FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT
COMPILED BY THE SECRETARY
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
Printers Alvarez & Feraedes
99 Obrapia Street.
OFFICERS FOR 1911
Thos. R. Towns, Holguin.
Havana Prov.-F. L. Cervantes, Havana. P. del Rio Prov.-E. C. Goetz, Herradura. Matanzas Prov.-C. F. Austin, Jovellanos. Sta. Clara Prov.-H. A. Rose, Santo Domingo. Camagiey Prov.-L. L. Newsom, La Gloria. Sto. de Cuba Prov.-E. C. Peirson, Omaja. Isle of Pines.-F. R. Ramsdell, Columbia.
H. C. Henricksen, Havana.
H. A. Van Hermann, Santiago de las Vegas.
Prof. F. S. Earle.
Col. S. S. Harvey.
Thos. R. Towns.
H. C. Henricksen.
H. A. Van Hermann.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Austin, C. F., Cuba Fruit Exchange, Havana, Cuba. Berndes, Ren6, 64 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Bortwick, Mrs. Francis R., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Conklin, R. R., No. 1 Wall St., New York City, N. Y, Dart, D. W., La Gloria, Cuba. Desvernine, Ernesto B., 52 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Earle, Prof. F. S., Herradura, Cuba. Green, Joseph, Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Haugh, S. Chr., Maravi, Baracoa, Cuba. Henricksen, H. C., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. Kiimmell, Edward A., C/o Fosters, Havana, Cuba. Landis, A. C., 61 Aguiar St., Havana, Cuba. McIrwin, L. S., Guanabacoa, Cuba. Peirson, E. C., Omaja, Cuba. Snchez, Lorenzo, 36 Obrapia St., Havana, Cuba. Towns, Thos. R., Holguin, Cuba. Towns, Mrs. Thos. R., Holguin, Cuba. Van Hermann, H. A., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
Arter, A. Homer, Omaja, Cuba. Allan, Win., 136 West 79 St., New York City, N. Y. American Grocery Co., 13 O'Reilly St., Havana, Cuba
Ballard, W. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Barth, M. L. 1329 Gough St., San Francisco, Cal. Ben, Geo., Omaja, Cuba. Bennett, G. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Beers, L. Maclean, Cuba 37, Havana, Cuba. Bird, W. R., Paso Estancia, Cuba. Blosser, J. J., Omaja, Cuba. Bolster, O. B., Morehead, Minn. Boekelman, Henry K., 53 West 92nd. St., New York
City, N. Y.
Briggs, H. A., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Bradley, B. L., Holguin, Cuba. Brown, W. H., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Brandenburg, Gus, Ceballos, Cuba. Broughamer, Frank, Herradura, Cuba. Brand, E. B., Felton, Oriente, Cuba. Burdette, R. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Burford, C. R., La Gloria, Cuba. Buttler, Bros., Ceballos, Cuba. Buxton, Geo. B., Palmarito de Cauto, Cuba.
Carbolineum Wood Preserving Co., Amargura 23, Havana, Cuba.
Cervantes, F6lix L., 153 Gervasio St., Havana, Cuba. Chalmers, E. N., Prado 99, Havana, Cuba. Cowgill, H. B., Cornell Agr. College, Ithica, N. Y. Cuba & U. S. F. N. & M. Co., Elizabeth, N. J.
Davidson, Dr. E. M., San Fernando 54, Camagiiey, Cuba.
Desvernine, Dr. Pablo, Paseo 18, Vedado, Havana,
Dixon, T. N., San Francisco, Nueva Gerona, Isle of
Doel, G. H., Paso Estancia, Cuba. Domm, J., Itabo, Cuba.
Early, John F., La Gloria, Cuba. Ellquist, A., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Emmons, Geo. M.; Herradura, Cuba. Engstrom, Arthur, Bayate, Cuba. Ensor, C. T., Bartle, Cuba. Evans, T. J., Apartado 1221, Havana, Cuba.
Fisher, I. L., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Franklin, Edward, Garden City, La Gloria, Cuba. Freidlein, S. S., Obrapia & San Ignacio, Havana
Gardner, A. W., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Gilpin, Win., Omaja, Cuba. Goetz, E. C., Herradura, Cuba. Goodman, L. A., 4000 Warwick Boulevard, Kansas
Graves, Win. H., Omaja, Cuba. Green, Clement, Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Gushee, Edward G., 2122 28th St., Philadelphia,
Gwinn, L. E., Baratillo 7, Havana, Cuba.
Havens, H. E., Herradura, Cuba. Harvey, S. S., No. 50 Estrada Palma, Havana, Cuba. Harvey, Frank K., No. 50 Estrada Palma, Havana,
Halstead, E. W., Los Palacios, Cuba. Hernandez, Pedro M., 156 San Fernando St., Cienfuegos, Cuba.
Ilegelund, H. L., 2825 Johnson Ave., Chicago, Illinois Hockstein, C. F., Mangas, Pinar del Rio, Cuba. HIolahan, John, Galesburg National Bang Bldg.,
Holmes, D. B., Union Leage Club, No. 1 East 39th St. New York City, N. Y. Hoard, J. W., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Howell, D. H., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Houghtalin, F. E., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Horne, Prof. Wm. T., Berkeley, Cal. Howell, L. 0., Bartle, Cuba. Hodge, J. S., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba.
Jackson, M. F., Canet Colony, Minas, Cuba. Jenkins, R. L., Blacklands, Holguin, Cuba. Johnson, John, Omaja, Cuba. Johnson, Ralph, Omaja, Cuba. Jones, J. Bascom, Camagiiey, Cuba. Jones, Edward, Radnor Farm, Paso Estancia, Cuba. Judd, S. H., McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Kendall, Dr. W. B., Sanitorium Gravenh tario, Canada.
Kendall, Roland, Holgufn, Cuba. Kezar, F. E., Camagiiey, Cuba. Keenan, T. J., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Kellogg, Dr. E. W., Avon, Conn. Kobler, A., Paso Estancia, Cuba. Krider, L. N., Omaja, Cuba. Kiirger, Paul, Esq. H. & 6th St., Vedado, Cuba.
Kydd, John H., Ceballos, Cuba.
Ladd, W. P., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Leeder, R. H., Itabo, Cuba. Lewis, Chas., Herradura, Cuba. Loebnitz, V. B., C/o The Trust Co., of Cuba, Havana,
Matsen, K., Camagiley, Cuba. Mabbs, A. I., Herradura, Cuba. Meade, Chas. S., San Pedro, Isle of Pines. Merritt, Henry K., 301 Newton Claypool Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind.
Millard, F., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Milligan, C. N., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba.
Miller, A. J., Minneapolis, Minn. Miller, E. P., Ceballos, Cuba. Miller, J. A., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Minear, N. O. Jr., P. O. Box 17, Consolaci6n del Sur,
Moore, Rev. John, Springbank, Ontario, Canada. Moss, Ed., Paso Estancia, Cuba. Moule, R. S., Bartle, Cuba. McKinnon, J. H., Apartado 711, Havana, Cuba. McPherson, J. C., San Pedro Heights, Isle of Pines.
Nash, Sumner, La Gloria, Cuba. Neustell, J. J., La Gloria, Cuba. Newson, L. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Neville, H. O. Empedrado 30, Havana, Cuba. Nitrate Agencies Co., 510 Banco Nacional, Havana,
Noring, Oscar, Omaja, Cuba. Norman, W. H., Bartle, Cuba. Nfifiez, R. E., 61 Aguiar, Havana Cuba. Nutall, John, McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Orr, A. E., Taco Taco, Cuba.
Painter, E. O., Sect. Fla. State Horticultural Society, Jacksonville, Fla.
Parker, N. C., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Patterson, L. M., Havana, Cuba. Patrick, H. L., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Peirson, Frank, Omaja, Cuba. Pedroso, Alberto S., 48 Rue de Laborde, Paris, France.
Pew, H. G. De, Los Palacios, Cuba. Phillips, Miss Abbie, 57 Obrapia St., Havana, Cuba. Piel & Co., Ena 4, Havana, Cuba.
Ramsdell, Dr. F. R., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Rapalje, Ernest H., Apartado 1182, Havana, Cuba. Root, W. G., Herradura, Cuba. Root, W. P., Herradura, Cuba. Roland, R. H., 339 Vaughan St., Winnepeg, Manitoba, Canad6.
Robins & Co., Frank G., 69 Obispo St., Havana, Cuba Roberts, J. E., Bartle, Cuba. Rose, Henry A., Santo Domingo, Cuba.
SAnchez, R. E., Santa Lucia, Gibara, Cuba. Scheldt, J. T., 4224 Lowell Ave., Chicago, Ill. Sechrist, J. F., 245 Hillcrest Ave., Trenton, N. J. Sinclair, J. I., Ceballos, Cuba. Shore, Eli, La Gloria, Cuba. Snodgrass, Wm., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Spear, E. D., Nome, North Dakota. Stroebel, Rev. A., 'Tiffin, Nuevitas, Cuba. Stevens, Jas. E., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Stern, Chas., 1720 Steiner St., San Francisco, Cal. Storms, L. E., 308 Washington St., New York City, N.Y.
Storms, A. B., Rogers, Arkansas. Symes, J. J., San Marcos, Cuba.
Tiddy, A. W., 912 Oliver Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. Thomas, John W., Cuba 66, Havana, Cuba. Todd, F. C., Herradura, Cuba. Tosca, Dr. Pedro, Catedritico del Instituto de Matanzas, Cuba.
Ward, Carlos A., La Gloria, Cuba. Wallace, J. C., Herradura, Cuba. Wesley, E. E., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Wilcox, C. C., San Pedro, Isle of Pines. Wilcox, W. M., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Williams, Nathan, Omaja, Cuba. Wilkinson, John, Paso Estancia, Cuba. Wood, W. B., Detroit, Michigan. Young, Geo. F., McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Young, Albert B., 1048 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. Young, Chas. F. McKinley, Isle of Pines. Van Hermann, Mrs. H. A., Santiago de las Vegas,
Vuillaume, V. Sr., Herradura, Cuba. Vuillaume, V. Jr., Herradura, Cuba.
Article 1.-The name of the Association shall be The Cuban National Horticultural Society.
Article 2.-Its object shall be to advance the horticultural interests of Cuba in all branches.
Article 3.-The members of this Society shall consist of persons interested in raising the products of the soil, or its allied interests.
Article 4.-Any person who is interested as per Article 3, may become, a member of this Society by making application to the Secretary and paying the annual dues. Said dues being payable at the beginning of each calendar year.
Article 5.-The officers of this Society shall consist of a President, one Vice President for each province of Cuba and one for the Isle of Pines, a Secretary and Treasurer an Executive Committee of five members, three of which shall be the President, Secretary Treasurer of the Society. These various members shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting. Their term of office shall begin at the close of the meeting at which they are elected and shall continue until the close of the following annual meeting. The outgoing Secretary, however, shall be charged with the proceedings of the meeting at which he officiated, the newly elected Secretary assuming all other duties.
Article 6.-The annual election of officers shall take place at 3 o'clock .P. M. on the second day of the annual meeting.
Article 7.-The duties of the officers of this Society shall be those usually performed by the officers of like organizations.
Article 8.-The Vice President from the province in which the annual meeting is held shall be considered the Senior Vice President, and shall act as President in the absence of that officer.
Article 9.-This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting of this Society by a two thirds. vote of the members present.
I.-The annual dues of this Society shall be one dollar Am. currency, and life membership ten dollars.
II.-The Executive Committee shall have power to fill all vacancies which occur between the annual meetings.
II.-The Standing Committees of this Society shall consist of three, or more, members, and shall be appointed by the President on the approval of the Executive Committee.
IV.-The Chairman of each Standing Committee shall make a written report for each annual meeting, and as often between meetings as may be requested by the Executive Committee.
V.-This Society shall have the following Standing Committees:
2.-Packages and Packing.
3.-Marketing and Storing of Fruits.
8.-Fruits of the Temperate Zone.
12.-Diseases and Insects.
13.-Legislation and Relations with Government.
Introduction,-Opening of meeting. Address by Dr. Martinez Ortiz, Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor.
Modern Methods of Plant Breeding, by H. B. Cowgill.
Experience with Trees on Different Stocks, by Thos.
A Citrus Nursery and How to Grow It, by E. C.
Citrus Nurseries and How to Grow them, by J. E.
