to YON Af
Max S v
4 gc-l W R 1
1 ^0 AS
lie- IF*w mit, %*jt, iv
"15 v iPl
.'X f, I q
l4k I ks t xf
2% L, wl
wll;- OKI'I -A t
y fir N8
EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT'
NCUBAN NATIONAL HORTICULTURAL
COMPILED BY THE SECRETARY
PUBLISHED BY THE
PRINTERS ALVAREZ & CO.
99 ObraIa Street.
OFFICERSS FOR 1914
Will R. Simmons, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines.
Havana Prov.-W. P. Ladd, Santiago de las Vegas. Pinar del Rio.-C. F. Austin, Herradura. Matanzas Prov.--Irwin H. James, Barreto. Santa Clara Prov.--Prof. A. E. Doering, Manaeas. Camagiiey Prov.-John H. Kydd, Ceballos. Oriente Prov.-E. C. Peirson, Omaja. Isle of Pines.-Wm. Snodgrass, Santa Ana.
Chas. A. Beatley, Havana.
H. A. Van Hermann, Santiago de las Vegas.
W. P. Ladd.
C. F. Austin.
Will R. Simmons.
Chas. A. Beatley.
H. A. Van Hermann.
LISTS OF MEMBERS
.Austin, C. F., Herradura, Cuba. Allan, Win., 136 West 79 St., New York City. Aldab6, Enrique, Monte 427, Havana, Cuba. Beatley, Chas. A., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. Berndes, Rene, 64 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Bortwick, Mrs. Francis R., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Burniston, W. G.. Boquete, Prov. Chiriqui, Panama. Campbell, Augus, Holguin, Cuba. Conklin, R. R., No. 1 Wall St., New York City, N. Y. Dart, D. W., La Gloria, Cuba. Desvernine, Dr. Ernesto B., 52 Cuba St., Havana,
Earle, Prof. F. S., Herradura, Cuba. Green, Joseph, Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Haugh, S. Chr., Maravi, Baracoa, Cuba. Henricksen, H. C., Stanfordville, N. Y. Kiinmmel, Edward A., Colonia Rosario, Soledad,
Landis, A. C., 61 Aguiar St., Havana, Cuba. Mclrwin, L. S., Guanabacoa, Cuba. O'Brien, E. F., Calle Blanco, esq. a Malec6n, Havana, Cuba.
Peirson, E. C., Omaja, Cuba. Sanchez, Lorenzo, 36 Obrapia St,, Havana, Cuba. Towns, Thos. R., Holguin, Cuba.,. Towns, Mrs. Thos R., Holguin, Cuba. Van Herman, H. A., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
Alden, C. S., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Arter & Son, A. Homer, Omaja, Cuba.
Bahler, Albert, Artemisa, Cuba. Baird, Win. Mac Funn, Arroyo Arenas, Cuba. Ballou, Chas. A., 311 Dryden Road, Ithaca, N. Y. Becker, Geo. E., Hospital Station, Binghamton,
Beers, L. McLean, Cuba 37, Havana, Cuba. Beit, W. R., Nazareno, Bahia Honda, Cuba. Benn, Geo., Omaja, Oriente, Cuba. Pernard & Humphreys, Ceballos, Cuba. Berry, H. C., McKinley, Isle of Pines, W. I. Bordwell, H. W., "El Tigre" Plantation, Consolaci6n del Sur, Cuba.
Brandenburg, Gus, Ceballos, Cuba. Breckenridge, E. B., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Briggs, H. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Broghamer, F, Herradura, Cuba. Burhan, Frank. Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Buxton, Geo. B., Palmarito de Cauto, Cuba.
Campbell. Dr. H. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Carbolineum Wood Preserving Co., 23 Ainargura Street, Havana, Cuba. Carleton, Wmin., Omaja, Cuba. Cervantes, Felix L., Gervasio 194, Havana, Cuba. Chapman, J. W., Mzr, Palmarito Sugar Co., Palmarito de Cauto, Cuba.
Christy, H. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Clendenning, O. B., Herradura, Cuba. Cosmey, L. E. N., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Cuba & U. S. Fruit, Nursery & Mercantile Co.,.
Elizabeth, New Jersey.
Cuban Development Co., 1022 Majestic Bldg., Detroit, Michigan.
Cunliffe, R. S., No. 2 St. Vincent St., Port-of-Spain,
Trinidad, B. W. I.
Dahlberg, K., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Davis, Rev. C. L., 41 Seventh Avenue, Brooklyn,
De Pew, Dr. H. G., Los Palacios, Cuba. De Pool, P. D., Lonja 214, Havana, Cuba. Desvernine, Dr. Carlos, Cuba 52, Havana, Cuba. Desvernine, Dr. Pablo, Amargura No. 11, Havana,
Doering, A. E., Canet Colony, Manacas, Cuba.
Early, Col. John F., La Gloria, Cuba. Ensor, C. T., Bartle, Cuba. Evans, Frank, Department of Agriculture, Southern
Evans, P. J., Mgr. Isle of Pines Cooperative Fruit
Co., 44 Federal Street, Boston, Mass.
Fawcett, Prof. H. S., Southern California Pathological Laboratory, Whittier, California.
Fisher, J. F. Jr.. Santa Fe. Isle of Pines, W. I. Fisher, Irving L., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Freidlein, S. S., 22 Obrapia Street, Havana, Cuba. Fulton, W. B., Herradura, Cuba.
Gardner, A. W., Columbia, Isle of Pines, W. I. Garrick, Edward, 218-18th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsinm.
-Getman, Frank L., La Lonja 438, Havana, Cuba. Goetz, E. C., Herradura, Cuba. Gushee, Edward G., 2122 North 28th Street, Phila.
Owinn, L. E., Baratillo 7, Havana, Cuba.
Hallman, Frank E., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Hamers, L., P. O. Box 1164, Havana, Cuba. Harris, E. G., /do* Harris Bros. Co., Zulueta No. 9,
Harvey, Frank K., Mercaderes No. 4, Havana, Cuba. Heglund, H. L., 939 Laurel Avenue, Chicago, Ill. Hethcott. I. C., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Hornet, Win. T., College of Agriculture, Berkeley,
Horter .& Fair, San Ignacio 14, Havana, Cuba. Houghtalin. F. E., McKinley, Isle of Pines, W. I. Howell, D. Henderson, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Jackson, M. F., Las Minas, Cuba. James, Irwin H.. Barreto, Cuba. Jones, E. B., 30 Empedrado Street, Havana, Cuba. Jones, H. S., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Jones, G. D., 99 Warreen St., New York City, N. Y.
Keenan, T. J., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Kesley, T. A., R. F. D. No. 10, Nashville, Tennessee.
-Xofanda, M. C., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Kydd, John H., Ceballos, Cuba.
Ladd, A. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Ladd, W. P., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. La Isabela Grove, P. O. Bax 294, San Juan, Porto
Loebnitz, V. B., Empedrado No. 17, Havana, Cuba. Logemann, Miss Anna, Powhatan, West Virginia.
McKinnon, J. R., Mgr. Mill Supply Co., P. O. Box
711, Havana, Cuba.
McPherson, J. C., Los Indios, Isle of Pines, W. I. Mabbs, A. I., Herradura, Cuba. Megret, Luis de, Publisher El Agricultor Practic6,
Calle San Lino, Guantanamno, Cuba.
Merritt, F. Wallace, San Ignacio 14, Havana, Cuba. Metz, H. J., No. 38 San Rafael St., Havana, Cuba. Middleton, W. D., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Millard, F., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Miller, W. R. J., 608 Nicolet Avenue, Minneapolis,
Mills, Win. J., Mgr. Isle of Pines S. S. Co., Nueva
Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Moe, Glen E., Someruelos 21, Havana, Cuba. Moore, Rev. John, R. F. D. No. 7, Parkhill, Ontario,
Nakasawa, Hilary Y., co L. Tartas, San Francisco Heights, Isle of Pines. Nelson, W. Forest, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Neustel, J. J., La Gloria, Cuba. Neville, H. 0., 542 Lonja, Havana, Cuba. Norton, Ed.. Los Palacios. Cuba. Nufiez, R. E., Oquendo 21, Havana, Cuba. Nuttall, John, Santa Barbara, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Orr, A. E., Taco-Taco, Cuba.
Pack, Gov. Wm. E., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Peck, C. E., Itabo, Cuba. Pedroso, Albert S., 48 Rue de Laborde, Paris,
Peirson, T. J., Omaja, Oriente, Cuba.
Rapalje, Ernest H., P. O. Box 1182, Havana, Cuba. Ramsdell. Dr. F. R., Columbia, Isle of Pines, W. I. Roberts, J. E.. Bartle, Cuba. Robins, Frank G. Co., 69 Obispo Street, Havana,
Root, W. G., Herradura, Cuba. Rose, Henry A., Santo Domingo, Cuba. Rowland, R. H., Manitoba College, Winnipeg, Canada.
Schultz, Win. C., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Simmons, Will R., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Sonville, A. P., Zulueta 26, Havana, Cuba. Storms, L. E., 308 Washington Street, New York
Swain, P. W., Santa 'Barbara, Isle of Pines, W. I. Symes, John J., Mgr. Cuban Fruit & Sugar Co., San Marcos, Cuba.
Thrush, Arthur W., 145 Somers Street, Brooklyn, New York.
Tucker, F. N., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I.
- 10 -
Van Houten, C. W., Santa Barbara, Isle of Pines,.
Villaume, V. Jr.. Herradura, Cuba. Villaume, V. Sr., Herradura, Cuba.
Wilcox, C. C., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Wright, W. 0., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Young, Albert B., 1048 Niagara Street, Buffalo N.Y.
Young, Chas. F., McKinley, Isle of Pines, W. I. Young, Geo. F., McKinley, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Article 1.-The name of the Association shall be The Cuban National Horticultural Society.
Article 2.-Its object shall be to advance the horticultural interests of Cuba in all branches.
Article 3.-The members of this Society shall consist of persons interested in raising the products of the soil, or its allied interests.
Article 4.-Any person who is interested as per Article 3, may.becabme a member of this Society by making application to the Secretary and paying
'the annual dues. Said dues being payable at the be-ginning of each calendar year.
Article 5.-The officers of this Society shall consist of a President, one Vice President for each province of Cuba and one for the Isle of Pines, a Secretary and Treasurer, an Executive Committee of five members, three of which shall be the President, Secretary and the Treasurer of the Society. These various members shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting. Their term of office shall begin at the close of the meeting at which they are elected and shall continue until the close of the following annual meeting., "The outgoing Secretary, however, shall be charged with the proceedings of the meeting at which he officiated, the newly elected See-retary assuming all other duties.
Article 6.-The annual election of officers shall take place at 3 o'clock P. M. on the second day of the annual meeting.
Article 7.-The duties of the officers of this Society shall be those usually performed by the officers of like organizations.
