SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
COMPILED BY THE SECRETARY
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
Printers Alvarez & Ftrindez
99 Obrpla Strast.
OFFICERS FOR 1912
J. E. Roberts, Bartle.
Havana Prov.-Harry G. Gocio, Santiago de las Vegas. Pinar del Rio Prov.-E. C. Goetz, Herradura. Matanzas Prov.-C. E. Peck, Itabo. Santa Clara Prov.-A. E. Doering, Manacas. Camagiiey Prov.-W. W. Traxis, Minas, Cuba. Oriente Prov.-E. C. Peirson, Omaja. Isle of Pines.-Captain J. A. Miller, Santa An.
Charles A. Beatley, Havana.
E. W. Halstead, Herradura.
H. A. Van Hermann.
W. P. Ladd.
J. E. Roberts.
Charles A. Beatley.
E. W. Halstead.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Austin, C. F., Herradura, Cuba. Allan, Win., 136 West 79 St., New York City. Aldab6, Enrique, Monte 427, Havana, Cuba. Berndes, Ren6, 64 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Burniston, W.G., Boquete, Prov. Chiriqui, Panama. Bortwick, Mrs. Francis R., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Campbell, Augus, Holguin, Cuba. Conklin, R. R., No. 1 Wall St., New York City, N. Y. Dart, D. W., La Gloria, Cuba. Desvernine, Dr. Ernesto B., 52 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba.
Earle, Prof. F. S., Herradura, Cuba. Green, Joseph, Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Haugh, S. Chr., Maravi, Baracoa, Cuba. Henricksen, H. C., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. Kiimmel, Edward A., Colonia Rosario, Soledad, Cienfuegos, Cuba.
Landis, A. C., 61 Aguiar St., Havana, Cuba. McIrwin, L. S., Guanabacoa, Cuba. Peirson, E. C., Omaja, Cuba. Sinchez, Lorenzo, 36 Obrapia St., Havana, Cuba. Towns, Thos. R., Holguin, Cuba. Towns, Mrs. Thos. R., Holguin, Cuba. Van Hermann, H. A., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
AlMfonso, Juan Bautista, San Ignaeio 82 (antiguo),
Anderson, James, Omaja, Cuba. Arter & Son, A. Homer, Omaja, Cuba.
Bahler, Albert, Artemisa, Cuba. Ballou, Chas. A., 311 Dryden Road, Ithaca, N. Y. Barber, Harry, Herradura, Cuba. Beatley, Chas. A., 30 Empedrado, P. O. Box 1007,
Becker, R. A., Garrad & Harrison Avenues, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Beers, L. Maclean, 37 Cuba, Havana, Cuba. Benn, George, Omaja, Cuba. Blosser, J. J., Omaja, Cuba. Boyd, F. P., Herradura, Cuba. Brandenburg, Gus., Oeballos, Cuba. Briggs, H. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines. Broughamer, F., Herradura, Cuba. Brown, Clovis C., Marlita, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines Brown, C. H., Omaja, Cuba. Buxton, Geo. B., Palmarito de Cauto, Cuba.
Campbell, C. L., Cabafias, Cuba. Carbolineum Wood Preserving Co., 23 Amargura, Havana, Cuba.
Cardin, Patricio, Estaci6n Central Agron6mica, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Cervantes, F6lix L., 194 Gervasio (antiguo), Havana, Cuba.
Chapman, J. W., Mgr., Palmarito Sugar Co., Palmarito, Cuba.
Clark, Dr. C. F., 188 East State Street, Columbus, Ohio.
Cleaver, Rev. Dr. S., 175 Lothier Avenue, Toronto,
Collins, Lindley, Marshfield, Mass. Cuba & U. S. Fruit, Nursery & Mercantile Co., Elizabeth, N. J.
Cuban Development Co., 1022-23 Majestic Bldg.,
Cunliffe, R. S., 30 lmpedrado, P. O. Box 1007, Havana, Cuba.
Davis, Recv. L. C., 41 Seventh Avenue, Brooklyn,
Desvernine, Dr. Pablo, 11 Amargura, Havana, Cuba. Dixon, T. N., San Francisco I [eights, Nueva (erona,
Isle of Pines.
D)oel, George H., Paso Estaneia, Cuba. Doering, A. E., Canet Colony, Manaeas, Cuba. Dolts, Frederick, 172 Boulevard, West ,Iloboken
Donald, James, 267 Monadnock Block, Chicago, Ill.
Early, John F., La Gloria. Eby, Ira P., Omaja, Cuba. Elliott, Chas. H., 17th St. & Lehigh Avenue, North
Engstrom, Arthur, Bayate, Cuba. Ensor, C. T., Bartle, Cuba. Ernst, Carl, 1430 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. Evans, A. J., Ornaja, Cuba. Evans, P. J., Mgr., Isle of Pines Cooperative Fruit
Co., 705 Kimball Bldg., Boston, Mass.
Fe, Daniel de la, 33 Mercado de Tac6n, Havana,
Fisher, Irving L., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Fowler, C. A., Santa Barbara, Isle of Pines. Franklin, Edward, Garden City, Cuba (via La Gloria).
Friedlein, S. S., 22 Obrapia, Havana, Cuba. Fulton, W. B., HIerradura, Cuba.
Garrick, Edward, 389 27th Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis.
Gilpin, William, Omaja, Cuba. (Goeio, IH. G., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. (oetze, E. C., Herradura, Cuba. Graham, T. B., Washington, Ind. Green, Clemnent H., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. ti hee, Edward G., 2122 North 28th St., Philadeiphia, Pa.
(inwun, L. E., 7 Baratillo, Havana, Cuba.
Halstead, E. W., Herradura, Cuba. Hainers, L. D., Havana, Cuba. Hart, W. S., "Bellevue", Hawks Park, Fla. Harvey, Frank K., c/o. Harvey & Harvey, 17 Habana, Havana, Cuba.
Harvey, Col. S. S., c/o. Harvey & Harvey, 17 Habaina, Havana, Cuba.
Heglund, H. L., 939 Laurel Avenue, Chicago, Ill. Hernfindez, Pedro M., 516 San Fernando, Cienfuegos, Cuba.
Hesley, T. A., R. F. D. No. 10, Nashville, 'enn. Hetheote, J. C., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Hoard, J. W., Apartado 24, Victoria de las Tunas,
Holahan, John, Galesburg National Bank Bldg.,
Hornet, Prof. W. T., Berkdley, Cal. Houghtalin, Frank, McKinley, Isle of Pines. Hous, Basil, Omaja, Oriente.
Jackson, M. F., Canet Colony, Minas, Cuba. Johnson, Ralph W., Omaja, Cuba. Keenan, T. J., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines.
Kezar, F. E., P. O. Box 155, Camagiiey, Cuba. Kiteley, George, Glenallan, Ontario, Canada. Kuopf, II. B., P. O. Box 1236, New Haven, Conn. Kydd, John H., Ceballos, Cuba.
Ladd, W. P., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. La Isabella Grove, P. O. Box 294, San Juan, Porto Rico.
Lang, Louis, 58 East Town St., Columbus, Ohio. Loebnitz, V. B., c/o. C. B. Stevens & Co., 17 Einp
drado, Havana, Cuba.
Logemann, Anna (Miss), Powhatan, West Va.,
McKinnon, J. H., Mgr., Mill Supply Co., 8 Ricla,
P. O. Box 711, Havana, Cuba. Mahan, Grant, Omaja, Cuba. Mahs, W. H., Sabanaso, Cuba. Merritt, F. Wallace, 14 San Ignacio, Havana, Cuba. Mellott, Dr. S. W., 330 U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C.
Millard, F., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Millard, Harry T., P. O. Box 535, North Adams,
Miller, W. R. J., 608 Nicolet Avenue, Minneapolis,
Milligan, C. M., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Mills, William J., 924 Academy Street, Watertown,
Moore, Rev. John, Springbank, Ontario, Canada.
Neustel, John J., La Gloria, Cuba. Neville, H. 0., Delegate of the Chilean Nitrate Committee, 517 Lonja deil Conmereio, Havana, Cuba. Norman, W. H., Bartle, Cuba. Nfifiez, R. E., Oquendo 21 (moderno), Havana,
Nutall, John, McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Orr, A. E., Taco Taco, Cuba.
Painter, E. O., Secretary, State of Florida Horticultural Society, Jacksonville, Fla.
Patrick, H. L., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Peck, C. E., Itabo, Cuba. Pedroso, Alberto, 48 Rue de Laborde, Paris, France. Peirson, F. J., Omaja, Cuba. Philliph, Abbie F (Miss), Calle 17 esq. 4, Vedado,
Piel & Co.. 4 Ena, Havana, Cuba.
Potosi Land & Sugar Co., 26 Mitchell Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Preston, E. J. (Miss), Holguin, Cuba.
Ramsdell, Dr. F. R., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Rapalje, Ernest H., Apartado 1182, Havana, Cuba. Richmond, William H., Richmond Hill, Scranton, Pa.
Roberts, J. E., Bartle, Cuba. Robins & Co., Frank G., Apartado 900, Havana,.
Robson, John, Paso Estancia, Cuba. Rose, Henry A., Sto. Domingo, Cuba. Rowland, R. H., Manitoba College, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Canada.
Sechrist, J. F., 245 Hillcrest Avenue, Trenton, N. J. Sinalea, Manuel, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Snodgrass, William, Secretary, Santa Ana Fruit Growers' Association, Nueva Gerona, I. of Pimes. Spear, Dr. Edgar D., Nome, North Dakota. Storms, L. E., 308 Washington Street, New York City.
Symvnes, John J., Mgr., Cuban Fruit & Sugar Co., San Marcos, Cuba.
Thomas, Dr. John W., 66 Cuba, Havana, Cuba. Thrush, Arthur W., 145 Somers St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Tillia, H. J., 526 Fleming Bldg., Des Moines, Iowa. Tosca, Dr. Pedro, Quinta "Tosca", Matanas, Cuba. Travis, Wim. W., Canet Colony, Minas, Cuba.
Van Hermann, H. A. (Mrs), Santiago de las Vegas,. Cuba.
Van Horne, Sir William, Montreall, Canada. Van Houten, C. W., 221 Clay Avenue, Rochester, N. Y.
Van de Venter, V. K., Dundee, Monroe Co., Mich. Vernet, W. J., Park Avenue, Ben Avon, Pa. Villaumne, V. (Sr.), Herradura, Cuba. Villaume, V. (Junr.), Herradura, Cuba.
Ward, Charles A., La Gloria, Cuba. West, E. A., Lincoln Square Drug Store, Decatur, 1l.
Wilding, F., 110 Moore Bldg., San Antonio, Tex. Williams, Nathan, Omiaja, Cuba. Wilson, William TR., Finea Mendive y Cantos, Apartado 22, Guanajav. Cuba. Wood, W. B., 86 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich.
Young, George F., McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Article 1.-The name of the Association shall be The Cuban National Horticultural Society.
Article 2.-Its object shall be to advance the horticultural interests of Cuba in all branches.
Article 3.-The members of this Society shall consist of persons interested in raising the products of the soil, or its allied interests.
Article 4.-Any person who is interested as per Article 3, may become a member of this Society by making application to the Secretary and paying the, annual dues. Said dues being payable at the beginning of each calendar year.
Article 5.-The officers of this Society shall consist of a President, one Vice President for each province of Cuba and one for the Isle of Pines, a Secretary and Treasurer, an Executive Committee of five members, three of which shall be the President,, Secretary and the Treasurer of the Society. These various members shall be elected by ballot at the annuial meeting. Their term of office shall begin at the: close of the meeting at which they are elected and shall continue until the close of the fodlowing annual meeting. The outgoing Secretary, however, shall be charged with the proceedings of the meeting at which he officiated, the newly elected Secretary assuming all other duties.
Article 6.-The annual election of officers shall take place at 3 o'clock P. M. on the second day of the annual meeting.
Article 7.-The duties of the officers of this Society shall be those usually performed by the officers of like organizations.
Article 8.-The Vice President from the province in which the annual meeting is held shall be considered the Senior Vice President, and shall act as President in the absence of that officer.
Article 9.-This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting of this Society by a two thirds vote of the members present.
I.-The annual dues of this Society shall be one dollar Am. currency, and life membership ten dollars
II.-The Executive Committee shall have power to fill all vacancies which occur between the annual meetings.
III.-The Standing Committees of this Society shall consist of three, or more, members, and shall be appointed by the President on the approval of the Executive Committee.
IV.-The Chairman of each Standing Committee shall make a written report for each annual meeting, and as often between meetings as may be requested by the Executive Committee.
V.-This Society shall have the following Standing Committees:
2.-Packages and Packing.
3.-Marketing and Storing of Fruits.
8.-Fruits of the Temperate Zone.
12.-Diseases and Insects. 13.-Legislation and Relations with Government.
Life Members 4.
Annual Members 5
Opening of the Meeting 17
Irish Potatoes, by A. W. Gardner 18
Citrus Development in Oriente, by E. C. Peirson 21 Orchard Management, by A. E. Orr 28
Address by Dr. Emilio del Junco, Secretary of
Reply to Address of Dr. del Junco, by Prof. F.
S. Earle 37
Address by Dr. J os6 Cadenas, Director of
National Exposition 39
Notes on Pineapples, by R. S. Cunliffe 40
The Problems of Next Year's Citrus Fruit Crop,
by Prof. F. S. Earle 44
Suggestions for Conbating Insect Pests and
Plant Diseases, by Patricio Cardin 51
Recipes for Cattle Ticks 55
The Planter in Print, by Miss I. A. Wright 5G
A Remedy for Gummosis and Insect Attack on
Citrus Trees, by B. Mayers 59
The Lemnon in Cuba and the Isle of Pines, by
W. D. Middleton 69
The Packing of Vegetables for the Market, by Lindley Collins 68
,he Tropical Kitchen Garden, by Mrs. F. S.
Orchard Irrigation, by E. W. Halstead 81
The Exportation of Pineapples and Citrus Fruits
to European Ports, by )r. Ricardo Herrera,
Cuban Consul to C~diz, Spain 86
Notes on Citrus Culture, by H. A. Van Hermann 93 Comparison of the Citrus Troubles of California
aniid Cuba, by Prof. WVm. T. Horne, Plant Pathologist, University of California 98
The Outlook of the Citrus Fruit Culture in Cuba
as Compared to Florida, by J. W. Hoard 112
The Mango, by Dr. F. R. Ramsdell 119
Fertilizing Exuerimnents, by H. O. Nevilile 123 Truck Gardening in Cuba, by Gus. Brandenburg 131 Report of the Committee on the "Modus Vivendi" 134 Report of the Auditing Committee 134
Financial Statement for 1911 135
Report of the Committee on Resolutions 136
The Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cuban National Horticultural Society was to have been held at Camagiiey in conjunction with the Camagidey Fair, and an auxiliary meeting later to be held at Havana during the National Exposition with this fin, but later the date of the Camagiley Fair was changed which conflicted with that of the National Exposition, making it incompatible for the Society to meet at Camagiiey. In consequence thereof the meeting was held on February 13th, 14th and 15th, at Havana, in the Convention Hall of the Botanical Gardens.
Mr. Thos. R. Towns having resigned as President, Mr. F. J. Peirson, who was appointed to fill the unexpired term, presided at the meeting.