Windbreaks, by Dr. F. R. Ramsdell. The Bibijagua Ant, by Prof J. L. Roberts. The Best Varieties of Citrus Fruits for Market, by
Thos. R. Towns.
The Sources of Irrigation Water Supply in Cuba, by
Prof. F. S. Earle.
Irrigation vs Mulch for Orchard Purposes, by H. A.
Irrigation for Orchard and Garden, by E. W. Halstead.
Cuban Hay and Forage Grasses, by H. A. Van Hermann.
Ornamentals, by Mrs. F. S. Earle. The American Colonies in Cuba, by Col. S. S. Harvey. Cooperation, by H. C. Henricksen. Election of Officers. Discussion Relating to Exhibitions. Financial Statement. Committee on Summer Exhibit.
The Fifth Annual Meeting of the Cuban National Horticultural Society was held in the building devoted to Agriculture, in connection with the Government jExhibition, which opened Feb. 4th., and continued until Mar. 13th. Sessions were held on Feb. 6, 7, 8 and 9th., from 8 or 9 o'clock in the morning until 3 o-clock in the afternoon, at which time the Exhibition was opened to the public. Nearly all the exhibits in the Agricultural Section were made by members of the Cuban National Horticultural 'Society, but the Society itself took no part in the affair, as in former years.
The attendance was meager compared with the total number of members belonging to the Society, but the members present were unusually interested in the questions that were discussed, and the meeting as a whole was probably the best one ever held by the Society.
OPENING OF THE MEETING
In the absence of the President, Col. H. E. Havens, the Vice Pres. from Santa Clara Prov., Mr. L. M Patterson, was asked to take the chair.
The Chairman, after calling the meeting to order, introduced Hon. Dr. Martinez Ortiz, Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor.
ADDRESS OF HON. DR. MARTINEZ ORTIZ
SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE AND LABOR.
Dr. Ortiz spoke in part as follows:
Members of the Cuban National Horticultural Society: It gives me great pleasure to be with you here today. The few remarks I have to make, I shall be obliged to make in Spanish, as unfortunately I cannot speak the English language. I have tried ever since I became Secretary to familiarize myself with agriculture in Cuba in its broader sense, and with the work of you people especially, and I want to take this opportunity to assure you of my most hearty support. I am aware that there -are many obstacles for you to overcome in this country, particularly because it is a new country to you. Agriculture in Cuba is yet in its infancy, and we have to contend with such conditions as confront pioneers in all new countries. The question of transportation, and high freight and tariff into the United States on your products must be solved, and I can assure you that I will do all that I can to help you to solve this question. Cuba has a good market in the U. S., and we must cater to it. We must realize that the United States is pre-eminently our market, and for this reason we must keep on good terms with that country. The United States is of far more importance to us than South America, or any other country in the tropics, as they produce the same products that we do, and consume the same, therefore they are competitors of ours, and commercially we have nothing to gain from them. The United States on the other hand comsumes all our products in vast quantities, and -Produces those that we need. There are
few instances, if any, in which we clash, and there is no reason why we should not be on the best of terms commercially with the United States. I again say to you that I am willing to help you to the best of my ability, and whenever you have any agricultural questions to solve, do not hesitate to come to. come to me individually or in a body.
Prof. Earle Moved a vote of thanks to Dr. Ortiz for his friendly remarks.
Mr.. Halstead seconded the motion, which was unanimously carrid.
Mr. Cervantes: As some of you gentlemen do not thoroughly understand the Spanish language, it gives me great pleasure to translate in part what Dr. Ortiz. has said.
MODERN METHODS OF PLANT BREEDING
BY H. B. COWGILL
Members of the Cuban National Horticultural Socity: The subject of this paper is, "Modern Methods. in Plant Breeding", but just how far back one can go, and still be talking about "Modern Plant Breeding", it is difficult to say; because plant breeding,. it is believed, is really yet only in its infancy. Thereare very few men doing practical plant breeding at the present time, and even the State ExperimentStations are only just beginning to take it up.
There can be recognized however, a point in progress, where new life was given to theory and practicealong plant breeding lines. The cause of this awaken-. ing will be mentioned, later. Since that time, workalong this line could properly be called modern.
A brief outline of some of the steps that have been. taken will be of interest,; but it should be said at this. point by way of definition, that plant breeding is properly the principles and practice of improvingplants. It deals with the variability and hereditarypower of plants, and considers both physiological and morphological characters. In other words plantbreeding may take advantage of any method of improvement of plants that will give a better species. or variety. It is distinct from improvement of cultural methods, in which case the better harvest isdue to outside environmental influences.
The most important phase of plant breeding is in-. telligent selection. Hybridization, or crossing, is. useful in many cases, but unless followed by thoughtful selection it is of little value. In this connection it should be said, that mankind has no doubt formany hundred years back, unconciously to a large-
extent, by the selection of the farmer's ideal of the best seed for planting, been doing a kind of plant breeding, and this has been useful in producing the types of economic plants now planted.
Hastily let it be noted that the first conscious effort to improve plants on record, according to Web-, ber, was only, about one hundred years ago. The sexuality of plants had been known since 1691, and Thomas Fairchild made a cross between a carnation and the sweet william in 1719, but these experiments were not followed in a practical way till a hundred years later.
When Darwin's work appeared about fifty years ago it had a profound influence on all scientific thought, and it can be said that modern plant breeding has felt its influence very largely, but when in the year 1900, what is known as Mendel 's Law, was discovered by De Vries and Correns, new life was given to experimentation along plant breeding lines.
It is impossible here to go into a discussion of Mendel's Law, or the other laws of heredity. It can be said, however, that these recent developments in the knowledge of hereditary transmission have shown that in some cases at least, there are definite character units in both plants and animals, such as horns or no horns in cattle, beards or no beards in wheat, flint kernel, dent kernel, or sweet kernel in corn; red or yellow color in tomatoes, and many others that might be mentioned. So when a breeder comes to know certain characters on a plant or animal, as characteristic color, buds or internodes of sugar cane, he may feel that those characteristics are real and natural for that plant.
About the same time that Mendel 's Law appeared, IDe~ries' Mutation Theory was published. This theory holds that new varieties originate at once as sports or mutations. IDe~ries cites experiments and data to prove this theory, so that there is much basis for his claim.
This Mutation Theory of De~ries and Mendel's Law, as was stated above, have marked the begin-
ning of a new era in plant breeding, and this new era, might properly be called "Modern Plant Breeding".. It might be added that this new era is marked by an, effort to follow definite principles where possible,, and also to make definite measurements of characters whenever possible. Quite a little progress has been made along those lines, and the breeder begins tofeel that he is dealing with something tangible.
For instance, the old methods of breeding aimed. at three things, but without knowing by what process they were accomplished. These three things were,
(1) to produce variation, (2) to select types, and (3) to fix the types selected, so that there would be novariation from the desired type. As to the first,breeders now know that a change of enviroument, and also hybridization will cause variation in types to appear, but, I think, modern breeders are coming to believe that change of environment will never orseldom effect the inherent tendencies of a plant, but it may often effect the somatic characters, that is to say, the change will only last while the crop is grown under the new conditions. As to hybridization, themodern breeder believes that positive laws operatewhenever a cross is made, and that there is a combination of the characters of the parents in the suceeding generation of the offspring, and that in this. way variation is produced.
The old idea of fixing the type of a plant was inmany cases a belief, that if a man persisted in selecting the type he desired, his crop would in some mysterious way be made to stop varying from this typeThe modern breeder believes that a stability of typecan be had if the breeder'issolates existing strains, that those strains are already fixed, that if there hasbeen no crossing the type is constant from the beginning, except for certain fluctuating changes. Ifhybridization has taken place, stable types can be selected, and obtained in a very short time if the. seedlings are handled properly.
All living things are known to vary. Nature is. then the great manipulator, and taking advantage-
of those variations is the work of the plant breeder. Plant breeders are coming to believe that variation is of three kinds, one of which is called fluctuation, and is in no definite direction, but is about a point or average; the second is called mutation, and is a sudden and permanent change; and the third is a variation that is known to take place when a plant is moved to a radically different environment, but this change lasts, it is generally, believed, only as long as the new environment remains unchanged.
The main work of plant breeding, then, often consists in selecting plants showing desirable variation, and testing them out to see if those changes are permanent, or it may attempt to combine desirable characters, in which selection of plants showing desirable characters after cross has been made is essential. On commencing breeding work one should first make a study of his crop. He ought to become as well acquainted with it as with his brothers and sisters. He ought to become familiar with the economic characters and the taxinomic characters, or those which serve to distinguish the species or variety. He should hunt for variations in those characters, for only where variations exist is improvement possible.
Many of those variations will be only so called fluctuations, due to soil or other external, and perhaps internal, conditions. He should try to distinguish between these mere fluctuations, and variations which indicate a permanent strain. He should collect specimens of variations in different characters, to be dried and mounted for further study. Measurements of a large number of plants asr to one or more characters sometimes show very interesting facts about plants, and will help a breeder to get familiar with the range of variations. Such study of a crop has sometimes resulted in the discovery of strains which when tested out under controlled conditions, have been found to be just the types best suited for certain environments. Such was the case with Dr. Nilson's work, in Sweden. two strains may sometimes be found that would be suitable to cross for a
recombination of characters. Often, too, strains are found, that should be eliminated, because they are not profitable to raise and occupy the ground where individuals of better strain should be growing.
This study, should enable one to become familiar with the best types, and the characters which distinguish them. It may sometimes enable one to determine the quality of any strain by its exterior appearance, or the correlation of characters. Again, it may enable one to detect sudden changes or mutations, if any appear. The breeder will have an ideal in mind towards which he is trying to breed his crop. An increased yield is often the main goal of the breeder, since increased yield usually means increased profits. Adaptation to local' conditions is of very great importance, as is also -quality, resistance'to disease, hardiness, etc. It is a mistake to select for any one character and disregard all others, for any one of those characters being absent may make the selection absolutely worthless. As an instance, it is said that fecundity in certain breeds of swine has been sacrificed for the sake of body conformation by the breeder, holding in mind a too narrow ideal.
By making a score card for the crop for the purpose of calling to mind all the possible characters that should be considered, the selections are less -apt to be badly made. This is an important point in modern~ breeding.
To some, so much detail work may seem a waste of time. It should be remembered however, that to gain an abso lute improvement in -a crop, much time is necessary. First, because plants are very subject to the effects of environment, so that permanent changes are hard to distinguish and isolate. Second, because superior individuals are easily overlooked ini a field; and third, because improvements must be tested out on a field scale, as well as in the nursery. For these reasons it can be seen that careful work while the plants are developing is an economy. It should be remembered also that an
improvement is for all time to come and may mean thousands of dollars in increased profits.
After the breeder becomes familiar with the plant, or plants, he is hoping to improve, and their range of variation, he may employ hybridization for a recombination of characters, or he may propagate seedlings, which usually show a very wide range of variability, or if there seems to be a -wide range of variability in the crop, he will probably make selections of plants showing superior tendencies, and test them out to see if these are permanent changes. This testing of individuO variations whether produced by hybridization or otherwise, should be done with the greatest care, and accurate records should be kept of the work. The first experimental plot for this work is called the nursery, and it is here that the varying individual plants are collected together, for the purpose of testing them side by side under absolutely the same conditions, as far as they can be controlled.
The United States Department-.of Agriculture has published a bulletin, in which the author makes some suggestions, which *sould be observed by all who attempt to do experimental work, in order that there may be th least possible variation in every factor, except the one which is to be tested. Field conditions are uncertain enough at best, so the breeder should strive to make them as uniform as possible, otherwise there is much more uncertainty, as to whether the observed variations are hereditary or e-nvironmental. Uniform drainage, fertilizing, cultivation, sunlight and irrigation, are easy to obtain and to guard against other non-uniformn conditions, guard rows and check rows are usually employed.
Such uniformity is necessary in the nursery, because some of the individuals being tested there, may become the beginning of a strain,, and nowhere can the breeder make as careful study of them as he can in the nursery. He may detect points that might be overlooked when tested on a large scale. This testing of the individual should be repeated for
several generations, because it has been found that only by taking an average of two or more years, can an accurate knowledge of the qualities of a plant be had. But while this testing of the individuals is being repeated, the breeder can be multiplying those which give most promise. In fact the progeny of the individuals on the first generation can be a row of individuals in the second generation, to be averaged with the first generation, and all succeding generations should be handled in the same way. If this is not done there is danger of discarding valuable strains before their value has been demonstrated. After this the strains which to be valuable should be multiplied and tested under field conditions, and then whatever strains have come near enough to the ideal of the breeder to seem to be of economic importance, can be turned over for general cultivation.