Article 8.-The Vice President from the province in which the annual meeting is held shall be considered the Senior Vice President, and shall act as President in the absence of that officer.
Article 9.-This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting of this Society by a two thirds vote of the members present.
I.-The annual dues of this Society shall be onedollar Am. currency, and life membership ten dollars.
II.-The Executive Committee shall have powerto fill all vacancies which accur between the annual meetings.
III.-The Standing Committees of this Society shall consist of three, or more, members, and shall be appointed by the President on the approval ofthe Executive Committee.
IV.-The Chairman of each Standing Committeeshall make a written report for each annual meeting, and as often between meetings as may be requested by the Executive Commitee.
V.-This Society shall have the following Stand-ing Committees:
2.-Packages and Packing.
3.-Marketing and Storing of Fruits.
8.-Fruits of the Temperate Zone.
10.-Orchard Management. 11.-Tobacco.
12.-Diseases and Insects. 13.-Legislation and Relations with Government.
,Officers. ............. .... 3
Life Members ......... ...... 4
Annual Members ............. 5
,Constitution ........ ..... ......... 11
Aty-Laws ...... .. ........... 13
Opening, Address by Will R. Simmons, Vice
President from Isle of Pines ............ 17
Committee on Membership ..... ....... 19
Citrus Diseases, by Prof. H. S. Fawoett- . 21 Agricultural Fairs and Expositions, by Roberto L. Luaces. ................ ....... .31
-Nursery Stock, by W. D. Middleton...... 34 Fruits in'Our Season, not Theirs, by Dr. F. R.
Ramsdell. ....................... 36
The Question of the Thnbarg0 placed on Potatoes shipped from Cuba and :the Isle of Pines to the United States, by Prof. F. S.
Earle .......................... 39
'Irrigation for Vegetables, by H. C. Berry. . 53 Irrigation, by Harry S. Jones ............. 57
How to Cultivate and Fertilize a Citrus Grove so -as to obtain a Full Crop each year, by W.
P. Ladd ......................... . .60
How to Grow and Maintain a Citrus Grove, by
E. B. Jones .............. ........ 63
Election of Officers .............. ...70
'inancial Statement for 1913. 1......... 72 iResolutions. ............. ........ 73
The Cuban National Horticultural Society aecepted the invitation of the Santa Fe Commercial Club and Isle of Pines Fair Commision to hold its. Annual Meeting in the Isle of Pines during the Isle of Pines Fair and Horticultural Exhibit and was held in the Masonic Lodge Rooms, Santa Fe, February 12th and 13th, 1914.
The members were cordially received by the Reception Comnmitte and were accorded every courtesy by the Pineros. Most of the members from Oubaremained on the Island during the four days of the Fair (February 11th to 14th) which was a very creditable exhibit. IA number of excursions were made through the Island and the citrus groves of the different colonies visited. Every memberreturned home feeling well repaid for having attended the meeting and full of gratitude for the hospitable Pineros.
I take pleasure in announcing that in recognition of the work of this Society for the advancement of Horticulture in Cuba several thousand copies of this report were ordered printed by the Agricultural Department to be distributed as part of the Cuban Horticultural Exhibit at the Expositions to be held in Boston, Panama and San Francisco.
I take special pleasure in expressing (and I voice the sentiments of every member of this Society) the esteem and gratitude which we feel for our good friend-Mr. Roberto L. Luaces, Director General, of Agriculture, for his untiring efforts to advance the interests of this Society and Agriculture in general. Through his good offices we have cbme to know and to be recognized by General Emilio Nufiez, the genial Secretary of Agriculture, who mani-
-'fested special interest in the Agricultural Fairs held the Republic of Cuba this year.
I must not fail to mention that it has been a pleasure to cooperate with Sr. Lorenzo Arias, Sub-Sec-retary of Agriculture, in securing the Horticultural Exhibits for the Boston Exposition and I trust that many of our Northern friends will have the pleasure of making his acquaintance during his stay in Bos,fon.
ADDRESS OF WILL R. SIMMONS Vice President from Isle of Pines.
Mr. W. R. Simmons, Vice President from the Isle ,of Pines District, in the absence 3f the President, Mr. H. A. Van Hermann, called the meeting to order at 2.30 P. M. Feb. 12, 1914, in'the Masonic Lodge Room at Santa Fe, Isle of Pines addressing the members of the Society, the Isle of Pines growers and visitors present as follows:
You are no doubt aware that this is the annual
-meeting of the Cuban National Horticultural Society, the society that has done more for the agricultural interests of Cuba, than all other forces combined. It was under their auspices that the fairs
-have been held in Cuba, and they have honored us this year by selecting Santa Fe as the place for holding their annual meeting. They have some very able mien connected with their organization and are anxious to get our support.
After the preliminary work of organization has
-been completed there will be addresses by some of the most able talent on the Islands ,of Cuba and the Isle of Pinjes, and I have no doubt but the proceedings will be interesting to all of us from start to finish and any part that you miss you will be sorry
On behalf of the people of Santa Fe I extend a most cordial greeting to our friends from across
-the sea, and I shall endeavor, and I know that I may speak for the people -of Santa Fe and say to you that
-we want to do everything in our power to make the visit of the members of your Society as pleasant as
- 18 -
Sr. Roberto Luaces, Inspector General of Agriculture of Cuba, came over with me in the President's party on Tuesday's boat and he is very mucl, delighted with what he has seen on the Island. The Secretary of Agriculture, General E~Milio Nufiez, who has been authorized to represent the President on this occasion, our American Minister Sr. E. W. Gonzalez, together with Dr. Menocal of the Emigration Department, maade up the party and havemade a complete tour of the Island. They left uslast evening highly pleased and greatly delighted at the reception they received. They were paricularly pleased with the class of people they met.. here and seemed to be surprised at the unusual progress and general prosperity evidenced on every hand, and I feel that we have accomplished for the Isle of Pines a master stroke in getting thesepeople interested -in us. We have got the ball rolling, and as Sr. Luaces told me this morning-"we have got them. on the run". Now if we can keep them on the run and keep them headed for the Isle of Pines we can accomplish a great deal more than we ever have in the few years we have been struggling along in a sort of a blind way. Many things we have sought for we are now getting. The Agricultural Department of Cuba today, I can say to you, is onlyon its childish legs. It is just beginning to walk. It is only a few years since the Department of Agriculture in the United States was in a similar condition, being the least of all of the departments of the Government. Secretary Wilson was the one man needed to bring that department up to the head of the list, and today it stands universally recognized as the most efficient and. well managed Agricultural Department of any in the world. The Cuban Government is trying to model their Department after the plan laid down by Secretary Wilson, and we hope in the near future to see our Islands blessed with the more efficient service. You must appreciate the fact that lack of funds has been largely instrumental in the slow progress made up
- 19 -
to the present time. A treasury left bankrupt by the former administration has handicapped the present officials and greatly retarded their work. All of these matters will be adjusted in the near future, and with the able talent, force and persistency now at hand we feel that we shall not remain much longer groping in the dark.
I will now turn the meeting over and start up the regular line of official work, which I sincerely tritst will be pleasing' helpful and encouraging to every tiller of the soil present..
Prof. Earle: I don't know but what I ought to say one word for our President, Mr. H. A. Van.Herman. He expected to be with us. on the boat but missed his train. However, he will be with us after the arrival of the boat Thursday, and I know that it is a great regret to him, as it is to us, that he is not able to be with us at this time.
COMMITTEE ON MEMBERSHIP
The chair announces the following names of ic-]dents of the Isle of Pines who have been nominated by the Society as a Committee on Membership.
Motien by Prof. Earle-second Chas. A. Beatley
-that this Committee as read be appointed for the purpose of chosing members for the Society. (Of couse we understand that the expense of the AsSociation is taken care of by the membership fees only, and it is important that we add as many new
-,members as possible.) Carried.
Commnitte appointed as follows:
W. Middleton, Santa Fe.
Dr. F. R. Ramsdell, Columbia.
E. W. Bates, Nueva Gerona.
H. G. Ryder, Santa Barbara.
F. S. Doud, Los Indies.
I. C. Berry, McKinley.
C. C. Wilcox San Pedro.
-W. R. Simmons: We are very fortunate in having
with us on the Island at the present time a man who' has achieved great distinction and honor as a Doctor. Not the kind of doctors that we have been associated with here en the Isle of Pines-Medics and Dental. This man is a tree Doctor, a man who has devoted years of study and thought to the doctoring of trees, and who has been successful in his researches and has come to the Island to make a study of the conditions here and to recommed such treatments as he thinks are needed for the benefit of our citru. groves. He has had extensive experience in the groves of California and Florida and is a graduate of the University of California.
We will now listen to Prof. H. S. Fawcett.
PROF. H. S. FAWCETT
Associate Professor of Plant Pathology at the University of California.
It is a great pleasure to be with you this afternoon and I bring to you the most hearty greetings from California and from the University of California, which has sent me here.
I wish to take a little exception to what the Chairman has stated, that I have -come to the Isle of Pines prepared to tell you definitely just what is needed to treat your trees here. It would be very presumptuous for a man to come into an entirely new country, under the different conditions that exist there, and in two days time attempt to tell you definitely just what you should do so very definitely and in a dictatorial manner, you would fnd in many cases that I had probably gone wrong, from the fact that your conditions are so different from ibose that exist in California, and even different from those of Florida where I have spent some time in the study of plant diseases.
Before going further I wish to congratulate you 6n the way you have gone ahead and donfe things here on the Isle of Pines. I have been agreeably surprised and impressed with the progress here. I have heard a good deal about the Isle of Pines and 'the progress here but I had no adequate idea of what you had done and are doing. ,
Yesterday we took an auto trip over the Island visiting many places, and this morning Ivisited at another place. My experience on the Island therefore is very slight. I can say, though, from what I have seen, that you have no "greater troubles th.iV ny of
- 22 -
the other citrus districts; in fact, not as many, as you are young yet.
You will probably be interested in some of the diseases which I have been able to find, none of which are new; I have seen all of them in Florida. Some of them are not very important and all of them can be overcome. Although I might be accused of being a pessimist because of looking for troubles, I feel that I am to a greater extent an optimist in that I feel that there is always a way out of these troubles.
The diseases of citrus trees may be divided into three classes:
First: Those due to insects.
Second: Those due to deranged nutrition or indigestion.
Third: Those due to vegetable parasites such as
Fungi and Bacteria.
My work has been, for the most part, with those iox the third class and I feel that I can speak within little degree of confidence on these. It is a known fact, that when you 'take a tree into a different climate and into slightly different conditions, the treatment, will necessarily have to be varied according ito the climate.,In California the insects are not preyed upon by Fungus parasites so that they have a betterchance to increase. For example: the black scale in California may completely cover a tree within a ,year or two, while in Florida and the Isle of Pines you have these Fungus parasites which destroy these insects and under normal conditions, keep them down. so that you do not have to spray for them. If the tree is kept in the proper condition of growtia, you may go for years without spraying. This is where nature has been kind to you here on the Isle of Pines in that she has provided these, Fungus Parasit-s working nieht and day all the year round to help keep down the seale insects. Besides these, there are other beneficial Fungi in the soil..