The attendance was not large, but interesting and animated. The Secretary of Agriculture and the Director of the National Exposition made appropriate addresses. There were also present members of the staff of the Cuban Agricultural Experiment Station, as well as officials from the Agricultural Department of the United States.
OPENING OF THE MEETING
Prof. F. S. Earle introduced the meeting with the following remarks:
As President of the Executive Committee, I have to report to you that the President for this year has sent in his resignation. The Executive Committee endeavored to induce Mr. Towns to withdraw his resignation and preside at this meeting but without success. The Committee then accepted his resignation and Mr. F. J. Peirson, of Omaja, was appointed to fill out the unexpired term. I take pleasure in introducing Mr. Peirson, who will preside over this meeting.
Mr. Peirson replied as follows:
Gentlemen: I thank you for the honor you have done me in appointing me to fulfill this unexpired term. It is needless to say it is entirely unexpected but I thank you nevertheless.
The meeting then proceeded as follows:
A motion was made by Colonel Harvey that the (lair appoint a committee of three to examine thebooks of the Secretary and Treasurer. Said motion was approved. The Chair appointed on this commiittee: Mr. Lindley Collins, Colonel Harvey and Mr. G. D. Jones, and were requested to report some time before the close of the meeting.
Mr. A. W. Gardner being unable to attend the meeting, his paper "Irish Potatoes" was read by the Secretary.
A. W. GARDNER,
(Re~ad by tite)
Considering the fact that large quantities of Irish potatoes are annually imported into Cuba and the Isle of Pines, it would seem that more attention should be given this crop by growers, to supply at least the home markets. Although they are not as prolific here as in the north, yet their superior quality makes it possible to sell them at a price that compensates in a degree for the smaller yield obtainedl. In Maine the average yield per acre runs about 200 bushels, although much better results are secur'led by some growers under favorable -conditions. Here on the Isle of Pines, a yield of 100 bushels per acre is considered very good.
In raising a good crop of potatoes, the thorough preparation of the soil before planting is one of the most important -points to he considered. The ground should be deeply plowed and pulverized as thoroughly as possible, in order to hold the moisture and give the tu bers a good bed to grow in. This was brought to my attention forcibly the second year I planted this crop, when, with better preparation of the soil, I nearly doubled the yield over the first year, when the ground had not been in very good condition.
Unless the field is well drained, it is safer to delay planting until sometime in Novemlber, when the heavy fall rains are over, as the seed m-ay rot in the ground if it remains soggy for any length of time. While the frequent rains this winter have been beneficial for other vegetables, the potato crop has suffered somewhat from an excess of moisture. I notice
that a good many of them are affected with smallprotuberances, like water blisters, which they have not had during other drier years.
The Bliss Triumph, while not a heavy yielder, is, the best variety to plant here that I know of. Other varieties that I have tried have yielded a large number of very small potatoes that were mostly unsaleable.
To prevent scab, which is sometimes prevalent,,. the seed is soaked a couple of hours in a weak solution of formialine or bichloride of mercury, before cutting. After removing them from the solution and allowing them to dry, they are cut with a thin. bladed knife into pieces containing two eyes.
In planting, furrows are opened with an eight inch plow, three to three and a half feet apart, and. a fertilizer composed of nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, double acid phosphate, and sulphate of potash, analysing 4-6-10, is scattered in the furrows at the rate of 1000 pounds per acre. Then a cultivator, set narrow, is run in the furrows, to mix the fertilizer thoroughly with the soil, and the seed pieces are dropped in from 12 to 15 inches apart.. The dirt previously thrown out is then turned back into the furrows, covering the seed about four inchesdeep. A spike tooth harrow is run over the field to level down the ridge, and also once or twice more before the vines show above ground, to kill any weeds starting up.
After the vines are up, they are cultivated about every two weeks, or after each rain, to keep a dust mulch covering the ground. This cultivation is continued until the vines die down. If the soil is thoroughly moist when the seed is planted and this cubtivation is kepot up, a crop can be made even if no rain falls at all.
To prevent blight, which will sometimes sweep through a field and kill the vines prematurely, spray with Bordeaux mixture every two or three weeks. To kill any bugs or worms about three ounces of"
Paris Green should be added to each barrel of Bordeaux Mixture.
When the potatoes are ready to be dug, they are put in barrels or sacks at the field, as wanted. By putting them in a cool dark place exposed to the air, they can be kept six or seven months after being dug.
Prof. Earle: It appears that the water blisters referred to are probably due to a worm that is so destructive in these islands and the southern states. It makes an injury something like a scab, which makes a depression like a wart, so I think this comes from a worm instead of from the moisture. There is absolutely no remedy. It is very common in all sandy countries and green-houses of the North. No practical field treatment has been advised.
Mr. Collins: I noticed a few days ago an article on the diseases of potatoes in the States. It referred to a new disease known, I think, as the "black scab disease". Now, I would like to ask, Prof. Earle, if that black scab is the same as he mentioned this morning.
Prof. Earle: I do not know anything about the "black" scab.
Mr. Collins then described the black scab disease, as referred to in the article mentioned, and asked Prof. Earle if that disease had reached the Island of Cuba. Prof. Earle replied that the black scab disease had not yet been brought to his attention but that it would be well to be cautious.
The President then announced that, as Mr. E. C. Peirson was unable to attend the meeting, he had been requested to read Mr. Peirson's paper "Citrus Development in Oriente Province."
CITRUS DEVELOPMENT IN ORIENTE
E. C. PEIRSON.
('ulban National Horticultural Society,
L-adies and Gentleman: When your Vice President from Oriente Provine was asked to supply a paper for the annual meeting thc question naturally arose as to what, from our province, would be of the most interest to the Society.
Th'le name of the Society implies that its scope inceludes all trees and plants grown in Cuba. I will, however, confine my report more particularly to the plantings of citrus groves in Oriente Province with something as to their extent, condition, and promise.
A personal visit was made to most of the larger groves and the aggregates given are compiled from information, either verbal or written, received from those in charge of the various plantations. It is possible that some important groves and a considerable number of smaller ones are not included but ]I believe that the totals are, in the main, correct.
The great bulk of these groves have only been planted five years or less so that no report of importance can be made as to their production. Some have allowed a crop to mature on trees planted but three years. This is unjust to the trees, since a citrus tree, like a large, ,overgrown boy, should not be worked too young. Up to four years the tree should be allowed to give its vitality to growth of wood and not to that of fruit. In Cuba, trees that have been properly handled can then begin to grow some fruit and at five years may safely carry a full crop. Most citrus trees, when young, have a tendency to set too much fruit. This is bad both for the
tree and owner. A tree that is overloaded can not do, justice to itself in the way of making new wood but may even bear its-elf to death. Neither, on the other hanid can it do justice to the crop it bears as there is bound to be a small proportion of marketable fruit and a much larger proportion of culls.
The five and six year groves are supplying good crops. Some grape fruit is already being shipped but the main crop will not be handled for a months or two yet. The largest shipments from Oriente Province for thiis season will probably be from Las Tunas and vicinity. Oranges are b~ing handled and have been for a month or two, all or nearly all, being marketed here in Cuba.
The manner of caring for the groves varies with the pocket book of the owners and the amount of good common sense and persistent determination to make a success. This applies to so many phases of the proposition that it would fill a large book to give the details. The selection of the proper place to plant, the right kind of soil, preparing the land for p lanting, securing desirable trees and planting same at the proper time, and giving them the proper care afterward, are all items that must be observed or failure will follow. I have observed the failure of orchards in the north for many years and could always trace the reason for failure to the neglect of some of these points. The same thing obtains here in Cuba and in some cases much money has beeu paid out that will bring nothing but bitter disappointment and expensive experience.
On the other hand, those who have employed brains, energy, industry, and common sense in the expenditure of a reasonable amount of money are demion,strating by their results that Cuba is bound to be one of the richest and most important centers of citrus fruit production in the world.
A large share of the groves observed are conducted by -corporations that are coming to realize that a citrus grove must have continued and intelligent. care. They are also coming to understand that the
Superintendents in charge must be given a fair degree of option as to methods and time of doing the work. Nothing but close and intelligent applieation together with a free hand to do the right thing at the right time will bring a grove up to, and maintain it at, the high standard necessary to best results.
Methods of cultivation vary with different companies. Some have planted on forest land just after burning in the spring; the trees being planted without even logging the land. This means much 'more work for after cultivation. Others plant on new timber land which has been burned and logged but on which the stumps have been left to rot or be burned out afterward.
Tle best and most economical results have, however, probably been obtained from plantings on ground which has been thoroughly cleared and prepared before hand. In such groves team labor can be employed from the start in place of the much more expensive hand labor.
Weeds should be kept down around the tree and the soil kept cultivated at all times. A fine mulch of two or three inches is always desirable as this not only conserves the moisture in the dry season but aerates the soil and makes the plant food available to the tree. Those groves that are best worked are giving the best promise in every way. The value of the principles of dry farming are very apparent in groves that have been well cultivated during the dry season; the drier the season the more i nportant the cultivation. It is pleasant to say that so far this year, we have had practically no dry season, as rains have been fairly abundant. What promised to be the usual dry season throughout the province yas checked by rains about the middle of January which have since been followed up by other rains so that at this date (Feb. 12th.) the ground is sufficiently moist and trees are doing well.
The extent of planting as given in the following list will show for itself. When we consider that the
bulk of this planting in Oriente Province has been made during the past five or six years it is evident that an industry is being developed in Cuba that is bound to command the respectful attention of the fruit markets of the world. The proportion of this planting, that is devoted to oranges is indeed a small item as compared with the orange interests of California and Florida. The quality, flavor and appearance of the Cuban Grape Fruit, however the productiveness of the trees and the comparative cheapness with which a grove can be produced, are points which justify the increasing interest and investment in this business. A very few years hence is bound to find Cuba a most successful competitor of both of the above mentioned sections in the production of grape fruit.
The following gives the approximate number of citrus trees planted in orchard form at the more important citrus centers of Oriente Province.
Bartle ........................... 35,000
Cacocum ........................ .10,000
Holguin ...... ................... 10,000
Cuban Development Co. 23,000 I
Las Tunas Citrus Fruit
Co ............. 32,000
Eastern Cuba DevelopI ment Co. ........ 45,000 I
Sir William Van Home 3,500 1
na Vista Fruit Co. 50,000
Omaja. A. Homer Arter & Son. 18,000 80,000
Smaller plantations . 12,000
Palmarito .......................... 5,000
Paso Estancia. .................10,000
Sabanso ...... .................... 2,500
Taeajo ...... ..................... 12,000
Total. ......... 280,000
It will be seen that there are, by this report, at
least 280,000 citrus trees planted in groves in the Province of Oriente. The most of these are from one to six years old. 'Preparations are already being made to increase the planting by about 60,000 this coming spring. Of those already planted probably 85 are grape fruit and the balance oranges and a few lemons.
At the conclusion of the reading of this paper, Prof. Earle stated: I wish to comnmend very highly this kind of a report from our Vice-President of Oriente Province. If we could have a report like this every year from each Province, it would give us a great deal of very valuable information.
Mr. Van Hermnann: It would be interesting to know about the condition of these groves, the prospects, and the manner in which they are cared for.
Mr. Peirson: There are all kinds, the same as the usual condition throughout the Island. Some are in good shape, the majority much to be desired.
Mr. Collins: If no more trees were set for the next three years, about what number would they be able to report ;as growing trees?
Mr. Peirson: The bulk of these are trees in groves that are being taken care of very well, by no means counting abandoned groves. Some of them are neglected more than they should be but there are no neglected groves. There are doubtless thousands of trees in this 280,000 which will die before they bear fruit but the point I have tried to make is the bulk of these are in groves that people are endeavoring to keep up.
Colonel Harvey: I have visited most of the groves iii Cuba and the Isle of Pines and find that practically all the groves planted within the last three to Aive years are being taken care of, but many that were planted previous to that time have been aban(toned. I wish to impress upon the members the
fact that the fruit for exportation should be fine, clean looking, and of an exceptional quality.
Prof. Earle: My recent trips around the Island lead me to believe that a very large proportion of cities fruit in Cuba is being cared for, sufficiently to make it a factor.
Mr. van Hermann raised the question whether tere ,ire any citrus groves in Cuba that are paying investments today. Colonel Harvey and Prof. Eairle both cited instances of paying investments.
Mr. van Hermann: I would like to know where there is a grove from which a man has yet made a dollar net. I can readily see where, under certain conditions, the grower is favorably situated as to transportation and where his soil is rich enough so that he would not have to use fertilizer, spray, etc., he would come out on the proper side of the ledger. But the question I am trying to get at is what are the conditions and whether it is a fact that nobody has made a dollar net.
Prof. Earle: There are many groves that are paying a good profit over the yearly expenses. There are many groves in Cuba that never will.
There was a general discussion in which Colonel Harvey, Prof. Earle and Mr. van Ilerm-an, and others took part regarding the fertilizing and nonfertilizing of citrus groves, in which all agreed that, while some groves may not need fertilizing, there are many groves which do need it.
Mr. Peirson: I am willing to say for the middle and eastern end of the island that the citrus prolosition simply as such, properly handled, can be mnade a thorough financial success.
Mr. Jones: There are very few groves in Cuba that have had sufficient care and opportunity to produce results which we could consider a fair basis. I think it is a decidedly unfair question when so few orchards have had a chance to produce returns.
Mr. Kidd: I want to say from my own personal experience that I have a grove, which this year will pay me a handsome profit. I know of a grove that I
take care of (a little over 10 acres) which I believe this year will net that man at least $500 profit over and above expenses-2000 oranges on three trees. All of his groves that he has mulched are giving good results.
Prof. Earle: I would like to discuss that fertilizer question a little further. Riverside Colony have had to use no fertilizer. Their ground is very rich and probably will not have to. Those people are making money. This colony is 10 miles from Minas and the roads are bad. It costs 45c. per crate for hauling empty box materials, freight, etc. to get the fruit to Havana. There are points in the province where fertilizer must be used but the rate will not be more thau 10c. per crate. If the amount of freight were used in fertilizer on a less rich soil at a different occation, it would be a very paying basis.
Colonel Harvey: My experience both here and in Florida is that sandy gravel soil is the best for citrus fruit. I find the rich, heavy lands produce a discolored fruit.
A. E. ORR.
(Read by title)
MIr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
With regard to Orchard Management it is safe to say, that owing to the variety of soils to be found in different localities, no hard and fast line of policy can be suggested as best for all Citrus Fruit Oxrowers to follow. For the sake of beginners it may, however, be well to point out certain general principles which will lead to success and the neglect of which must spell final failure.
1. Land with good depth of soil and suitably located must be selected. Before purchase, this land should be carefully examined (at many points) with pick and shovel for rock or hard pan.
2. The right varieties of fruit must be planted.
3. The grove must be protected from the prevailing trade winds.
4. The chief pests:-The Pachnaeus Litus Beetle, Bibijagua, the Hormiga Brava, scales, rust mite and gimnmnosis must be combated.
5. Fertilizer-not necessarily one containing nitrogen-but phosphoric acid and potash must be used on all soils -at any rate after the trees coimmence to bear fruit, and in most eases previously.
