage ow began with the catalyst at 375F. The fuel temperature was estimated to be approximately 75F. Figure 7 illus trates the measured oxygen, carbon dioxide, and 40*CxHx of this test run. The bottom graph depicts GOBIGGS Blower speeds. The ullage oxygen content was lowered to 12% and 9% in 88 and 122 seconds, respectively. The fuel vapor content in the ullage was below 1% throughout the event. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentra tions were stable until the oxygen content out of the catalyst reached 0%, at which time the carbon monoxide concentration began to rise. The carbon monoxide concentration leveled off after about an 15 ppm increase and decreased rapidly back to zero as oxygen was drawn into the tank during fuel ofoad. The catalyst consistently showed lower carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations owing out of the catalyst than into the catalyst (refer to Figure 8). Table 1 Gas Analyzer Parameters O2 Oxygen dry gas % vol:vol CO2 Carbon dioxide dry gas % vol:vol CO Carbon monoxide dry gas ppm NO Nitrogen oxide dry gas ppm NO2 Nitrogen dioxide dry gas ppm SO2 Sulfur dioxide dry gas ppm CxHx Hydrocarbon content dry gas % vol:vol Table 2 Phyre Measured Test Parameters Parameter Description T(Cat) Internal temperature of the catalyst, measured by ve separate thermocouples placed around the interior T(H XX 2 O ut)Temperature of processed ullage leaving H XX 2 T (Ullage) Temperature of ullage inside fuel tank, thermocouple ~3 inches below top surface of tank T(P0 in) Temperature of gas draw from ullage entering P0 P0 Speed setting of ullage blower P0, 0-100% P1 Speed setting of Cat/H XX 1 c ooling blower P1, 0-100 % P2 Speed setting of H XX 2 c ooling blower P2, 0-100 % P(Ullage) Pressure in the ullage (measured for safety reasons), psi
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 44 Figure 5 Run 1 Test Results for O2, CO2, and 40*CxHxFigure 7 Rapid Fuel Ofoad Test Results for O2, CO2, and 40*CxHxFigure 6 SO2, NO, NO2, CO vs. Time : O2 Figure 8 Run 2 Rapid Ofoad Test Results
45 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLCONCLUSIONSPhyre Technology, Inc. was able to demonstrate a new approach to inert explosive ullage mixtures consistently throughout this program. With continued development, the GOBIGGS system will provide the aviation community with a green alternative to ullage inerting. Aircraft performance increases should be realized through weight savings and the reduction of engine bleed air requirements. References Aircraft Accident Report, In-ight Breakup Over The Atlantic Ocean, Trans World Airlines Flight 800, Boeing 747-131, N93119, Near East Moriches, New York July 17, 1996, NTSB/AAR-00/03, DCA96MA070, PB2000-910403, Notation 6788G, Adopted August 23, 2000  T echnology Demonstration of the Green On Board Inert Gas Generation System (GOBIGGS) Fuel Tank Inerting System Final Report by Dr. Steven Walker, Dr. Wesley Jung, Mr. Stuart Robertson, December 2011, JASP V-10-02
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 46 by Ryan Arthur It is known within the survivability community that re and explosion are the leading causes of aircraft loss in combat. The P-8A Operational Requirements Document and Performance-Based System Specication were developed with the knowledge of those losses, and they attempted to balance vulnerability reduction with the intended use of the aircraft, cost, weight, and susceptibility reduction. Dry bay re suppression system implementation was necessary for the P-8A aircraft to meet the Navy-specied, not-to-exceed vulnerable area requirement and achieve balanced/robust survivability. The Navys P-8A aircraft contains multiple internal bays, known as dry bays, that are dened by areas adjacent to fuel tanks or those containing pressurized fuel lines. These dry bays require re protection systems (FPS) in the event that a ballistic threat compromises one of these fuel sources and a re ensues. K K i dde Aerospace, a subcontractor to Boeing, has developed a control system to detect and suppress res that occur in the multiple dry bays throughout the aircraft. Most of these bays use a combination of strategically positioned optical re detectors and multiple agent lled, nozzled suppressors to provide full protection to that bay; however, the wing leading and trailing edges use a technology designed that has not been qualied for use on an aircraft until now. Firetrace Aerospace designs and manufactures automatic re detection and suppression systems using proprietary tubing for both detection and distribution of reghting agents. This technology was incorporated into KK i ddes dry bay FPS by connecting the Firetrace tubing to a pressurized bottle containing re suppression agent. The systems detection mechanism works in the following manner: a nylon material tube pressurized with nitrogen is compromised (either by a ballistic threat or a re) leading to a sudden pressure drop that is sensed by a pressure transducer. The suppression aspect of the system begins when the pressure loss signal triggers the rapid release of the reghting agent from the storage bottle, through the tube, and out the newly formed opening in the tubing. This automatic system, therefore, delivers the agent directly to where the source of the re occurs. The advantages of this systems direct delivery, coupled with the ability of the tubing to be routed through small areas, made it an ideal choice for use in the P-8As wing leading and trailing edges. Due to the fact that this technology had never been qualied for use in a military aircraft application, Firetrace Aerospace underwent the full aircraft qualication testing required, which included the standard environmental testing, structural integrity testing, and mechanical properties testing. To test performance, a re detection response time test was completed in which the pressurized tubing had to burst within 5 seconds when subjected to an 1,850F ame. The tubing ruptured within the required time, proving the systems rapid detection claims. Larger scale tests using the Firetrace tubing were run at the weapons survivability lab at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake during developmental testing on the P-8A dry bay FPS. These tests used simulated wing leading and trailing edges, tted with Firetrace tubing and integrated with various reghting agents. From this testing, it was determined that HFC-125 (Pentauoroethane) was the best agent to use in this application. After further testing with HFC-125, it was decided that each bay could be sufciently protected by 1.25 lbs of the agent under a 360 PSIG (pound-force per square inch gauge) nitrogen pressure head. Figure 1 depicts a diagram of the leading edge system, which is similar in design and layout to the trailing edge system. P-8A WinWIN G L eadinE ADIN G andA ND T railinR AILIN G E dD G eE Fire Suppression System