A great many kinds of Fungi, therefore, are benefi-
- 23 -
cial. They are working for you and helping you even inore than you realize. There are, however, a few evil-minded individuals that are actually harmful. One of these is the Withertip fungus of the Lime. It is due to the fungus which develops in the young twigs causing them to blight and the amount of injury will depend somewhat upon weather conditions. This fungus also effects theyoung lime fruits, causing them to drop off, or at least to be disfigured. This is one ever present trouble you will have in growing limes on a commercial scale here. One of the best preventatives the pruning out of these diseased limbs, burning them, and perhaps the next growth will be free from them. The fruit may be protected by one of the copper sprays.
Another disease which is common everywhere is the "Scab", always present in Florida-and I suppose on the Island here, on sour oranges. In fact it it so common on this variety that many think it is the nature of the sour orange to have scab. This scab caused by a Fungus, the fruiting bodies or spores of which somewhat resemble some forms of the yeast plant that is used in making bread. This fungus is a true parasite and will attack only the most rapidly growing tissues. Sometimes under certain conditions Grapefruit in Southern Florida is very much injured by the Fungus, but in this case it attacks the fruit more than the leaves. Its 'abundance depends upon weather conditions. Some years you .will have none and others a great deal. It only attacks the fruit when it is young and growing rapidly. After the tissue becomes a little hardened, no new attacks occur. The remedy formerly recommended for treatment of Scab" was the Copper mixture either Bordeaux or Ammoiated Copper Carbonate. I do not wish to advise the use of these Cooper sprays here for the reason that they kill as well as the scab, fungus friends that you have, thus permitting the increase of scale insects which may often injure the tree more than the Scab. There is a spray that I believe will kill this Scab fungus if
- 24 -
put on at the right time, known as Lime Sulphur or Soda Sulphur, and that will not kill out these Fungus friends to any great extent. If you are going to fight the Scab at all I would suggest using the Sulphur spray a nd not the Copper. If you use the Copper get everyth:,Ig ready to fight insects a few weeks following its use.
Some experiments have been tried out in Florida recently by Mr. W. W. Yothers, which have shown that if you use the Lime Sulphur strong enoughOne part of the concentrated solution to thirty of water-it will control the Scab, and at the same time the Rust mite and Red Spider. We have found by experience in California that it is very important not to spray when it is too hot. You can use a very strong solution when it is not too hot, whereas a very weak solution will injure the trees if it is too hot. In California they watch the thermometer very carefully and when it gets up much past 85, they stop sprying. That is probably one of the most important points in connection with spraying Lime Sulphur, and if you will observe this carefully I doubt if there will be much injury to fruit from its use.
Another disease, which must be very rare here because Prof. Earle says he has never seen it here before, and I have found it only in one place on two or three trees, is the "Dieback", or as it is called in California-"The Florida Dieback". One of the ymtoms of this disease is the stained terminal branches, another the dying back of the young shoots from which it derives its name; another is the very dark, unnaturally green foliage just as it -comes on, and another is the Multiple Buds. Instead of one Bud forming, there will be two or three and when the new growth comes out there will be two or three shoots instead where there ought to be one, making a short stubby bunched growth.
One of the most common causes of this disease in Florida is -oor drainage, especially where the hardpan is too close to the surface. The remedy, of course, is to remove the cause by digging ditches through
- 25 -
poorly drained land so that the water will not stand close to the surface of the ground. Liming has seemed to help control it in certain cases in Florida where the soil is acid. Stirring the sandy soil into, too much activity at the wrong time of the year will also tend to cause dieback.
Cultivation should be stopped as much as possible until the trees have recovered.
Question: Does "Dieback" cause the leaves on the tree to shed and the tree to come into premature bloom?
Answer: No, it does not. If the leaves drop off and the bloom is early, that is another trouble I think.
(Exhibiting Grapefruit.)-This grapefruit is a sample of what is known as "Tear Staining". It is caused by water dropping down from a deal limb on which the Withertip Fungus is growing. The fungus on the surface causes this reddish brown discoloration. There is a little Rust mite here on the top. Rust mite seems to have one effect on the grapefruit, another slightly different effect on the orange and another effect on the lemon. It is due to a very small insect.
I want to close by saying that under no circumstances do I want to alarm you over-much in regard to these diseases, but I believe that you all want to know what they are and treat them when it becomes necessary. The healthier the tree is and the better condition it is in, the better as a rule it will be able to resist these diseases, just as in cases of human diseases. The "Scab" is an exception. The most vigorous and best growing tree is just as apt to be attacked by Scab and perhaps more apt to be attacked than the weaker slower growing tree.
Dr. Ramsdell: Can you tell me something about the "Sooty Mould" on the trees-the black coating that peels off ?
Prof. Fawcett: A great many scale insects and the Cuban form of the White fly secrete a sweetish liquid called "'Tony-den ". This drops on the leave annd
- 26 -
foliage, and the Fungus, causing the Sooty-Mould, simply grows in this sweet liquid. It does not effect the tissue of the plant and only does harm by cutting off the light.
Remedy for "Rustmite": The best thing to use is ,some form of Sulphur spray, and the proper use of SulDhur spray for Rustmite will absolutely control it. The same remedy is applicable to Red Spider.
Question: What time should we spray with the Sulphur, and how often?
Answer: That depends upon when the Rustmite begins to work. They are usually on the leaves and stems first and then pass out to the fruit. Watch carefully and find out the time they begin their work and'spray then. In Florida they usually begin in March or April, but here I believe we can safely say they are always with us. The Lime Sulphur sticks on lono'er during rainy weather than Soda Sulphur.
Prof. Earle: I feel that we are particularly fortunate in having Prof. Fawcett with us. His long experience in Florida and California has probably made him more familiar with the diseases of citrus fruits than any other Pathologist. We are all more or less familiar with the bulletins that have been issued from the California and Florida station, but it has been difficult for us to be certain whether or not we had the same diseases that they were discussing. I confess, in .y own case, that I have been a little confused in regard to some of them and Prof.
Fawcett has kindly straightened these out for me.
One very common trouble we have had here is the occurrence of blackisk blotches on the leaves. II had been inclined to think that this might be a form of the Florida Melanose, but Prof. Fawcett tells me it iS the so-called Greasy Spot, and that it is not connected with any fruit rot.
In regard to the damage from spraying with Lime SulDhur, it seems to me that probably we need not fear the same. kind of damage that they find in California. This trouble seems to come just when the
- 27 -
spray is drying, and is probably much greater in California on account of the dry atmosphere.
There is another string of diseases that are very much talked of, and that we have here. These are the Gum diseases. Which ones have you detected here, Profesor?
Prof. Fawcett: I have been puting considerable study on the Gum diseases but confess that I know comparatively little about then. In California there are four distinct forms of Gum diseases; in Florida at least three, and one or two of them I have found down here.
There are two forms of Lemon Gumosis in Caliornia. One of them is caused by the same Fungus as that which causes the famous Brown Rot in California. This I have found here on Grapefruit trees. Another is known as the Gray Fungus Gumosis which they have in California which I think is absent in Florida and the Isle of Pines.
You have California Scaly Bark, or Psorosis, common in California and. Florida; also the Foot Rot and Diplodia Gumming, causing large limbs to gum and die back.
Prof. Earle: Regarding the different rots of citrus fruits in transit: have you seen any indication of the Brown Lemon Rot here on the Island?
Prof. Faweet: Not that I can be absolutely sure of. (Cultures of Brown Rot Fungus were afterwards obtained from diseased bark of grapefruit trees).
Prof. Earle: We have suffered at various times with considerable loss in grapefruit shipments due to rot. Which of the Florida rots have you seen here?
Prof. Fawcett: I have not seen the Stem End Rot but have seen some indications of what I call the "Diplodia" rot from the name of the Fungus which causes it. This is the same Fungus which causes the gumming of the limbs to which I referred a while ago.
Mr. Wilcox: Is there not a rot caused by Withertip?
Prof. Fawcet: Yes, though it is hardly a rot; it is
- 28 -
more of a "dry spot" caused by Withertip. Some& years it is a serious spotting of the fruit on the way to market. During some years it occurs on the tree before the fruit is picked. I have seen very little of it here.
Question: In fighting the Rustmite, is there any advantage in spraying the ground under the trees?
Prof. Faweett: As- far as I know I don't think so. (Considerable discussion follows.)
Here is an interesting observation 1 have made in regard to Rustmite in Florida: W here there is plenty of growth over the ground, or places where they just hoe under the trees and mulch, you will find prettier, brighter fruit than on higer pine lands that are cul-tivated. Bright fruit will be found as well in the lower damper soils; and the rusty fruit, if you don't spray, on the higher pine lands.
As regards a remedy for Gummosis: I hesitate to give a remedy for the reason that I am not sure the form you have here is the same as I have been working with. I can speak with authority for certain ones in California and Florida but if I give a remedy based on that, it might not apply to the Isle of Pines. I would have to know which foi'm you have before making any suggestions of a remedy. We must remember two things regarding Gumosis due to organisms: First, the onslaught of the organism killing the bark; and on the other hand the great resistance of the tree. In this case there is a fight on and if it is a good healthy tree it might be able to overcome the advance of the fungus. If the tree is not so vigorous, the fungus may get the best of it.
I would suggest as a remedy for Lemon Gumosis a mixture of two pounds of rock lime and one pound of bluestone mixed like a thick whitewash and put on with a brush.
In speaking of the use of Carbolinium, I have occasionallvy seen some slight damage from its burning the bark, and I would suggest that it be used diluted one-half with soaP and water to form an emulsion. For that form of Gumosis where the bark is killed
- 29 -
clear to the wood, you can cure it easilly if it has not gone too far by bringing but the diseased portion and painting with Bordeaux paste spoken of above.
For the Foot Rot I aim sure the very best remedy is to dig out the soil until you get below the rotted area of bark, cut this out to good bark and paint it with sore disinfectant and leave it open. The water standing in the opening for a few hours is not nearly so bad as wet soil lying next to the bark for weeks at a time. In Spain they leave the roots exposed all the time. (Considerable discussion followed regarding Foot Rot and the point was made that here on the Island the rot is not below the ground but some little distance above the ground in the stock of the tree, probably the Brown Rot Gummosis). The" best remedy for Foot Rot is sour stock where you can grow it. It is practically immune from Foot Rot and is also from all the forms of Gmnoses. I would plant 'high budded trees on sour stocks.
Prof. Earle: I believe that in nine out of ten of the eases that I have observed in Cuba and the Isle of Pines the lesions are above the ground.