6. A sufficiency of moisture must be maintained in the soil whether by irrigation, mulching or dynamiting.
7. Grass must be kept down round the trees either by hoeing or mulching.
S. Trees should not be allowed to bear till theIr fifth year, and then only a very small crop. Bearing these principles in mind as a "sine qua non", the production of quantify and quality of fruit at a minimum of cost will be the chief aim of the manager, and this question of cost being the key of the whole problem brings us back to principle No. 1, Location. Let us suppose two planters set out groves of five acres in different localities at the same time, and that these groves having received equally good care, produce at ten years of aze six boxes of fruit per tree, or say 3000 boxes each. Planter No. 1 gets his fruit to market or shipt)ing point for 5 cents per box, whole No. 2 has to pay 12 cents. No. 1 saves $300 i. freight as against his competitor, and this sum would represent in one year a difference of $60.00 per acre in the cost of his land; or, an amount sufficient to buy him nearly seven tons of a mixed fertilizer. Added to this must be the yearly saving in his purchase of supplies which will probably be equal to nearly 10% on the cost of same. Is it necessary, I would ask, to further emphasize the primary importance of selecting land as near as possible to market or port of shipment?
Principle No. 2.-Varieties:
Different soils require different varieties and the planter, before setting out his grove, would do well to study which thrive best in the neighborhood he has selected. In this connection we need only point to the fact that at last year's meeting Mr. Towns told us that Valencias did not do well at Holguin, whereas in Mr. Gray's grove at Santiago de las Vegas this variety is very highly estimated; again in the last mentioned grove the Navel Orange does not give satisfaction, while on the other hand, Mr. Towns recommends it highly, and I may say it is the best paying orange we have had at Taco Taco.
Principle No. 3.-Windbreaks:
If the grove is unprotected from the East winds it will be found most difficult, if not impossible, to grow well shaped trees. These winds are so persistent and steady in the spring when the growth is rapid and tender, that unless the trees are very carefully staked, they will grow up one-sided.
For a windbreak the writer can find nothing prettier or better than a hedge of Hibiscus with bamboo cane behind it and backed up in the rear by mango trees. This combination will give very effective protection against storms-always bearing in mind that the distance protected is only twelve times the heighL of the protecting trees.
Principle No. 4.-Pests:
By far and away the worst of these is the Spring beetle (Pachnaeus Litus), and the work of her larvae on the roots, in the fall, is more severe on tre-s planted on soil which dries out quickly, than on those in low lying damp land. One cannot too strongly emphasize the importance of combating this pest with the utmost energy in a young grove, as it is the primary cause of a host of minor troubles such as bleeding, scale, rust mite, etc. It saps the vitality of the tree at a time when it is nearly dormant, and if unattended to, will speedily ruin a young grove. The writer has dug up as many as 450 of these grubs on the roots of a young tree. Daily hand picking on the first appearance of the beetle is necessary. As a repellant to prevent the larvae from attacking the neck of the tree, where they do most damage, an excellent remedy is the pouring into a small basin made round the same (i. e. the neck) a m iture of whale oil soap and creoline. The whale oil soap is diluted 20 lbs. soap to 50 gallons of water and then 2 gallon of Creoline is added, and stirred in, and about a gallon of the mixture given to each tree. This is applied easily in May or early in June.
With regard to Bibijaguas, so much has been said and written that it is unnecessary to mention them further than to say that the cheapest way of treating nests just starting, is the application of a little Paris Green.
The Hormiga Brava has a sweet tooth and can be poisoned with a mixture of flour, olive oil and Paris Green, or with molasses, wheat bran and Paris Green placed at the foot of the tree. If they become very troublesome it will be found cheapest to kill out the large nests with hot water, or a 10%', Creoline spray. Tobacco dust is also a good repellant. In the south of Spain, I am told, some growers moisten the bark of the trees with olive oil during the flowering season and this engages the attention of the ant until the fruit is well set.
For scale and rust mite it is preferable to use a fungicide such as the Sulphur-Flour or the SulphurLime Mixture, rather than an insecticide which destroys the ladybird that feeds on purple scale &c. Here and there, however, where trees are very badly attacked it may be necessary to treat them specially. Caustic Potash Whale Oil Soap can be very heartily recommended as an annual or biannual wash for the stems and main limbs; a tree which appears to be making no progress will often respond at once to a good washing with this liquid.
With respect to gummosis, I am inclined to agree with the remarks made by Prof. Henricksen at last year's meeting, viz:-that fungi, although present, are a secondary cause, and that the real cause lies in soil conditions and I think that the trouble is aggravated in many cases by the ravages of the larvae of the green beetle causing the balance between root and tot) to be seriously altered. Prof. Earle commenting in the Cuba Iagazine for November, on Prof. Fawcette's discovery of the Diplodia Fungus, remarks, that it "serves to show the futility of such a senseless remedy as splitting the bark for gummosis.
Practical experience however, shows this splitting
of the bark to give very excellent results, and I would venture to recommend the practice on all trees showing any signs of the malady. A strip of bark 9" to 1" in length and 12" to 34" wide, tapered at both ends, should be removed with a sharp knift, and the exposed surface at once painted with Zinc White or White Lead paint dissolved in pure boiled Linseed Oil with the addition of a small quantity of Creoline or Carbolineum to make it thoroughly antiseptic.
The paint should be thick enough not to run.
For all cuts and wounds this paint mixture will be found very satisfactory, and the injured parts will heal up very much more quickly than if washed with Carbolineum only.
Principle No. 5.-Fertilizer:
That poor soil requires fertilizer goes without saying, but does it not seem strange that some people who are fortunate enough to have rich soil prefer to impoverish it by continued cropping rather than maintain its fertility by replacing what the crop uses, entirely forgetful of the fact that the judicious use of potash and phosphoric acid will always improve the quality and increase the quantity of their fruit, and more than repay the money expended in their purchase.
A difference of 50 grape fruit or 50 oranges on healthy seven year old tree will scarcely be noticeable to the eye, yet this addition will pay for 20 lbs. of a mixed fertilizer, and it is safe to say that such an amount would produce an increase of 3 or 4 times 50.
Principle 6 and 7.-Moisture:
The writer's observations seem to point to the fact that here in Cuba Citrus fruit trees will much bettor thrive with a slight excess of moisture than with the lack of it, and land which in California would
not be considered suitable for a Citrus grove, produces here an excellent quality of both grape fruit and oranges.
For the preservation of moisture nothing can beat a good grass mulch, and I am very strongly in favor of nitilching to the full spread of the branchse.
Owing to the extreme rapidity with which grass grows in a tropical country, mulching is also necessarv to reduce the cost of hoeing.
During the dry season the grass can be heaped up round the trunk of the tree, but in wet weather it must be drawn away one or two feet to allow the free circulation of air.
It is possible that a heavy mulch round the trees combined with the planting of cover crops (which must be fertilized to give results) and good cultivation will possibly do away with the necessity of irrigation, except for years of very prolonged drought and be a more paying proposition. Our attention has recently been called to the use of dynamite both for the preparation of land for planting of trees and for the preservation of moisture.
The shattering of the ground in all directions by the explosion of a charge, five feet below the surface, appeals very strongly to the imagination as being far more scientific than the mere plowing of the top soil and subsequent digging of a hole, the sides of which always remain hard. Also, for the preservation of moisture (if cost allows) its use would seem likely to come into vogue and be of great value.
The aim of the manager should be to make every tree a paying tree, and young trees which appear to be stunted and do not respond quickly to an application of fertilizer or stem washing with whale oil soap, should be dug out at once and burned.
Large groves should be divided into sections and each tree numbered and lettered with a wooden tag, so that the manager after going his rounds can give his foreman instructions to have such and such a tree treated in the manner he desires.
In conclusion it is my belief that there is a great future for the Citrus fruit industry in Cuba, especially grape fruit, if the principles enumerated are carefully attended to, and I would lay special emphasis on the necessity for:
1. Selecting level land with a deep soil and providing a windbreak.
2. Planting grape fruit .preferably seedless).
3. Guarding against the Spring beetle.
5. Feeding the trees liberally.
Prof. Earle: Gentlemen, that was one of the best papers ever read before the Horticultural Society.
The meeting was then adjourned until 3 P. M.
Wednesday, 3 P. M., Feb. 14th.
The meeting was called to order by the President, who stated: We are honored this afternoon by the presence of Dr. Emilio del Junco, Secretary of Agriculture, who will favor us with an address. Mr. Cardin will act as interpreter. (Applause).
Dr. Emilio del Junco: I am very sorry to talk in my own language because I cannot speak English fluently enough to tell you all I wish to say. For that reason I shall not proceed in the language of Shakespeare but shall talk in the language of Cervantes.
Mr. Cardin will interpret what I say.
ADDRESS OF DR. EMILIO DEL JUNC0
SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE.
in expressing my appreciation for having been invited to attend this meeting and to address you, I desire to say that I consider your work of the greatest importance and I congratulate you for the progress which the Cuban National Horticultural Society has attained, and from the position which I un-meritoriously fll, I constantly observe your work, and examining the fruits which your associates cultivate in our country and which you have kindly brought to this National Agricultural Exposition, I feel it my duty to applaud your work and render to you a public recognition of merited praise for the efforts realized in union with our agriculturists for the improvement of our lost riches and contribute so forcibly to maintain our personality, for it is an undeniable fact that we shall always have to look to agriculture for our great sources of wealth.
T wish to say that I realize fully the magnanimous thought which prompted the generous work of your important association, called the Cuban National Horticultural Society, removing 'entirely any possible idea of foreignism and adding in a homogeneous manner your encouragement and your labors, Cuban in their aim, with those of the Cubans themselves, contributing effectively to the richness of our
-soil, which is the most practical and the surest way that we shall ever preserve our dignity and continue to be a free and independent and one of the most progressive nations of America.
In speaking to you I -should also desire that my words could reach the ears of those who 'are not present with us this afternoon, both Cubans and
foreigners, that I might make clear to all that the 'liberal government of the Cuban Republic, of which I have the honor to form part, has as one of its principal aims of progress, a constant and decided dedication to everything that means progress and advancement, especially the protection of those among us who dedicate themselves to agriculture, industry and commerce, and it is for this that your labor merits our consideration, our respect and our applause, as another good Cuban act which we may include as one of the economic works of which we may feel proud.
Taking part and cooperating as you have in our National Agricultural Fair, you have added to its brilliancy and splendor, and any observer who may study the progress made since the opening of our first exposition to the celebration of the present one, must render to you, as I do publicly, the highest praise, not for the intrinsic value of your work, but for the education which it spreads and the good example it sets, which will undoubtedly be followed by many in the near future.
This is not the time for me to go into further details, but before concluding my remarks, permit me to take this opportunity to do homage to our esteemed friend, Dr. Jose Cadenas, the able Director of our National Agricultural Exposition, to whom I honestly attribute the principal merit of the success that it may obtain; and I proclaim once more my gratitude, which I, as a Cuban citizen, feel toward the great American Nation, which aided us in obtaining our Republic, which cares for us like an older sister in our progress and advancement and which, in my judgment, is as much interested as we are ourselves, that we continue to be free and self governing.
You have my sincere and best wishes for the welfare, for the greatest success of the Cuban National Horticultural Society, and that at the celebration of many successive anniversaries of the restoration of our Republic, we may see you assembled here fra-
ternally, exhibiting in competition and harmony the fruits of our fertile Cuban soils.
Prof. Earle replied to Dr. Junco's speech as follows: I voice the sentiments of this Society in thanking you for the speech this afternoon and the words addressed by you. We also thank you for the al hial recognition of the (Glovermnent in appointing a representative to cooperate with the Director of the Exposition. I feel very grateful for this recognition and hope our work in this Exposition has been of soiie nimoment. This society is called the Cuban Hlorticultuiral Societyv, and our aim has always been to nmalke it national in its scope. It is true by accident of birth that a large number of the members of this society are not Cuban born. That, however, is not their fault. The fact that all of our associates have come to Cuba of their own free will and are making it their place of business shows that they are at heart very good people and our aim is to promote. It seems to me there are various ways in which cooperation with this society may be beneficial. There are various matters relating to horticulture which need government recognition and action. From time to time there has been need of laws to regulate importations, etc. That is a thing which still requires attention in the future. There is the matter of fertilizer laws, which is very important to the agricultural needs. That is something in which there might be some cooperation. I was advised by the papers yesterdav and today that at the present moment the tariff regulation between the United States and Cuba is under discussion, and there is liable to be some change in the Reciprocity Agreement. The matter of duty, which the United States imposes on Cuban fruits, is a matter which affects this society very much indeed. The duty we pay on our citrus fruits entering the United States represents a nice profit on the business. If we were sure of putting in our pockets what we pay in duties, it would mean a profitable business. These are a few of the things
which have occurred to me at the moment as matters in which this association and the Government of Cuba are mutually interested. Again I thank you in the name of the Society.
The following motion made by Colonel Harvey was approved: That the Secretary of Agriculture be requested to furnish this Society with a copy of his speech and that it be published in our proceedings.
The President, in a few remarks, also thanked D. Junco for his speech, and presence.
At this juncture, Mr. F. L. Cervantes laid before the Society a petition, asking the President of the Republic to use his good offices to have the Government print, in both English and Spanish, all reports, bulletins, circulars, etc. of the Agricultural Experi--int Station and the Weather Bureau; also that the Government subsidize a bilingual agricultural newspa oer.
Mr. Cervantes' petition was laid on the table for further action.
The President then introduced Dr. Jos6 Cadenas, Director of the National Exposition (Applause).
ADDRESS OF DR. JOSE CADENAS
DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL EXPOSITION.
Like the Secretary of Agriculture, I also regret that I am not sufficiently versed in English to address you in that language.
No one can appreciate more fully than I the work accomplished by the Horticultural Society, as I have followed, step by step, the progress it has made in our country. From the first Agricultural Fair, small and unpretentious, held in the Botanical Garden, to the present National Agricultural Exposition, brilliant and complete, it has been my privilege to note the perseverance manifested by youre Society and the progress rendered to the agriculture of our country by your cooperation.
From the beginning of the organization of the National Agricultural Exposition it has been my d-sire to work in harmony with the Cuban National tiorticultural Society, and it is my duty to render you the homage due you, and you have my warmest gratitude for the appreciable manure in which some of your members have cooperated with me in presenting to the public this grand exposition.
As a Cuban citizen, I feel proud of the progress which we have made in such a short time, and haiNve the highest hopes for our future welfare.
I do not say, "good-bye", to you, but, "till we meet again", because we shall continue the work which we have so ably begun.
-Motion was made and carried that Dr. Cadenas be requested to furnish this Society with a copy of his speech and that the same be published in the report of the Society.
SOME NOTES ON PINEAPPLES
R. S. CUNLIFFE, B. Sc (Edin)., F. R. A. S. E., etc.
The principal pineapple section of Cuba is on the red lands of lHavana province and extending west to Arteminsa in the province of Pinar del Rio, but it is spreading to other districts in Pinar del Rio province and parts of eastern Cuba. The plant was known to the aborigines under the name of "Ana nis" at the time of the discovery of the island by the Spaniards, but there are no records of its being cultivated until the beginning of the hist centur'. According to tradition, the first plants were culti vated at Baros near Luyan6, and also round Bataband on the south coast. It was first cultivated extensively in the neighborhood of Punta Gorda in Havana Province in 1865. Two varieties are grown, Ananasa Sativa or "Pifia Morada" or "Red Spanish" which is the only one grown for export, the former being consumed locally. In the Isle of Pines. "Smooth Cayenne" is the favorite variety among the Amnerican colonists there, but this trade has not passed beyond the experimental stage as yet.