These are to my mind the Important points in plant breeding. Much more might be said about the laws and theories of heredity and variation, but I believe this society is more interested in methods than in theories, so I have confined this paper to that phase of the subject.
In conclusion let me say, that the keynote of modern plant breeding is careful and thoughtful work, both in the study of the plant, and in the field testing, and the two are about equally important.
MY EXPERIENCE WITH CITRUS TREES
ON DIFFERENT STOCKS
BY THOS. R. TOWVNS.
Mr. President and members of the Society:
I cannot for the life of me decide what I have done, to merit the giving of a paper on the following subject: "My experience with citrus trees on different stocks." This question of stocks is the most bitter one in the citrus fruit business, and I would rather bring a five acre grove to bearing, than try to convince a man that he is wrong, or that some other stock would be better for grape fruit, or Kings, tangerines, navels, etc. This tender subject should have been given to some other man than a nurseryman to present, and his hearers would be convinced to a degree. I have my fears about being able to do more than present the subject, and I hope the chair will get an expression from each preson in this room, and who knows but that some good will come of it.
Stocks: Now friends let us take up this tender subject. Cuba is fortunately situated, and can use some stock that neither Californian or Florida can use. There are also some stocks that they can use that Cuba cannot. Cuba cannot use the citrus trifoliata successfully. I have tried this stock with many varieties of oranges and grapefruit, and I have never found one thing that will produce commercially profitably on it. So forget it! the trifoliata.
Sour orange, the old stand-by and generally allround stock. I have used this considerably and am still using it. The sour orange gives very fair results for some varieties. Grapefruit generally does well on
it, but I don't like it for lemons, tangerines, kings, kumquats and navels, for these I prefer the stronger growing stocks. The sour orange is said to be free from the mal-de-goma disease. This term literally means bad of rubber or gum. I find that it will gum in Cuba. In my nursery work I find that it gums as badly as any other stock I use, and it is very inclined to bleed if it is cut or pruned in the rainy season. It is deep rooted with its feeders, and can be ploughed without cutting the feeding roots very. much, is a slow grower, produces a good quality of grapefruit that ships well, and has the following influences on the variety budded on it. If it is a graperfruit that is inclined to be sharp acid and bitter, it will retain each one of these particular traits, while on some other stocks the acid and bitter is neutralized greatly. For planting in low places, living with wet feet, it is fine, and it will stand drought on account of the long tap root and deep feeding roots.
The graperfruit root as bud stock.-I am using this stock very largely, and began with it ten years ago. It grows faster than the sour orange, and it will produce more tons of fruit with the same care and food, if pruned and cut up during the rainy period, will not show much, if any, more gum than the sour orange or rough lemon stock.
The rough lemon as a bud stock.-I used this stock very largely when I first came to Cuba, but found it difficult to use it generally on account of the bleeding.-having lost as much as twenty five percent of buds on this stock, before taking out of the nursery row, when budded to grapefruit, but if budded to the king or tangerine it is very satisfactory. I saw it exude one drop of gum where budded to kings, but very seldom any bledding if used for tangerines. Both of these bear very well on the rough lemon root. Now gentlemen here is a very important point: One thing budded on the rough lemon stock does not bleed, but a grapefruit or a sweet orange will bleed. 'This puts to flight the theory, that a stock must be
cut, or damaged, to allow the bleeding or gumming micro-organisms to get into the wound which causes this bleeding. Gentlemen, the bleeding of any and all citrus stocks, is a question of mastication and circulation of the two stocks united, and this can be governed to a great extent by feeding a balanced ration. Where you have a surplus of amumoniated plant food you will find the gum, no matter what your stock is
Here, shaddock is a stock, which when known better will revolutionize the citrus fruit business. It is a gross feeder and -will grow more in twelve months than the sour orange will in twenty-four months. I have 50 shaddock trees that are planted seven years,, and are in full bearing. Planted 21 feet apart they are interlocked from three to six feet, and are about 20 feet high. They have never had a moments care after the second year. This stock with proper care will not bleed any worse than other stocks, and it will tone down the bitter and acid of any fruit. It will proudce from 60% to 100%o more fruit than the sour orange, and will stand neglect. or respond to good care. Its equal I don't know. I am using it in my own groves, and am glad I have it, for it brings me money from the ponderous crops of fruit it produces. Of ten acres of fruit I put out last fall I have used this stock entirely, and will continue to do so. My groves when all gathered of fruit will give a crop of about 5,000 boxes. My exhibit will show you the shaddock tree and the fruit, also the grapefruit and the sour orange stock. Come and see them! I have told you more about stocks than a n urseryman should but we owe it to humanity to help a little. With me a citrus stock is not a fad. I don't plant it because other countries do. I take absolutely no person's, word until I hiave proved it with actual results. My grove on the above stock is a success. Gentlemen I thank you!
Col. Harvey: I believe that mal-de-goma is an infection of the sap, and I have never found a case of what is called mal-de-goma which could not be cured by proper treatment.
Mr. Towns: This mal-de-goma or gumosis, as it presents itself here in Cuba, is due, I believe, to some mal-nutrition of the tree. Perhaps to its not.receiving proper treatment.
Mr. Cervantes: I would bring the attention of the members here to some observations made by a friend of mine in regard to sour orange. The oranges which are not picked from the trees, and which are allowed to remain upon the branches during the dry months, will shrink up, and look as if they were about to fall, but if allowed to hang it will be noticed that when the rainy season starts again the fruit will again fill ,out, and take on new life. After being picked it will be observed that they have a taste far superior to the oranges which have been picked upon their first PatmIitv. A friend of mine in Honduras has brought this subject to my attention, and he says that it is ,of most common occurence there.
Mr. Towns: I will with pleasure discuss all that I know about the matter which Mr. Cervantes has brought to our attention, but before doing so, I would like to hear your comments upon the paper which I have read.
Mr. Collins: I have noticed some trees in my nursery, and they were growing very fast before they started this gumming, which has been the cause of my losing many trees. Once I went into a neighbour's grove and cut off a tree about six inches down in the ground. The tree was dying, and I found it all rotten below ground. I am not familiar with mal-degoma, but from what I have heard, I would judge, the case which I have stated, was one of its causes. I do not know whether it is to be found in all places in Cuba, but from the experience I have had, I believe it is most certainly to be found down our way.
Mr. Towns: I have seen some mal-de -goma in Florida, but I do not consider myself an expert in this matter. Before I became a nurseryman, when I noticed a tree which looked to be sickly, I would take it up and burn it. At present I cut the bark on each and every tree, and we never have any trouble from gumming, because we cut them properly.
Mr. Collins: If a tree is in a healthy condition. Do you think it proper to cut it?
Mr. Towns: Yes, ]I think we should, for it never does a tree any harm to cut it. There are many other causes which produce the gumming, but if they are well cut, you 'will never observe this gumming.
Mr. Collins: In treating this disease, I do not know whether my treatment was proper or not. I cut out the diseased bark, giving it a thorough washing with creoline, and have never had any more trouble.
Mr. Peirson: In the North we always consider that the stock has not such an influence on the tree as the soil in which it, is planted. Our experience in Omaja is, that the sour orange has never showed any disposition to gum.
Mr. Towns: We find that on the soils of some nurseries the sour orange roots do well, and that it will do better on his particular soil than in any other soil, but if the nurseryman will observe his own trees on other soils, he will undoubtedly notice different results.
Mr. Ladd: I have observed that the grapefruit gives very good results on all lands on which I have used it, and that the blue-green beetle will not attack it as much as it will the sour orange.
Mr. Van Hermann: I understand that where the soil is poor, sour orange stock is not profitable. We have a part of the grove planted with what is supposed to be rough lemon, but I am not sure whether it is rough lemon or not, but I am sure that it is a lemon of some kind. They suffer during the dry season, but they make it up in the wet season. We have found several cases of what is described as gumosis, and we have had the trees taken up, and burned them,
as we did not want to take any chances on having this spread.
Mr. Peirson: My opinion is that gumming is due in many cases to the soil and not stock or buds. On proper soil a deep-rooted tree like the sour orange can be planted, and the result will be much better than with a shallow-rooted tree in a soil that does not allow proper root development.
Mr. Meyer: No one here seems to know what is the cause of gumosis, but I think we should devote ourselves to the cure until we find the cause. If you damage your skin you must wash it, or else it will become infected. Therefore I think that citrus trees should be treated in the some way. The wounds on the trees may be caused by ants or other animals breaking the skin, and the infection is produced by this cause. As I stated before, until we find the real cause of the disease, we should occupy ourselves with its cure, and I think we should all try carbolineum. It would be better than uprooting the trees, or at least it would be cheaper.
Col. Harvey: Did you ever use creoline ?
Mr. Mayer: Yes, I have.
Mr. Towns: I would suggest that the agents of this carbolineum distribute some. I really think they might give us some to try.
Mr. Mayer: Any reputable material is worth paying for, we cannot give the stuff away, we only give it to colleges and government stations.
Mr. Collins: I think creoline will cure the disease, and remove the cause.
Mr. Mayer: Creoline may be all 0. K., but it does not penetrate, you have to apply it constantly. You will find carbolineum more satisfactory.
Mr. Miller: The chief point is to know, what you are going to do with your tree. We have spoken about gumming, and we must find some actual cause for it, to help us down the difficulty by which we are all surrounded.
Mr. Henricksen: There are many conditions that may cause gumming, which can be readily observed
in various places in the West Indies, as well as in Florida and California. Gumming manifests itself in various ways, and the different forms of it have been studied and named in Florida and California. but in our discussions here I would suggest that we drop such questions, as to whether we have gumosis or mal-de-goma or some other form.
Gumming as we have it is always visible on the trunk immediately above the crown roots. It may and it may not be visible to the naked eye on the roots at the earliest stage, that is when the bark on the crown roots will show discoloration, and in that stage it looks very much like the Florida foot-rot. There is that to remark however, that in Florida the foot-rot usually occurs on older trees, while here the gumming is nearly always on young trees. Gum may, or may not, break out higher up on the trunk and in the limbs, but when it does, it certainly looks very much like what is called "tears" in California. As to the question of gumming being contagious, it is not known whether it is or not. Personally I do not believe that it is. There are undoubtedly bacteria and fungi present, but from the nature of the trouble it seems reasonable to believe that these are secondary and not primary causes.
As I said several conditions may cause the trees to gum. We have the physical condition of the soil, the chemical composition of the soil and the water content of the soil. Next we have the stock on which the tree is budded, the variety of the bud and the relation between the two. There may still be other causes, but any and all of these we know do cause gumming.
The trouble occurs most frequently in the rainy season when the soil is saturated, but we also find it in the dry season, especially when the soil is cracking from drought. Also after dee-n ploughine when many of the roots have been cut off. We may reason on that, and no matter what different conclusions we may arrive at, we will all aaree that the sap circulation has something to do with it. The tree takes
up water through its roots, and in the water are a number of mineral salts in solution, which are elaborated and changed into plant tissue. It may be that a young tree planted in rich soil finds too much of these salts in solution, and in trying to elaborate what is taken up by the roots, it gets indigestion. After the top grows larger and it becomes better able to digest its food, it is not so much subject to troubles of that kind. It is also probable that some of the older trees gorge themselves without wanting to in the rainy season after a long drought. Injury to the roots, such as that caused by the plow, or by drought, upsets the equilibrium of the tree, and gumming is apparently caused in that way.
But after all gumming may occur where the soil conditions seem to be right, and it is unquestionable that the tree itself may be at fault. While we do not know yet for sure, which is the best stock for a certain variety, and which is best adapted for a certain soil, we do know that there is a difference., Rough lemon, for instance, may be better adapted for a poor sandy soil, because it is such a voracious feeder, that it will get all there is and keep the bud growing, where a sour or sweet orange would starve, but on account of that very thing it is unsuitable for a rich moist soil. Its very greediness causes gumming, because it takes up nourishment faster than the top can elaborate it. Of course- that again may depend On what the top is. Lemon on rough lemon, for instance, ought to be all right, but remarkably enough it is not. In Italy they had lemon budded on lemon and suffered so much from gumming in places that they had to plant bitter orange stack and bud on that instead. I hope that after this we, will observe conditions more carefully and be able to tell shortly just what we have found here.
Mr. Collins: If your trees have the gum disease what would you do?