Sr. Roberto Luaces: You all know that plant diseases and insects are a great drawbacl-to all ,cultivated plants, and especially to the fruits. Some grains and grasses may have them but we do not see them. We do see then on the fruit. Now the Government has named a committee of Plant Doctors. We have been able to get together five men who are directly interested and who are already working, one of them Prof. Earle. Besides the 'Government has also named three inspectors for this work. Now, this work has just started and we expect to be able to continue that work by an allowance of the proper amount of money. We can get suggestions from all over the world but the climatic conditions are so -entirely different that the remedies applicable to other territories may not apply to the Isle of Pines. So, naturally, by taking up the work in this line we believe that we will get there some day.
W. R. Simmons: You will remember what I saici to you in my opening adress regarding the Department of Agriculture.
It seems to me from the investigation that I have made heretofore that department has been a sort of a plaything, and but little actual work has ever been done in the Department. I have gained that idea from results that have been obtained through the Agricultural Department heretofore. It seemed to be lacking in that respect and it is not until recently that the Department has become a working, live" element in the administration. There is one mania connected with that Department that, long before he stepped into the chair, has made a study of agriculture and has become proficient in that work. The administration in building
up that Department naturally turned to get a man of that character. The funds in the Department have never been very lavish,-they have been, stinted, but there is great hopes now under the new regime that they will have fjinds to work with, and. that they will see results. You all are aware of the assistance that the Agricultural Department has, given the Isle of Pines through their contribution to the premium list of the Fair. That -contribution was, secured through the personal instrumentality of a, certain man in that Department. That mnan is interested in the Isle of Pines as well as in Cuba. He isinterested in our people, and I can say to you that there is not a single man in the whole of Cuba thatfeels more friendly to us than Sr. Roberto Luacees.. He has secured this appropriation with a most persistent hard fight and has assisted us in directing ourefforts so that we acomplished our purposes. He. has been in sympathy with our movement for holding these annual fairs and he has been doubly impressed with the progress that we have made hereon the Island, and I want to say to you that it is the. fulfillment of one of the greatest pleasures of my life to welcome Sr. Roberto Luaces to the Isle of Pines, and we will now be favored with a lecture from him.
AGRICULTURAL FAIRS AND EXPOSITIONS
ROBERTO L. LUACES
Director General of Agriculture of Cuba.
In the first place I would like to thank our Chairman for his exceptionally kind words in regard to my person. I really don't think that I have done .anything, but that I have ,simply started in to do my duty toward my country. I am a native born Cuban .and I love my country and I consider every man is my brother and entitled to equal shares and advantages to be derived from our Department, so that .anything I do I 'don't wish it to be taken as an extra act, but simply -as the fulfillment of what I consider
I want to say a few words in regard to Fairs and Expositions. I have always been in favor of anything that looks like an Exposition or Fair. There is now
-some opposition by European countries to the 1915 Exposition to be held in the United States in the way of a disinclination to exhibit, -claiming that the benefits to be derived from such an exhibit will not warrant the expenditure. Of course they are talking about a big thing while we are talking about a little bit of a thing.
I consider that the benefits to be derived from fairs and expositions, particularly in -a community such as ours, are practically unlimited, and to bear ,out my statement I would ask you to considerer the question of fairs from its different aspects, 'such as the social, advertising, commercial and educational aspects. The latter is undoubtedly the most important. A man may think he has the finest potatoes in the country until he places his product beside that ,of another man at the Fair and finds that his article
1 3' -
is outclassed. He immediately begins to investigateas to kind of seed his neighbor used, the class of soil the better potatoes were grown on, probably the nature of the care and attention in growing them, and in this way he is enabled to greatly improve his product the following year.
Some twenty years ago it was a very common, thing to talk about "Book" farmers, the name applied to Professors of Agriculture, etc., it was not until these so-called Book farmers found out among. the active farmers or practical farmers that the necessity of the scientific men was realized and appreciated by the practical farmer. The fairs have been teaching the people year by year, as well as the correspondence between the people of the States and these Professors. The scientific man needethe practical man in the same way as the practical man needs, the scientific man.
I would like to suggest to you men of the Islan& that whenever you find a .plant of any description, that you do not know what it is, make every effort. to find out what it is, what, if any, use its fruit might, be if cultivated. We have numerous -small fruits herein Cuba and the Isle of Pines that might be cultivated and be of great value to us, many of them, found only in our country.
The Department of Agriculture of Cuba has very little money and we -are very much up against it, but we are in hopes that this matter will be adjusted in, time and that we will be able to build up this Department in Cuba to compare favorably with that of other countries. It it a big proposition and will require time and effort, but it is coming.
W. R. Sininons: There is probably no more importailt point in citrus growing than the selection of nursery stock. This is an apparent fact to all those 'who have had experience in this line of work. Wehave noticed in the papers, periodicals and even inour premium list the admionitions from a certain man to be especially careful in the selection of our
trees in order to get the best results in the shortest-. possible time. A man of large experience in this line of work, and who. has so continually reminded us of this importance is with us today and. will explain in his own forcible manner the pitfalls to be avoided and the results to be obtained by careful and judicious selections. leaving had large experience in California 'as well as the Isle of Pines I feel that I can safely recommend him as an authority on the subject, and one to whom you can. listen with both pleasure and profit. Mr. W. A. Middleton will now address you.
W. D. MIDDLETON
W. D. Middleton: I came here without any preparation whatesoever. Mr. Simmons' remarks however gave me one little cue. He stated something about "how much there is to know and how much I can tell you, and contrary to custom, instead of starting off with an apology I am going to start with a short
-talk. Some of you know, of course, that I have given a great deal of attention to nursery stock and have devoted a great deal of tfne to it. When I received a letter from Mr. Beatley asking me to prepare a paper on nursery stock I realized what a large subject it is and how little I could write on it.
I have made a study of the ,citrus fruit business on
-the Isle of Pines and have one principle I want to drive home. A grove commenced properly, with thrifty nursery stock, and the trees kept in that condition by the execution of the idea of thrift on the part of the grower spells only success. Get thrifty trees, take care of them in a thrifty way, but above all things get a thrifty start. The man who will do this will get the dollars where the man who neglects this principle will get pennies.
P of. Earle: What stock do you consider the best
-for the Isle of Pines for grapefruit ?
Mr. Middleton: I don't know except that certain growers have marked preferences and I think they, ,should be the court of final results. Personally I have no particular preference. I bud a sour orange and grapefruit and some of mv customers will have nothIng else than the one and others nothing else than the other.
Prof. Earle: In your ex-perience, which of the dif-
- 35 -
ferent stocks used on this Island has given the best-, results?
Mr. Middleton: I will say that as far as I 'an see the sour orange stock and the grapefruit stock are, giving equally good results.
Mr. Breckenridge: Have you any preference in regard to varieties you would bud on each one of these stocks?
Mr. Middleton: I don't think that I have. I havenot determined any line of investigation. Prof. Earle: As to the adaptation of the differentvarieties of fruit, the ,case I have in mind is that of the Navel Orange. We all know the difficulty that has been encountered in the production of very, dry, woody fruit. What has been the cause is a question and one that has not been solved, and while I don't think that I can peak with any great amount of assurance, I think that the evidence at hand indicates that this trouble has only been serious in groves budded on rough lemon stock. I consider it a very dangerous stock for the Navel oranges. Of course on the, heavier soils the sour orange would be the one to, use.
W. R. Simmons: No man has done more experimenting in horticulture on the Isle of Pines or has become more familiar with our native fruits, shrubs and flowers in bringing them before the American colony with all of their great possibilities, in preparing them in their various forms of delicacies and nutri-, tious properties than Dr. F. R. Ramsdell, of Columbia. The Doctor's experiments have been of special. interest to each and everyone of us and he has a fund of information at hand that will well 'compensateus in listening to his remarks. Dr. Ramsdell will now read the paper he has prepared on "Fruits in our season, not theirs".
FRUITS IN OUR SEASON NOT THEIRS
DR. F. R. RAMSDELL
The -present condition of the weather, while it is disastrous to the truck farmer who has very low and naturally wet ground, and a joke to the man who is putting in a new irrigation plant, has nevertheless its value to us in demonstrating the fact that the time of the year has very little to do with the production 'of fruit and vegetables in this country.
The difference in temperature is so slight that when other things are equal all kinds of vegetation forgets its almanac and responds to the existing conditions. True the rainfall is sufficiently regular to ,control the season of -production usually but this variation shows very plainly that heavy and continuous rains in the winter produce nearly if not ,quite the same results as they do in the summer.
This year the mango trees are full of fruit or bloom. T he Surinani Cherries are white with bloom; the Guavas have fruit all winter, the Annle trees are in bloom and also have apples.
My dewberry patch is blooming and on the first of February I ate some ripe berries. At home in Texas they begin to bloom in May and in July and August they fruit. In September they cut away all of the old vines and cultivate the ground and the new shoots get ready for the next year crop. Mr. F. T. Ramsey of Austin, Texas, from whom I got my start (one vine) writes me that his patch nets him $1.000.00 per acre, and that too in a country where berries and all kinds of fruit are in abundance.
My little patch of less than twenty bushes began
-to bear in May and I continued to pick a quart every
-other day for four months. I sold my first quart to
- 37 -
.Mrs. Reiker of Nueva Gerona for 50 e. I showed it to many ersons. One man said 50 ets. was too much but when I assured hiin that this was the first and only quart of dewberries ever on the Isle of Pines and that many wanted it at that price, he saw the point. I sold them all at that price and could not supply the demand. I have enlarged my patch and sold many bushes to my neighbors and am going next winter to try irrigation and fertilizing to wake them bear in the winter, or for that matter all the year around.
My father always said the time to kill bears was when bears were around. The best time to sell fruit is when buyers are around. It is an acknowleged fact the world over that tourists are the very best of buyers; in other words, no crop equals a crop of tourists. Then the crop is worth cultivating and nothing pleases them better than to have the natives (that is in this case) cater to their desires for all kinds of fruits and vegetables and such good things to eat as the country produces. We have a great many fruits that are almost constant bearers that could be coaxed to produce during the tourist season.
Strawberries do best in winter where well supplied with water af the right time. Pineapples, especially the smooth cayenne, can be controlled to make their fruit just when wanted. If they put out their suckers too early, just pull them off and plant them, and this will be produced and if still too early they can be treated in the same way until they come in the proper time which, if well fertilizer and irrigated, will produce a good fruit on time.
The carissa fruits all the year and by proper encouragement could be induced to put on its heavy
-rop when wanted.
The Guanabana and Cherimoya also' fruit more
-or less in the winter and I have no doubt many other fruits can be found sufficiently accomodating to help us and the tourists out. Our citrus fruits of course ,come naturally in the winter so we should be able to
make it interesting to those who wish to escapethe fierce winters and bask in our sunshine and eat our delicious fruits and incidentally help bear our expenses, if not line our pockets with gold.