With the exception of what is consumed locally, almost the entire crop of Cuban pines is exported t> the United States, and a considerable trade has been built up of late year's, the shipments from the port of 1 avana amounting from three quarters of a mil lion to more than a million crates annually, the aetual figures being: 1,336,707 crates for the season 1910, valued at $1303,698, and 989,883 crates for 1911, valued at $878,145, about 60(," of which was shipped over the Western Railway from the districts
lying to the west of Havana. The following statistics issued by Mr. W. M. Daniel, General Agent of the Illinois (entral Rairoad, show the amount and distribution of the crop for 1912:
CUBAN PINEAPPLE CROP FOR THE SEASON 1912.
July August beptemiber October November December bullaryv February
April May June
VIAL VIA VIA VIA
MOBILE NEW ORLEANS NEW YORK KEY WEST
98 4689 53800
- 5382 16669
- 7207 18591 -
314 15351 123866 24163
8449 5109 3849 4145 13323 24298 100610 50454
6406 5802 5666
16660 31952 243484
The cultivation should be profitable, but of late there have been many bad years, due largely to antiquated methods of raising and handling the crop, lack of refrigerator facilities during transportation, charges in the United States tariff regulations and, during the present season, a combination of the above with unfortunate weather conditions and labor troubles, resulting in financial disaster to several of the principal shippers.
One of the largest exporters of Cuban pines plaes the cost of production as follows:
22051 25798 21095 19060
14270 9994 10324 30297
81042 551203 364729
(1) Cost of producing pineapples on an acreage of 05 to 10 acres, including plowing, slips, planting, cultivation, assuming an average of 3 doz. pines to the crate, at 24
cents per doz.............$0.72
(2) Cost of delivering the pines from the
field to the packing house, including picking and hauling at .045 to .05 per
(3) Cost of crate material delivered at the
packing house, assuming shrinkage of
5 >(, .194.................20
(4) Cost of paper delivered at packing
house, at $1.25 per 100 sheets, averaging
(5) Cost of packing, including crating, nailing, stencilling, upkeep of packing house,
side track and loading on the cars, etc. .07
(6). Freight to Havana and charges from
railway station to wharf, per crate, say. .07
(7) Unloading into lighters at .07 per ton,
and wharfage at .15 per crate.......018
(8) Forwarding charges, such as consular
invoices, B/L, and custom house documents, etc .. .. .. .... ........015
Total cost per crate.....$1.283
,or, in round figures, the grower must realize $1.25 per -crate to come out whole.
The crop may he propagated from "suckers" or "slips ", but the latter are used aihost entirely. When purchased, they are contracted for at the rate of $60 to $90 -per thousand dozen for plants not under 9 inches, the price varying considerably from year to year. The Isle of Pines growers are paying as high as 10 cents per plant for Smooth Cayenne
slips. This price, of course, is excessive and will not last.
Two systems of planting are in vogue,-the single row, and the bed system. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, but the latter seems to be preferable. The number of plants required to plant an acre will vary widely with the system pursued, fromn 4,000 or 5,000 to 10,000 per acre. Under average conditions the first cost, including preparation of the land and planting, will be about $70 per acre, with another $30 added for cultivation during the first 18 months. After the crop comes into bearing, the average yield yer acre per annum will be from 100 to 150 crates, and the life of the field will be four or five years, when it will be necessary to replant. The price obtained is very variable, from $1.25 per crate upwards, according to season, size, and quality of the fruit. Considerable profit can also be added from the sale of "slips". Fertilizing so far has been little practised on the red lands, but such conditions are rapidly changing, as the old fields become exhausted and growers realize the improvement which can be made in the carrying quality of the fruit by judicious fertilization, especially with potash salts. On the lighter sandy soils of Western Pinar del Rio and the Isle of Pines, fertilization is an absolute necessity.
The pineapple, especially the Red Spanish, -is remarkably free from diseases or insect pests, and if the plants are well cultivated and fertilized, so as to keep them in a thriving condition, usually there will be little trouble. Such insect pests as Mealy Bugs (Pseudococcus citri) and Red Spiders .(Tetranichus seximacaulatus) are best kept in check by filling the heart of the slips at planting with a mixture of cotton seed meal and tobacco dust. Teratological growths can be avoided by careful selection of plants and. likewise, several fungus troubles.
THE PROBLEMS OF NEXT YEARS
CITRUS FRUIT CROP
PitOl. F, S. EALE.
It has been my good fortune during the last fevmonths to see many of the representative Citrus groves in nearly all parts of Cuba and in the Isle of Pines., I am everywhere impressed that present conditions in all parts of our territory promise an abundant crop for the coming year. This will be our first large general crop and the marketing of it will tax our energy and resources to the utmost. The Citrus industry is new in Cuba and for some reason which I have never understood the general business community has had no faith in its success and has been unwilling to grant credits to those engaged in it. The man who is fortunate enough to own a field of cane has almost unlimited credit. The banks will recognize it as an asset and the mill owners are anxious to make him advances in order to secure his crop. Even the tobacco planter notwithstanding his disasters during the past five years is still able to obtain credit to enable him to plant and cure his crop. The time will soon come when the citrus fruit ihan who has a crop on his trees will be able to obtain credit for fertilizers with which to properly mature it and for crates in which to ship it but most unfortunately at the present time he is without this most necessary business recognition. In only too many-eases his resources have been strained to the utmost in order to maintain his grove and now with his first big crop in sight he finds himself sadly handicapped in preparing to handle it properly. Fertilizers must be purchased, packing houses built and equipped and
packages purchased in advance by men whose available funds are exhausted and whose prospective ,(,*np does not bring them the credit to which they are justly entitled. This financial problem I consider the most serious one with which the industry is conflonted at the present time. Cooperation in buying supplies and especially the building and running of central cooperative packing houses in each commwinty will give some measure of relief but unfortunately effective cooperation is difficult for the )Ima1 who has exhausted his ready cash. The matter ol central packing houses is especially important since it is directly connected with our second most important problem, that of securing some measure of uniforiity in packing and grading; without large (Iuantities of uniformly graded and packed goods it will be impossible for Cuban growers to secure such
-ri-es and such consideration in the market as the vi ally superior quality of our fruit should command. if each small grower attempts to pack his own fruit there can be no approach to uniformity and even those who do the work well and put up a really superior brand will not have enough of it to make mnuch impression on the market. A large central packing house putting up a good brand will have eiiough goods to attract attention and will soon gain 8,11 established reputation that will mean much in aIledl profits. So long as our largest and most natU]'al market maintains the present high tariff a,,ainst this all these points must be carefully considered if we are to hope for a satisfactory profit fron, our citrus crops. It seems to me of the utmost importance that each community take immediate steps for erecting and equipping a good modern Imacking house before the next crop season. The (,rude methods by which fruit is being handled at present in most communities is very expensive besides being very unsatisfactory. Everywhere I hear the objection-"Oh you can't get all our people to unite for any such purpose". Of course you can't. Don't expect it. In every fruit growing community
you will always find some disgruntled individuals who are chronic kickers and knockers and who -make it a point to object to every thing that is proposed no matter what may be its merits. Pay -no attention to these fellows. Leave them outside. If all the reasonable n-ind'ed people in a community who appreciate the need for united effort will only get together and pack together they can accomplish their purposes without the aid of the kickers, anid what is more these disgruntled ones cannot prevent them.
The third important problem i's that of securing a wider market and a better systematized distribution for our crops. Very fortunately the Cuban market is developing an entirely unexpected capacity for consuming our oranges in large quantities and at profitable prices. If internal transportation facilities and methods of distribution can be so improved as to enable us to really reach all parts of the island there is reason to believe that local markets will continue to consume the great bulk of our orange crop for many years to come. That present methods of transportation are not ideal will readily be conceded. I have recently seen fine juicy delicious oranges loaded in bulk in wagons and carts with double side boards, ten'thousand of them to the load, and carted five and ten iles to a boat landing where they were dumped into the hold of -small schooners to be taken a hundred miles down the coast to a point where they could be loaded into cars, -still in bulk, for shipment to Havana. Think of it, those of you who know that to avoid ruinous losses from decay oranges must be handled more carefully than eggs! Local prices for oranges areas a rule too low to justify the regular wrapping and packing of the fruit. Some cheap package that can be -nested and returned to the shipper for future use seems to be an imperative need for properly handling oranges on the local markets. Experiments are now being made at the La Gloria box factory with the view of producing such a package.
After the local markets Canada is our most promising outlet for oranges. There we are not confronted with a tariff and can meet the competition of Florida and California on equal terms. Every effort should be made to keep Canada constantly supplied with the best of our Cuban oranges. Some scattered shipments have been made during the past three years but scattered shipments will never win us this market. The shipments must go regularly every week throughout the entire season and they must be umiform in pack and quality-if we are to hope to really compete with our formidable rivals wvith their thoroughly systemized shipping facilities.
It is generally conceded that the present high duty practically shuts us out of the markets of the United States as far as oranges are concerned. In a general way this is correct. Ordinary miscellaneous shipments will not be profitable. Cuban oranges are however unquestionably richer and sweeter than those of Florida and they are incomparably better than the average from California. Proper effort in letting this fact be generally known will result ultimately in building up a demand for the fancy grades of Cuban oranges at satisfactory prices even when the market is overstocked with the poorer fruit from other quarters. here is always a certain discriminating trade that wants the best without much regard to prices. To get this class of trade and then hold it will require much thoughtful earnest effort but that is the kind of work that will pay.
For grape fruit the local market is exceedingly limited. So far practically all of our crops have been marketed in the States notwithstanding the duty that our Florida friends hoped would be prohibition. In spite of continued reports of bad grading and packing the demand for Cuban grapefruit is rapidly increasing and it will continue to increase as its really superior flavor becomes more and more widely known. The United States will probably always be our principal market for this fruit and it certainly beckons us to study carefully its requirements as to
grading and packing. We should not forget, however, that these and other larger and important markets within easy reach are still waiting to be developed. The Canadian market should be ours for grapefruit as well as for oranges. Its use there can easily be very greatly extended by making the proper effort. England and Northern Europe as yet hardly know this most delicious and healthful of all the Citrus fruits, yet these markets are easily and cheaply accessible to us. There is no duty in England so we can lay down our fruit in London much cheaper than in New York. I can easily remember when shipments of American apples to England first began to attract attention, but this trade has now reached enormous proportions. I see no reason why the shipment of Citrus fruit should not have a sinilar development.
Up to the present time results with lemons hav been decidedly discouraging. There is no local market. Cubans use limes instead. A few very successful shipments have been made to the States but these only serve to emphasize the fact that most attempts at shipments have been failures. This is not because we do not grow good lemons. We can and do grow very fine ones but we do not know how to properly cure and handle them and the worst of it is that no one can teach us. Our climatic conditions are so different from those of other countries where lemons are grown commercially that their methods can not be adopted and we shall be forced to study out new ones of our own that are adapted to our conditions. This is one of the really serious problems that confronts us another year for scattered about in Cuba are many lemon groves that should be in heavy bearing.
The existence of these many important commercial problems has not come as a surprise. Most growers have been realizing for years that there existed but the near approach of our first big crop makes the early solution of them imperative. The Cuba Fruit Exchange has been organized and incorporated dur-
ing the past year as an earnest attempt to aid in solving them. Unfortunately its available capital is far too limited to enable it to aid in solving the first problem mentioned, that of securing or extending credits. Its work along other lines is really only just beginning but if properly supported it can even with its present limited resources do much toward solving the problems of grading packing and distribution. The stockholders must remember however that it is their company and that if it is to succeed it must handle their business and have their full and hearty support. Its business has been growing perhaps as fast as could reasonably be expected but some of the stockholders have failed to grasp the fact that its ultimate success or failure will depend on them far more than on either general manager or directors. A distributing agency can only distribute such goods as are placed in its hands. Unless every stockholder and other interested party faithfully turn into its hands all of their shipments, how can the Exchange make a proper distribution? Some stockholders are doing this, but I am sorry to say others are not but are still marking up consignments to their favorite commission men without even notifying the Exchange where they are going. It is up to you, Gentlemen. It is up to the fruit growers themselves. United effort is the only means for solving your problems. .Those of you who won't make an effort or who won't unite can't expect to. have your problems solved for you.
Mr. E. WV. Halstead stated that in a recent trip too some southern cities of the United States he found that Cuban grapefruit was practically unknown. In others, more especially New Orleans, he found Cuban grapefruit had the preference over all other grapefruit on account of its flavor notwithstanding it sold at a higher price.
Mr. van Hermann said that, in a recent conversation that he had with some fruit buyers from New
York and Pittsburgh, there was a tendency to taboo the Cuban grape fruit but he expained that this was due a great deal to the influence brought to bear by the California and Florida fruit associations for trade purposes. These buyers were not adverse to handling Cuban grape fruit as they want the best quality obtainable, and if the consumer knows that he can get a good brand of Cuban grape fruit, he will demand that brand. It, therefore, depends on the Cuban growers and their Association to advertise their fruit and get it on the market.
Mr. Ialstead -stated that a dealer in New Orleans informed him that there was only one place in Cuba that the brand could be absolutely relied upon and that 100,000 boxes of this brand per year were ordered. This goes to prove that the grading and packing is very imperfect and cannot be relied upon and Cuban fruit will not be demanded until a better pack is established. The best grades of Cuban grapefruit do not reach the interior towns as the fruit, when reaching New York and New Orleans, is redistributed, the best quality being sold in these two cities and the consumers of the interior never see the best grades.
Mr. Colins was of the opinion that it is a mistake for growers to pack their own fruit as the temptation seems too great not to be able to work off some of the inferior grades as first class. It would be much better to employ expert packers to do this work.
Prof. Earle said that, on his recent trip through the Island, he found that the packing was better than he had expected to find it, but that he had noticed on the whole there was a tendency for a slack pack instead of the full pack. Also they were not well graded.
Mr. van Hermann related an incident in which the shipper lost 50 cents per crate on account of having a slack pack instead of the full pack. He stated that the crate should be 1-2 inches over full in the middle.
SUGGESTIONS FOR COMBATTING INSECT PESTS AND PLAIT DISEASES
Estaci6n Central Agron6mica.
For The Cuban National Horticultural Soeiety.
Mr. Chairman and fellow members of this Society:
It gives me great pleasure to be able to stand before you and address to you a few words, being my best wish that they may be of some practical value to you in your every day work. I am greatly interested in this Society and the work it is carrying on and which is very beneficial to the advancement of Cuban Horticulture. I would also like to say that the farmers should depend more on us and demand more of the Experiment Station; it is built for you, so make use of it; the more you ask for, surely the more you will get, on the other hand, you may get very -little if you do not ask.
When I was asked by Mr. Van Hermann to prepare a paper for you I thought I could present a few subjects which would be of more or less interest, but when he said it should be as practical as possible, that was a different task, for a man in a laboratory does not get many opportunities to mingle with the farmers, although this is something quite essential. Still, during the few trips that I have made to different sections I have obtained a little experience which has show me, that as a general rule, Cuban farmers do not make any use of substances to combat insects, except in the case of tobacco, and: that even the more progressive American-Cuban farmers could understand the reasons for following the special
methods prescribed in each particular cast and how to go at it with an understanding of what they are doing, for as a matter of fact, many farmers think Bordeaux mixture is an insecticide instead of a fungicide, which is a substance that controls fungi, or they think it is a panacea that can be used for every thing.
Even insects vary so much from each other in habits and ways of feeding that each pest needs a special treatment. The farmer should be able to distinguish the insects causing most trouble to his "rops and study their habits and stages, theoreticaly and practically; also he should be able to distinguish those insects which are beiefitial to him, suich as ichneumon files, lady birds, etc., which destroy harmful insects and do no dantage to vegetation.