Mr. Hendricksen: It depends on the way I should feel about it. I might not do anything and then again I might feel scared, and jump in and do something,
to satisfy myself, even though I might not help the tree. There are as many pet remedies as there are planters almost. I have seen them cut away the diseased bark and paint the scar with various strengths of carbolic acid, creozote, coal tar, creoline, carbolineum, Bordeaux mixture, sulphur-lime wash, etc., and I have heard them defend their own particular product. I have also seen all of those washes used without cutting the bark, and do not yet know whether any of them did any good ar not. In many cases I know that the trees not treated recovered as quickly as those that were. I have also seen trees killed outright with too strong solutions of carbolic acid. I suppose that the solutions were used as antiseptics, with the idea that gumming was contagious, but that is rather far fetched as long as it has not been proved that it is. However any of them would make the wound aseptic, and would be valuable on that acount. From what I have heard and seen, I should prefer carbolineum if anything. However I would rather cut a slit in the bark before hand, and let the gum out, if any is present, than have to use any of those remedies.
A CITRUS NURSERY AND HOW TO GROW IT
BY MR. E. C. PFIRSON.
By request of one of your committee I have prepared the following paper on the method of growing Citrus trees in the nursery.
To begin with, I should say that to successfully manage a nursery the one who does it should be a cearefuil student and with no degree of laziness, for neglect to do the work just when it should be done, and just as it should be, will always prove a disadv~antage and expensive. A properly kept nursery means intensive cultivation. The land must be work,ed in the best possible way, so as to ge out all there is in it; then satisfactory results may be expected.
It will be impossible to give every detail from the time of procuring the seed till the 'tree is all ready grown and prepared for the grove, as soils and climatic conditions are liable to vary and only a general outline can bQ given. The nurseryman's good judgment and watchfulness must be on hand to meet any condition that may be required.
Sour orange appears to be the most generally approved stock on which to bud in Cuba. While it may
-not grow trees as quickly as some other kinds it is proving to be the most healthy, and all around the safest stock to use. We are using no other.
Fruit should be procured from the sour orange free. Then take out the seed and carefully wash and dry same. It should be dried slowly and not exposed to the sun or wind. After drying, the seed can be used when required.
Good garden soil is desirable for the seed bed. It should be very fine and just the right moisture; as, damp as the ground will work good. The rows may be two feet apart which will allow of cultivation with a horse and a drag cultivator. The drills for the rows should be four inches wide and one inch deep or a little less. Scatter the seed in the row and cover with a hoe one half to three quarters of an inch deep. It is desirable to cover the seed bed with some screen to prevent.the ground from crusting over and the hot sun from burning the young plants, till they have made some growth and have three or four leaves.
Weeding and hoeing will need to be done, as a small weed in this country soon gets to be large if allowed to grow. The cultivator and hoe will be necessary until the plants are 15 to 18 inches high when they are ready for the nursery row.
The kind of soil we find best adapted to the growing of Citrus trees is a sandy loam, having a reddish clay subsoil mixed with gravel. This subsoil does not leach but will hold the moisture during the dry season if the top soil is kept finely cultivated. The roots grown on such soil are all that can be desired, being well balanced with plenty of fine fibrous roots. In this respect, which is of prime importance, such a soil is far more desirable than an extremely rich, deep soil such as would be classed as good sugar cane ground. While the very rich soils will force a more vigorous growth, they do not give as good a root system, and consequently the trees grown thereon will not stand transplanting as well.
The ground should be prepared for the nursery by a years previous work. This may be done by what farmers call "summer fallowing", which puts the ground in good mellow shape to receive the plants.
The nursery rows should be V feet apart and the plants set 10 to 12 inches apart in the row. It is important to have the rows perfectly straight. The seedlings should be taken up when the ground is wet, and moved with the greatest care to keep them from the sun and wind when transplanting.
After this comes the work of making the tree which may seem simple and easy when read about, but the continued care and watching of each tree that it may be kept the proper shape and thriftiness means eternal vigilance. After planting; the cultivator, hoe, and pruning knife are in order. Weeds and crusted ground must be combated or plant growth will be lost.
After the stock is well established and has made a good healthy growth, comes the matter of budding. Budding, as probably all of you know, is the taking a bud from a limb of the tree from which you wish to propagate, and inserting it in the seedling in the nursery row. We have often heard the question asked; "Why do you bud ?" The question surprises us, but upon reflection we know that we often ask simpler questions ourselves. The matter of budding or grafting is for the purpose of propagating any certain variety of fruit. No fruit will come entirely true to its parent tree from the seed; hence the importance of being sure of the result as to variety. A
-nurseryman, if he is fit to be classed as such, will always be sure of his buds being correct. He will not only take every possible care to be sure that they are correct but that the nursery row is staked and a record of same is kept, and when going through the nursery as the trees. are growing he Will be always on the lookout to see if by any possibility a wrong. bud stiek mav havP been used.
After the seedlings. have been budded and the wrappings removed, the seedlings have -to be "lopped" that is, cut partly off above the bud so as to leave only a part of the bark holding. The sprouts that will start have to be kept off so as to throw the growth into the bud. When the buds have grown to some height and have become well established- the tops have to be cut entirely, off and the stub cut 'back close to the bud so that the scar may in time become entirely healed over. It is important to watch any that are not growing straight and have them staked, so as to hold them upright by tying. The pruning
knife is always in riquisition, so that any shoot not making the proper growth may be removed.
It may be advisable to say a word about hoeing. The hot sun here in Cuba comes down very fiercely, and if it comes down on a smooth and unprotected surface it is sure to take the moisture out very quickly so it is important to leave the ground along the row rather rough. This can be done by using the corner of the hoe and not the broad bit of the hoe. This is especially important-in the dry season but it is better in the wet season also.
The cultivator is important. Use a broad tooth cultivator often enough to keep the weeds down. In the dry season the drag tooth cultivator is better to keep the soil loose and prevent crusting.
Now with regard to varieties. A nurseryman has to anticipate what the market will need one or two years hence, and has to be something of a prophet, as the cash profits are somewhat dependent thereon. When we came to Cuba, nearly five years ago, to remain permanently, we made it a point to call at the experiment station at Santiago de las Vegas for the express purpose of learning, if possible, what varieties of Citrus trees were proving the most desirable. Prof. Earle, who was the Director at that time, said that the Station was not then prepared to give much information on the subject, as they had not been established long enough. He advised that the best way to do was to visit where they had trees in, bearing and learn what we could.
We followed his suggestion and we have also established an experimental grove in connection with our nurseries. We have planted enough trees of the more promising varieties to make a good test of each, and now have the satisfaction of seeing the different fruits on our own grounds. .While, as I have said, local conditions vary, to a considerable extent, the routine and detail of growing nursery stock, I offer the above from our personal experience, and if what I have said should prove
of any value to any of the members of the Society they are most cordially welcome to same.
Mr. Miller: What size buds, or what age buds would Mr. Peirson recommlnend for transplanting?
Mr. Peirson: When a tree has attained a certain size, and has matured, it is ready to be transplanted. Take a young tree for instance, it may have the right size in the nursery, but if the wood is not properly hardened, it is not iu the right condition for transplanting, therefore I should say that the age is not of as much importance as the condition of the tree. Sometimes trees have attained their full size in one year, but all trees are not alike. Some grow faster than others, therefore it is the condition of the tree more than the age. A one year old tree may serve the purpose in many cases, but a two year old tree is more likely to have its wood well hardened.
Mr. Young: It has been my experience in the Isle of Pines, that a one year old tree serves the purpose as well as a two year old tree.
Mr. Peirson: The trouble is that some nurserymen sell trees as being two years old, when they really are not two years old, but as we have alreadyagreed this is not the important question. The important thing is to get a tree that has never suffered from starvation or from want of water.
Mr. Towns: Another point that should be carefully looked into, is the dormant condition, which must be produced in order to have the wood ripen. We all know that there is rio cold weather in Cuba to produce dormancy, and -we must look for some other safe and economical -way. I have had good results from cutting the roots a little time before taking the trees from the nursery for ship-ping or transplanting.
The Secretary: Before we leave this question, I would like to call the attention of the, Society, as well as of every member individually, to the fact, that we have now well established nurseries on the Island,
and that the time is past that we need go abroad for nursery stock.
This is undoubtedly known to many of you, but for some reason or other you still send to Florida nurseries for your trees. I know this because I see boxes piled up on the wharves in Hlavana almost every we~ek. I receive a great many inquiries about nursery 'stock, as well as other things, and I invariably refer to local nurserymen. This is not owing to a prejudice against Florida trees, but we who are here should stand together in all things. Therefore when von want trees, consider the local nurseryman, and if one don't suit, try another. You will find all the stocks from sour orange to shaddock, and if you have any preference there are enough to choose from. The varieties here are also reliable, or at any rate, as much so, as those from abroad, because there are now enough trees in bearing, to enable nurserymen to bud from nothing, except they know it and have seen it.
CITRUS NURSERIES AND HOW
TO GROW THEM
BY J. E. ROBERTS.
(Read by title.)
The subject "Citrus Nurseries and How to Grow Them", is the most important in the citrus fruit industry, as the quality of the trees determines the quality of the fruit, and if the trees are not first class the fruit they bear will not be first class. As I cannot be present at the meeting, I shall touch upon some of the main points only, and to anyone who cares to have more detailed information, I shall be glad to furnish it at any time.
It is of the utmost importance that a Nursery should be conducted by an honest and conscientious man, as there are so many opportunities for a dishonest man to practice fraud, without being caught for sometime, and it is very discouraging after a person has spent his time and money, to fmd that he has an inferior article, and the wrong variety of fruit.
It is also of the utmost importance that the trees are dug and packed properly for shipment, because no matter how good the trees are, if they arrive in poor condition, they will either die or give poor results. The best remedy for the buyer is to go personally to the nursery, and see the method of growing and shipping the trees. I don't care to go into the subject as to whether foreign or domestic trees are best, as any observant person can tell which gives the best results.
How to grow a nursery requires some experience and a lot of common sense. Care should be taken to select a well drained piece of land, not too heavy to
work easily. Plough and cultivate thoroughly, buy your seeds in the fruit if possible, and plant them under your personal supervision, as bought seeds are ~very liable to be mixed.
It is very difficult to decide which kind of seedlings will do best in the different localities. This can only be determined by experimenting in different parts of the country. Up to date the sour orange sedling has given the best satisfaction for root system, but we are experimenting with differnt varieties of seeds to see which will give the best results.
The greatest care should be taken in selecting the bud wood. It should be taken from healthy trees bearing the best variety of commercial fruit. Care should be taken to keep the nursery clean, and not to let the seedlings get stunted or scaly. Trees should be staketrained straight, and kept from limbs below the height desired to start the branches of the tree.
The greatest care should be taken in digging trees to keep the roots 'from sun and wind, and when planting to have the holes dug deep enough, and the earth well pulverized, also if the ground is dry when planting use plenty of water and cover with dry earth. When packing trees for shipment, care should be taft en to pack well around the roots with damp packing material, and to use good strong packing cases that will stand rough usage.
BY DR. F. R. IRAMSDELL.
If you wish to raise cocoanuts or St. John's bread, you want a fierce and continual breeze. If you want to raise anything else from a cabbage or tomato to a pomelo, you want all the protection from the wind that it is possible to secure. In the United States. severe winds blowing about the growing grain causes millions of dollars loss every year, and here on the Isle of Pines we would estimate a loss of 50% every year, not counting an occasional tornado. How can we prevent that loss? On a recent visit to San Pedro, (the model colony of the Island) where they build their own roads, and often others too, we saw on the east side of the grove about ten feet out in the land a row of bamboo closely set the entire* length of the grove. Now if they will put on the fence line a hedge of carissa and twenty feet inside of the fence a row of improved mangoes, they will protect their citrus grove beyond. And if everybody else would do the, same thing, it will be possible to raise citrus fruit 's to an advantage. If it didn't help their groves- it wouldn't make much difference, because the fruit on the hedge and on the mangoes would make them more money than they could spend on the Island, and if* they would cut out citrus fruits altogether, and set out alternate rows of mangoes and avocadoes they would have to take a trip to the old world every year to keep down their income.
I have seen -nothing. tried here that promises a better protection from high wind than bamboo. It takes up less room with both tops and roots than anyhing else, and while it bears no fruit, the young shoots are eaten like asparagus, and the joints make
valuable pots for shipping young trees. The stalks furnish rafters and other building material and make fairly good fire wood. Many other uses will suggest themselves as the bamboo matures. Some of the many varieties of Eucalyptus will be found useful, especially if set at the edge of the grade along the public roads. It would beautify the country very much and make a delightful shade in which to drive. We will need Eucalyptus for telegraph poles, piling, railroad ties, bridge timbers and many other things, so while giving us protection from the wind, it will, when the pine has been all cut down, supply its place for wodd.