THE QUESTION OF THE EMBARGO PLACED
ON POTATOES SHIPPED FROM CUBA
AND THE ISLE OF PINES TO THE
POFESSOR F. S. EARLE
I am afraid our Secretary assigned me a topic on which I am not very familiar.
About a week ago on coming into my office in Havana I found on my table a letter from the Southern Steamship Company announcing that they had received no potatoes for the United States, and ,on looking into the matter I found that about a week before a shipment from Guines had been taken to New Orleans and had been refused. The Deputy Consul advised me that this happened about a week before he was acquainted with the new ruling. This embargo has arisen as a result of the fact that at least two potato diseases have arisen in Europe that have not heretofore been known in the United States.
I have here a copy of a new law passed in the States which provides, in a general way, a Horticultural Board who will advise the Government and arrange such quarantine as, in their judgement, will be necessary to protect the United States from insect pests, and among the resolutions that they have adopted is one prohibiting the importation of potatoes from various countries on account of the potato wart. It seems to be the potato Wart that has caused the quarantine, but on account of the short notice I had that I was expected to speak on this subject, I have not been able to get any data on that.
- 40 -
(Prof. Earle exhibits views of different kinds of scab on potatoes.) The action taken so suddenly here the other day is due to a new ruling which I find announced in the Fruit Trade Journal of Janunary 21st. It provides that potatoes may be admitted from any of these countries mentioned if they are accompanied by a certificate from proper accredited quarantine officers in these countries to show that the potatoes are free from the diseases. referred to. You will under tand that this clause not only prevents the importation of potatoes from. countries where this scab exists, but also from all countries that have no law preventing the impor-tation of potatoes so affected.
If the Cuban grown potatoes were taken to theStates for seed, then I would say that they are. justified in taking all precautions against it, but as we all well know, this is not the case on account of the season in which they are grown in this country. In the first place none of these diseases areknown to occur on these Islands, and secondly, the shipment of potatoes to the north in the winter would allow of absolutely no chance for the sureading of this disease, and I feel that we are justified in protesting against this ruling. I would therefore like to move a resolution to the effect that in view of these two facts, that in as much as these diseases. known as Potato Wart and Potato Powdery Scab are not known to exist in these Islands, and that in view of the fact that potatoes from these countries are never used as seed in the United States, and that shipments take place in the winter when it is practically impossible for disease to take place, that we request the United States Horticultural Board to look into this matter with a view to having this ruling changed.
(The above is merely a rough draft of the idea to be conveyed in the proposed resolution, which will be properly arranged by the committee on resolutions.)
Motion by Prof. Earle-Dr. F. R. Ramsdell-
- 41 -
that a resolution to this effect be drawn up by a committee on resolutions, and that copies of said resolution be sent to the proper authorities in both United States and Cuba.-Carried.
Committee on resolutions:
W. R. Simmons,
Prof. F. S. Earle,
H. C. Berry.
It is hereby resolved that we petition the United States Federal Board of Horticulture, to modify the recent ruling governing the importation. of potatoes into the United States, as' to permit importatiqns from Cuba and the Isle of Pines, during the months of January, February and March. We base this request on the following considerations:1st. Thediseases known as potato wart and potato powdery iscab, have never been detected in these Islands and to the best of our belief do not exist here.
2nd. Even if existing here, the chance of infecting potato fields from this source would be very slight, since potatoes from these Islands are never used for planting, but all consumed in the Cities and Towns during the winter months when the chance of contagion from refuse materials is so small as to be negligible.
3rd. For many years the growing of early potatoes for the North has been a considerable industry and the sudden closing of this market without warning has caused great and as we believe unnecessary damage. It is in view of these facts that we are asking for this modification in the ruling.
It is further resolved, that copies of this resolution be sent to the Cuban Department of Agriculture and to the American Consulate in Havana.
Will R. Simmons.
H. C. Berry..
F. S. Earle.
CORRESPONDENCE REGARDING ABOVE PETITION
February 23, 1914. The Secretary of the
United States Federal Board of Horticulture, Washington, D. C. Sir:
I beg to enclose herewith copy of resolutions of The Cuban National Horticultural Society, passed at the Eight Annual Meeting, held at Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, February 12th.-13th. 1914.
Yours very truly,
Chas. A. Beatley,
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Federal Horticultural Board.
Washington, D. C.
February 28, 1914. Dear Sir:
Your letter of the 23rd instant, enclosing a copy of resolutions of the Cuban National Horticultural Society, duly received.
Cuba and the Isle of Pines are not under quarantine as to potatoes, and, on compliance with the conditions set forth in our regulations governing the importation of potatoes into the United States, potatoes from these islands will be open to exportation to this country.
Yours very truly,
C. L. Marlatt,
Chairman of Board. Mr. Charles A. Beatley, Secretary,
Cuban National Horticultural Society,
P. 0. Box 1007,
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Office of the Secretary
Federal Horticultural Board
Notice of quarantine No. 11 (Foreign) Potato Quarantine
The fact has been determined by the Secretary of Agriculture that injurious potato diseases, including the powdery scab (Spongos pora subterranea), new to and not heretofore widely prevalent or distributed within and throughout the United States, exist in the Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, the Islands of St. Pierre, Miquelon, Great Britain, Ireland and Continental Europe and are coming to the United States with imported patatoes. Now, therefore, I, David F. Houston, Secretary of Agriculture, under the authority conferred by section 7 of the act of Congress approved August 20, 1912. known as "The Plant Quarantine Act" (37 United States Statutes at Large, page 315), do hereby declare that it is necessary, in order to prevent the introduction into the United States of such potato diseases, to forbid the importation into the United States, from the countries herefibefore named, of the co~mnon or Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) until such time as it shall have been ascertained, to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Agriculture, that the country or locality from which potatoes are offered for imports is free from such potato diseases.
On and after December 24, 1913, and until further notice, by vittuet of said section 7 of the act of Congress approved August 20, 1912, the importation, from the countries hereinbefore named, of the com on or Irish potato, except for experimental or scientific purposes by the Department of Agriculture, is prohibited: Provided, That shipments of such potatoes loaded prior to Decemer 24, 1913, as shown by consular invoices, will be permitted entry up to and including January 15, 1914.
Done at Washin'ton, this 22 day of December, 1913.
Witness my hand and the seal of the United States Department of Agriculture.
David F. Houston,
Secretary of Agriculture.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Office of the Secretary
Federal Horticultural Board.
Order covering admission of foreign potatoes under restriction.
The Secretary of Agriculture has determined that the unrestricted, importation from any foreign country of the common or Irish potato grown in the Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, Great Britain, Ireland, Continental Europe, and other foreign countries, may result in the entry into the United States, its Territories and Districts, of injurious potato diseases, including the powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea), and injurious insect pests.
Now, therefore, I David F. Houston, Secretary of Agriculture, under authority conferred by section 5 of the act of Congress approved August 20, 1912, known as "The Plant Quarantine Act." (37 United States Statutes at Large. page 315), do hereby determine and declare that, on and after January 15, 1914, common or Irish potatoes imported or offered for import into the United States or any of its Territories or Districts shall be subject to all the provisions of sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 of said act of Congress.
Done at Washington, this 22 day of December, 1913.
Witness my hand and the seal of the United States Department of Agriculture.
David F. Houston,
Secretary of Agriculture.
- 45 -
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Office of the Secretary
Federal Horticultural Board
Plant quarantine decision No. 5.
The Federal Horticultural Board recommends, that the first paragraph of Regulation 2 of the Regulation Governing the Importation of Potatoes into the United States, promulgated December 30, 1913, under the provision of an order of the See-retary of Agriculture, issued December 22, 1913, be amended so as to read as follows:
Regulation 2. General Conditions Governing Potato Importations.
(First paragraph only.)
Potatoes will b.e admitted from any country or well-defined district thereof not specifically mentioned in Notice of Quarantine No. 11, issued December 22, 1913, when it is determined by adequate field inspection conducted by recognied experts of the country concerned that such country or district thereof is free from injurious potato diseases and injurious insect pests, and such country must further agree to examine and certify all potatoes offered for export in compliance with these regulations: Provided, That the entry of potatoes will not be permitted from any country unless such country either has an effective quarantine prohibiting theentry into such country or. district thereof of potatoes from any country or district under quarantine by the United States or forbids by law the exportion: to the United States of all potatoes not grown within the country, or district or locality thereof, fromwhich the potatoes are exported: Provided further, That potatoes grown in a district which is believed by a duly authorized official to be free from inj uriuous potato diseases, and which have at the timeof the issuance of these regulations been taken from.
- 46 -
-the ground and stored, may be certified after in,spection as hereinafter provided in Regulation 5.
C. L. Marlatt, Chairman.
W. A. Orton.
Geo. B. Sudworth,
A. V. Stubenrauch,
Federal Horticultural Board. R. C. Althouse, Secretary of Board. Approved:
Francis G. Caffey, Solicitor.
B. T. Galloway,
Acting Secretary of Agriculture. Washington, D. C., January 23, 1914.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Federal Horticultural Board.
Amendment 2 to Notice of Quarantine No. 11.
(Efective on and after February 20, 1914)
It has been ascertained, to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Agriculture, that the Kingdom of Dnmark is free from the potato diseases named in Notice of' Quarantine No. 11, issued by the United States De)artment of Agriculture, dated December 22, 1913, effective on and after December 24, 1913, and that said country is free from injurious potato diseases and injurious insect pests and has complied with all the conditions and requirements of the regulations of the United States Department of Agiculture governing the importation of potatoes in'o the United States dated Deceanmber 30, 1913, and effective on and after January 15, 1914, which regulations were prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture under an order, dated December 22, 1913, covering admission of foreign potatoes under res.trition.
- 47 -
Now, therefore, I. B. T. Galloway-,. Acting Shcretary of Agriculture, under authority of law, and in complaince with the terms of said Notice of Quarantine, do hereby, effective this day, amend said Quarantine No. 11, by eleminating the Kingdom of Denark from the provisions thereof and from the area affected thereby; and notice is hereby given that hereafter, so far as the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture is concerned, potatoes from the Kingdom of Denmark may be imported into the United States subject to and in accordatcewith the above-mentioned order of the Secretary of Agriculture dated December 22, 1913, covering admission of foreign potatoes under restriction and the regulations prescribed under said order.
Done at Washington this 20th day of February, 1914.
Witness my hand the seal of the United States Department of Agriculture.
B. T. Galloway,
Acting Secretary of Agriculture..
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Federal Horticultural Board.
Washington D. C.
Sr. Roberto Luaces.
Director of Agriculture..