How can a person find out what insect is doing the damage? It is only leaimed by experience and close observation. For instance, if a row of corn is coming out very uneven, that is, one plant much larger and healthier than another and a few lacking, there are insects at work. The farmer will generally think it was due to poor seed, but as a matter of fact if he gets down close to the ground and digs carefully in the place where the plant was, he will find white grubs or wire worms, which are the actual cause of the damage. If the stems of tobacco or tomato plants are found to be cut off close to the ground, it is quite sure that cut worms are present. Plants with the leaves injured in the form of small holes can be said to be due to small leaf beetles, and those which are badly cut up at the edges, especially citrus, it is very likely due to the blue-green beetle, which injures other plants also, as does the June beetle.
When a plant is found to he injured by insects the next thing to do is to find out how that insect does the injury. Does it chew or suck, and where, above or below the ground? Those that chew up the leaves are easier to treat for if we put poison on the leaves they will eat it together with the leaf. Now the poison to be used varies with the plant and its uses,
for plants that are to remain a long time in the field, lead arsenate should be used, as it stands better the hea vy rains here, but if this plant is to be used as food J'aris Green should be used instead for it drains away with the rain and in a few days there is absolutel 110 danger of poisoning.
Other insects that feed on the foliage but do not liew it but suck by piercing the tender plant tissue with a very norrow beak, would not get any of the poison on the foliage, so they have to be treated differently. In this case we take advantage of the fact that they breathe through very small orifices in each side of the body, and by spraying very finely like a dew, with an emulsion or a soapy substance; the bug will get these orifices clogged and will become suffocated. Whale oil soap with kerosene is a standard emulsion. For those insects that either chew or suck but live under ground special methods and farm practices are recommended. SQme of these practices are beneficial against many insects, these are treated in order.
Clean cultivation, which means to maintain your (1ro)s free from weeds and let plenty of air and sunlight through them. The burning of fields and waste lands is a very useful practice; also after the crop has leen harvested, if it has been damaged by fungi, the rest of the plant should if possible be burned right in the field. When we touch 'later on plant diseases we will see the advantage of these methods. Waste lands around the fields serve as hiding places to many destructive insects, a number of which will be destroyed and the rest isolated just by simply burning a strip of land around the planted field.
)iversified farming can not always be carried out, for farmers depend for profit on just a few crops, but crop rotation not only can be easily carried out, but it should be observed on every faAn. Plants of the same family will be attacked by very similar insects, and by continuously planting these fields to the same crop) the farmer will contribute to the multiplication of these insects. Crop rotation and cultivation of
the soil before planting are the only practical means of controlling wire worms and white grubs so nunerous and destructive in Cuba.
As to plant diseases, these are generally caused by very minute plants called fungi. These fungi grow from the spore which is equivalent to the seed of the higher plants, but these spores are produced in a much larger number than seeds, for instance, in just a single sq. in. of the leaf of the peach attacked by leaf curl, over twenty million spores can be produced and there me x be nanv thousands of such a leaf on one single tree. A single grain of smutted wheat may contain seven million spores and there may be several hundred of such grains in one single plant. The rind disease of cane, so common in Cuba, produces many spores, over a million million per acre, or one million per sq. in., according to Dr. Cobb. Here we see the advantage of crop rotation by not giving the fungi suitable plants upon which to live, and of burning the crop's refuse as we destroy so many spores.
Then these spores are easily carried out and distributed by the wind, running water, man, birds and insects, so there is no possible way of preventing disease from spreading. Spores are so small, invisible, that one does not know where to go to destroy them. Fungicides such as Bordeaux mixture prevent, the germination of spores, but that makes us think that we should spray all over everything to reach all the spores, but fortunately, many spores on germinating are killed by sunlight and other natural agents before they find a suitable host. Before we finish this paper we want to lay stress ,on the fact that the farmer should be observing, making constant inspections through his fields and never wait too long to apply the remedy. I don't mean to say that the plants ,should always be sprayed but as it is only a preventive measure and not to cure, it should be applied on time, that is, before the signs ,of trouble are evident.
Colonel Harvey remarked on the merits of Mr.
Cardin's paper and suggested that it be printed in Spanish, as well as English.
Mir. Peirson: We thank Mr. Cardin, and we should consult the Experimental Station here more. They can help us in lots of things. It is up to us to give them a chance.
Mr. George M. Wolcott, of Dallas, Texas, very graciously responded to various inquiries regarding cattle ticks. He said the most common tick in Cuba is what is now known as "Boophilus anulatis australis". The following is the best formula for killing the cattle tick, as well as all other ticks common to the cattle in Cuba.
1 lb. Cebadilla dissolved in 5 gallons of Alcohol. This solution applied to the parts infected will kill the ticks very quickly.
Another formula is the Cuban dip: 8 lbs. Arsenic boiled in 20 gallons of water until it dissolves. (Ordinary white arsenic will not dissolve in cold water). When the arsenic is dissolved in the water, add more water so that, when it cools, it will not be precipitated. 24 lbs. of ordinary common Soap, 24 lbs. Sodium Carbonate Crystals, and 16 gallons of Pine Tar are added. The arsenic and the other ingredients are mixed up in 500 gallons of water. These are the proportions.
The above formulas are given in Bulletin 6 of the Cuban Experimental Station, both in English and Spanish.
THE PLANTER IN PRINT
MISS 1. A. WIIHT.
What I have to say about "The Planter in Print" will be very brief, and perhaps the point 1 see before me in the matter can best be illustrated( by reference to ancient history. There is historical evidence that the steamboat was invented in the days of Columbus but the man, who invented it, forgot to tell his local newspaper about it and, consequently, when Columbus sailed forth to discover America, he went forth in a caravan and the world lost this discovery for some hundreds of years and I think none of us can remember the name of the man who invented the steamboat. It is buried in the archives of Spanish history. After some hundreds of years had gone by another man invented the steamboat but he also forgot to call in a reporter and have it published in his local paper. Shortly after that Mr. Fulton came along and he invented the steamboat but he told everybody about it and, consequently, his invention was of benefit to him and every one else. The moral that the planter ought to draw from that is, when you have accomplished something, tell it, advertise it, get it into print, not only for your own benefit because you are benefited very little by the publication, but for the benefit of other people.
Unless you do tell what you have done, some one else at a distance must go through all the struggles you have gone through to find out the little thing you have found out whereas, if you will only tell it and print it, it will save a lot of time and knowledge that otherwise is wasted in doing over and over again the same thing. Therefore, it seems to me obvious
that it is the duty of the planter, especially here in Cuba who is necessarily experimenting, to write for his own journal, whatever the journal may be, a journal that reaches him and he reads, and that other people in similar position read also. A good many will say we are not writers. That is beside the point. You have the facts. Put them down in some legible fashion, and if you don't want to waste your time with style and flourish, leave that to the editor
-presunaby that is all the editor is good for to put on the finish.
Another objection frequently raised to the planter's writing Js that he has no time, that it is an unprofitable business and hlie makes nothing out of it for surely his journal is struggling for existence. The only answer to be made to that is theoretically, with a large accent on the "theoretically" in the country the men are doing the work while the women look on. I suppose the one woman here, speaking for all the rest, would object to that theory. At the same time, cannot the ladies in the country take it upon themselves to be the reporters? They know what theY are doing, the fertilizing that has been done, the returns from the broker, etc. They are able to subtract and they know what the profits are. Will they not take it upon themselves to report these, matters?
I know by experience a great many women, who live in the country, complain that country life is barren and that there is no interest in the higher things there. One lady has exclaimed to me in person and writing "Oh, to be doing something worth while"! It seems to me she has a mistaken idea of things. She is seeing her father or her husband accomii)lish things which are very much worth while. If slihe wishes to emphasize her part in it, let her be the historian of these things which are worth while, write them out and get them into more or less pernianent shape.
That is all I have to .say and you will see the conclusions are' WRITE FOR THE PAPER. Do not
think it is your little affair that is of interest only to you. It is of interest to all interested the same as yourself. Write for the paper. It will help you and others and incidentally help the paper.
The President commented on the above talk as follows: We thank you, Miss Wright, very much for your talk. We are all inclined to be self- suffei ent and fail to realize-'hat there are others who could profit by our experience.
A REMEDY FOR GUMMOSIS AND INSECT
ATTACK ON CITRUS TREES
Mr, 'President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Among the many problems to contend with by the horticulturist in Cuba, is the gununosis disease of citrus trees. There has been a great deal said on the subject, the causes of and cure for the disease. It v~ould appear from a careful study, that the discTse is of a baccillus nature and of a very infectious haracter. The means by which trees may be buuuome in feeled are many. Ants and insects going ifromi one tree to another, is in my opinion the principal way in which this disease is propagated.
I have during the course of the last three years come into possession of a mass of very valuable information as to the use of Avenarius Carbolineum for controlling this disease. It might be safe to say that this remedy is practically the only one that has give uniformly satisfactory results in its use.
This Avenarius Carbolineum is a fungicide and vermicide of real merit and efficiency, and eyery grower in Cuba should know the reasons thereof; so that they will not be misled in using preparations of the carbolic acid class, creoline etc.; which are in many eases harmful and others only very temporary in their effects. A vermicide, such as the Avenarius Carbolineum preparation, to be of real merit, must contain a sufficient quantity of antiseptics or poisons, not necessary that it should be of the carbolic acid series, to destroy insects by direct contact or it will remain and its effects will endure for a long
time. It must also prevent new broods of vermin, by creating conditions inimical to their life; again it must be a material easily applied, moderate in cost and that does not endanger health.
Trees suffering from gummninosis should have the affected parts scraped clean of the gum and decayed bark, and an application of the Avenarius Carbotineuin made. This treatment will stop the gunning and at once start a healthy and natural healing over of the diseased spot. The application is made vith a brush and where judiciously applied will in o~ cry case ensure successful results.
In my opinion all Citrus Trees should be insured against fungus attacks by being painted with \Avenarius Carbolineun. This will in nio way injure the trees, on the contrary it has been found to benefit them.
For preventing ants ascending to the foliage of trees, it is advisable to soak a rag into this preparation and wrap the same around the trunk say half way up. The rag will remain moist for an indefinite period and insects will not crawl over it. L have found that when trees have been painted with Avenarius Carbolineun for the -urpose of keeping ants away that the treatment was only effective while the Carbolineum remained noist on the siurface. The reason for this is that the capillary attraction of the fiber in the wood draws the oil away from the surface, leaving it d'y, this would allow the ants to again crawl over the carbolined surface. I holve found out it is therefore best, to use a rag soaked in the preservative. As there is no further capillary attraction and as the oil is not volatile the rag will remain moist for an indefinite time aiind as I have just mentioned insects will not crawl over iit.The painting of the trees however is advised, as it will make them imniniune from attacks of fungus. Fungi spores reach the wood from the outside especially by attacking the sap-wood, which is the weakest part, and contains the organic food supply, it is necessary to use an antiseptic compound which will neutralize
the sugars and starches contained in the sap wood and(I destroy the fungi spores reaching it, and this is the principal object sought for in Avenarius CarbolineUI.
1Mr. F. L. Cervantes in a short address proposed that the society take up the matter of the "Modus Vi endi" with special relation to the United States tariff oni Cuban citrus fruits and vegetable products marketed in the United States.
Motion was made and approved that the Chair appoint a committee of three to meet before adjournment to consider the propositions presented in the paper road by Mr. Cervantes regarding the matter of the Modus Vivendi, and to report same to the Cha ir. The following committee was appointed: Col. Harvey, Mr. Collins and Col. Havens.
THE LEMON IN CUBA AND THE ISLE
W. 1). MIDDLETON.
(Road by title)
Mr. President and Members of the Cuban National
Horticultural Society, Ladies and Gentlemen:
I have taken as a subject this afternoon, "The lemon in Cuba and the Isle of Pines", but I must confess at the beginning, that I know nothing whatever of the lemon, or for that matter, any other citrus fruit in Cuba, but I assume that any observations taken on the Isle of Pines will apply to Cuba. I do not pretend to be a very well posted individual either, as regards the lemon in any country, but I will say that I have had a deal of experience with the lemon, that is, practical experience, and can truthfully say I have watched it for over fifteen years, with the eyes of a lover.
When I first came to Cuba, nearly seven yars ago, I met our mutual friend CQl. Harvey, and was pleased to listen to his cominendation on the citrus fruit outlook in Cuba and his preference for the lemon. I rather snickered in my sleeve when I heard him say this was the only place to raise lenions, owing to the distance to the foreign source of supply and to California being a very minas factor;-you must know that I was then fresh from California; a partisan of the lemon, and with the knowledge that California had that year shipped over 7,000 carloads of lemons. I had made up my mind beforehand to investigate fully before forming an opinion as to
citrus fruit growing in Cuba; therefore it was sone little time before I came to accept Col. Harvey's ideas as first class, as regards the lemon.
The lemon I am sure, has had, and no doubt has, m n \ t'riends in Cuba and the Isle of Pines, but it seems to me to be losing in favor every year, tho it r(Anains to me one of the best possibilities we have;-what then is the reason? I have found a general tendency among the planters of citrus fruits to ignore lemnons on the general grounds that they required too much work and were too hard to cure, but it has always seemed to me that most of these opinions were formed upon rumors, as surely none of our growers on the Isle have given the lemon a thorough try out, as to either cost or growing, or the likelihood of good results from curing.
A great many people have a wholly inadequate idea of the lemon business; production, curing and mnaketing and with the hope of enlightening some one, just a little, I am going to give a few facts regarding lemon culture in California. In the first place, or say rather about 18 years ago, there were nany thousands of acres of lemons in California that are not now in existance; this is due to rebudding to Navel or Valencia oranges. For several years after 1894 the price of lemons was very unsatisfactory, chiefly owing to lack of knowledge in handling and prejudice of dealers, who were very strongly in favor of foreign lemons, mostly all due to custom. I remember that there was a very general idea among the dealers of the country that the Oalifornia lemon would not keep and there was some grounds for it too. I will never forget an expression of my father'N when I was first showing him the sights of a packing house; this was in 1896;-he said, after watching the handlers of lemons in the house; "they handle them like coal", and at that time, I guess he was right. It is true that the lemon requires more gentle handling than either the orange or grape fruit, but I defy anyone to say that the lemon requires more gentle handling than the grape fruit or orange should have.
The practice in handling all citrus fruits is much further advanced than even ten years ago, or until G. Harold Powell, the government investigator, was put to work upon the handling of citrus fruit for the purpose of lessening rot. The handling of lemons can be said to be no more complicated than the handling of green peaches, just sensible care, bearing in mind that none must be bruised or cut; certainly this is no more -expensive than oranges should be handled. So much for picking-the next thing will be the packing, tho I confess I am going at this rather backward, but I hope to cover all the points in the end. The practice in one of the best and most successful lemon houses in California was simply this; accept them from the grower's wagon, run then thru a washer, dry and grade into two colors, place into fifty pound packing boxes and stack away in a dark room, one box on top of the other, seven high; a certain attention of course is given to ventilation. After a certain time the lightest colored grade is sorted and packed for shipment, all being at that time the lei-non color we are all familiar with; the other grade of course follows this same order when sufficient time elapses for their coloring. My recollection is that the packing house expense was about ten cents more than oranges, 7 cents of this going to the packer.