47 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL As shown in Figure 1, the Firetrace tube is pressurized with 100 PSIG of nitrogen and connected to the HFC-125 re bottle via an aluminum transition tube. Prior to discharge, the bottle contents and tube pressure are separated by a burst disc. A pressure transducer, monitored by a re protection control unit (FPCU), measures the nitrogen pressure in the Firetrace tube. If the tube pressure falls below 40 PSIG at a rate greater than 20 PSIG in 0.5 seconds, the FPCU sends out a suppressor discharge command. These requirements are built into the FPCU logic to prevent inadvertent discharge caused by a slow leak in the tubing. When the suppressor receives the discharge command, an explosion occurs within a cartridge actuated device, which ruptures the suppressor burst disc and allows the HFC-125 to be rapidly released from the bottle. HFC-125 exists as a liquid in the bottle due to being under pressure; however, because of the agent having such a low boiling point (-72F at 14.7 PSIG), when released at ambient temperatures, the agent instantly becomes gaseous while travelling down the tube and lls the bay it is routed through. The qualication of the Firetrace tubing for use on the P-8A has opened the doors for future installation on other Navy aircraft. Much of the data collected from testing for P-8A is being used for the qualication of the Firetrace system being installed in the main landing gear bay of the V-22. The small lightweight design, exibility of the tubing, and ability to serve as both a detector and means of agent delivery makes this technology a great option for use in aircraft FPSs. Figure 1 Leading Edge System Wing Leading Edge Dry Bay SchematicSlat Dry Bay Left Wing ShownRight Wing Symmetrical Strut Overhead Fairing Strut Sailboat Fairing Pressure Switch N2 Pressure Fill Port Swagelok Fitting Aluminum Transition Tube from Close Out Rib Outboard of the Engine Bottle Hermetically Sealed End Close Out Rib Slat 4 Slat 3Slat Dry Bay Wing Tank Surge TankFire Ex Bottle 1.25 lbs HFC-125 360psi N2 Fire Ex Sense Line 10/12mm Firetrace Tube 100 psi N2 2 Away from Bleed Air Duct Slat 2 Slat 1 Agent Fill Port Controller Pressure Transducer Forward SIU Suppressor Interface Unit
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 48 EX cellenceCELLENCE I nN S urvivabilityUR VIVABILITY D ENNIS BELYby Eric EdwardsEnjoymany long-time friends and coworkers of Dennis Bely recognize this word as his common sign-off for email and personal communications. However, perhaps this word is also one of the secrets behind his many years of success in combat system experimentation, testing, and analysis. The soft-spoken Midwesterner, who passed away on 19 June 2012 at the age of 64, worked for nearly 40 years to improve the survivability of numerous combat systems, including three of the Armys Big Five development programs. The result of his efforts can be measured not only in the performance of these vehicles in theater today, but, more importantly, in the many lives that have been saved by the vulnerability reduction features he inuenced. Accordingly, the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program is pleased to recognize Dennis Bely for Excellence in Survivability.Dennis story began on a farm in Pukwana, SD, where he attended grade school in a one-room school house and showed an early interest in the design and function of machinery. After graduating from high school, he attended South Dakota State University, earning a BS degree in engineering physics as well as an Army ROTC commission in 1971. Although he didnt realize it then, this commission, combined with his assign ment to the Ordnance Corps, would take him 1,300 miles east to Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, where he would spend the better part of the next four decades analyzing and improving the nations major air and ground systems. From 1971 through 1974, Dennis served on Army active duty, taking the Ofcer Basic and Mechanical Maintenance courses at the US Army Ordnance Center and School and then working on assignment as a physicist at the nearby US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) (later to become the US Army Research Laboratory [ARL]). In February 1974, Dennis accepted BRLs offer to make this assignment permanent, and he left active duty to continue his work as an Army civilian. I did the very same job at the very same place, he said, just without the uniform. For the next decade, Dennis worked in BRLs Vulnerability Reduction and Air Systems Branches, where he was involved in the experimentation, analysis, testing, and methodology development for the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (later designated the Black Hawk Program) and the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) (later designated the Apache Program). He conducted vulnerability and specialized analyses and experiments on competing airframe designs, subsystems, and components, particularly focusing on rotor systems, tail rotor drive subsystems, and ight controls. He also served on the T700 engine and AAH Source Selection Evaluation Boards, and was responsible for updating two landmark BRL reports, which were the rst to document the survivability evaluation criteria and methodology for the Black Hawk and Apache evaluations. Looking back, Dennis considered his support of these two Big Five programs to be his most important contribution in the eld of survivability. Im proud of this support, he said, because it is documented that the vulnerability reduction designed into these aircraft has saved the lives of many crew members and passengers. And thats what its all about. As an example of this point, Dennis recalled talking to some Black Hawk aircrews returning home from Operation URGENT FURY in Grenada during the early 1980s. They were like kids in a candy store, he said, show ing me bullet holes in the drive shaft. The bottom line is that [the aircraft] took it, and those guys survived.