I read with much interest your letter of February 27, on the subject of Cuban potatoes. You will note, from herewith, that the first proviso of the original regulatioQns has been modified by this decision, sothat "the entry of potatoes will not be permittedL
- 48 -
-from any country unless such country either has an effective quarantine prohibiting tlhe entry into such country or district under quarantine by the United States or forbids by law the importation to the United States of all potatoes not grown within the country, or district or locality thereof, from which the potatoes are exported:" This last portion which I have italicized is the condition made to obviate thj- necessity of any foreign country having to quarantine avainst all the other countries under quarantine by the United States. For example. All that is now required, therefore, in the case of Cuba, is for the Cuban Government to pass a law or issue a ministerial decree, if such be -possible, prohibiting fl-e exportation from Cubea to the United States of all potatoes not grown in Cuba. This, I think, simplifies the matter 'very much, and I hope, remedies the serious objection which you note in your letter I am sending you under separate cover a number of copies of this Quarantine Decision No. 5 and also a number of copies of the regulation governing the importation of -Dotatoes into the United States and the Potato Quarantine (No. 11.) Inasmuch as Cuba is not covered by any quarantine, all that is neocessarv is for Cuban exporters to comply with the conditions indicated in these regulations. The inspection and certification of pota..toes can be carried out bv the officers mentioned in the document attached to your letter, which includes also the resolution passed by the "Cuban National Horticultural Society". The three conditions which must be met as preliminary to the exportation of potatoes from Cuba to the United States are: lo.-An official declaration that Cuba is free from the Potato wart and the powdery -scab disease referred to in our auarantines Nos. 2 and 11, copies of
-which are also sent.
2o.-The provision for examination and certication of all potatoes offered for export, and.
3o.-The provision referred to above forbidding, by law or decree the exportation to the Unfted-
- 49 -
States of any potatoes not grown in the country of export (i. e., in this instance, Cuba).
You have already notified us of the provision for inspection, giving the names of the inspectors. You should, therefore, notify us officially of the freedom of Cuba from these two diseases and transmit official information relative to the law or decree referred to. On receipt of this information the movement of potatoes from Cuba to the United States can proceed under the condition of our regulations.
I hope. as you suggest, that the necessity of this action on the part of Cuba tnay be of benefit in devoloDing an efficient Department of Agriculture, fully eauiped for proper inspections and certification, and studv of plant diseases and insect pests.
Yours very truly,
(sdg.) C. L. Marlatt.
Chairman of the Board.
W. R. Simmons: I would like to ask, as a matter ,of information for the members of the Association
-here on the Isle of Pines and others that are inter.ested, what the shipments of potatoes have been in the past from Cuba to the United States. Now, as far as we are concerned here on the Island we have never raised enough potatoes to supply our home wants, and it strikes me that with thq heavy imnortations we have had from the United States that they are not raising enough potatoes in Cuba to supply their own wants, and I am surprised that they are shipping out M0tatoes. I would like to know, for our information, what the exports of this product have been in the last year.
Prof. Earle: I have no definite figures at hand 'but can say that there are thousands of barrels go ,out every year from the Guines district. In Guines they have ample irrigation (their potatoes are 'grown under irrigation) and it is one of the staple
- 50 -
products. Thousands of boxes of Onions are shipped every year. During January and Febuary there shipments are very heavy. The potatoes at that time usually bring greater prices in the United States.
Pres. Van Hermann: It is safe to say that the product of Guines would amount to fifty thousand barrels. I spent one winter there. The same ships that take out large shipments of potatoes from Cuba to the north will bring back equally large shipments from the north. I would say that the reason for this is that our people in the north want everything fresh and are willing to pay the price for it. While our potatoes are being sold in the north for $6.00 or $7.00, and often $10.00 per barrel, at the same time shipments of old potatoes from the north are being brought back here at a price of $3.00 or $4.00, so you can see why our potatoes are being shipped to the north. They are willing to part with their old potatoes in the north for several dollars lower price than they are paying for ours.
(Considerable general discussion followed without any particular point of interest being made, and is therefore omitted.)
Pres. Van Hermann: This subject might be important to the Isle of, Pines as I understand there are people here who are growing potatoes to some considerable extent and have exhibited some very choice potatoes at various times at Havana. Of course such things very often seem to be a hard wrap to the local grower but it is just a question of regulating our crops to suit local conditions. One house alone in Cuba handled six hundred thousand barrels of potatoes in a season, so you may form some idea from this of the magnitude of the trade between Cuba and the United States. The Isle of Pines can take care of all of the potatoes grown here, to say nothing of the extensive market you wil, find for them inCuba.
Mr. Gardner: In speaking of thp quarantine on potatoes, there is a question I would like, to bringup which seems of vital importance to Cub& and the
Isle of Pines ,and that is in regard to quarantine on fruit from infected districts. At the present time Florida is working very hard to get a law passed to quarantine fruits from tropical districts-speciflying the Mediterranean Fruit Fly. The tariff gave them a scare so now they are looking for something else.
(Mr. Gardner here reads a clipping from a Florida paper bearing on this subject.)
This, shows that they are awake and are trying very hard to get this quarantine against the countries where it is prevalent for instance Bermuda-I don't know about Cuba. It seems that it would be wise for the Cuban Government to establish a quarantine themselves against the countries infected with this fly, and I would offer this as a suggestion to the Comittee on resolutions. Cuba and the Isla of Pines not already being infected with this fly their action in preventing the importation of fruit from countries so infected would allow of no possibility of our fruit beinv prevented from entering the United States on this account.
Pres. Van Hermann: Fortunately we have with us one of the Committee who has been appointed by the Cuban Government to look into this very matter.-Prof. Earle.
Prof. Earle: Yesterday it was announced that the Government has appointed a Horticultural Board, of which I am a member, and I suppose this Board will! undoubtedly take up the matter ,mentioned by Mr. Gardner. and he has certain brought out a very good point and one that is worthy of immediate consideration. It is not only the Mediterranean Fly that is to be taken into consideration, but there is an equally dangerous one in Mexico. Of course there i no ,commerce between Mexico and Cuba of citrus fruit. This is a very serious question and I am glad that the Cuban Government has taken stens to take care of it.
Pres. Van Hermann: The last speaker has stated that there is no commerce in citrus fruits between
Mexico and Cuba. I understand there was a recent shipment of fruit from Mexico to Cuba and it is just those occasional shipments that will get us in trouble.
All this simply goes to show more strongly the need of close cooperation. Now if the Isle of Pines, will get together 90% of the growers in a good resolution we will wake up and find that we mean business, and it is only through hammering on the same spot that accomplihes results. Now, it is up. to the Zrowers, in the Isle of Pinesto -cooperate with the growers in Cuba in this respect.
Mr. Gardner: I would suggest that a resolution be prepared by the committee on resolutions, and also. the Island to be -sent to the Horticultural Board of Cuba.
Prof. Earle: Speaking for the Horticultural Board of Cuba, we would be very glad indeed to have petitions on matters of this kind sent in. I am sure mycolleagues on. the Board would appreciate it very much.
Pres. Van Hermann: We will now hear from Mr. H. C. Berry on the question of "Irrigation for vegetables.
IRRIGATION FOR VEGETABLES
H. C. BERRY
H. C. Berry: About two years ago I commenced to irrigate for vegetables with the so-called "Skinner System" and I find that it works very nicely. I believe there are times in the year that our vegetables would die out if we did not have sone means of watering them. In fact I think the necessity, of water has been demonstrated so fully in the last two or three weeks that anyone who is trying to grow vegetables here in the winter without water can read it as he goes along the street. Anyone who has had a garden planted can see how wonderful, the recent rains have brought on the vegetables. For instance, we had some beans planted in the early, season and picked the first crop, after which we had considerable dry weather and the vines werL nearly zone. These rains came on and the vines began to grow and they are better looking now than they were when we picked the beans from them and we will set a good second crop. This land dries out rapidly and we must apply water in large quantities, not at one time but continuous applications every day, of a fine stream of water will keep the gardens growing. It may be found that sub-irrigation is preferabTe to overhead irrigation. I have never tested that out but I do know that overhead irrigation is good, although the sub-irrigation may be better. Many farms cannot grow vegetables wi+hout water. Some places there is a seapage of water under the land and on those places you can grow vegetables without irrigation, but ordinarily we have to !irrigate for the best results in growing vegetables.
Prof. Earle: I would like to second all that Mr.
Berry has said regarding the importance of irrigation. A good water supply gives you certain crops of. vegetabes in this country. However, there are several things to be considered in connection with irrigation and there are various ways of applying water, and I am not sure that I would agree with Mr. Berry that the overhead system is always the best one. The first objection I would see is that it is pretty expensive, and whether or not the continuous spraying of water on plants is the best in this -climate I think is a question. Much the cheapest way of applying water is to run it in a ditch. I have had considerable experience with irrigation in Cuba, New Mexico and California and it is the simplest thing in the world to run water in a ditch and water your plants and keep the ground thoroughly moistened and keep the foliage dry. There are certain purposes for which I think the Skinner System is admirably adapted, but I would say, if you have water get hold of it and run it in a ditch and get ')etter results.
Mr. Berry: I wish to reply to Prof. Earle with reference to running water in ditches. I have seen it demonstrated on the growing of -peppers and egg plants last year. A man who had plenty of water pum-Ded the water up to the head of his field and run it down between the rows and he told me this year that he was unable to plant this field because the land had baked and he could not use it. That
-was his exDereence. While you apply water overhead or sub-irrigate, either one, it wont bake. Apply it in the afternoon and I have had no trouble.
Prof. Earle: I would say that we must take into consideration the particular character of the soil. There may be certain soils where we could not use it in ditches on account of the baking.
W. R. Simmons: I think that there are certain People that will always differ on points of that kind, and rightlv so too. because, as Prof. Earle stated, the difference of the soils have to be taken into consideration. The question to come before the Hor-
- 55 -
ticultural Society and to be settled by them is that the water is needed, and it is left to each individual to decide what is best adapted to his soil. We hAv6 a man here on the Island who has had probably more experience in raising vegetables than anyone on the Island, but unless you call on him you are not likely to hear from him. His modesty bespeaks his merit. When I came to the Island five years ago I was very skeptical about what they could raise, in fact I was told they could not raise Irish Potatoes, field corn, etc. on account of the character of the soil and the extreme heat A man stated to me that we could raise anything here and he took me out to a place to demonstrate that corn could be raised here in a commercial way. I found it just at tke point where the ears were beginning to form and it looked good, but I was still doubtful if we could-cure it. I asked the gentleman-why not cure it, and he said because he could make more money selling it in the state that it was in; that he was able to sell it all at 60 cts. per 100 stalks for feeding purposes, and I could readil-y see where it was not profitable to leave it in the field until thoroughly ripened. I began to figure on the cured corn in the States which I had recently bought at 12-112 cts. per 'shock. Now a shock of corn, as you know, consists of eight hills cut in each direction, forming a shock in the center consisting of sixty-four hills. This is done to avoid labor in carrying the corn for a great distance. A hill of corn contains an 'average of four stalks. Counting an average of four stalks to each hill with sixty-four hills to the shock we find 256 stalks to the shock ready for hunking purposes. This man sells his 256 stalks for $1.53, the same amount of corn that I had purchasedd in the States for 12-112 cts., showing a tremendous difference in the financial returns from an acre of ground. I was obliged, therefore, to take off my hat to him as a successful agriculturist. He installed a crude irrigation plant of his own construction which not only satisfied his needs, but proved conclusively that water properly
applied was a prominent factor in the successful raising of vegetables and corn. I should now like to hear from Mr. Harry S. Jones as to the suecesful methods he adopted and the results obtained therefrom.