As to the expense of growing lemons there is little to add to that of growing oranges, except the prunning, which has to be done scientifically to get the best results; certainly this will not amount to more than five cents per tree after the trees are once forimieid.
To back up a bit-I started to tell you how the price of lemons was many years back, the drawbacks to growers and shippers, causing many thousands of acres to be rebudded; I now want to tell you that no doubt every person who ever rebudded a lemon grove in California has been sorry more than once. Commencing about 13 years ago the lemon has been ,-gaining in favor, both with the grower and the
dealer; of course the latter caused the former, and to-day the foreign lemon has very active competition, regulated considerably by the numerous frosts in California.
The same G. Harold Powell, who as a government employee made such sweeping improvements as to handling of citrus fruits, has this last year, as an employee of the lemon growers in California, made thorough investigations into the cost of growing lemons in foreign sources of supply, the idea being to combat the foreign growers, who through their agents have made similar investigations in California; all this against the time when the battle will be on for a reduction of duty, which now is one and one half cents per pound, with of course the 20% reduction on Cuban imports. We here in Cuba and the Isle of Pines will always have this advantage over the true foreigner who will have to pay the full duty, whatever it may be. The freight from California to the eastern states is another matter that concerns us greatly, this will never grow less in the east, though adjustments may be made so that the middle west pays less and the eastern states more. The freight rate niow in effect is double what we have to pay from the Isle of Pines, and surely we may look forward to a rate only equal to one third California's rate.
All of the foregoing is rather a light treatise on lemon growing elsewhere, but little has been said about the "lemon in Cuba and the Isle of Pines", but I think that it all has its bearing, showing at least that we have no material disadvantage compared to these competing districts and I think I can show some material advantages in our favor. It is true, as I said earlier in this paper, that many growers are not in favor of the lemon as a paying crop, at least as compared to other citrus fruit crops, but should we allow one of the best possibilities to run to waste, simply because there may be a slight amount of work attached; may we not expect to have this extra investment pay us additional returns. My
observations as to lemon culture lead me to believe that ten cents per tree in spray for rust mite will make the lemon grove the equal of any grape fruit grove ;-so much for extra work. As to curing the lemons here in Cuba I wish to state that in all experiments made during the last six years I have found that lemons can be cured as easily as elsewhere and perfectly too. I picked six boxes of lemons the early part of this September, all colors, from dark green to ripe; stored them away in an old Cuban house and at the expiration of sixty days every lemon was a brilliant, so called lemon color. The foregoing lemons were picked from several trees five years old that have had very mediocre care, but they were not rusty. In this connection I wish to state that for every lemon tree I ever saw going backwards in the Isle of Pines, the rust mite was responsible; where absent, there was no trouble in producing plenty of A number one lembons; early and of ten.
A feature of the growing of citrus fruit in Cuba is the probability of storms, commonly called hurricanes; these when they come have done much damage to bearing trees, though of course not in any way as much as a frost, but after the last one we had, it occured to me that the lemon was one tree that would escape this drawback as well as the dreaded frost, All lemon trees under my observation either had all their crop picked or it should have been picked, because, as many are not aware, all lemons are picked for size alone; then again as there was several months before blooining time the trees and fruit absolutely escaped injury. The variety so commonly grown in Cuba, the Villa Franca, bloom in the early spring and matures its crop in August and September. This is practically a one crop lemon, which is another of the great advantages of this country; the fruit is bound to come in when prices are high, owing to increased demand and decreased supply from other sources.
It seems to me that the sum total of all the advantages of Cuba and the Isle of Pines as a lemon grow-
ing district, places us in a position to establish a sure and paying industry and I feel that an opportunity is being wasted; think over the following facts and do not overlook the last one.
A market ever ready and willing.
2,000 miles nearer to market than competitors.
Fruit coming in when the market is best.
Four days or less to market, giving holding advantages.
Duty charges are sure to grow less or be wiped out entirely.
Cost of growing is no more, possibly less than elsewherc.
Trees properly grown will bear two years sooner than elsewhere.
he trees are surely prolific, a valuable feature.
The hurricane does a minimum of damage.
The frost does no damage, a saving easily equal to the duty.
Last, but most important, the quality, excelling every other offering; I speak of our best, the criterion of what our whole can be made.
I will close this paper, with the one qualification that it is written out of enthusiasm, rather than knowledge.
THE PACKING OF VEGETABLES
FOR THE MARKET
Yesterday morning I was asked to speak on this subject at the opening of the meeting. There being so few here, I raised an objection as it is one of the most important subjects on the program and I prepared to wait until there were -more in attendance. I find by waiting the people know I am to give this talk and have remained away so I am not going to postpone it any longer and ruin the prospects of the meeting.
The packing of vegetables for the market is as important to the grower as the growing of the vegetables. It is one thing to grow them. It is another thing to put them up in such shape that they will be attractive to the consumer in the North. We have passed the experimental part of growing. We know that we can grow in Cuba the best vegetables on the market and yet our prices are far below those grown in the States and an inferior vegetable. The question comes to us: Why is this? A friend of mine, who was here two years ago from Pittsburgh, put in a s~nall crop on my place. He was an inquisitive boy and he said: "When I get back, I am going to find out why they do not pay as much for Cuban vegetables as for Florida vegetables? He went to New York, went the rounds of the commission houses, and reported to me. They took him into the rooms where these vegetables were stored, Cuban vegLtables with Florida vegetables, opened the crates and said "Look for yourself". He said one look was enough. Florida had won out on the pack. Cuba's
pack showed on the face of it to a person, who knew nothing about packing, that that point was the cause of the depreciation in the price of the goods. Now the question comes as to how we can remedy it, how did California and Florida remedy the trouble that they experienced in getting the goods on to the market? They simply went at it and got a systematic pack, what they call a standard pack. If you are going to pack a citrus fruit, you have before you a little pamphlet with pictures on it showing the pack that is made, telling you the size that goes in your box. You have at your side here a machine for the grading into a certain pocket, you know it means 6's or so on, and when you want to pack your crate, you simply take those that are falling out of that pocket and you get a perfect pack. They won out on their pack and found a market for their citrus fruit. You say to me "we cannot do these things with vegetables because of the difference in sizes". So much more the reason of being careful in your pack. You can roll an orange down through a through and it drops ino a pocket, so there is no work to put it into a box; then you nail up your box, but your tomato rolls. down and it is liable to drop through anywhere. You find very few tomatoes of the same size. You cannot do that. It is an experienced man that looks upon that pile of tomatoes, reaches out and takes the tomato that will fill in and pack the tomatoes 24 to the basket to make a standard pack. My eye does not tell me what will fit in there. I pick it up, put it in the basket and find that the basket is not full. Why ? Because my eye is not experienced enough to tell which tomato to take out to make 24 in the basket. I take my basket and dump them out. I choose
smaller ones this time and finally I have succeeded in getting a basket that I think is all right. I think it is all right, but is it? When it gets into New York, they tell me whether it is all right or not and generally the word comes back from the commission house "poorly packed". Egg plant is the same way. They want to know how many egg plants there are'in' that
crate. I pack them. About 30 eggs to the crate is the right average for the New York narket. I pick theai over and have some as big as a pumpkin that I do not want to throw away. So I will jam that into the crate and then some little ones to fill in the holes. On top I put in.a layer as near 30 as I can get but I cannot deceive that man in New York. He is on to his job and I get a poor price for my eggs.
Peppers are the same thing. We have two crates. I have seen peppers packed by putting a layer on the bottoni of good peppers, blossoni end down and stem into the crate inside. Then over into the next bin and they get some of the next size of peppers. Those are thrown in. Then, when they get a third of the way into the crate, they take sone culls and paek about a third of the crate with culls. Then the second crate goes in next to fill it up a little more. Then the tird't crate goes on top. They are rid of their peppers. With peppers the same as the egg plant, you cannot fool the man that handles them. If he pays a fancy price for these vegetables, he wants a fancy vegetable. They are marked "fancy", yet with all those little things in there, they are marked "fancy". At Herradura I examined the vegetables as they were brought to the train to be loaded. It is marked on the box what it contains "fancy, 20 to the basket, 144 in a crate, tomatoes choice," (that is a tomato larger than 24) 12 to the basket we will say, we raised them. Then I found these tomatoes double wrapped. You may want to know what a double wrap is. It is about as large as these Cuban tomatoes that are grown here for soup. It helps to fill up the basket, absoltuely good for nothing when it gets into the market. It does not bring any price.
Now, what is the remedy? In my opinion, it is this. Take somebody, who knows how to pack these vegetables and trust to them. When I bring in my vegetables that I have picked in the field, I take them to the packing-house to be packed. I have so many filled crates. I want so many marketbe crates and want just as few thrown out of that pile as possible.
If you will let me pick them ,over and sort- them, I will guarantee nearly all. will go into tho crate. I think somebody will let that pass and not notice. i do not say all of you will do that but there is danger of it. I had this experience last year. We took our vegetables to the packing house. We had an experic ed packer, a woman, who did not have time to do the sorting, so wi e got somebody to do our sorting for us. This man could not sort as fast hs she could pack and one of our growers said he would sort for her a while. I had plenty of eulds and few 0od vegetables. Soon he passed over to his own bin. You could put them all into a tomato basket that were left over of his culls. With mine he gave then the sorting they ought to have. That shows how weak we mortals are. How easy it is for us to take care of our own interest! When, in fact, this man thought he was doing himself a benefit, he was doing me a benefit. It helped me because I got a better price for my vegetables than he did. There are too many of us who have an idea that we know how to pack vegetables. I step up to the packing bin where an experienced packer is at work and watch himn for a time pack a crate of vegetables. That is dead easy. I can do that myself. What is the object of paying 3 cents or 10 cents a crate to do that when I can do it myself ? One lesson is all I need. The only thing you want to do is to raise a good vegetable. As it should be packed carefully and handled carefully, take it to the packing house which will attend to the rest. If there is any chance of getting anything out of your vegetable, it will come then, so I say the proper thing is to hire a packer. It is said to ,e: "We can get our vegetables packed and into the market for 80 cents or 90 cents per crate by doing the packing ourselves. To hire a packer, it will cost you $1.00 to $1.13. The goods packed by an experienced packer will bring half a dollar to a dollar more per crate than those packed by a man who thinks he can pack. Where is the gain? The bank account
shows it is the most profitable. That will tell yoa which is the right course to take.
I think with citrus fruits to-day a man would not think of going to the field and picking his oranges and dropping them into the crate. They must be sorted and packed. The same thing must be done with vegetables. This same man we sent to New York said he looked at those vegetables and they were fine. The crates were full. It was a pretty thing to look upon. He said: "I looked at the Cuban packed. It was loose, take up a crate and it would shake like a basket of eggs." We can raise the vegetables, here. A man from Florida, who has a grove at Herradura, says Florida cannot raise a vegetable compared with the vegetables raised in Cuba. The flavor of tomatoes is tar ahead of that of any Florida tomato and yet Florida prices are quoted at about 50 cents to a dollar per crate more for tomatoes than the Cuban tomatoes.
There is another secret in this natter and that is this: You and L should come together on this imitter and work hand in hand, put our vegetables into the packing house and see that they are properly packed. Until then we are going to have low prices on our vegetables. There is too much strife, too inuen pulling and hauling one way or the other. I am not speaking of you. I have had as much of this as any of you. I will say this. At Hierradura we got to pulling hair last year and no one was injured more by it than that same man Collins. We are divideJ to-day down there, not because we are enemies from anything that has taken place in the past six months. We are not enemies when we meet each other but we are enemies when we touch on that point that we divided on last year. It is opening up an old sore. When we can forget it and come together and say I akm willing to submit it to a vote of the whole and abide by a majority vote, we will accomplish more, so I say let us bury all these factional matters and get right down to colony work. It is wrong for us to get the idea that we can fight it out alone. I
can see where I have made mistakes. I have learned a lesson and that is that every man has just as good a right to his opinion in this matter or that matter as I have and I respect it. Let us come together as one man and then the commission men of the North will not stand and laugh at us and say we have them fighiIng down there. "We are dealing with man and man noxv. We are not dealing with an association." I say, until we come to that, we might just as well stop raising vegetables.
Mr. Cervantes raised the question as to who perfoliled the labor in the Americean Colonies of Cuba, \, hicther Americans, Cubans or Spaniards.
Prof. Earle: If the gentleman will conm here and examine my hands, he will see part of it has been done with my hands. As far as the labor is concern. ed, Americans have hired all kinds of help, Spaniards, negroes and Cubans. I wish right here to go on record as saying that the average Cuban laborer is one of the most industrious men I know of in the wide earth. He is a hard working industrious fellow. I have no fault to find with the Cuban guajiro. He is the future hope of the Cuban Republic.
This question was further discussed by Messrs. Barber and Halstead, and the opinion was ,unanimous that the Cuban laborer was preferable to any other.
The meeting was then adjourned until 2 P. M.
3 P. M., Thursday, Feb. 15th.
The meeting was called to order and discussion of Mr. Collins' paper "Packing Vegetables for the Market" taken up.
Prof. Earle: The question of packig vegetables in packing houses should be given careful attention. Egg plant is such a delicate thing that it is better to pack close to the vines and it is a question that needs
careful attention but I fully agree with the remarks of the speaker this morning as far as the tomatoes are concerned. They should be packed in considerable quantities at one time and one place.
Mr. van Hermann cited instances where the shippers had obtained low prices on tomatoes, peppers and pineapples, due to improper packing, the commission merchants having reported low prices due to shrinkage.
The Chair then announced that the election of officers was in order. Mr. F. J. Peirson was the unanimous choice of the Society for President for the ensuing year, but declined to accept. The regular electiori of officers resulted as follows:
J. E. Roberts, Bartle.
Havana Prov.-Harry G. Gocio, Santiago de las
Pinar del Rio Prov.-E. C. Goetz, Herradura. Matanzas Prov.-C. E. Peck, Itabo. Santa Clara Prov..-A. E. Doering, Manacas. Camagiiey Prov.--W. W. Travis, Oriente Prov.-E. C. Peirson, Omaja. Isle of Pines.-Captain J. A. Miller, Santa Ana.
Charles A. Beatley, Havana.
E. W. Halstead, Herradura.
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: H. A. Van Hermann.
W. P. Ladd.
J. E. Roberts.
Charles A. Beatley.
E. W. Halstead.
The Prezident then appointed the following comn2llittee on resolutions to report before the close of the meeting: E. W. Halstead, Col. S. S. Harvey, and Lindley Collins.
The discussion of the matter of proxies was taken tip and the following motion was made by Prof. Earle:
"That the Secretary be instructed to prepare a referendum ballot and that a blank ballot be sent to each member of the Society to vote for or against the admission of proxies in future meetings for the election of officers or other purposes, and that this ballot be cast and counted December first in order that the result can be made known so that, if proxies are allowed, all persons will have the equal right to send proxies."
Colonel Havens then amended the above notion, which motion was voted on as amended and carried, as follows:
"That when these returns are canvesassed by the Executive Comittee, the Committee announce the result and give notice that such proxies will be available at the next annual meeting."
THE TROPICAL KITCHEN GARDEN
MRS. F. S. EARLE.
(Fma by tite)
Up6n coming to the tropics Anericanos, as a rule ,expleetto find -the greatest abundance of luscious fruits, and Plenty of vegetables, though just what the latter may be, we are not quite sure but they will all be at hand in most liberal quantity, all the time, and everywhere. Possibly this may be the case in some parts of the tropics, but certainly large areas of: Cuba would impress us as being decidedly barren. Unless some one, previous to our coming, had seen to the planting of fruit trees and some annual crops, we soon find ourselves living principally from cans, imported from the different temperate regions, and with the opening of every can the longing grows stronger for the good things we had "back home" and we wonder why we ever came.