49 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL In 1978, Dennis served a 1-year assign ment as a temporary assistant to the director of BRL (Dr. Robert Eichelberger), where he was involved in numerous high-level issues, including investigating the possibility of BRL acquiring its own procurement system. This experience also exposed him to a broad set of Department of Defense (DoD) communities and gave him an opportunity to observe several of BRLs accomplished branch chiefs in action. Little did he know that he himself would eventually lead no fewer than six different branches in BRL/ARL. Dennis then spent several months working with ARLs Vulnerability Methodology Team. In addition, he completed long-term training in the Advanced Engineering Studies program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1985, he was assigned to BRLs Ground Systems Branch to write the Live Fire Test Plan for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle. This assignment not only marked Dennis third Big Five program, but it also marked a shift in his career from primarily air system to primarily ground system support. Up until then, he joked, I wouldnt have been able to recognize a tank. But, I quickly realized there were a lot of similarities between [testing and analyzing] air and ground systems. Dennis continued his Bradley work through the early 1990s, serving in several different capacities, including BRLs point of contact for the Bradley A2 Vulnerability Reduction program. He also served on numerous LFT programs, such as the Army Tactical Missile System, the Forward Area Air Defense System, and the Line of Sight Antitank Missile System. Regardless of the system he supported, however, the underlying purpose for his work was always the same: the soldier. For example, Dennis soberly recalled a Bradley training accident in Germany in the late 1980s in which two crew members were severely burned. It was discovered that several documented lessons learned from the Bradley LFT (regarding the proper location of stowed ammunition and the use of personal protective clothing) had not been followed. When I visited the soldiers in the hospital in Germany and saw the misery they were suffering, he said, it was impressed upon me just how important our work is for protecting our soldiers in battleand even in peacetime training. You can read all you want about it and see all the pictures, but until you see an 18-year-old screaming in pain, its sometimes hard to make the connection between testing and the impact on the soldier. This was a lesson that Dennis would carry with him through the end of his career. In 1993, Dennis got his rst opportunity to run his own branch when he was chosen to be the chief of ARLs Logistical and Tactical Targets Branch. But, as mentioned previously, this would not be his last opportunity to occupy the branch chiefs chair. Over the next 15 years, he was selected to lead the Systems Analysis Branch, the Engineering and Applied Physics Branch, the Engineering Analysis Branch, the Air Systems Branch, and the Ground Systems Branch. However, Dennis was always quick to downplay these selections. I guess being chief of so many branches could be viewed as impressive, he joked, but it could also indicate ones inability to keep a job. Among Dennis many accomplishments during his branch chief years was his expansion of the engineering staff to allow the separation of engineering analyses from the operations research aspects of vulnerability analyses. In addition, he helped integrate engineers into vulnerability data reviews and re-establish scientic and statistical bases for experimental design and data reduction in test programs. He also worked to improve the overall process for testing rotary-wing and other vehicles, as well as to solidify ARLs role in the LFT process. Other notable positions that Dennis held at BRL/ARL include the Tri-Service and Army Manager of the Joint Live Fire (JLF) Ground Mobile Systems Program, the Army Manager of the JLF Air Systems Program, the US Representative on the QQ u adripartite Army Senior National Representative Vulnerability Lethality Assessment Methodology Working Group, and the chair of the Methodology Review Board for ARLs Ballistics and NBC Division. In addition, he worked on a project to use the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) to generate costeffective live re test and evaluation strategies, and he served as a contribut ing editor for the text Fundamentals of Ground Combat System Ballistic Vulnerability/Lethality which was awarded ARLs 2009 Publication of the Year. Not surprisingly, Dennis received many awards throughout his career, including the Army Materiel Command Commanders Award for Civilian Service, the Army Research and Development Command Systems Analysis Award, and many Special Act and Performance Awards. However, these are not the awards that he cherished most. The most memorable ones, he said, are the instances when someone would take the trouble to make a phone call or stop me in the hall to say thanks.continued on page 63
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 50 by Ryan Harris and Marc PortanovaConicts over the last decade have highlighted the need for improved personnel and occupant protection from small arms threats. The US Army has an ongoing interest to develop and mature advanced technologies that increase protection against conventional ballistic threats at a minimum weight penalty. Conventional ballistic threats are classied as small arms threats ( e.g., 7.62mm Ball, 7.62mm armor piercing [AP], and 12.7mm AP).Currently elded opaque armor systems for small arms are designed based on the expected threat. Softer threats, such as the 7.62mm Ball family of projectiles, can be stopped effectively without a hard strike face by using high tensile strength ber laminates. More aggressive threats, such as the 7.62mm AP projectiles, require a hard strike face to fracture, tumble, and/or erode the hard penetrator core, bonded to a soft backing material that can effectively engage the maximum surface area of the threat. Figure 1 depicts typical areal densities of composite and ceramic armors compared to steel for defeat of 7.62mm threats.BALLISTIC CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENTMany advances have been made in the eld of small arms armor protection since the introduction of para-aramids, such as K K e vlar and Twaron; technical ceramics, such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Boron Carbide (B4C); and combinations of materials. Most notable of advancements has been the development of polyethylenes suitable for armor purposes, specically variants generically known as ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Additionally, incremental advances in technology have been made through material optimization, novel geometric features, and system architectures. These technologies, when optimized, present the capability to signicantly reduce the weight burden of the armor, commonly measured in areal density (lb/ ft2) to both the dismounted soldier and to platforms requiring ballistic hardening, including rotorcraft and ground vehicles. Under Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) managed Aircrew Survivability Technologies (AST)and Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP)-funded efforts, there is an objective of reducing armor system weight at least 50% relative to the current state-of-the-art rotorcraft protection. Through various technology investment agreements and contracts, these efforts are developing and optimizing materials and processes through hardening treatments, additives, coatings, geometric shaping, and architectural approaches. These material systems will possess an improved multi-hit capability and have a potential application as both structural and parasitic armor. Hybrid material systems developed will effectively manage projectile stress waves, I mprovementsMPROVEMENTS of OF O paP A Q ueU E A rmorsRM ORS through Material Treatments and System Architectures 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0Armor Type per ProjectileComparative Armor Areal DensitiesData Courtesy of Dr. Vic Kelsey, BAE SystemsAreal Density (psf)Ceramic + Composite All Composite RHA 7.62 x 51 M80 Ball 7.62 x 39 AP BZ 7.62 x 51 M61 AP 7.62 x 51 993 7.62 x 63 APM2 7.62 x 51 993 7.62 x 63 APM2 7.62 x 54 LPS 7.62 x 54 LPS 7.62 x 54 LPS 7.62 x 51 M61 AP 7.62 x 39 AP BZ 7.62 x 39 AP BZ 5.56 x 45 M885 6.56 x 45 M885 7.62 x 51 M80 Ball 7.62 x 51 993 7.62 x 63 APM2 7.62 x 51 M61 AP 7.62 x 39 PS Ball 7.62 x 39 PS Ball Figure 1 Comparative Ball and AP Armor Areal Densities Per Material