There are many low-growing evergreen bushy shrubs native to the Island that can be planted in hedges running North and South at intervals that would not only protect from the wind but would pay a handsome profit on their fruit. The guava which makes the world renowned guava jelly, and the cocoa plum (or chrysobolanthus) which, while the jelly is not near so handsome, is finer flavored and as the children express it, "it tastes like more."
This fruit is very prolific, and when once known will be in great demand.
If you need a low windbreak quick for your garden, nothing perhaps will grow so quickly as the cluster fig. It has a dense, dark evergreen foliage, and while the fruit is small it makes quite a quantity of poultry food. For protecting your gardens and crops where you do not want a permanent growth the gandul or pigeon pea will answer the purpose, and like the rest, will also pay its way. The peas are fairly good green and very good dry, besides being relished by all kinds of stock and poultry. They also bring a good price in the market.
Remember this, that time and money are not wasted in anything that will protect your crops and fruit from wind, our worst enemy.
Mr. Henricksen: Have you found a cluster fig growing on the Isle of Pines, if so, how is it doing?
Dr. Ramsdell: The cluster fig is growing well near Nueva Gerona, and it seems promising there as a wind-break, and I believe the fruit is useful for preserves.
Mr. Halstead: In regard to wind-breaks, will say that I have observed a grove in Western Cuba, which is surrounded by natural forests on all three sides. It withstood the late storm, and preserved two thirds; of the fruit clinging to the branches, while the fruit from all the other groves was blown off, and the trees very much injured.
Mr. Towns: We have not much wind in Eastern Cuba, but it will pay us to be well prepared for it. We should certainly have wind-breaks, but I do not think bamboo is practical, it is too hard on the land. It grows tall enough, but it does not make a good wind-break unless it is planted in rows reasonably close together. When planted in that way it is hard on the land, and I doubt if it would be possible to feed it and to grow trees successfully close to the wind-breaks. I would recommend planting Aguacate in the checks between every other row of trees.
Dr. Ramsdell: I think bamboo makes a splendid wind-break, agd to judge from what it is doing on the Isle of Pines, I think it will prove a success anywhere.
Mr. Towns: Yes, but can you afford to feed it?
Prof. Earle: Aguacate cannot be successfully used on account of the wood being so brittle, it breaks off with the very strong wind. Mr. Henricksen: In sandy soil the aguacate seems to be shallow rooted. I noticed on the Isle of Pines last year, that most of the aguacate trees had blown over and the roots entierly exposed.
Mr. Vanllermann: The mango is a very good tree for wind-breaks. I have trees 75 feet high, but it is very slow growing. I would recommend it for a permanent wind-break, because it is deep rooted and well anchored in the soil, and the wood is tough and can withstand very strong winds.
Mr. Patterson: What about Eucalyptus?
Col. Harvey: Most Eucalyptus grow tall, and the trees are tough if planted reasonably close together. I think the Eucalyptus makes a very good windbreak, besides the wood is valuable, it may in time be worth $150. per acre per year. Furthermore the trees can be cut, and in a short time they will renew themselves from the stump.
Mr. Cervantes: Casuarine is the best wind-break I have seen in Cuba.
Prof. Austin: I think the casuarine is very good, and I also like the Grevilla, and as far as the Eucalyptus is concerned, would say that I have not seen and old tree in Cuba in good shape, all the old trees look stragly, as if there were something the matter with them. Of other trees to be considered, we should not forget the Mamey. Mamey colorado is very strong, and Mamey de Santo Domingo is also very good, but blows down sometimes when old. West Indian Laurel is also very good.
Mr. Hendricksen: A pertinent question at this time would seem to be preservation. It is easier to preserve the trees already present, than to plant and build up new wind-breaks. The way in which the land is cleared at present is ruinous. In the East where there are great native forests, and where some of the timber at least is very valuable, it would be much better policy to preserve the patches or strips for windbreaks, than to cut all of the timber as everybody is doing at present. It will pay any man in the long run to leave at least 14 of his land uncleared or partly cleared of underbrush, so as to kill out bibiJaguas or other plant enemies.
Mr. Patterson: To sum up this question, I judge
from the remarks that the thing is to use good judgment when clearing. To plant wind-breaks where nature has not provided such, and to use trees that will stand the wind, and cause the least damage to the growing crop.
THE BIBIJAGUA ANT
BY PROF. J. L. ROBERTS.
The Bibijagua Ant, like most other tropical pests, seems to have recieved but little close scientific study by the residents of the tropics. The literature is scarce and treats of them in a general way only. The early Spanish and Portuguese settlers and colonists found them in every tropical country, and knew no way of combating them. The Indians lived mostly by the chase and had never thought of disturbing them. However, no sooner had the colonists begun the pursuit of Agriculture and Horticulture than they met the greatest difficulties in all localities from this pest,, and in many, absolute defeat. Many plans were tried to conquer, them, but none were ever found, and even to this day only palliative or temporary remedies. have ever been discovered.
In Brazil possibly the nearest apnroach has been made to eradication, at great cost and by concerted action of a whole district. The bellows method is the one generally used there; this consists in a blowing device in which sulphur is burned and the sulphurous acid gas is forced through a hose into any active ant tunnel or nest found, by pushing the nozzle into said tunnel. Other substances such as hair, horns. and leaves are also burned, so that as much bad odor as possible may be made, and also a dense white smoke. In a short time this smoke will be seen rising out of many openings to other tunnels, as they usually connect. These are closed by a gang of men as fast as seen, and the bellows or blower is keptrunning. By this means an acre or two may have every tunnel or nest charged with the gases; when the apparatus is moved to fresh ground.
Of course, many ants are killed and the pest is allayed for a time, but only for a period, because al the ants cannot be killed by this method, even after much time and great care is used for the reason each nest is composed of numerous cells very much like a lung, and these cells are nearly of a uniform size and shape, generally containing 5 to 6 litres of space, while the opening to the passage way or tunnel is not larger than one's thumb or finger, and when any noxious gas begins to penetrate therein, an effort is made by the ants in the cells to plug up this neck or passage with earth, and if successful no more gas gets in and in these cells are the queens and moles as well as the larvae in all stages of development. When the gases subside, as they will in a few hours, 'he enclosed ants unplug the hole and begin 'operations again, so that within a short time they must be again blown, and thus the ant men are kept busy continually.
There is another method which has been tried, and that is to inject various poisons into their tunnels, which would necessitate their passing over it or through it, and thus not only get poisoned, but carry the poison on their feet and legs into the larvae. This, while ingenious, has very little efficacy. IStill another is to fill the tunnels with an explosive gas, and ignite it and thus kill them by explosion. The most common method, however, and one that does sometimes succeed, is to dig and burn them. This can be relied on if one is careful enough, and is sure of digging out every cell and burning every queen and female larvae. This method is very expensive, and as near as Mr. Albert Corbin and I can figure from our experience, now extending over two years, is that over 50% of the nests we have been employed in killing have been nests that have been dug once and some twie, and more times. it is safe to say that not over 25% of the diggings are fatal to the nests, for the reason that one queen escaping or one female larvae left unkilled will be joined by the legions of workers which are never much at home at one time,
'who will promptly join her or it and renew the colony promptly.
The person killing the nest will not notice for some weeks or months any depredations, and will fancy the nest dead. There are hundreds of queens and female larvae in a large nest, so it is no easy task.
The bibijagua as a pest to the tropics easily ranks first. So terrible is this pest that whole districts are avoided for farming purposes. Up to recently northern people thought that the reason nothing else much grew was owing to climatic conditions, little suspecting that the wonderfully sagacious and interesting ant was the cause of the absence of nearly every useful plant grown in the North, while many of which really reach their highest perfection only in the tropics. The Northern person often really admired these wonderful road and'bridge builders. They were said to be so far advanced in civilization that they actually carried umbrellas to keep the sun off. This is the kind of information that was and is printed. These good people did not know that these dear creatures. carried vastly more umbrellas at night than by day, and that every umbrella was a stolen one from some edible plant, either for man or animal. Every tree or plant that now exists in the tropics, lives in spite of them. Most tropical plants secrete some poison the, ant cannot stand when eaten, and this has come about by evolution; the ant selecting the best for its taste and leaving the worst. The worst lived to mature seeds, and this gradually led to a few that the ant let alone. Many substances are poison to insect life that are not harmful to animal life, and viceversa. When any northern plant is cultivated in the tropics anywhere within range of bibijaguas, their scouts soon find it, and on taking home a sample, which they do, it is such a delicious dish they send back a whole army with orders to get it all and get it quickly, and bring it home at express speed. So the engineers lay out a road, and cut it clean and broad enough to get all of whatever is, aind it is quickly cut into umbrellas and walking canes and they
save the chips made in the process for the little one& to use at home, and they are so quiet and gentle about it that the owner is not disturbed during his slunab-ers, but on awaking sees nothing but bare stalks and, limbs of a beautiful garden or tree the day before.
I was an ant admirer, and as ignorant as the rest about this little beast on arrival in the tropics, and began planting with confidence on seeing that all my choice vegetables flourished in my garden, but in a little while I saw, but did very little tasting. Then began bad words for the ant, and war was declared, but where were the weapons with which to fight it? I1 dug, burnt, poisoned, and exploded, but the ants still came. Being a chemist by profession, I naturally turned to that science for, help, and after two years of study and experimenting, and studying the habits of the ant, I began tofind some vulnerable traits in them, and more efficacious compounds for killing them. After a longline of progressive tests and comparison of results. and eliminations, a combination of chemicals poisonous to ants was found, whose action was sure, and easy of application. It was found that no rapid method could be relied on, because of the scattered ants and the great vitality of the larvae. A slow insidious method was found, one that killed gradually,, extending over days, and even weeks if necessary. A poison not so offensive as to drive them away, and cause them to scatter, but one that stayed and work-' ed day and night all the time persistently. This did, the work so well that not only did it kill the ants, but it set up a fungus poison which the ants carried to, neighboring nests, and by killing one others got infected and died of infection alone. This poison staysin the nest and no ants will return to it again, as in the case where rapid and violent methods are used. Ants are socialistic, and are the opposite of bees. Allstray-outs are welcome in every nest, and thus carrythe germs of disease. There is no doubt that the disease germs are caused by the great masses of de-caying larvae, and ants under ground, and is no
doubt of a fungus nature, but this has not been proven.
It will now be possible for man to farm and garden in the ant countries of the tropics undisturbed and on the best lands. The best sign of good land is the number and size of the ant hills. Where they are numerous and large, the pasture is good and the land rich. Where there are none, or few, the land is very lean or poor. Hence the ant has the best part of the tropics monopolized now, but soon the tropics will be free of them wherever people care to make a settlement, and all kinds of the most delicate plants may be grown without fear of this terrible pest.
A company will soon be formed for the purpose of compounding unlimited quantities of the ant destroyer, and trained men will be ready to rid any community of the umbrella carriers in short notice, and it makes no difference how many or how large the nests, or how heretofore inaccessible they have been, this medicine will reach them wherever they are.
For the present all information can be obtained from Roberts and Corbin, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, Cuba.
Mr. Miller: I use the bellows method, and believe that the only way of getting these bibijaguas off your grove, is to dig right down after them into their original holes.
Dr. Ramsdall: Burning charcoal, seems to be the best way, A friend of mine, would dig out a hole, where the bibijaguas made their homes, and would burn the charcoal there, by this means the way of killing ants paid for itself.
Several amusing anecdotes were told about the bibijaguas ,wihch had no bearing upon the way of getting rid of them.
Mr. -: The bibijagua can be killed by sulphur
fumes. This was done at the agricultural station. This was about four years ago, and now there are no, more bibijaguas there. The bi'bijagua, is not as hard to manage as some people think. The best thing to do is to kill them right at the start, do not wait for them to get the start on you.
Mr. Cervantes: There is a very small ant which kills the larger ant. They cling to the feet of the big, fellows and thus destroy them.
Mr. Towns: I have heard of these ants before, and I have offered a big price for same, but my efforts. have been of no avail. I have never been able to secure any. I would state that I have tried to kill them as many. ways as I know how, but the best way I have found is to use carbolic acid. This makes a smell in the holes which drives out the ants completely. There is very little expense in using carbolic acid, it is very cheap. A pint can be used in five gallons of water with great success. I have treatedsome nests in this way, and the ants have never returned.