Right here is where the true pioneer spirit is needed. Having that we begin adapting ourselves to the new surroundings, and, as we learn how, we change some of the existing circumstances to more nearly carry out our northern ideas.
Probably we left a well planned, and well cared for, kitchen garden in the United States, and during our first wave of forlorn home sickness we see no way of duplicating it. But there is, at least a way of replacing it to meet the different climatic conditions.
Probably we left a well planned, and well cared for, kitchen garden in the United States, and during our first wave of forlorn homesickness we see no
way of duplicating it. But there is at least a way of replacing it to meet the different climatic conditions.
Try to begin right by selecting a good piece of land, and one ,conveniently located for the home garden, and be patient enough to wait until it is thoroughly prepared and fertilized, if you are located where where fertilizer is needed.
In the meantime be starting, in boxes, a lot of plants, any nufnber of which do better in the shade while young, and have them ready to set out when the land is in condition; in this way much time can be sa\-ed, and the use of tinned supplies will be lessened by' several weeks' consumption.
With but few exceptions vegetables grown in the north do well here, if planted during the winter and spring, but that generally is our dry season, so if 1)ssibJle we should plan to irrigate the garden. It will fillY repay for the extra expense.
M st of us think it impossible to live without Irish potatoes, knowing when to plant, and by spraying when necessary, we can count on fair or even good results. Yet get acquainted with the starch foods indigenous to the tropics. They are good and they are nutritious. Some of them are richer in real foo4 value than the potato. A nicely baked malanga, so mealy that it pops open in the oven, will compare with a potato any time. There are many ways ot treating malangas. Substitute them for potatoes in making soft yeast. They are better.
There are a number of starchy root crops whose season varies a little so that we may always have one or two of them any day in the year.
Arrow root, considered a delicacy in the north, can always be had, and makes most delicious puddings.
Boniatos, a dry variety of sweet potato, are constantly in season. Some of the softer, sweeter kinds
-grown in the southern states, do equally well, though perhaps are not quite so productive.
Some of us, at first, disdain the Cuban field corn, but it is good, and it is something we can and should
have every day. It is very rich, though not as sweet as the real sweet or sugar corn, and the period when it is just right to cook on the cob is short, but when that is passed, try the Cuban method of grating it, and then it mnay be served in numberless ways, all of them tempting. Sweet corn can be grown here, but is uncertain; so let us cheerfully accept Cuban corn and make it one of the stand-bys for every kitchen garden.
Do not think that the strictly starchy vegetables are the only ones of importance we can have, for the number of succulents and appetizers are endless.
The improved varieties of tomatoes, as every one knows, grow to such perfection here that they are exported in large quantities.-During the summer when we cannot rely upon them, we can always have the tiny, native tomatoes. Though not good for slicing they are very acceptable for soups, sauces and gumbos.
To the list of vegetables raised for export we may add most of the root crops, which do so much towards filling the table bountifully, many kinds of pumpkins and squash; beautiful lettuce, and the universally beloved parsley, which though not a dish by itself, has by its charm caused many a dish to be ,eaten, which without the tempting garnishing would have been passed by.
Our garden must not produce vegetables, only; different fruits want a chance to show what they can do, and will add much to the health, pleasure and content of the family. Unless the citrus grove is to contain a variety plot be sure to have a few tre s of different kinds planted near the house, so there will be fruit the entire year.
If you have a fence or arbor to cover, let a passion vine make the shade, and it will repay for the pleasure by furnishing fruits that according to the time they are picked, will make delicious apple pies and dumplings, pear sauce, sweet pickled pears, sour pickles, jelly, delicious refreshing drink, and vinegar; this vine almost equalling in usefulness thA
most valuable plant, the fruta de bomba (papaya,pawpaw).
Be sure to make room for plenty of fruta de bomba trees. Their virtues are many for they bear fruit continuously, solve the tough meat problem, furnish summer squash, delicious musk melon, material for pumpkin pies, and all sorts of dulces. They are, uioreover, very ornamental. They require well drained soil, and will respond to liberal fertilizing.
Some of the choicest tree fruits require several years to come into bearing, but should be planted nevertheless. Among these are the mango, marafion, aguacate, anon and guanabana.
For something to make pies, jelly and all sorts of juicy things, with a clear bright red-color, to remind you of cherries and cranberries, be sure to plant roselle, and plenty of it; for all the surplus can be treated like grape juice, and there always comes a dry time when one wants a tempting drink, with more color than lemonade. There is no need of planting it in the spring for it seldom blossoms during the rainy season. In our part of the island, I find August the best time to plant; it Will then begin blooming in October, and there is plenty of cranberry jelly ready for the Thanksgiving turkey.
The Barbados cherry is another source of red dishes, and should be in every garden, though it requires some time to fruit.
These are only a few hints as to what we may do in the way of living at home, but enough, possibly, to show that we need not go hungry, nor depend too largely upon imported goods. So let us learn to use the material at hand, applying our northern st-yle of preparation, if it makes us any happier, but do not hesitate to get acquainted with the ways of the Cubans, for they havp always had'tropical products to deal with, and can doubtless give us many valuable suggestions.
Mrs. van Hermann: Mr. President, it is barely posible my suggestions would not fall on good ground. However, tell the ladies to experiment with the things that grow in the tropics. It is very necessary for us all to have fresh vegetables and living from tin cans is certain starvation. We must cultivate a taste for the Cuban fruits and vegetables. The nutritive part of fresh vegetables and fruits is very essential in this climate.
The farmers in the North would not take the trouble to can the tomatoes if they could get them out of the garden.
This "vital" subject was discussed at length by Mr. van Hermann, Colonel Havens, and others.
E. W. HALSTEAD.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen of the Cuban
National Horticultural Society:
In presenting this short paper on Orchard Irrigati(n I wish to bring but a discussion of this subject, which, whether we admit it or not, is of such vital importance to all of us who have groves.
There are many who will say that irrigation is not necessary in this country that we can get along without it-probably we can-an animal can gt 0long without eating-for a time at least-but will it not grow faster and be healthier and stronger if well fed and watered?
This is equally true of plants.
When we deprive a tree of water or fail to supply it when needed we at the same time -cut off its food supply: A plant or tree can only take its nutriment in a fluid state and without sufficient water to put the elements on which it feeds in solution so they can be absorbed by the roots the tree starves. Then we wonder "why it dont grow" and this being true of the tree that should be growing and isn't how much more will it be true of the tree loaded with fruit of which the larger per cent is composed of water.
Yes, we can grow fruit without irrigation-sometimes-but we can grow better crops of fine quality, more years in succession with irrigation of one kind or another, than without it,
One of the first things in irrigation is to "Catch your rabbit"-to get a sufficient available supply
of water and whether it be taken from rivers, lagoons or wells. Lifting water is expensive and the nearer the surface of the ground and the place you wish to use it you can find it, the cheaper it can be applied to your orchard.
Next in importance is the methods and power to be used in bringing the water to the point of distribution, and with these the cost and availability of the various fuels will need to be considered. Wood, coal, gasoline and alcohol all have their advocates and their advantages, and these should be studied to find which will give the best and cheapest service under the particular conditions that have to be met on each separate farm.
Methods of distribution.-Systems of irrigation and methods of applying water to the soil are many and varied and each with one or more fancied or real points of superiority to recommend it, but the final test of all is the effectiveness-low cost and ease of application. These conditions are best fulfilled I believe by the so called "open ditch" irrigation, which method I have used for some years with gratifying results.
In Orchards where the trees are large and the roots reach a considerable distance from the trees and where plenty of water is available a good way is to plow three or four shallow furrows lietween each row of trees care being taken that the furrows always have at least a slight down grade to carry the water well from the "head" ditch which is made at the highest side of the grove across the upper ends of the distributing furrows and which in turn is supplied with water direct from the pipes or from storage tanks.
Another good method for use with small trees or where the water supply is limited is to plow a furrow along each row of trees in a direction in which the water will flow nicely and then use a sufficient head of water to move quickly over the ground. Around each tree is already hoed a ring of earth. The water is first sent the full length of the furrow and then the
earth ring around each tree is filled as we go back toward the starting point.
With the flow from a 3 in. main one man can apply this water daily to from 100 to 200 trees, using 50,000 gal. per day according to the amount of water given each tree and the distance from the pipe the water is carried. With a larger main the result would be proportionally better.
I have heard it argued that there would be coi.siderable "wash" and consequent loss of soil and fertility but we do not find it so in reality.
As soon after each irrigation as the bnules can be put in, the double disk harrows are run through two ways and the ground around the trees is lightly hoed to make a dust mulch to conserve the moisture
-other kinds of mulch are also welcome. Nothing goes to waste that can add fertility or humus to the soil or serve as a mulch under the tree to be finally worked into the soil improving its mechanical condition and its moisture retaining powers.
Mr. Collins: I notice that the speaker emphasizes the words "sufficient grade". I would like to know what he means by that term.
Mr. Halstead: I would say -that my mains are 3 inch. From that we can run by gravity 50,000 gallons of water per day, but on the other hand if we run that water at a distance 2000 ft. from the end of the pipe with a 3 inch pipe instead of a 1 inch pipe, our labor would be practically lost. We could not run that very far. A sufficient grade is one whichI gives enough water to give the ground in the ditch over which it runs all that it absorbs naturally and still keep running. The heavier the grade the better until it gets too steep to use. A 4 inch pipe will give allnost double the grade that a 3 inch pipe will give and I make the point one man can handle just as well from a 4 inch pipe as a 3 inch pipe. He has to waste
with a 4 inch pipe where the distance is great from the end of the pipe. A sufficient grade would be one that would take the water quickly to the point where it needs to be distributed.
Mr. Collins: How much of a drop would be required to carry the water from the end of the pipe to the lower end of where you expected to irrigate?
Mr. Halstead: In all irrigation projects 1%1 grade is considered very steep. On our grounds here we cannot stop for a 1% grade. Often times we have more but 111 grade will carry the water in any, quantity very swiftly" and the less drop we get n are still able to carry the water the better. Does that answer your questions
Mr. Collins: Yes, sir. Do you irrigate around the trees or in rows between the trees?
Mr. Hlalstead: It would depend some what oii the size of the orchard or the size of the trees. Large trees side by side and a furrow in the center of the tree row would give water to all trees on both sides, but where the trees are small, I would irrigate around the tree by making a ring some 12 ft. in (iameter around the large trees but the reason for that is 1 wish to give them sufficient water to carry then some time. I do not want to have to irrigate every few days, and under my method, I give anywhere from 3 to 6 barrels to the tree at one irrigation. Then, with the mulching, that lasts often during the dry weather for three or four weeks keeping the tree in good condition. The expense of this ring around the tree is a very small matter. One man will throw up from 200 to 250 in a day and cover them~ by water.
Mr. Gocio said that it depended upon the size of the tree, as well as the nature of the soil, but he was of the opinion that on large trees the best method was to irrigate by ditches between the trees.
Mr. Halstead: I fully agree with what Mr. Gocio
-says. If you will take my figures of 50,000 gallons to a basin of 100 trees, you will find it is equal to very nearly a rain fall of two inches to the acre and
.that is considered a lot. INow, if we get a two inch
-rain, we do not think we have to irrigate for a long time. Furthermore by my method of cultivation the land is cultivated both ways with a dust mulch over the entire row, and with our soil the moisture is held ,considerable time with the dust mulch, and while the water is applied directly to the trunk of the tree, one week after the irrigation you can dig down in the .center between the trees or 2 ft. we will say from any tree, and the ground is nice and moist and in good c"Ondition for all the roots over the entire grove.
Mr. van Hermann was of the opinion that 2 inches of rainfall would probably be equal to 3 or 4 inches of irrigated water, due to the increased amount of moisture in the atmosphere during the rain.
Mr'. Miller cited instances in which certain soils gave better results with proper cultivation than others with irrigation, and he was of the opinion that this could be done in many eases and thus save the cost of irrigation.
Col. Harvey: In Florida the overhead system of irrigation is giving much better results than the ditch and basin system. This is especially true when the trees are blossoming. The best farming I have ever seen in my life is done by the Chinese gardeners, of Havana, who use the overhead system of irrigation, especially during the blossoming of the vegetables.
The President introduced Dr. Ricardo Herrera,
-Cuban Consul to Cadiz, who made a few remarks .and explained that the Secretary would read his paper as English is not his native tongue.
THE EXPORTATION OF PINEAPPLES AND
CITRUS FRUITS TO EUROPEAN PORTS
DR. RICARDO HERRERA.
Cuban Consul to Cfidiz, Spain.
Kindly invited by Mr. Charles A. Beatley, Secretary of the Cuban National Horticultural Society, to address you this afternoon, I have the honor of placing before you certain data which I believe will prove useful to all those interested in the production and exportation of Cuban fruits, especially the pineapple.
Two objects influenced me in making you this address first and principal being my desire to advance in Cuba the Preserving Industry, and, second, to make known to you the probabilities of sale in Europe of the pineapple in its natural state.
The cultivation of this fruit in Cuba is attaining large proportions. The following data which has been furnished me by Sr. Manuel Ecay, Director of the Department of Statistics of the Revenue Department, demonstrate this:
LIST BY COUNTRIES or THE AMOUNTS A" VALUE OF THE PINEAPPLES EXPORTED TO THEM FROM
THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA DURING THE FIVE FISCAL YEARS BELOW INDICATED.
1908-1909 1909-1910 1910-1911
Kilos Value Kilos Value I Kilos 1 Value Kilos Value
United States ... 18,664,413 $702,711 23,619,1581$909,827130,977,6581$1,220,250 32,806,999. $1,301,320
Porto Rico.... ... 140,592 6,651 1
Spain .... ......... 15,521 621 15,166 6321 16,529 704 37,051 1,948
France......... ... 10,595 323 17 101 189 10 69 20
Mexico ........27 1 4,302 115
Germany. 17....... 17 2 5,625 218 2,375 204
United Kingdom. ..54 51 900 25 340 45
Canary Islands. 1 32 3 80 4
Argentine ...... 124 42
British West Indies.
.tas... 118,831,1651$710,309123,634,395I$910,474131,000,9331$1,221,210 32,851,3401$,303,698 I I I I I
(Signed) Manuel Ecay.
Habana, February 14th. 1912.
179,3001 1,600 25p775,314 $878,145
The markets of the United States consume at the present time almost all the pineapples exported by Cuba, but it might easily occur that the duties which are paid upon their entrance into that country be increased, as was supposed to be the case not long since, and this would mean a heavy loss to our planters.
We should imitate the examples of the lawaiiin Islands, whose geographical situation does not permit them to export the pineapple in its natural state, for which reason the planters of that region have created the industry of preserving them. Regarding the organization of this industry, I have obtained interesting information which the French Consul in the Hawaiian Islands forwarded to his Government. Considering the same useful to Cuba, I made a translation thereof. Its length does not permit its being included in this address, but those who desire to study this report will find it in the Havana Periodical "La Discussion" which recently published the said translation under the title "The Cultivation of the Pineapple in the Hawaiian Islands."