51 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL residual compressive stress, and ber reinforcement enhancements to defeat ball and AP rounds at reduced areal densities. Specic areas of technical development include the following: Â„ D iamond-like coatings (DLC) Â„ C avitation peening Â„ G eometric features to manage stress waves and/or induce projectile yaw Â„ C eramic encapsulation Â„ N anotube technologies Â„ N ovel architecture design for ballistic energy management The use of DLC is one of the material treatments that has been explored. An example of one such coating is shown in Figure 2. DLCs have shown the capability to increase projectile dwell on the strike face and cause increased penetrator tip erosion. An additional surface treatment shown to enhance the ballistic capability of ceramics is through the application of high-pressure water jet cavitation peening. Cavitation peening uses high pressure water jets to create cavitation bubbles that collapse on the surface of the ceramic, imparting a residual compressive stress in the ceramic. Figure 2 also depicts an illustration of the cavitation peening process. Test results have shown an 8% improvement in ballistic performance of DLCs combined with cavitation peening as compared to state-of-the-art standard ceramic solutions against AP threats. These technologies are estimated to be at a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. Other technologies, such as novel geometric features, are currently under development as well. Specically, these technologies include the inclusion of geometric features on ceramic tiles ( e.g., cavities and nodes), which impart an asymmetric stress on the penetrator and induce yaw into the projectile; and geometric features on the tile, which impart a compressive stress, increasing the materials fracture toughness. Figure 3 depicts an example of computer modeling of a projectile impact on a ceramic tile with geometric features. TRLs for the above technologies range from 2 to 5. Material additives are also being explored. One such area of performance gains is the inclusion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into both the ceramic strike face and spall catcher materials. Ceramic materials have been shown to benet greatly from the addition of CNTs to their composition by enhancing their fracture toughness and tensile strength. Recent efforts that focused on the inclusion of 100 nanometer short chain CNTs into SiC and B4C resulted in 13% improvement in ballistic performance as compared to state-of-the-art solutions for AP threats. Figure 4 depicts CNT reinforcements. In the case of the spall catcher, there has been a limited demonstrated ability to adequately incorporate the CNTs in such a manner that effectively utilizes their advantageous material properties. Currently, a new class of macro-scale high aspect ratio CNTs is being explored, which are on the order of millimeters in length and have the potential to further increase ballistic performance in armor grade ceramics. The TRL of CNT armor developments are estimated to be at a TRL of 5 for CNT inclusion into ceramic strike faces and a TRL of 3 for CNT impregnation of the spall catcher. Performance gains have also been realized through the application of improved armor system architecture. For example, a novel kinetic energy absorbing spaced armor conguration has been developed and tested. The kinetic energy net armor system consists of a structural composite sandwich with a restrained ceramic strike-face on the outside surface and unrestrained patches of ballistic Surrounding liquid Increased static pressure Cavitation bubble imploding close to a xed surface generating a jet (4) of the surrounding liquid. 1 23 4 Figure 2 DLC and Cavitation Peening Process (UTRC, Inc. and Ormond, Inc.) Figure 3 Modeling of Geometric Features under Projectile Impact (SWRI and TPG, Inc.) Figure 4 CNT Reinforcements (BAE Systems)
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 52 material embedded within the system. Figure 5 depicts the kinetic energy net system approach. The kinetic energy net system approach involves using individual patches of composite ballistic material to capture the threat after it has been blunted by the ceramic strike face, dispersing its kinetic energy as it translates through energy absorbing foam. Another architectural approach investigated is through thickness stitching and release plies to alter and improve the ballistic performance of UHMWPE laminates for ball threats. Figure 6 depicts an example of a stitched panel. A combination of different layers of stitched and unstitched materials, release plies, and tailored ber properties allows for a tunable armor solution in which the out-of-plane delamination, energy absorption, and panel compliance can be precisely controlled. The TRL of this technology for armor applications is estimated to be at 4. Additional efforts are underway, focusing on tile integration via 3D weaving of the ceramic strike face with aramids and UHMWPE bers to provide a stiff reinforcing strucure behind the ceramic, and impart delamination resistance and damage tolerance to the armor panel. Current efforts for this technology are estimated at a TRL level of 2. FUTURE IMPLICATIONS AND PLANNED EFFORTSIn summary, under the AATD managed ASTand JASP-funded efforts, signicant progress has been made at the objective of reducing armor system weight at least 50% relative to the current state-of-the-art rotorcraft protection. Multiple material and architectural solutions have either been developed or are under development to reduce armor areal density or improve performance at current weight levels for small arms AP and ball threats. ACKNO WW LED G G EMENTSThanks to the following individuals: Connie Bird, UTRC; Michael Breslin, The Protective Group; Dr. Vic K K e lsey, BAE Systems; Percy Funchess, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control; Richard Greib, General Dynamics Land Systems; and Benson Black, Boeing Corporation. Structural Sandwich Structural Skins Strike Face Restraining Layers Ballistic Patches Structural Foam Core Pre-Shot Post Shot Figure 6 Controlled Delamination and Energy Absorbing Stitching (Boeing, Inc.) Figure 5 K K i netic Energy Net System Approach (Lockheed Martin, Inc.)
53 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL by Marty KK rammerIn-ight res generated from hits to a rotorcrafts pressurized fuel system can be catastrophic. Fire can occur in inaccessible areas, which can be overmatching to the occupants if hand-held extinguishers are accessible. Firetrace Aerospace  manufactures a simple and effective FPS that is not reliant on aircraft systems and that detects an established re within 3 to 5 seconds, effectively extinguishing it a few seconds thereafter. Established res are more difcult to extinguish, requiring greater amounts of re suppression agent, more storage, and overall system weight. By effectively reducing the time it takes for an FPS to detect and initiate suppression, the more efcient and effective these Vulnerability Reduction (VR) systems can be. Military helicopters perform a variety of missions in combat and frequently come under re. Combat missions include medical evacuation, troop resupply, search and rescue, and troop insertion for special operations. Reducing the likelihood of ballistically induced fuel line res (Figure 1) on military transport helicopters through the use of re protection technologies will signicantly reduce vulnerability and increase the survivability of the rotorcraft, the crew, and passengers onboard. Over the past few years and with the assistance of the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP), the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) at