HARRY S. JONES
Harry S. Jones: The subject before the house awhile ago was irrigation, and I have had some experience in that line throughout the United States and in the south.
When I first came to the Island I put in a Bamboo system for irrigation purposes and it was a complete success. I think it was more successful than any Skinner system I have ever seen. In reference to the tank question and pipes, I think that water is what we want, but in order to get this water in suf. ficient quantities and in the right place we must have the tanks and pipes. I believe in a system of pipes and tanks for storing water in the high places and drawing that water to wherever you choose. on the low places. I think that water on the ground through ditches or sub-irrigation is far superior to sprinkling. When I have a dust mulch on my ground I don't care to have it disturbed by sprinkling The sprinkling system is supposed to save water and I would like to have it demonstrated to me in what manner it saves water. In a dry time it will take at least two inches of water to do any good whatever. When thrown out from a pipe in sprinkling a great part is lost before it touches the ground. Where you apply it by surface irrigation it sinks down into the ground and you put your dust mulch on top of it and save it, the same as they do where they do dry farming. I claim if we would practice more of the dry farming methods as they do in
parts of the west we would accomplish much more. I am a believer in sub-irrigation. Top irrigation brings the roots to the surface, as they will come
- 58 -
to the surface to get the moisture. Keep the moisture down 18. 20 or even 24 inches and draw the roots down. For vezetabtes I would dig a narrow ditch and let the water stand in it. In a garden if you ,can keep yor dust mulch and the sub-irrigation by the ditch you will see that the moisture will come to the top and in the morning you can see just how far it has gone. It will stay there for weeks if you will keep that dust mulch on. In growing corn I find' that it don't require 'irrigation-just higher cultivation.
Mr. Howell: I think there is liable to be a great deal of confusion on this question of irrigation I am sorry that Prof. Roberts don't seem to be here today. He made a comparison between the system of dust mulch and mulching with dry straw and hay and my recollection is that he conserved more than twice the moisture by the system of hay than by the dust mulch. On certain soils here running the water into an open ditch would be very expensive indeed. I think we are liable to make a mistake in attempting to apply a uniform system of irrigation. A man must study his own soil and apply the water in the manner suitable to that soil.
Prof. Earle: There is no question but there are certain types of soil where ditch irrigation is practically impossible and I think you have some of this here on the Island. On the contrary I think in the majority of cases the open ditch system -would prove the more -profitable. Of course you cannot irrigate in the open ditch system with two inches of water, or a two inch stream. If you have sufficient water and sufficient head of water you can send the water through these open ditches so that the first time through will fill up the holes with mud, and the second time the water will run about five times as fast as the first time. Even on the red lands it is perfectly feasible to use ditch irrigation. You have some deep sandy lands on some parts of this Island and I doubt if you can run water successfully in ditches on such land, but I think that nine-tenths of
- 59 -
the land on the Island can be irrigated in this manner.
Mr. Snodgrass: Some of us are near steams where we can get a good supply of water, while others have to depend on their wells, and I believe there are no deep wells here on the Island. I would like to ask what is the possibility of getting enough water frorn deep wells here?
Prof. Earle: Ir. parts.of Cuba in the pine woods land some wells have been very successful, but it is a gamble and would be a gamble over here, but I should think that you would be able to get abundance of water by going down deep enough. I don't really know the possibility of wells here on the Island but I am impressed With the number of beautiful streams you have that are absolutely going to waste. Save those beautiful streams and make use of the water.
Pres. Van llermann: Owing to the fact that the hour is growing late and we will not be able to hear all of the papers that I believe are prepared for this occasion, I would ask that all of those who have papers prepared hand them in that they may be included in our report of the proceedings of this meeting.
The next order of business is the election of officers for the Cuban National Horticultural Society for the coming year, the first being the President.
HOW TO CULTIVATE AND FERTILIZE
A CITRUS GROVE SO AS TO OBTAIN A FULL
CROP EACH YEAR
W. P. LADD
(Read by title)
I have been asked to write a paper in regard to fertilizing a grove so as to get a crop of fruit each consecutive year.
I have conducted some experiments in connection with the German Kali Works, to demonstrate the amount of fertilizer required on my grove, and I would suggest that other grove owners conduct experiments along the same lines as there is such a marked variation in the soils of Cuba. A chemist can tell you how much plant food your soil contains, but is unable to tell you what percent of this is available.
The- analysis and amount of fertilizer that would be best for my land might not give the same result in other localities. The analysis of the ,fertilizer which I use is as follows, viz:
Potash 10 to 12%
Pbosphoric Acid 8 to 10%
The trees which have had this fertilizer applied have given me a good crop of fruit each year for the past five years.
The amount of fertilizer used per tree in past years has been from 25 to 30 pounds.
This present season I have a few trees on which I am increasing the applications to 40 pounds. This may seem like a heavy expense but when one con-
- 61 -
siders that they get a good crop of fruit every year, it certainly pays, as your other expenses are no more
-than when you receive 6rops only alternate years, which is usually the ease.
I usually buy my chemicals and do home mixing, thereby saving quite a percent of the cost of ready mixed fertilizer.
In my experiments, I had some trees which I gave 15 pounds of fertilizer and while the trees have grown as much and look practically as well as those other trees which had thirty pounds each, they gave m3 only about one-fourth as much fruit last year as the
-ones which had thirty pounds.
As to the application of fertilizer, I divide the year into three periods, making the first application in February, the second application the last of June and the third the last of October.
The second application I consider more important than any of the other, as it not only develops your fruit which is then on your tree, but simulates the tree and helps the bud eyes to germinate for the next year's crop, as these begin to form in August and Septemlber.
Many people make a mistake in delaying this application of fertilizer until later in the season when it is too late for the best results for the germinati of the buds.
I have found that the application of fertilizers in these months as stated have given the best results with me and have kept my trees dark green and in fine condition all the year.
I also find that a liberal application of fertilizer has a very beneficial effect on the quality of fruit as was demonstrated by the sales of my fruit in ,avana last year. I received $2.50 per box for all my Navel Oranges and $3.00 per box for my Tangerines. My Pineapple Oranges also brought me from $2.50 to $3.00 per box and could have sold many more if I had had them.
The trees which were not fertilized and also those which had Phosphoric Acid and Nitrogen only were
- 62' --
not saleable at these prices. They were coarser fibre and somewhat dry at the stem end.
Another point in favor of the liberal application of fertilizer is that they require much less spraying than trees that stand dormant, or in a hungry condition. Most of my grove has had no spraying for the past six years and it is practically free from scale insects and but very little rust nite.
I apply tuny fertiliziter some distance from the tree trunk, according to the size of the tree, usually under the farthest outspreading branches, working it in lightly, with a hoe.
I keep the green grass dowi from under my trees, by hoeing the entire season, as I do not believe it pays to buy fertilizer for the grass to feed upon.. With me this requires about six -workings per year..
Referring to Mr. Ladd's paper on the quality of his fruits would say that his statements might be well supported by the fact that he received at thelast Annual Exposition held in Havana January 1912, four first -premiums out of five awarded on five different varieties of Oranges. He also received first premium on Villa Franca Lemons.
HOW TO GROW AND MAINTAIN A
E. B. JONES
I cannot 1ieture anything more beautiful than a Well kept citrus grove five or six years old with every tree of uniform size, shape and 'color. Viewed from a distance all cultivated groves present much the same appearauce but when we get into them we find here and there a tree missing, a thrifty tree often having a stunded sickly neighbor, another tree with dead wood cropping out among its branches, and, growing, side by side you often see two trees of the same age but one about twice the size of the other. All nay have had the same amount of care and cultivation.and equal amounts of fertilizer but how noticeable the difference!
Every grove owner has his pet trees and in sbowing you through his grove he is sure to point them out to you calling your attention to this or that especially fine specimen.
Selecting land for, and planting out, a citrus grove is not a matter of a few'months or a year but for a iifetime-50, perhaps 100 years, so that there are many things to be carefully thought out before undertaking the venture.
When purchasing land see that the soil is- good, deep, loamy and naturally well drained and ascertain the possibilities of getting a regular supply of fresh water. Prepare the land well and set out at once a permanent windbreak of Eucalyptus, bamboo or of some other tough growing wood. Put in a single, or better, a double row all about the place you are to plant but not too near the grove; fifty or sixty feet is a safe distance. If planted nearer, a ditch should
.- 64 -
be dug between the grove and the windbreak after the third or fourth year. Don't buy poor trees at any price. Get a uniform lot from some reliable nurseryman, or better still start a nursery of your own. If there happens to be few that are not just as sturdy as the rest of the lot put them to one side and plant them in a plot by themselves where they can be especially cared for.
Do not plant more than you can reasonably care for, for a period of five years without expecting returns. Five, or, at most, ten acres is ample for the average man in order to look after them properly. Many failures happen by trying to overdo the planting and after three .or four years it is found that the expense is too great to carry on the grove. Owners get discouraged; just get a living or abandon the proposition altogether,_ where if they had planted a small acreage they would have realized a snug little income after four or five years.
After the planting is finished and all trees are in straight lines any way you may look at them and the -crown roots are just above the surface of the ground begin at once to make friends with each tree and you will be surprised to learn how soon they respond to the fact that. you are anxious about their individual welfare. If after twQ. or three weeks it is found that certain trees 1!o not respond quite as fast as they should give them an extra three or five gal-lons of water. If some trees have the young shoots growing all on one side gently break off all but one and it will be seen that the growth will soon come where it is most needed.
Do not let more than three shoots come at the top of the stalk and be sure to get them as nearly equally distant from one another as possible. Head the tree low, 18 inches from the ground is about right and when the new growth reaches a height of eight or ter inches pinch off the tops. When these first shoots harden and a new growth begins to appear nip off the tops in a similar manner. By repeating this process a few times you will soon get a growth that
will stand up against the wind and give an even well balanced start which you will fiid of great help in the heading of the ndw tree. By giving the tree a little aid by way of fertilizer and cultivation the first year it -should put on three or four new growths. Do not let sprouts come in the center or lower down on the stock after -the tree is once headed. You can pinch off with the fingers and cut off with a small. knife all that is necessary when the tree is young but if you wait until the tree is three or four years old and then begin to prune you will have to use the saw to get your tree into proper shape and it will break your heart to have to cut away some of the large branches that are crossing -one another or are too thick in the centre. Cut off at once all watersprouts as they usually grow at the expense -of the rest of the tree with this exception however; if they happen to come on the. side of the tree where the foliage is sparce you can with a little care train them into goodly members. By cutting out 'the center and always keeping it clean you will find that the tree is .formin a well shaped head and by occasionly cutting hoff the scraggy tops the. tree. soon-- beins to assume .that beautiful. Ibellshape to which all grove owners delight to call your attention.