For six years I have resided in Europe as Consul for Cuba; during which time I have continually studied methods for creating markets for our products. I have, therefore, been able to appreciate the ready reception accorded to preserved tropical fruits, especially the pineapple. In Cuba this industry has existed for a long time, but sad to confess, it has never been prosperous. The consumption of preserved fruit is purely local. Cuba has the double advantage of rich fruits and the excellent quality of her sugar. Hence there can be no reason why this industry should not prosper.
In Europe preserved fruits, be they preserved in syrup or in their own juice, are eagerly received. An active propaganda would aid the efforts of the manufacturers of Cuba.
For more than twenty years there has existed in Spain a provision firm of great importance, "Trevijano Rijos", of Logrohio, whose products have made
it extremely well known in Latin-America. About a year ago, while consul in Madrid, I succeeded in inducing this house to prepare a pineapple preserve. The result has been so favourable, that at the present tinm Messrs. Millian &Company, Exporters of Fruits of Havana, ship monthly to the above firm four hundred crates of pineapples.
There is no doubt that the presentation of its products contributes notaly to the success of every industry, and with this idea in mind, I proposed to secure a vessel suitable for preserves, which would at the same time look well and be economical. I wrote to numerous glass manufacturers of various European countries, and in this way was able to secure the models which, thanks to the kindness of Dr. Sr. Enilio del Junco, our present Secretary of Agriculture, were shown in the National expositioi.
It would be difficult to find anything better. This sample I chose from among more than fifty which were sent to min by various manufacturers. It comes rvo0i GJermanv, and its cost is 10-V2 cents f. o. b. Iahiburg.
In case that in Cuba we could not manufacture the same class of package, there is no doubt that iu could be duplicated in the United States.
The custom duties to be paid on manufactured glass on its entry into Cuba, would not prove an obstacle, for they are very low,-$2.00 per 100 kilos. The capacity of each jar is a litre. Its weight when filled is 1.6 kilos. It is the custom to export preserved pineapples either whole, cut into slices, in rectangles or cubes, or grated, and in the form of marmalade or syrup.
Before concluding the subject of preserves, I should note that the natural acidity of the pineapple makes preferable the use of glass vessels as containers to those of tin, which, notwithstanding the great care taken in their manufacture, are frequently attacked after from 8 or 10 months of use, thus
communicating a metallic taste, more or less pr-onounced, to the contents of the can at the expense of the flavor of the fruit.
There is another very powerful motive or reason which causes me to advise the exclusive use of glass vessels for the sale of preserved pineapples, and this is the competition which would have to be sustained with the manufactories of the same nature from Singapore and Hawaii, which send yearly to the American and European Markets, millions of preserved pineapples in tin vessels. Manual labour in these countries is extremely cheap, and in Cuba ;t is exactly the opposite. The pineapple of Singapore and Hawaii is fibrous and of poor flavor; ours is of better quality and possesses an exquisite flavor, the result of which would be that the first mentioned fruits would be left as low class products for those persons who seek cheapness, while the Cuban pineapple would always be without a: peer for those who desire the very best.
I have in my possession a list of data of this industry, from the method of preparing the pineapple for preserving to the prices for which the product is sold in the United States, data which I place at the disposition of interested parties. The short time at my disposal for the preparation of this article, does not permit 're to enlarge as I would desire.
The second object of the present article is to make
known in Cuba the probability of sale for our pineapples in their natural state.
Not long since the Havana press published an article by me on this head. I will limit myself here, therefore, to saying that our pineapples stand up well under the trip to Spain, and as I said in the beginning, in Logrofio they are made into preserves.
There are three rapid service steamship lines, which make semi-monthly trips from llavaiia to Corufia and Santander: The Hamburg American, The French Trasatlantic Company, and The Spanish Transatlantic Company. Ten days are needed for
the trip to Corufia and eleven to Santander. The freight expenses are 50 cents per crate. The number of pineapples to the crate most acceptable is thirty. The custom duties which the pineapple in its natural state pays on entering Spain 70 cents Spanish silver, approximately 55 cents American Currency, per 100 kilos.
Lately I have been informed that a new process for importing pineapples into Barcelona has been tried. The twenty-two days employed in the voyage make the state of conservation of pineapples doubtful, so instead of shipping them in crates, they are shipped in large barrels. In each barrel are placed from fifty-five to sixty pineapples just as they come from the field, and the barrels are filled with water', to which is added some chemical substance tending to retard decay. Having arrived in Barcelona, the pineal)ples are preserved. The glass jar with tin CoVer is the vesel employed by Sr. Isidro Romeu, the manufacturer of dulces established in Barcelona at No. 188, Mayorca Street, who receives the pineapples of which I have just spoken. The Spanish Transatlantic Company collected at first $4.00 per barrel, but later reduced the freight from Havana to Barcelona to $2.00 per barrel. Sr. Juan Llannes Agui]era of Havana 89, is the agent in charge of the preparation and shipment of the barrels.
Likewise, our pineapples in their natural state are exported to Corufia, Vigo and Cadiz, but the quantities are of minor importance. The pineapples and the guayabas which are received in Corufia are there made into preserves.
Our fruit exporters should examine conditions in the London markets, important in themselves and because they supply France with exotic fruits. Deternine the firms which deal in wholesale fruits and consult them concerning the possibilities. There is in London a very inportant information bureau, "The Commercial Intelligence Bureau" 57 & 58 Holburn Viaduct, which I am sure will give exact in-
formation if asked. All information given by this Bureau is free.
'Dr. Herrera replied to a number of inquiries regarding the exportation to Europe of pineapples both in the preserved state and the shipment of the whole pine in barrels of water.
NOTES ON CITRUS CULTURE
H. A. VAN HIERMANN.
Mr. chairman n and Members of the Cuban National
Within the last ten years much has been said about citrus culture in Cuba, and since their is no such thing as the final word in science, we m, reasonably expect to carry the discussion on indefinitely with profit to all concerned.
In addition to what we said last year, we wish to give you the benefit of further notation along similar lines. Since the last meeting about a year ago we have visited several sections of Western Cuba with the idea of confirming former statements which we have made during the last eight years about the present and future prospects of citrus culture in this country. Many of our statements inade in these meetings, and otherwise, have been severely criticized by some growers, and especially by those who make a specialty of selling land for citrus orchards, etc.
In looking back the writer has no reason to retract one word of what he has formerly written on this subject, but is now sorry that the nature of this society would hardly have permitted him to use stronger terms and a full expression of his ideas as to subsequent results of practices then and still in vogue, namely, poor selection of soil; manner of cultivation, and acknowledged system of clean cultivation irrespective of the situation and the kinds of soil in qu estion. It is hardly necessary that the writer should tell you "I told you so". You all know
what ihe present conditions are in your section; you must also know whether the citrus business in your locality is a financial success. We are dealing now with dollars and cents. Have any of us in one single year made the interest on the year's investment, or, better still, the interest on the total investment? If so, we have done well and should know the reason for our success. If we have not done well, or as good as our neighbors, we should lose no time in ascertaining the reason and applying the remedy.
Have we failed in our undertaking? Then who is to blame, the soil? Lack of funds for proper care, or our own inability to adapt ourselves to the conditions? These are pointed and ugly questions which most of us have not taken the courage or the time to study.
The time has come when it will not be so easy to sell citrus land until it has been proved, and those selling orchards will need to show some results for the investments. It may be easy enough to make a good orchard under adverse conditions with the capitaI at hand, but much harder to make the proposition a profitable one from a business standpoint.
On the other hand there are good situations where the initial outlay will of necessity be smaller and the cost of maintaining only a fraction of those absolutely necessary to make a respectable looking orchard under harder conditions. In such cases the management may have all or nothing to do with the results. A drowsy manager may fail under the best conditions, while all the science and elbow grease in existence would make a financial failure of the impossile.
We are slowly, but surely, coming down from our sentimental perch to a business foundation. The greenhorn is becoming mentally rich; the grower of thirty years experince abroad is unlearning a few things which should have been left in California or Florida. The fact that the individual growers are force by adverse conditions to think and study out their own propositions in the face of apparent fail-
ure is the most encouraging assurance of final suecess.
The most serious impediment to the citrus business in Cuba has been the attempt to adapt the systein of care and culture used under foreign conditions irrespective of local environment. But things have changed considerably in the last few years. Any one who would have advocated, eight or ten years ago, that irrigation was absolutely necessary for the successful culture of citrus in Cuba would have been promptly inforIed that his presence was more desirable elsewhere. Today every man who can afford a Dumping plant for his grove has it or plans to have one installed.
Those who scoffed at the speaker's idea of vep'ctable mulch, only three years ago, are today in favor of the idea, after having seen the results at Finca Mulgoba and elsewhere. Today the nulch system, in so far as possible with the means at hand, is being practiced on some of the largest and best citrus groves in the island with good results. We would not be guilty of advising mulch for all conditions, but we do reiterate that under some conditions the vegetable mulch has many and permkinent advantages over clean cultivation.
During the past year we have become more confirmed in the following conclusions:
That a complete vegetable mulch of sufficient thickness, say four inches, on clay soils of a sticky nature, is preferable to clean cultivation for the purposes of conserving the moisture; in addition to this it adds a much needed humus to the soil.
That trees planted where the ground is shaded grow much faster,-say with leguminous cover crops or with pineapples, bananas, etc. They are also cleaner and healthier than those grown in the open under clean cultivation.
That the shading of the ground prevents the escape of moisture, as well as gases, which are necessary to growing plants.
That clean cultivation is detrimental to trees growing on poor or shallow soil, and especially if the cultivation is deep enough to cut the feeding roots, which in poor or shallow soil are usually near the surface.
That trees which do not respond to first-class cultivation, will, if all things are equal, prosper and return to normal vigor and fruitfulness if cultivation is stopped and the entire ground is covered with vegetable mulch for a few years.
That irrigation is essential for perfect development of the trees and first-class fruit during any ordinary dry season, with the best kind of clean cultivation, except possibly, under extra-ordinary favorable conditions,-and irrigation may be dispensed with when sufficient vegetable mulch is used.
That windbreaks, and even a partial shade are beneficial to the cultivation of citrus fruits. Also, that extremely large holes, say 3x3x3 ft., cubic, should be (tug before planting trees on lieavy
soil, or impervious and rocky sub-soils. We have noted that the trees planted in such holes have grown 100% faster than trees planted in the ordinary way.
That acid phosphates are less beneficial on heavy land inclined to be sour than on land containing carbonate of lime or where lime has been used in conjunction with the fertilizer. Also that phosphorus in the form of basic slag is more effective than bone or acid phosphate in heavy clay soils which may be inclined to be of acid nature.
That the liberal use of potash in citrus culture will retard the ripening season from thirty to fifty days and also add spice and bouquet to the flavor of the fruit.
That a better pack and co-operation are essential to facilitate the handling and marketing of Cubn fruits.
That the quality and appearance of Cuban oranges and grapefruit is improving every' year and bids fair to become one of the leading, and most re-
munerative industries of the country, in spite of many predictions to the contrary.
The Amnerican growers do admit that they have all, more or less, made some costly mistakes, but true to our Yankee origin we would not be numbered among the quitters but are determined to turn our experience to account to the end that we may snatch success from apparent failure. Experience and not dollars is our greatest asset,-''By this sign we shall conquer." Experience and unbounded determination solves most of the world's problems.
COMPARISON OF THE CITRUS TROUBLES
OF CALIFORNIA AND CUBA
PROF. WM. TITUS HORNE.
Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology, University of California.
(Read by title)
It is my purpose in this paper to present a concise statement of the principal citrus troubles in California and Cuba, with remarks on their economic importance and possible control.
Brown rot of lemon:-The brown rot of lemon causes decay of sound fruit in curing and storage. It is prevented mainly by adding copper suphate or other germicides to the w ter in which the lemons are washed. It formerly caused heavy losses in California but is now successfully controlled. (See Bul. 200, Cal. Ex. Sta.)
Scab:-Scab is a very serious disease on lemons in Cuba and neighboring countries. It also affects sour oranges and sometimes grapefruit and tangerines. It is caused by a parasitic fungus which gains foothold while the fruit is very young and tender, producing scabby warts. The appearance of the fruit is injured but the vitality of the plant is seldom affected. This is the disease which causes the sour orange foliage to become deformed; the foliage of the citron is also attacked. Treatments thus far recommended consist of frequent sprayings with Bordeaux or ammoniacal copper carbonate, before the fruit has passed the susceptible stage. Spraying
citrus trees in Cuba with Bordeaux is not desirable, however, because it inay check the fungi which destroy the scales. If a lemon industry should be developed in Cuba, scab will doubtless make a great aTnount of spraying and other attentions necessary. To prevent the infection of grapefruit in seasons favorable to scab, it will probably be necessary to plant the orchard in such a way that there will be no untreated trees of sour orange or lemon growing near it, and for some varieties it may become necessary to do preventive spraying. This disease is not known to occur in California.
Seed-bed damping-off :-Damping off in the seedbeds appears to be due to the same organism in Cuba and in California, namely to a species of the fungus Rhizoctonio. The small plants are killed at or near the surface of the ground by the growth of a brown, cobwebby fungus. The most promising treatment is to keep the soil stirred so that the surface will dry as quickly as possible after a rain or watering. A series of experiments reported by the writer in the Primer Informe Anual of the Station at Santiago de las Vegas, failed to secure a very promising remedy. After about two months of growth the seedlings become immune. There are doubtless other types of damping-off, due to other organisms, but they are of less importance.
Fungous root rot or oak-Fungus disease :--In California there occurs a kind of root rot caused by a strong growing fungus which spreads under the bark of the roots in the form of large, white, felty masses, killing the bark as it advances, and causing the roots to decay rapidly. A tree which is found to be infected usually collapses in one or two years, dying entirely or becoming worthless. The fungus produces large clusters of light brown toadstools at the base of the affected tree, or arising from some decayed root. The fungus travels along the roots, passing from one tree to another so that areas of from three to twenty or more trees may be entirely killed out by the time an orchard is ten years old. Trees replanted i the
diseased areas are likely to die after a few years. No satisfactory treatment has yet been proposed, except to plant annual crops in the affected areas for a term of years. The fungus occurs on many forest trees and nearly all fruit trees. Fortunately it spreads slowly. Cuba appears to be free from this trouble.
Withertip of li~mei-Before leaving Cuba the writer had become thoroughly convinced that withertip of lime is entirely distinct from the so-called withertip of oranges, grapefruit, and lemons as described in Florida. The tender young growth of the lime is attacked and killed or distorted and the very young fruits are caused either to drop off or to be deformed with large warts. So far as the lime is concerned this is a very serious disease. A discussion of posisble treatments is given in the Primer Informe Anual of the Cuban Experiment Station. Withertip on orange and lemon in California, according to Professor R. E. Smith, occurs in dead spots on the tips of twigs or leaves, where these have been injured by fumigation, fire, or otherwise, or on old, nearly dead leaves. It also produces on oranges large brown spots known as anthracnose. We have found it abundantly on frosted oranges. Professor Smith also reports it as occurring on oranges in cold storage, especially where the temperature has fallen too Jow. We were not able to study the matter adequately in Cuba but had already taken the view recently put forward by Professor Smith,-namely, that it is not a serious disease of orange, grapefruit, or lemon. The apparent benefit derived from spraying with Bordeauv mixture is not necessarily due to the killing of the fungus spores, but may be caused by a chemical stimulation of the tree itself, and this spraying is known to benefit the condition called die-back.
Navel black rot: A very curious and striking form of parasitic decay appears in navel oranges in California. Affected oranges may ripen several weeks. in advance of sound ones, or their ripening may not