China Lake, CA has been investigating technologies capable of extinguishing res caused by ballistic impacts on pressurized fuel lines within cabin areas of medium-to-large transport sized rotorcraft. In 2003, NAWCWD vulnerability test engineers worked in cooperation with Firetrace Aerospacea leading manufacturer of passive automatic re suppression systems for military aircraft and rotorcraftin demonstrating to the military community how the Firetrace FPS is a viable option for extinguishing res caused by ballistic impacts to fuel system components (lines, tanks). The favorable results of this JASPsponsored effort spurred follow-on efforts, and eventually led to the military incorporating the Firetrace FPS on currently elded (V-22 Osprey) and upcoming aircraft, providing re protection to reduce vulnerability and meet aircraft requirements. Firetrace Aerospaces Indirect FPS (Figure 2) is the preferred choice for use in the cabin of a rotorcraft. The system utilizes re detection tubing as a detector and system actuation device. The system is ideal for protecting larger volumes or for hazards that are exposed to signi cant airow, where detection and delivery of the re suppressing agent are required. The detection tubing is routed in and around hazard areas ( e.g., fuel and I mprovedMPROVED R otorcraftO TORCRAFT F uelU EL L ineI NE F ireI RE P rotectionR OTECTION / VRFiretraces Fire Protection System (FPS) Optimization Figure 1 Ballistically Induced Fuel Line Fire (No Protection) Figure 2 Firetrace Indirect FPS
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 54 hydraulic sources). When the detection tubing detects a re, the tubing triggers the extinguisher, which in turn discharges the extinguishing agent through a xed nozzle distribution system. Firetraces standard FPS activation is contingent on the existence of an established re within the cabin area. On average in a cabin environment, it takes 4 to 5 seconds for re detection to occur and another 3 to 5 seconds before complete extinguishment of the re. Allowing for a re to fully establish itself within the cabin adds additional risk to the passengers, the crew, and the aircraft. Typically, the longer a ballisti cally-induced re is allowed to burn, the greater difculty there is in successfully putting it out. Risk and exposure to hazards (re, smoke) are increased during those situations. History has taught the Navy time and time again that the earlier re or threat functions are detected, the more effective an FPS can be ( e.g., V-22 active FPS development). In March 2012, NAWCWD conducted testing on two new faster-acting products that are based on the standard Firetrace FPS technology, JASP Project V-11-03 (Firetrace Fuel Line Optimization Test). The testing demonstrated technolo gies that specically protect against ballistically-induced res caused by armor piercing incendiary (API) and high explosive incendiary (HEI) projectile impacts on pressurized fuel lines. Firetraces new Fuel Line Protective Sleeve (FLPS) (shown in Figures 3 and 4) is designed to provide instantaneous ballistic re suppression against API and HEI ballistically-induced res on pressur ized fuel lines or hoses within the cabin or dry bays of rotorcraft. The FLPS is an agent storage, detection, and delivery system in one simple package. The design consists of a U-shape canister partially lled with dry-chemical agent and pressurized with nitrogen gas for assisting in agent dispersion. The FLPS is simple to integrate in an aircraft and slips over lines and secures to fuel lines with clamps. Using Monnex as the test agent, the FLPS demonstrated the capability to effectively extinguish and protect against API (Figure 5) and HEI (Figure 6) hits on a pressurized (20 PSIG) fuel lines in a large open cabin area. Depending on the level of VR desired, the FLPS has the potential of being a lighter weight solution than the standard Firetrace FPS, which uses external storage bottle(s), typically requiring more agent, storage, and detection hardware for the protected areas. The second technology that was successfully demonstrated is Firetraces new fuel line, detection tube wrap (DTW) (shown in Figures 7 and 8). This system consists of an injection blow molded polymer sheet designed with an internal continuous winding tube capable of pressurization. The DTW is exible, very light weight, with the capability of being wrapped around a fuel line or hose requiring protection. The DTW detects penetrations as small as 7.62mm and is considered an enhancement option for triggering the Firetraces FPS. The FPS triggering occurs immediately when fuel line penetration is detected by the DTW, causing near-instantaneous release of the agent through the distribution nozzles (Figure 9). Instead of taking up 8 to 10 seconds to fully extinguish a cabin re, it only takes 1 to 2 seconds. This reduced time for extinguishment signicantly reduces the system weight. Fire is not allowed to Figure 3 FLPS Concept Figure 4 FLPS Installation Figure 5 FLPS API (0.5 lb Monnex)
55 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLfully establish itself, making it easier during the extinguishment process. For the testing conducted, roughly a 50% reduction in the amount of agent (Monnex) was required to effectively extinguish HEI-generated res in comparison to the standard FPS detection, where the detection tubing melts and triggers after several seconds of re exposure. The continued development, improve ment, and testing of VR technologies provides our military leaders and aircraft manufacturers additional options when it comes to addressing aircraft re vulnerabilities. The VR technologies presented in this article demonstrate the drive that the military aircraft industry has in striving for better performance, simpler designs, easier integration, lower weight, and lower cost. References http://www.ftaero.com Figure 7 DTW Concept Figure 8 DTW Concept Figure 9 Firetrace FPS DTW Performance Figure 6 FLPS HEI (1.0 lb Monnex)
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 56 by Ryan Harris Conicts over the last decade have highlighted the need for improved personnel and occupant protection from small arms threats. The US Army has a clear interest to develop and eld advanced technologies that increase protection against conventional ballistic threats at a minimum weight penalty. Conventional ballistic threats are classied as small arms threats, such as 7.62mm ball, 7.62mm armor piercing (AP), and 12.7mm AP.Similar to opaque armor systems, ballistic transparencies are designed based on the expected threat as a primary design consideration, while also having to pass a gamut of optical, environmental, and spall resistance requirements that opaque armors do not, which adds to the complexity of the design space and material selection.A dvancementsDVANCEMENTS in IN T ransparent RANSPARENT A rmor RMOR As compared to the technological developments in the opaque armor industry, transparencies have progressed slowly with regard to threat capability, and reductions in the consequent weight penalty incurred, which is commonly measured in areal density (lb/ft2). Modern weight optimized armored transparencies use a laminate architec ture, in which layers of hard and soft materials give the medium toughness to blunt or tumble the projectile, and then elasticity to absorb the projectiles energy through deformation. Current ballistic transparencies use a wide variety of materials, including tempered ballistic glasses, such as Borooat; exotic materials, such as sapphire or spinel; and polycarbonates, such as Makrolon and Lexan. The specic choice of material is highly dependent on the operating environment to which the transparency will be exposed. Rotarywinged aircraft routinely see temperatures from -65F to 160F. Additional considerations must be taken to ensure the transparency meets optical requirements, including night vision goggle compatibility, luminous transmit tance, haze, optical deviation, and distortion. During ballistic testing, requirements are more stringent for spall on the rear side of the transparency as compared to opaque materials, which use a thicker witness or evaluation plate to measure if the projectile or fragments