Mr. Halstead: I have used the Universal ant killer(In answer to the question, no I am not their agent.) with some success. A person can easily kill all the ants in one nest, but he must look around for other nests 50 or 100 yds away, if not your work of killing only the one nest will be in vain, for the ants will come over from the neighboring nests, and will occupy the same nest which you have cleaned out.
THE BEST VARIETIES OF CITRUS FRUITS
BY THOS. R. TOWNS.
Mr. President and Members of the Cuban National
I have been asked by the Society to 'tell you the best varieties of citrus fruits for the markets. Most of us know from experience that this is a hard thing to do, and no matter in what mannner it is discussed or offered to you, there is room for doubt. The answer given must suit the present day market, as well as prepare for a market that will exist ten, twenty or more years to come. When I began in Cuba there was the opinion of many without experience, who advocated this and that variety. Some were agents for nurseries in Florida, others only had their time and breath to lose, and we yet have some few who have not given up, but are more timid than formerly with their opinions. Our exhibitions have done more than anything else to settle the question of varieties once for all. We see what the exhibit is from this and that place, and we talk with this grower and that one, and we can soon make up a trial balance and tell quite closely if any mistakes have occurred, and avoid them ouselves. That is if we are not the mistaken one.
Another very vital point is that there are sections in Cuba that will not grow certain varieties of citrus fruits, while other varieties do very well. Grap~efruit is conceded to be a success from one end of Cuba to the other. Yet I know of some of the red soils that are not producing a commercial grade of grapefruit, which is selling for the cost of growing it. I con-
sider it is better for the planting public to know this now than after it is too late. By the way, did you ever notice how careful some of us are to avoid speaking of our errors?
We persist in letting eacb one find out for himself, but if we would only practice more charity, the world would be better. Many of us were honest years ago when we were young in Cuba, and advocated this and that kind to be planted, and have found out later that other varieties have shown better results. This is where dear old experience is fitting some of us for better things. One of the greatest mistakes that a newcomer makes is, that he will listen to any one who will hum up on fake stories, instead of getting the names of reliable people who are fit to give advice, and who know how to direct him on his course. A successful man can tell you more real facts in an hour than forty plodders can in their life time.
Now as to varieties. The best variety for youto plant must be decided by you after mature consideration. You will consider your distance from market, whether it will be a home or a foreign one. One of the best all round markets for oranges to-day is the Cuban Market. Havana merchants are looking into every clearing in Eastern Cuba to see if there is any fruit to be had. They are now paying 40 to 50 cents per hundred at the car door, which seems a low price to many, but it is not. It is a very good price for this time of year. Later of course the price will run to 75 ets. and $1.00 per hundred, but at this price the consumption is limited. We can make money selling oranges at 75c. per box on the tree. Cuban sizes run about 150, 176 and 200 per box. I have sold my tangerines this year to a Havana merchant at 55 cents per hundred loose. They will ran about 250 to the box. I have several acres, less than four, years planted, that netted me over $200.00 per acre, first crop. Let me here sound a note of warning. Tangerines will tend to over-yield while the trees are young, and will break themselves all to pieces if the* are not watched carefully. I find it a grand idea to grow a
big tree first, and then let it fruit. I have fifty or more fine trees split to the ground with the load of fruit, but the fault is mine. A ten acre grove of this variety near Havana will make you rich in ten years. It is a variety that will ship very well and will go to the States, but I do not advocate growing oranges to ship to the States.
The King orange: We have some authorities that will tell you that this variety will not ship well, and to plant it cautiously. I have it and have shipped it with fair results, but I can sell this delicious fruit at home for more than I can get for it elsewhere, as to know it is to buy it at every opportunity. It will always bring 75c to $1.50 a hundred in a large way, loose. I am planting ten acres to this variety the coming season. The tree is very prolific, and bears young. I never saw one bleed a drop in my life-Plant it. The American markets do not know this fruit yet and you must figure on supplying the home trade. This delicious fruit comes to maturity early in February, and is at its best in March and April. No mistake will be made in planting it, as it is really the king of the mandarine type of oranges, and will erase the scars of poverty from every grower who will plant it.
The Washington Navel and navel type generally: I have been very successful with the navel type of oranges. They are generally sweet long before they color up, and grow to a large size, and are very much sought after by the Cuban. It is far sweeter than any "china" orange that he has ever seen, he likes it and will pay you for it. I certainly believe that the navel should be planted liberally. It will not color up with me as other fruits do until the trees have born two or more crops, and then it is 0. K.
The generally accepted round orange I don'It know, but somehow I am losing out on the round orange. The pineapple orange is good, but it favors so many other near good oranges, that it never brings a fancy price. With me it does very well, and may be a money maker if planted on a large scale.
Valeucias: There was a time when I thought that the valencia was just about right, and it took- me several years to get the present view of it. The Cuban dry Spring usually wilts this variety, and when they fill up after the rains begin you don't always get a real good orange. It is a very expensive variety to grow, f or the reason that your trees have to carry the crops for four months in the year, and it requires feeding to do it, and to continue to bear crops. I do not consider it a good variety to plant. There will be more money lost on it than made for a number of years to come. Many of the kinds are so much better that you should really forget it for the the time at least. There are no doubt other kinds of good oranges, but I do not happen to remember seeing any exhibited at the Society's fairs, which are the thermometer of the citrus fruit business of Cuba.
Grapefruit: Yes! that is what I said, and I mean it, every word of it. I don't believe I ever saw a crop more generally successful anywhere than it is in Cuba. However, some of the red soils are producing a fruit that you have to cover up with sugar to eat it, and the rind is generally puffy. Cuban grapefruit seems to me to satisfy the most critical judge, and the time is not far distant when the Cuban article will take the place of the Florida fruit at a better price with the fruit eating-public. I am told that we can grow a better fruit than Puerto Rico, and I am pleased to report that she is selling her good brands at an advance of the market over all comers.
Varieties: There are so many good varieties that you will have to be the judge. I will however say that the Florida varieties generally are more bitter and acid than any of our best seedling varieties, and it is my observation the more mild you get it, the more generally preferred it is. People do not care to cover up this fruit with sugar to eat it, but generally they have to. I will show in my exhibit this year several seedlings, that bid fair to make a name for themselves.
For your information about late and early sorts:
All grapefruit takes about seven months after the blooming period to show fair color for marketing etc. They are more agreeable to eat at eight months. The early kinds ripen at the same time that the late sorts do, the difference being that the late sorts hang longer on the tree than the early ones, and are more acid early in the season, while the early ones are more agreeable to eat early in the season, and seem to wilt and drop off if not handled after hanging on the tree six months ripe. Some varieties have better and cleaner rinids than others, and will sell better. The more fancy fruit you can offer the better. There are also varieties that are better shaped than others. The pear shaped fruit should be avoided. Do you know that every kind of grapefruit ever thought of is being planted in Cuba? A great mistake is being made in doing so. I saw the other day a grove of Triumph grapefruit that could not be sold at any price. There was no juice to speak of at all, and the grove owner wished me to tell him what to do with them. I advised him to rebud the trees, although he would lose two years at least to remake the trees, While it is a tedious job it would be better than to plant new trees. It is a great loss, and could have been avoided by asking his nuseryman for sample fruit. This is not the only variety that will not become a money maker in Cuba. While it might be a good kind with some soils, it was not with this man, and it is not with me and many others that I know. I think that our Society could with advantage select several known kinds and publish the fact. It would certainly help the new comer in his selections.
THE SOURCES OF IRRIGATION WATER
SUPPLY IN CUBA
BY PROF. F. S. EARLE.
Each year serves to emphasize more and more sharply the necessity for irrigation in Cuba, in order to insure profitable crop production, and to prevent serious loss from the constantly recurring winter droughts. It is true that rainfall tables for a considerable number of years give an average winter rainfall of about 2 ins, per month. If this average could be depended upon it would be sufficient on the sandy and on the black lands, at least to insure the safety of tobacco and winter vegetable crops, and to carry orchard trees and sugar cane through safely on all ,classes of lands. In practice however, this theoretical average is very seldom realized. In occasional years the winter rainfall is so excessive as to make up for four or five years of excessive drought. There is probably not one year in ten, when crops of all kinds would not be greatly benefitted by the artificial application of water. Under. these circumstances a study of the available sources of water supply will be of the utmost importance in the future agricultural development of the island.
Irrigation water may be secured from three classes of sources: (1) From running streams. (2) From artificial reservoirs for catching and holding the flood water that normally runs off and goes to waste after very heavy rainfalls. (3) Underground water secured from wells.
Up to the present time running streams furnish by
-far the greatest part of the water used for irrigation in different parts of the world.
Cuba for a country of its size has comparatively
few large rivers, but in various parts, particularly in Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara and Oriente Provinces, there are numerous perennial small streams, which might be easily utilized for this purpose. In fact it seems to be an economic crime to see these waters continually running to waste, while there are thousands of acres of fertile lands to which these waters might be so easily diverted, that are either lying idle, or in the majority of years are producing scanty and unprofitable crops owing to insufficient rainfall. Fortunately not quite all the water in Cuban streams is running to waste. Enough is being utilized to serve as an object lesson and a demonstration. The oldest and best known irrigation system on the island is .that in the Giiines dictrict. A great spring or subterranean river bursts out of the ground in the hills some distance north and east of the town, and for a hundred years this water has been carried in ditches and spread over the fields. The methods of applying and using the water are crude and wasteful, but the results obtained with cane and winter vegetables are so profitable that those lands bring a yearly cash .rental of as high as from $10 to $20 per acre.
At the Central Constancia in Santa Clara Province, a small brook has been recently diverted into a ditch in such a way that it can be used for irrigation. of eight or ten caballerias of land (250 to 300) acres. The total cost of the work was only between $600 and $700, but it will practically double the crops of cane produced on those lands. On another part of the same plantation a pumping plant has been established to take the water from another stream. This it is estimated will supply some eight caballerias or more.
At the Los Calos plantation, belonging to the Guant6namo Sugar Co. in Oriente, river water has: been pumped for irrigating cane for many years. Extension work is now in progress for damming the stream some miles above, and bringing the water to the fields by gravity in a canal. While the initial expense is considerable, the cost of operating will be far cheaper than by pumping.
At the Media Tuna Plantation near Manzanillo, also in Oriente, the Beatty Bros. are preparing a ditch to bring river water to a part of their cane fields. This shows that the necessity and the opportunity of irrigation are both at least being recognized.
In Pinar del Rio Province many tobacco planters pump water from streams for irrigation, but so far as I know, no streams are being utilized for ditch irrigation. In fact, except in the case of very large plantations this is seldom practical for individual owners, since it usually necessitates the control of large areas of land, as ditches must usually be taken out of a stream a long distance above the lands they are intended to supply.
In practice it has been found in all countries that extensive ditch irrigation must always be provided and controlled, either by the government or by large companies. In the red land districts of Cuba, irrigation from streams is seldom practicable, since for the most part, the rainfull sinks into the cavernous :substratum of coraline rock. In a few places, hownever, considerable streams might easily be diverted on to rich red land areas. A noteworthy case of this kind, is the famous disappearing river at San Antonio de los Bahios near Havana. This is one of the largest and most constant streams in the province. It empties into a cave in the bottom of a sink hole in the outskirts of the town, and is completely lost. At a comparatively small expense it could be diverted into some of the best of red tobacco land in the Partidos district. The Almendares River too in its upper reaches might be diverted on to areas of red land.
The building of huge reservoirs to catch and hold storm waters is now attracting much attention in the arid regions of the western United States. It is also largely employed in the Hawaiian Islands to secure sufficient water for cane irrigation, but so far it has not been adopted to any great extent in Cuba, although a few parties are securing water in this way for tobacco planting. Ultimately it will come to be
one of our most important sources of water supply, for with our heavy summer rainfall, almost any dry ravine or depression could be dammed up and utilized for water storage. This method is specially applicable to the black lands, since these are usually underlaid by impermeable subsoils,' that would completely prevent loss from seepage. In the red lands newly constructed reservoirs will always be subject to some loss from this source, but these losses will decrease with use as the bottom becomes covered with deposits of silt. In selecting a sight for a reservoir care must be taken not to include any of the sink holes or "sumideros" that are so numerous in .some localities. Dirt damns, cheaply thrown up with teams and scrapers, will serve for holding very large bodies of water safely, provided one or two precautions are carefully taken. First the sod and surface soil must be removed from where the dam is to be built, and the surface of the subsoil nmst be broken, so that the dirt of the dam will settle into it without leaving any distinct line of cleavage that would permit the water to start seeping under the dam. Second, and most important of all, a spillway must be provided at one side or other of the dam, sufficiently wide, and enough below the top of the dam, to insure that even in the greatest floods, no water can ever run over it. If possible the spillway should direct the flood water into another ravine. If the water ever starts running over the top of a dirt dam the chances are that -nothing can save it. Dirt dams are seldom or never lost except from this cause. If the reservoir is located above the fields to be irrigated, so that the water may be run by gravity, a gate may be built into the base of the dam, or the water may be drawn over it by means of a syphon. If not so located the water will have to be lifted by pumping, as from a natural lake or river.