The .lemon is the only. citrus tree that needs severe pruning. It makes ton very raddly and unless crovped often, soon gets way beyond your reach. Make it a point to keep them low so that you can at :all times ga.thber the fruit without difficulty.
If by accident in lowing. by the-wind or otherwise .a large branch becomes -broken so as to necessitate its removal and the tree looks a little one sided you can. with a little patience. .train.some of the near-by branches to take its place. Bend a branch or even two branches into the vacant seace and tie together with a large cord so as not to bind the bark, thereby. stomping the flow of sap, then tie to .the trunk of the tree or a stake in the ground so as to hold the branches in position. Now to force a growth on these
.- 66 -
branches clip off the ends and break off a few of the leaves on the upper side near the clipped ends. In a very short time a new growth will appear where it is needed. By keeping the branches weighted down for a few months they soon accustom themselves to their new positions and the tree will thus be rounded out.
It may be found that the wood of the tree is too brittle. In that case give it a little lime and potash. This will toughen up the wood remarkably and also help the tree to withstand insect attacks.
In using the shears or a saw among your trees always make a straight clean cut and do not spare the paint brush. If this work is not attended to promptly you will find that the wood is decaying and that grubs, insects and .the comejens will begin their ravages and in time the tree will be little more than a shell easily broken by the wind or by its own load of fruit. Always paint the tops of the newly -planted young tree.
If a tree looks sickly or stunted look for the cause. You will find that it has some one or more of the following drawbacks: Scale, red-spider, gumosis die-back, or blue beetle grubs working at its roots. It is good policy to examine the roots occasionally; they may be injured, the orange tree borer may be working or the tree may be set too low. Watch out for bibijaguas and do not let cattle into your grove. Also guard against fire by plowing a few furrows around the grove.
With young trees the slow growth is often due to "'hide binding". In this case the bark of the stock looks tough and dry. With a sharp knife ake a long continuou, cut from the root to the head of the stalk and watch results. The cut opens up widely and the young growth zets darker green which is always the sign of thrift.
As a rule there is very little scale on young trees as the nurseryman is comr~elled by law to, send out nothing but 'clean stock. If it appears among your, ,trees one of the best remedies is lime wash. It helps
- 67 -
to shade the trunk of the young tree, smothers the scale and gives the tree a cleaner brighter appearance. For the Cuban white scale which is so troublesome there is nothing simpler, cheaper or more effective.
For the red-spider one must spray two or three times. I find Trio Juice the most effective. It is cheap and easy to handle and for an all around insecticide is hard to beat.
I have read of many remedies for gumosis an1d have tried them all and have found one that is unfailing; i. e. with a sharp knife cut out all the diseased wood as carefully as you would Were you preparing a tooth for filling. Then leave the part exposed for a fews days, to the sun if possible, and if you see no more inclination to gum and that the wound is hard and dry, paint it thoroughly with carbolineum or with white lead and oil. If there is still a tendency to gum repeat the cleaning operation and them paint. Afterwards give the tree a few pounds of high grade double acid phospate and sulphate of potash, more or less, according to the size of the tree.
Die-back is almost invariably a root trouble and is a very difficult matter to handle as there are so nany causes for the malady. It is a disease that has to ba studied carefully and a solution worked out in each locality. It is more often due to rank organic fertilizers of nitrogenous origin than to other causes, also to a wet poorly aerated soil and to a shallow soil underlaid With rock or hardpan. Sometimes too it is brought on by too much cultivation and the cutting of too many roots in plowing. Where the soil is deep a good application of complete fertilizer rich in potash and phosphorous or a system of drainage, or both will soon work a change for the better.
The blue beetle is still working havoc in many groves and even at this late date very few know what is wrong, when, in dry weather, they see the tree withering and the leaves beginning to drop. I have found as many a 90 blue beetle grubs working at the roots of a single tree not one foot from the
- 68 -
trunk'or more than twelve inches from the surface of the ground. Many of the roots were completely girdled and the tree was feeding from one or two roots and these showed signs of the grub. After you have removed the cause of this -trouble give the tree a liberal supply of water and a good application of complete fertilizer containing a large percentage of Nitrate of Soda.
Sometimes a sickly tree will show a heavy bloom, as it is one of natures provisions to propagate its kind Do not permit the young fruit to grow however but pluck it immediately and begin to doctor the tree.
Fruit trees like all other forms of life struggle to live. Frequently the root system seems inadequate to support the heavy top, though it will try to keep up appearances for months. In such cases it is best to cut back the top severely and fertilize, thus giving the tree 4. chance to start anew. Within the past few years a perplexing malady has been crop-oing out in Florida, California and also in Cuba. Certain trees for some unknown reason defoliate. Either the trees are taking some element from the soil faster than the bacteria or chemicals used can neutralize it or some unknown fungi are working on the ,capillary system of the roots.
The trouble seems to attack the older trees and works in the heavier soils. Notable instances are now under careful investigation at Guayabal and Santiago de las Vegas and before long something definite will be published on the subject.
It is often better to remove a sickly tree from the grove if after a year or two of careful treatment it does not recover.
I have always advocated the planting of citrus trees 25 ft. apart and in keeping them low. They stand un better against the wind and the fruit is easier to get at and it costs less to harvest the crop.
By careful pruning when the tree is young, never using more than a knife or a pair of pruning shears, and, kee-ing constantly At it, cultivating, doctoring and fertilizing, you will zet all that you desire; well
- 69 -
balanced symmetrical trees and a grove that will give you annual crops of good marketable fruit. As a money making proposition the growing of citrus fruits in Cuba is no longer an experiment. Therefore it, is wise "to train your trees in- the way that they should grow."
Adjourned meeting of the Cuban National Horticultural Society called to order at 9:30 A. M. Friday, February 13th, 1914, by President HI. A. Van Hermann with general remarks as to the business to be transacted at this meeting. the first in order being the selection of a committee to examine Ithe reports of the Secretary and Treasurer..
Motion by W. R. Simmons-Chas. A. Beatleythat this committee be appointed by the chair.Carried.
The chair appointed for this committee:
Dr. F. R. Ramsdell
Mr. F. N.* Tucker
Mr. H. S. Jones.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS
Motion by Mr. Van Hermann-second Prof. Earle-that the Secretary be instructed to cast a ballot for the election of Mr. W. R. Simmons as President of the Association. Carried-unanimously.
Motion by Mr. Gardner-second Mr. Simmonsthat the Secretary be instructed to cast a ballot for the election of Mr. W. M. Snodgrass as Vice President of the Association from the Isle of Pines District.- Carried.
Motion by Prof. Earle-second Mr. Gardenerthat the old board of Vice Presidents from the Provinces in Cuba, with the exception of Mr. Jones, of Santa Clara. be re-elected.-Carried.
Motion by Chas. A. Beatley-seconded W. R. Simmons-that Prof. Doering be elected to fill the vacancy as Vice President from the Santa Clara district.-Carried.
Executive Committee to consist of the President, Secretary and Treasurer and two others.
Prof. Earle-W. R. Simmons-That Mr. W. P. Ladd and Mr. C. F. Austin be elected as members of the Executive Committee.-Carried.
W. R. Simmons: I want to say in regard to a meeting place for next year that such facilities and accomodations as we have here at Santa Fe I can offer you with the greatest pleasure in the world. The Santa Fe Commercial Club will be very glad to extend t he same courtesies they have to you this year and we should like very much to have you entertain the proposition and accept our invitation to hold your annual meeting here in Santa Fe in 1915.
Prof. Earle: We appreciate the kind invitation, but we have thought it might be well to hold more than one meeting another year in fact to hold one
- 71 -
meeting here in Santa Fe and perhaps a half dozen other meetings wherever the Society thinks it will be the most effective. This is in the hands of the Executive Committee and I merely offer this as a suggestion.
Mr. Van Herman: The committee might decide to hold a local meeting at Havana during the exposition, and if so, we would like to have as many people come as possible and as many as -can possibly come from the Isle of Pines.
Motion by Prof. Earle-seconded Chas. A. Beatley
-That the committee on resolutions be instructed to draft a resolution expressing the appreciation of the Cuban nationall Hbrticultural Society of the courtesies extended to the Society by the Santa Fe Commercial Club and the people of Santa Fe and the Isle of Pines in general, as well as the local press, and that a copy of this resolution be sent to each of the following:
The Santa Fe Commercial Club.
The Isle of Pines Appeal.
The Isle of Pines News.
The Times of Cuba.
The Havana Post.
The Cuba News.
and a copy spread on the records of the Cuban National Horticultural Society. Carried.
Motion carried that meeting be adjourned.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE YEAR 1913
Postage . . . . . .
Ray J. Niquette: Proceedings Echemendia-Printing . Echemnendia-Printing . Postage....... . . .
Echemendia-Printing . Echemendia-Printing . Postage .. . . . . ..
M. Sariol-Stenographer. .
,, Postage ............
. . .. $ 5.00
of Meeting 25.00 3.00 .. 2.90
. .. 1.00
. 3.00 2.00 . . 2.00
. . . 8.00
.. ... 3.00
an. 30 ,, Echemendia-Printing . . . . .
eb. 3 ,, Postage .................
,, 7 ,, Ribbon for Badges . . . . .
,, 9 ,, Ojeda & Co.-Printing Report. . .
,, 9 ,, Pan-American Express on package of
reports to Isle of Pines . . .
,, 9 ,, Cartage to Station on package of reports
4.00 2.00 6.00 84.84
Balance due Secretary from 1913. . 1.14 $155.28
71 Memberships for 1913. . $71.00 Balance due Secretary .... 84.28 $155.28 $155.28
Apr. June July
RESOLVED; that the meinbers of The Cuban National Horticultural Society, assembled desire to express our appreciation of the courtesies extended to the Society by the Santa Fe Commercial Club, the Executive Committes of the Isle of Pines Fair and Horticultural Exhibit, the people of Santa Fe and the Isle of Pines in general, to lecturers and those who have furnished valuable papers, to the Press of Cuba which has rendered valuable help and asist ance in furthering the same of the Society, and that a copy of these resolutions be sent to each of the following:
The Santa Fe Commercial Club, The Secretary of the Executive Committe of the Isle of Pines Fair and Horticultural Exhibit.
The Isle of Pines Appeal. The Isle of Pines Npws, Modern Cuba.
The Times of Cuba. The Havana Post.
The Cuba News,
COMMITTEE. ON RESOLUTIONS
W. R. Simmons.
F. S. Earle.
H. C. Berry.
Z ....... .
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IIIII I 2illH 8I 8814IIIIIIIIlIlll5H l I111
3 1262 08880 1435