have penetrated. This requirement stems from the fact that eye injury is more likely to occur with spall from a transparency than with opaque materials. Post impact visibility, which is not a concern with opaque armors, is also a design consideration. Under the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) managed Aircrew Survivability Technologies (AST)and Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP)-funded efforts, the Army has an objective of reducing armor system weight at least 45% relative to the current state-of-the-art for rotorcraft protection by 2015. Through various technology investment agreements and contracts, they are developing and optimizing materials and processes through hardening treatments, additives, coatings, exotic materials, and architec tural approaches. These material systems will possess improved multi-hit capability and have potential application as both optical panes for occupant protection and sensor hardening. Specic areas of technical development include the following: Â„ S hear thickening materials (Cleargard) and exotic materials Â„ M ultiple impact transparencies Â„ G lass and polymer ber transparent composites Shear thickening viscoelastic materials and exotic materials have been investi gated under several programs conducted at AATD. One such material, Cleargard, has shown promise with superior impact resistance as compared to polycarbonate or acrylic. Optical qualities are also improved as compared to the above two materials, and it is a thermoset polymer, A dvancesDVANCES in IN T ransparentR ANSPARENT A rmorR MOR S olutionsOL UTIONS for Small Arms Threats
57 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL allowing it to be cast into non-planar shapes with relative ease. Additionally, the material, when combined with a suitable hard strike face, shows excellent multi-hit capability and post-shot optical transparency. Figure 1 shows a target impacted three times with an AP threat. Tested systems using this technology showed areal density reductions on the order of 50% as compared to elded ground vehicle ballistic transparencies. Technology readiness levels (TRL) for these systems range from 3 to 5. The drive for weight optimized materials and aggressive ballistic threats have pushed the design space to look at materials that were previously considered unsuitable due to cost or production complexity. Much of the high cost of these materials is directly related to the cost of machining and polishing the ceramic components to an optically clear state. Three such materials of interest are spinel, a polycrystalline ceramic; AlON, another polycrystalline ceramic; and sapphire, a single crystal aluminum oxide ceramic. In testing, a 30% reduction in areal density was obtained by using sapphire as a strike face in conjunction with glass tiles, polyurethane, and polycarbonates, all while maintaining excellent multi-hit capability. Figure 2 shows a prototype of a transparency for multi-hit performance. The TRL of this specic material was 7 at the time of press. The use of glass ber reinforced transpar encies in lightweight armor systems has the potential to drastically reduce transparent armor areal densities while maintaining present threats, or improve upon current threat capabilities at the same weight. Fiber reinforced transpar encies exploit the high tensile strength properties of glass ber composites to carry ballistic impact loads while optically matched constituent materials provide low levels of distortion. Figure 3 depicts the general conguration of these laminates. Past efforts have suffered optical quality and refractive index issues across the temperature and optical spectrum, but extensive material characterization, modeling efforts, and quality control have overcome the majority of these obstacles. At the present time, testing results for transparent ber composite armors have demonstrated a 16% reduction in areal density for rotorcraft systems compared to state-of-the-art glass and polycarbonate systems, and a 32% reduction compared to currently elded aviation ballistic transparencies. The system TRL for this technology is estimated to be 4.FUTURE IMPLICATIONS AND PLANNED EFFORTSUnder the AATD managed ASTand JASP-funded efforts, AATD has made signicant advancements at the objective of reducing armor system weight at least 45% relative to the current state-of-theart. Multiple material developments and system architectures have been devel oped, or are currently ongoing developments, that show signicant potential to bring armored transparencies to applications where they could not have been before due to weight burdens of conventional ballistic transparencies. ACKNO WW LDE G G EMENTSThanks to the following individuals: Dr. Vic K K e lsey, BAE Systems; Michael Breslin, The Protective Group; Dr. Mark Wilenski, Boeing; and Dr. Marc Portanova, AATD. Figure 1 16x16 Cleargard Panel with AlON Strike Face against a 7.62mm AP Figure 2 Exotic Material Transparencies for Multi-hit Performance Figure 3 Transparent Fiber Composite Orientations and Layup Conguration (A = Resin; B = Fibers)
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 58 by Adam Goss and Peter DisimileAircraft res, particularly in unmonitored dry bays, remain one of the top critical threats to the survivability of our national defense assets. Although signicant strides in technology have produced numerous options for reducing this vulnerability, system and programmatic requirements often limit what options are installed on deployed legacy platforms. Deploying FPSs on aircraft remains a perpetual conict stemming from strict weight requirements, performance thresholds, and budget limitations. Varieties of passive and active FPSs have been explored, especially since Halon the most effective re suppressing agenthas been tightly restricted due to its hazardous environmental impact. Recent passive measures have included foam-lled dry bays to reduce void space conducive for re; or deploying extin guishing agents upon rupture of the housing containers. These passive technologies require no power to operate, but do require extensive coverage within potential re zones. Alternatively, active search-and-extinguish systems have reduced footprints and require some re detection technology as well as a reliable power source. Aside from weight and cost limitations, major challenges facing these types of systems include overcom ing false detections, ensuring 100% positive re identications and respond ing rapidly enough to trigger re suppressant for effective extinguishment. An ideal FPS would comprise of easily installable units independent from the host platform, preventing aircraft power from being resourced. The entire system would contribute negligible weight to the platform, operate reliably between infrequent maintenance cycles, and cause no integration issues with the aircraft systems. Evolving re protection technology toward this ideal state was the goal of an initiative sponsored by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce (JASPO). Beginning in 2010, this initiative comprised a 3-year effort to design, develop, and demonstrate a self-con tained FPS that would embody a state-of-the-art FPS. Led by the 46th Test Group operating from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, this initiative was executed with the expertise and facilities of Engineering & Scientic Innovations (ESI) and subcontracted through the SURVICE Engineering Company. Once completed, the prototype system is envisioned to have applicability to tri-service platforms as well as those in the civilian sector. F ireIRE P rotectionROTECTION C onceptON CEPT The ESI re protection concept is designed to rapidly suppress re threats immediately upon ignition. This concept minimizes aircraft structural damage caused by direct ame contact and intense thermal stresses. Additionally, the probability of relights is greatly reduced as a result of shortened burn times and lowered temperatures in the local re vicinity. ESI approached this design concept by combining two of its past re detection and suppression technologies devel oped under Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs to form a unique hybrid FPS. Formerly governed by SBIR requirements, the development of the individual detection and suppression technologies unique to ESIs re protection concept requested a capability to detect and extinguish JP-8 fuel res within 500 milliseconds (ms) from ignition while not resourcing aircraft power. This JASPO initiative merged the two technologies, yielding a system with self-contained re detection and suppressing capabilities. S ystemYSTEM O vervieVERVIE WAll components of the prototype system are commercial-off-the-shelf hardware, with the main subsystems comprising a multispectral optical S elfELF C ontainedONTAINED F ireI RE P rotectionR OTECTION S ystemY STEM ( FPS)