Irrigation from wells is often the most practicable method for the individual farmer, and is already being widely practiced in Cuba. Practically all oft the tobacco 'grown in the Partidos district, is irrigated
from wells, and many of the most successful growers in the Vuelta Abajo also adopt this method. Both open wells and driven wells are used. Each has certain advantages, but as a rule driven wells are moire dependable, since they can be sunk much deeper, and often draw from more than one stratum of water. The cost of opening wells and of pumping from them naturally depends very largely on the depth at which a permanent and sufficient water supply is encountered. In the Partidos tobacco district this is usually in the neighbourhood of one hundred feet. This is a long lift and makes the irrigation expensive. The pumping installations in use are for the most part rather crude, and in many cases this expense could be materially reduced by substituting producer gas engines for the steam and gasoline engines now employed.
In the Hawaiian Islands and in Porto Rico, much of the water used for irrigating cane, is pumped from driven wells. During the last year the Central Constancia, in the southern part of Santa Clara Province, sunk five wells, and has installed a pumping plant for irrigating cane. This is, so far as I know, the first time in Cuba that cane has been, irrigatted from wells. These wells are located near Horquita. The land is red, but rather lighter and dryer, than the typical red lands of Havana and Matanzas Provinces. Cane on those lands suffers so severely from drought, that the district was on the point of being abandoned. An unlimited supply of water however, has been found, only. twenty feet below the surface, and the results already obtained are so encouraging, that this experiment will undoubtedly lead to the adoption of well irrigation on a large scale in that entire district. Land values have already advanced materially in view of the great possibilities of the improvement in cane production.
I may sum up the situation as it appears to me today as follows: (1) Irrigation is necessary in nearly all parts of Cuba to insure safety in the production of either cane, tobacco, fruits or vegetables.
(2) Irrigation by gravity from running streams is usually the cheapest and most satisfactory. There are numerous areas in Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara and Oriente Provinces, where streams are available for this purpose, and occasionally opportunities exist in the other provinces. It is a grave economic error to longer permit this valuable water to wash itself in the sea, when it might be made to so greatly augment the production of our most valuable crops. Pumping from rivers and natural lakes can also wisely be done on a much larger scale.
(3) Irrigation from reservoirs is practicable in nearly all parts of the Island by throwing up earthen dams in dry ravines to catch the surplus waters of the rainy season. It is particularly applicable to the black land districts, where water from other sources is often hardest to obtain. Water fr6m such reservoirs can in some cases be applied by gravity, in other cases it can only be utilized by pumping.
(4) Our knowledge of the flow and distribution ,of the underground waters of Cuba is not sufficient
-to enable us to say with certainly, to what extent wells may be utilized for irrigation. It seems probable that abundant water can be found at a greater or less depth in nearly all parts of the red lands. It can also be found at many points on the sandy lands of Pinar del Rio and other "savanas" of the central provinces. In some parts of the black cane land districts it cannot be found, since even very deep borings have failed to developed a sufficient supply for factory purposes.. At other points in the black land districts, abundant water is found. The point can only be determined by test borings. In nearly all parts of the island the well water is good, and is adapted to the irrigation of even the most sensitive ,crops. Restricted areas are known however, where the water is too salty to be safely used. Where well irrigation is possible it is often the only method available for the small land owner.
Mr. Cervantes: I firmly believe that irrigation is absolutely necessary and essential for fruit growing and for the farming industry in general, however, I also believe that the best way to secure water would be to hold the natural rain water from the rainy season, as long as it would last into the dry season, for it must be distinctly remembered, that the waters discharged from a great many streams in this country, contain substances that are detrimental to plants, such as chlorides and alkalies. In regard to receiving water from wells, would say that wells are not always to be found, and when they are found it often happens that they run dry in the dry season. Irrigation as proposed by our friend, is known to wash out plant foods, and this wash out must be replaced by fertilizer, which naturally adds to the expense of farming in general. Although I recognize the fact that fertilizer is practically a necessity in this advanced age of farming, still, I believe that we should always observe a tendency to economize on this item if possible, and accept no means that would result in an unnecessary increase of the fertilizer.
Prof. Earle: In my opinion the best way to carry out Mr. Cervantes'plan, would be to construct small reservoirs to hold this rain water, and in due course run it off into the patches where it is needed.
Dr.. Ramsdell: There are many small rivers or streams which practically go to waste. These streams could be used to great advantage if they were properly headed off from their regular course, into the places where they are needed. This could be done by erecting earth dams, but one should be careful to see that these dams were built sufficiently high to prevent the water flowing over them, for if the water once starts to go over the top of these dams, they would be washed away. Otherwise if the earth dams are well constructed and solidly packed, they will answer the purpose.
Prof. Cowgill: While I agree with what Dr. Ramsdell has said, I would call the attention of the society to the question of the right of way. Are there laws in Cuba regarding streams and water for irrigation? If so, what are they!
The Secretary: As nobody seems to be informed on the subject, I shall take it up officially, and have it published later. *
Mr. Peirson: I believe the best irrigation to be,
-what is commonly termed dry farming.
Col. Harvey: In regard to irrigation, I would say, that it is impossible in Cuba to have good groves without irrigation, as one of our members has already said, all the failures, or if not all, the great majority of failures in Cuba, have been due to lack of water. In regard to dry farming, plowing is the question which deserves our most careful attention. We must be careful to select the right months in which to plow, and then be careful how we plow. If you begin plowing in the beginning of the dry season all the moisture will get lost. The b-est time to begin plowing is, in my opinion, before the wet season is entirely over.
'~Published in The Cuba Magazine. Vol. 2 No. 7, March 1911. Legal Delpart~ment
IRRIGATION VS. MULCH FOR ORCHARD PURPOSES
BY MR. H. A. VAN HERMANN.
The artificial application of water to the soil for agricultural 'purposes has been practiced from time rimemorial.
On the plains of Syria may still be seen the outlines Of the ancient aqueducts and canals into which the waters of the Euphrates and Tigris were diverted
-and conducted to the dry interiors to water the fields that fed ancient Nineveh and made imperial Babylon the emporium and center of Aryan civilization.
Egypt, whose history is lost in remote antiquity and whose buried monuments tell of the countless millions that once subsisted and prospered on the banks of the Nile. By systematic distribution the waters were carried over into the arid country, setting the desert boundary far to the westward. Egypt was the child of the Nile. Under the hand of the, farmer the "Land of the Pharaohs" flourished and became the granary and storehouse of the world. 'Only when the country folk became rich, flocked to the great cities and left the care and the management to slaves, did the ditches become clogged, the canals
-dry up, vegetation perish and the desert sands encroach upon the river itself.- Thus did the land of, the Pharaohs become a thing of the storied past.
7Under the direction of the British Government, lEgypt has again come into the front rank as an 'example of the possibilities of irrigation, and the great dam on the Nile at Assuan is the most stupendous work of its kind in the world today.
.Prayers for rain may be effective and faith in Providence be implicit, but an irrigating system is a more tangible assurance for the modern farmer. Irrigation is being more generally practiced within recent years, due, no doubt, to various causes, namely, advanced knowledge in agriculture,increased values on rural properties, and other products. Scarcity and increased value of labor calls for smaller farms, intensive cultivation, and a corresponding yield for the capital invested.
In the United States the people are taking hold of the idea and during dry spells crops are often saved, or more than doubled on the old lands.
By the expenditure of many millions of dollars by the government and private corporations the territory of our own West is made to blossom like the proverbial rose by the simple application of water to the dry soil, making prosperous homes for millions, a land of plenty in what was once a barren waste. The writer may be excused for digressing in a field so pregnant with living examples.
It hardly seems possible that Cuban agriculture should question the merits of irrigation for use in growing general crops, much less for orchard purposes. The existence of the citrus business in California depends on the irrigating ditch; Florida, also, is receiving beneficial results from the application of water to the orchard during dry seasons.
The means of conducting water to the fields and methods of distribution for Cuba will largely depend on the source'of supply and the area to be watered.
The advantages to be gained by irrigation are several.
lst.-The trees may be kept growing during the dry season where the soil is shallow. where trees would, otherwise, curl th-eir leaves and die back.
2nd.-If orange trees are watered about the first of February they will bloom and set fruit early in the season on mature wood. Fruit from early bloom is always worth considerably more than fruit set in June, being of finer texture, juicy and of good flavor.
Watering brings on the fruit ahead of the blue-green beetle (Pachnaeus litus), which cannot bite the. fruit when the skin becomes hard or tough, their ravages being confined chiefly to very tender leaves, flowers, and the fruit largely after the blossom has fallen. In our experiments, the beetles did not appear on the irrigated ground until their regular time, at the beginning of the rainy season, and by this time the fruit was about an inch in diameter, the subsequent crop being of a clear, smooth skin, having suffered no damage whatever from the effects of the b~eetles. Irrigation may lengthen the fruiting season, *or rather the marketing season. Early oranges may be forced into bloom earlier and later oranges may be held on the tree until late in the season. We have seen healthy trees of late oranges carrying hundreds of ripe fruits in July and at the same time growing a splendid crop of green fruit for maturing the following season. No doubt there are some orchards in Cuba, planted on deep, alluvial soil, that may never need the artificial application of water, but it is safe to say that there is hardly a year in which most orange groves would not be benefited by a thorough watering occasionally during the dry season.
How best to conserve the moisture applied will depend on the kind and condition of the soil, as well as on the industry and means of the operator.
THE BENEFITS OF VEGETABLE MfULCH FOR ORCHARD PURPOSES.
Every good agriculturalist works in conjunction with nature or tries to improve upon it.
Did you ever take a ramble through the Cuban forests. where the trees were tall and growing thicklv. to find yourself sfiin'hlin~v over golden oranges? Tf so, you no doubt found that the parent of that frulit was -part and inarcel of the forest, a tree vood to look upon, with its wealth of bright yellow fruits and large, dark, shining foliage. I have had several such surprises, and at once. began to question as to
how it came there and how it managed to grow and luxuriate in such a wild place in competition with all its hungry brothers. Some of the questions found their answer in the surroundings, i. e., cool, moist, shady atmosphere, sheltered from the dry winds, and last, but most important, was the condition of the forest -floor; the ground was not hard, but soft and springy as a cushion, the soil being mostly composed of leaf mold, decaying wood and forest litter. A hasty examination showed that most of the roots of the orange tree were feeding near the surface, principally among the organic mulch so common in th- virgin forests not ravaged by the scourge of civilizationfire.
Endeavoring to profit by making the idea practical, three years ago we selected about three acres of orchard, five years old, which was decidedly on the decline. The soil was of the mulatto type-shallow underlaid with impervious clay, being very wet in the summer and hard to cultivate in the winter. We found it impossible to cultivate without cutting or tearing up the roots with the implements necessary to work the ground: also that by following the method of clean cultivation it was necessary to plow and cross-plow the orchard at least once a year and the trees would always look yellow or die back after such treatment, if not immediately watered. An examination of the ground showed that nearly all the roots were within eight inches of the surface and that most of them were cut by the plow; a disc plow being used principally for breaking the ground. Finally we decided to abandon some of the grove and in consequence left it to grow up in grass, simply running the mower over it until we would have time to take up the trees and use the ground for other purposes, and to our surprise, at the end of the following year, the trees on unplowed ground had nearly doubled in growth over the trees on an adjoiningplot that were carefully cultivated and fertilized during the dry season. This part of the uncultivated orchard also stood the drouth during the winter
about as well as the cultivated part of the orchard. The following year we fertilized the two acre plot, sowing broadcast at the rate of ten pounds per tree, then plowing and harrowing one-half of the fertilized ground, a rain preventing the completion of the work: in the course of two weeks all the fertilized plot, plowed and uplowed, was covered with dead grass about three inches deep. Next to the two acre plot was a small block of trees neither plowed nor fertilized; this piece of ground was also covered with vegetable mulch (dead grass). In order that we may not forget the details of this experiment we will again give thd outlines: one block of trees fertilized, plowed and harrowed, covered with mulch; one block unplowed, fertilized and mulched; a small block adjoining unplowed, unfertilized and covered with mulch; a fraction of a block neither plowed, mulched nor fertilized.