59 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL detection module, a small agent reservoir and delivery mechanism, and two AA batteries as a power source. The systems foremost feature is the ability to accurately detect and conrm the presence of JP-8 res, utilizing photon emissions in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths. With this multispectral detection strategy, no false positives are expected, which translates to zero accidental agent discharges. Although a portion of the detector will sense sparks, sunlight, ashlights, hot surfaces, or other false signals, these signals will not pass the detectors internal re conrmation test, therefore preventing accidental suppressant discharge. Once the system conrms a re, the suppressant discharge mechanism is armed and initiated within 100 ms. The amount of time thereafter equates to the effective performance of the suppressing agent. Based on initial laboratory testing with a 6-inch square pool re of JP-8, the prototype system is capable of detecting re, initiating delivery of suppressing agent, and typically extinguishing res in less than 200 ms.D emonstrationEMONSTRATION T estE ST Demonstration tests were conducted at ESI facilities for evaluating the systems initial performance in suppressing electrically ignited JP-8 pool res within a representative aircraft dry bay measuring 26 in height, 48 in width, and 28 in depth. Figure 1 displays the suppressant reservoir that was mounted above the test area, with the discharge nozzle protruding through the bay ceiling. The optical detector module was mounted inside the bay at close proximity to the re site, but can be positioned up to 11 ft (140) away from a potential re zone. The sequence of images in Figure 2 illustrates typical results of the demon stration tests. At time t = 0 ms, an electric spark ignites the fuel, and the resultant ame propagates through the fuel pan within 50 ms. All three spectral emissions were detected and conrmed by the optical sensor, triggering suppressant discharge between 90 and 100 ms. The nal images display full discharge occurring at 130 ms and the re fully extinguished by 190 ms. Less than 1 ounce of powdered agent was expelled with compressed air at pressures less than 60 per square inch. Note that the agent is still exiting the discharge nozzle at the time when the re is extinguished, which suggests the amount of re suppressant can be further reduced in future system renements. F utureUTURE Work WORK Final renements and further testing will occur through FY13 for this prototype system. Lessons learned from laboratory testing will be incorporated as design modications and re-tested in more representative xtures, such as an Apache rotorcraft nacelle simulator or live re test and evaluation program assets. A nal report documenting the development and test results of this continued on page 63 Figure 1 Demonstration Test Conguration Figure 2 Demonstration Test Results
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 60 by Dan CyphersThe Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) has provided signicant assistance in helping new vulnerability reduction (VR) techniques proceed through the development process. One area of emphasis has been in passive re protection, which offers the potential to positively impact aircraft survivability through the use of simple, low-cost, lightweight, and non-interfering means to reduce the possibility of sustained re leading to aircraft loss. One such example is the EPP device, which benetted from JASP funding during its development process, including the use of the Joint Live Fire (JLF) program to demonstrate the EPP in several ballistic live re programs. The initial development of the EPP was described in an Aircraft Survivability Journal article in the Spring 2006 issue.  Since that time, it has been validated in a number of test programs, with an expanding number of test variables, to show its broadening capability and applicability.The EPP incorporates design and material improvements into the powder panel device, which is a VR concept that had been around for many years in its original form. The EPP, patented by Skyward, Ltd. in Dayton, OH, was developed to improve upon the performance of the original powder panel, yet maintain its low-cost, lightweight, and passive features. The EPP weighs approximately 0.5 pound per square foot and is less than 0.1 inch thick, yet releases over 10 times more powder mass than traditional powder panels. The EPPs utilize a variety of non-toxic re extinguishing powders, subject to customer requirements, and avoid many active re extinguishing system draw backs, such as increased complexity, weight, and false alarms. The EPPs are virtually maintenance free and require no power, sensors, or controls systems. Various JASP and JLF projects and a related small business innovation research (SBIR) project have enabled examinations of installation procedures and times, demonstrated how easy the EPPs would be for retrot applications, and veried the low-cost nature of this device. An EPP attaches to a ammable uid container ( e.g., fuel tank) along any surface adjacent to an aircraft void space or dry bay. Upon the impact of a ballistic threat or debris, an EPP releases re extinguishing agent into the dry bay to inert the area before the incendiary or ash from the threat or object can ignite leaking ammable uid. Weight for the EPP system is determined strictly by the interface area between the ammable uid container and the dry bay, which is unlike an active re extinguishing system where adjustments in design or agent weight may be necessary for the dry bay volume or conguration. With the EPP, the interaction area of the uid and ignition source in the vicinity of the panel is the zone of interest. Initial combustion of the atomized uid (re ignition) can actually be prevented by having the right amount of re extinguish ing agent at the right time and in the right place. The EPP can accomplish this without design changes to t the pro tected volume, simply proper positioning is necessary to couple agent release with an impact of a ammable uid container. Compare this with a typical re extinguish ing system that relies on an active re to function the system and release agent. With such systems, this critical time delay may allow the re to migrate or grow out of control. Even if these systems are eventually successful in extinguishing the re, the result may still adversely affect inhabitants of the vehicle or result in damage to the vehicle. Ballistic live re testing has shown that the EPPs not only prevent re ignition, but even reduce the time of ash or functioning from a ballistic threat.  In JLF testing with a replica xed-wing attack aircraft, ash/function duration was decreased on average over 30% (several milliseconds). In productionrealistic rotary wing testing, ash/function duration was decreased from 41% to 54% across a range of threats (6 to 13 millisec onds) (refer to Figure 1).E nhancedNHANCED P oO W derD ER P anelA NEL (EPP)Passive Fire Protection Technique Update
61 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALL The EPP has now undergone a wide array of testing at both the US Air Forces Aerospace Vehicle Survivability Facility (AVSF) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH and the US Navys Weapon Survivability Laboratory (WSL) at China Lake, CA. This testing has involved production and productionrealistic test articles, including wing leading and trailing edge dry bays (extended and retracted ap congura tions), main cabin areas, and fuselage dry bays. Testing has also involved airow, JP-8 fuel in fuel tanks and pressurized fuel lines, and MIL-H83282 hydraulic uid in pressurized hydraulic lines. Ballistic threats have included armor piercing incendiary projectiles, missile warhead fragments, and even a high explosive incendiary projectile. In tests across this broad range of variables, the EPP has been highly effective in preventing onboard res. Testing has included the evaluation of a dry bay area in the V-22 aircraft, the wing leading edge dry bay replica of a xed-wing attack aircraft, the side fuselage area in a production-represen tative attack helicopter, the main cabin area of another rotorcraft, and the wing leading and trailing edges of a production-representative mediumsized cargo aircraft. In the xed-wing attack aircraft leading edge testing, with representative airow, the EPP was successful in preventing re in eight out of nine tests, with the only sustained re resulting when the high explosive incendiary (HEI) threat destroyed the attachment for the entire wing leading edge section of the test article and no dry bay remained (refer to Figure 2).  The maximum temperature increase was typically less than 100F for most tests. Fire ignition was completely prevented in all but two of the successful tests; however, the ignited res lasted less than 2 seconds before full suppression. Post-test reviews showed there was actually a fuel leak in the two tests, but re was still prevented. Success was even more pronounced in the attack helicopter testing, where re ignition was prevented in all eight tests, including a test with an HEI projectile. Temperature increases were well below 100F for all tests. JLF testing in a medium-sized cargo aircraft involved a number of variables and several variations in the EPP design conguration.  EPP re protection was successfully demonstrated for dry bays, encompassing pressurized fuel and hydraulic lines and adjoining the wing fuel tank (refer to Figure 3). Airow at 130 knots was provided over the test section for wing leading edge and wing trailing edge dry bay tests. Wing trailing edge testing involved both retracted and extended ap congurations. The extended ap conguration resulted in essentially an open dry bay, but EPP re protection was just as successful in these tests. Despite the complex environment of this test series, the EPP was successful in preventing re initiation in four out of four tests in the wing leading edge dry bay and in 11 of 11 tests in the wing trailing edge dry bay. Maximum temperatures achieved did not exceed 100F in these tests, with negligible temperature rises. Baseline tests and tests with other re protection technologies demonstrated that res would have been present without EPP protection. Figure 1 Wing Leading Edge Dry Bay Test Showing EPP Preventing Fire Ignition Figure 2 Fixed Wing Attack Aircraft Test Setup
AS Journal 12 / FALL h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil 62 The EPP began development as a at panel, ideally suited for fuel tank applications; however, with the support of JASP sponsorship, the EPP was adapted to conform to various shapes, including ammable uid lines. Phase I of a JASP project (V-07-03) involved prototype design, development, and fabrication of uid line protection techniques, including the EPP and some self-sealing uid line techniques. Phase II involved rening the down-selected designs and more robust demonstrations of capability. Testing demonstrated that the original EPP design in certain congurations and a new moldable design conforming to the uid container could be effective re protection for ammable uid lines.  These two variations of the EPP were later success fully tested in the open, well-ventilated main cabin area of a production rotor craft.  Testing showed that the EPPs were effective for certain threats in original EPP congurations and that for larger threats, large open spaces could be adapted around ammable uid containers to conne the re extinguish ing powder release and maintain EPP effectiveness. In addition to ballistic testing, which has demonstrated EPP re protection effectiveness, the EPPs have also been subjected to environmental compliance testing. In a comprehensive series of tests at MET Laboratories, Inc., the EPPs were found to be compliant with MIL-STD-810F and SAE J1455 require ments in all testing with no anomalies reported. Testing included evaluations for high and low temperature, temperature shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock, and vibration for composite wheeled vehicles, jet aircraft, propellerdriven xed wing aircraft, and helicopters. The combination of positive test data, simplicity of design, and the maturity of its technology readiness level make the EPP an excellent re protection option for a variety of platforms. Currently, ight test evaluations are being initiated with the EPP to demonstrate ightworthiness, reliability, and its lack of interference with onboard systems. Contractual negotiations are also underway for implementation of the EPP onboard a persistent surveillance aircraft that may be subject to a hostile environment. The signicance of contributions to EPP development by JASP is evident as another validated VR tool is implemented to enhance aircraft survivability. References Enhanced Powder Panel Validation, Aircraft Survivability, Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Ofce, J. Dusina and D. Cyphers, Spring 2006.  J oint Live Fire (JLF) Aircraft Systems Test Detailed Test Report for Enhanced Powder Panel Validation, P. OConnell, C. McCabe, M. Miller, JLF-TR-05-01, February 2009.  Ib id  Joint Live Fire (JLF) Aircraft Systems Test Draft Detailed Test Report for Dry Bay Fire Vulnerability Reduction, S. Wacker and J. Bird, JLF-TR-10-02, June 2011.  Flammable Fluid Line (FFL) Fire Protection Test Report, P. OConnell, C. McCabe, et al, JASPO-V-7-03, December 2008.  Joint Live Fire (JLF) Aircraft Systems Final Report for CH-46E Fuel Line Fire Protection Technologies, S. Loughmiller and J. Manchor, JLF-TR-08-01, 21 April 2009. Figure 3 Enhanced Powder Panel Fire Protection Installed in a Medium-Sized Cargo Aircraft Test Article
63 h ttp://jaspo.csd.disa.mil A S Journal 12 / FALLhybrid FPS will be delivered to the survivability community at the end of FY13. Signicant progress has been made through this JASPO initiative thus far, and future expectations including presenting a viable re protection option for better protecting warghter assets against their top critical threat. In 2007, Dennis decided it was time to retire from government service and devote more time to some of the community outreach activities in which he was involved. These included serving as a court-appointed special advocate for abused and neglected juveniles, as well as participating in several nursing home ministries. However, his contributions to the US soldier were not over just yet. In 2008, he accepted a request from the SURVICE Engineering Company to support ARL in writing a series of crew casualty reports as part of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle Test Program. Although health issues forced him to discontinue this work in 2009, he noted that this experience was a particularly enjoyable ending to his long career in survivability. Reecting on his career overall, he said, I was extremely fortunate to have a careernot just a jobin an organi zation that afforded lots of challenging opportunities; to have supervisors who had faith in ones efforts; and to have extremely competent colleagues and coworkers both inside and outside the organization. All of these fostered a belief in the importance of survivabil ity; and that, in turn, motivated dedication to the work. Thank you, Dennis, for your Excellence in Survivability and for your four decades of service to the DoD, to the survivability discipline, and to the US soldier. You will be missed, but your work will not be forgotten.S elfELF C ontainedONTAINED F ireI RE P rotectionR OTECTION S ystemYS TEM (FPS)continued from page 59EX cellenceCELLENCE I n N S urvivabilityU RVIVABILITY continued from page 49
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