The result of this experiment the following year showed better growth and color on the uncultivated, fertilized ground; and again, the trees that were not fertilized or plowed, simply mulched, made fifty per cent more growth than the plot that was not mulched or fertilized.
The beneficial results of vegetable mulch being apparently established in this case, we covered aboutF. five acres of the orchard last year, with the same results, including again the two acre plot which wag mulched the previous year. At this time the two acre plot is in process of mulching for the third year. No fertilizer was used last year, nor shall we apply any this year on this particular plot.
Unfortunately the hurricanes for the past two years have destroyed nearly-all the fruit from this plot, but that which was: left was of very good qualitv. and the trees recovered from the effects of the storm much more quickly than those on the cultivated fields.
Aside from the conserving of moisture and saving the expense of cultivation, there is the benefit of a chemical change which takes place, in most soils
when they come in contact with organic matter. In consequence of the ground being covered with mulch the soil is not packed by the heavy rains, nor do the beneficial gases as readily escape from. soil thus covered. Vegetable or organic compounds, when in process of fermentation, create certain acids which tend to liberate or make soluble much plant food which otherwise is insoluble, or tied up, as -we say, in combination with other minerals (especially iron) in such a form that the plants cannot use them. In our soil the decaying mulch would seem to liberate phosphoric acid, since nitrates and potash do not seem to have any effect on the growth of the trees, while the use of phosphorous, in the form of ground bone and basic slag, has given good results on nearly all the vegetation to which we have thus far applied it, the growth being strong, and giving a dark green luster to the foliage.
Now, lest some one should jump at conclusions, I repeat that these experiments were carried on on heavy clay soil, the sub-soil being almost impervious to air or water. We have started some experiments on dry red soil and await further results.
Whether it is cheaper or more profitable to mulch' or irrigate on a small scale, is a question for each individual grower to settle. If grass, leaves, etc., are cheap and close at hand, mulching might be desirable, since the returns are two-fold, the conserving of moisture and manuring the ground.
Col. Harvey.-I believe one of the best plans in the world is to have about 12 or 18 ins. of mulch.over the soil. I was in an orange grove about 8 years old which was loaded with magnificent fruit. They made about 15 ins. of mulch all over the plantation, and the roots came close to the surface. We were very much interested in this grove in the following year in July, after a severe dry season; a fire started and everything was entirely destroyed. I hear people talk
about going back to nature, there is this question of going into the woods. I have seen good groves in the woods where the owners have left the land, and these trees did not die, but were certainly not a commercial success. You do not want to go back to .nature you want to improve nature. You must keep mulch on the ground which will save your moisture, and remember at the same time that this mulch always brings insects and bugs, and you must consider that the mold lives on this mulch, but not all groves can be treated alike. I have visited two groves this summer, one which was not pruned. In the unpruned grove the soil was too wet under the trees and covered with mold. What was needed in this case was sunlight. If you could cover the ground with mulch without running any risk, no doubt it would be a good thing.
IRRIGATION FOR ORCHARD AND GARDEN
BY MR. E. W. HALSTIEAD.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen of the Cuban
National Horticultural Society:
I have been requested to prepare a short paper on Irrigation in orchard and garden. I wish to preface my remarks by making a statement :-a statement of fact, not of theory; and while some may take issue with me, and there may be exceptions to the rule, the facts will remain the same. My statement is this: that there never has been, and never will be any continued success in Cuba, either in orchard or garden, without irrigation. Some years nature is kind, and gives us part of all the water we need for our crops with no effort on our part, but these years are few and far between: the more usual experience is that she forgets us altogether just when our crops need water the most. And it is for these times that we must prepare to give our fields the moisture they must have to give us the returns for our labor' that we have a right to expect. Each one of you, who has had the experience of dry years, if not already in the possession of an irrigation plant, has undoubtedly been planning for one. Sometimes it is the water su-pply that is lacking; sometimes, and possibly more often, it is the money supply that is short; but whatever the difficulties, each one will overcome them to the best of his ability.
The outfits used for irrigation are of such infinite variety that combinations can be made to fit almost any need or condition, and range from a simple but effective outfit, such as I saw in successful operation mot long ago, consisting of two buckets hung on ba-
lanced poles to dip water from a pool, and pour into split palm logs for distribution, to the largest and finest conception of our modern engineers.
With an adequate water supply available, the question arises as to what is the best method of applying it to the land. Where the volume of water is sufficient, and the soil conditions admit, undoubtedly the most economical method is flowing the water in furrows: we seldom find land where this cannot be done to advantage if the water is put on in sufficient volume to flow freely. Take note of this point. We are now working in a red soil, so loose that it was thought to be impossible to apply water to it in this way as it soaked in so fast. In fact a short time ago a faucet was left slightly open on a tank containing about two thousand gallons of water: in the morning the tank was empty, and the moist spot at the end of the hose was hardly larger around than the tank itself. On this same land we are now irrigating trees, carrying the water in 3 inch pipes to a distance of 1500 feet from the tank, and then flowing in furrows another 1500 feet along the tree rows: and we could take it farther if we wished to do so. In this manner one man can apply the water to from 100 to 200 trees a day, and give each tree 100 to 200 gallons, or more, of water, as desired. We are also using this m ethod with equal success on our gardens and tobacco.
On a similar soil a Cuban neighbor was irrigating tobacco by the old sprinkler method. He made a visit to our plant, and has now thrown away his sprinklers and is irrigating in the furrow. Some of you may say that is takes a lot of water to use it in this way; that is just what I contend-use enough water at a time to flow freely in your ditches, and get over the groud, and you will do it quickly and not use any more water than you need.
But whatever else you do, if you- would have the success we all strive for, get water, and aply it effectively when you need it.
Mr. Towns: How do you irrigate a small young tree I
Mr. Halstead: You must use enough water, but try never to waste any between the rows. We have irrigation and our subsoil holds water very well. We have watered several times, however, in this way, and I have had my men make basins round the trees, and then put two or three barrels of water into the basin of each tree. This gave us good results in the absence of an irrigation plant.
Mr. Van Herman: I do not think it is always necessary to irrigate an orchard. If your soil is deep, you 'will probably never need irrigation, but in our section unfortunately, the people planted the trees without considering the subsoil. The trees when about three or four years old will absorb all the moisture in the top soil during the dry season, then the trees will die back, and if they do not they may drop their leaves and bloom unless they are watered. Adam Gray has installed a plant from which they will water through a two inch hose, and there is a hose for every twenty trees. A basin is made around the tree with a hoe, after that a man follows and applies about 200 gallons of water to a tree. Then after the water has settled away he levels the basin by pushing the earth back with the hoe. The pipes for this plant were brought in as agricultural outfit, and-it was duly sworn to as such, and received the discount given to farm implements. I Harris Bros., neighbours of mine on the other side have also installed a pumping plant. They will Pump from an open well by a donkey pump run by steam. The capacity being 15,000 to 17,000 gallons per hour. The depth of their well will be about 90 ft., and they raise the water into a tank made of cement holding about 50,000 gallons. The water is conducted from the tank to convenient places in the field through 8 in. vitralized pi e. The distribution from
the water gates in the pipes to the field is through open ditches. We also have a system called the Harris Compressed Air System. We pump about 9,000 gallons per hour from a well 300 feet deep, in which the water stands within 160 ft of the surface. We use a lagoon for a resevoir, from which the water is distributed in permanent ditches by gravity. The water is lifted from the lagoon by a turbine pump the extreme height of 16 ft. at the rate of 40,000 galions per hour. The expense of operating this plant is between $10 and $11 per day for fuel. There has% however, been no expense so far for an engineer. There is no doubt that this same plant might be operated much cheaper by steam instead of alcohol, the coal costing about $ 8.00 a ton, and the alcohol about 21c per gallon.
Question: What is the advantage of the compressed air system? The air system of pumping has no special advantages, except that there are no loose parts in the well to get out of order.
Mr. Towns: I should like to ask. Is it not advisable that everything should be done to cause the roots to grow as deep as possible, and -not encourage them to come up?
Mr. Van Hlermann: My paper will partly answeryour question.
CUBAN HAY AND FORAGE GRASSES
BY MR. H. A. VAN. HERMANN.
Hay-making in Cuba is not only possible, but practicable and in view of the yearly importations of hundreds of tons of hay from the United States and elsewhere, the work may be made remunerative for local supply .Hay-making, as carried on in the North, is unknown in Cuba and except for a few Spaniards and Canary Islanders, whose methods are rather primitive, grass is seldom dried for future use.
Cuba grows a number of valuable hay grasses, principally Pard, Guinea, Crab, and Bermuda grass; Johnson grass and a number of the paspalums are also used, all of which are easily grown and harvested if the ground is smooth and level.
Nearly all the grasses here mentioned are weeds on our cultivated grounds and usually a nuisance among other crops where clean cultivation is the object.
Crab grass is very common in most cultivated lands, and when properly dried, makes hay of the highest quality for both horses and cattle. Crab grass may be cut twice a year, first cutting in July or August: At this period the weather is usually favorable for one or two weeks. The grass should be piled before night and spread out again after the dew is off the next morning, and this repeated until the hay is apparently dry. When dry the hay should be put in large piles, or hay cocks, for heating or curing and spread out again in about four or five
*days, then re-piled into still larger cocks, until there is a sufficient quantity of hay to make a proper stack. Care should be taken at each handling to make the
cocks as narrow and high as possible to prevent the rain from penetrating into the body of the pile. The use of hay cock covers, as they are manufactured in the United States, would greatly lessen the cost of handling the hay in the field and lessen the chances of getting wet during a local shower when the hay is in process of curing.
We have made hay by this method in Cuba and held it over twelve months in the stack in perfect condition the stack should be built on an elevated platform, or high part of the ground, in order that the water may not run under.: also, it would be well to put rails, or s *ome kind of wooden structure, underneath, so that air may circulate, preventing the bottom and interior of the stack from absorbing moisture by capillary attraction. The stack should be built very pointed at the top and covered with palms or thatch of some kind. To prevent the stack from. blowing over or becoming one-sided it is well to plant a very tall bamboo pole in the ground, to be used at the center of the stack; the stack is, in this case, built around the pole, taking care always to keep the center of the stack the highest. A stack of hay built in this form, say fifteen feet high, will in the course of one or two weeks settle do wn to about tena feet: the temporary thatch may then be removed and the stack built on up to any convenient height, but never leave the stack during the wet season without the. thatch the hay will keep one or two years without spoiling. Care should also be taken to keep the ground clean about the stack to prevent its being destroyed in case of fire in adjoining fields, etc.
Bermuda grass may be cut three or four times a year and handled in the same way as crab grass. Bermuda grass is very hard to cut and unless the ground is specially prepared for cutting in large quantities it is best to cut Bermuda grass with a very sharp scythe. I would not advise planting Bermuda grass on ground that is intended for cultivation in future years, since the gras's is, rather. troublesome in the, cultivated fields and not easily'destroyed. But,
where the grass is already prevalent and, well distributed, it might be profitable to prepare the ,ground so that the grass could be harvested, it being one of the most nutricious pasture and haygrasses.
Para' and Guinea grasses are among the most fattening of the Cuban grasses and are well adapted to, the majority of soils. These grasses are, however, very coarse and will need frequent cutting to keep. them thick and fine. Both the ParA and the Guinea grass are usually sold in the green state as forage.
About Havana and the larger towns, Par6. grass gives more returns for the energy expended than any other crop in cultivation. I say in cultivation; for, to reap the best results, Parg grass will need to be systematically planted and, in most cases, fertilize4 to some extent to keep up the supply of plant footl in the soil and insure successive crops without injury to the stand and production of the grass.
Johnson grass is a nuisance in our cultivated fields and hard to eliminate. It is supposed to be of no use as a forage, yet it has been repeatedly proved that Johnson grass, under certain conditions, is a valuable forage for horses. As a usual thing horsesor cattle- that are unacquainted with the grass will seldom eat it at the first feeding but if no other food is given they will soon take to it and after a few months will eat the grass or hay in preference to any other. This has been the experience of some men who. have tried feeding army mules, with beneficial result.
But let it here be understood that in the cases wereferred to the Johnson grass was taken from good farming land, the soil having been fertilized for the growing of other crops. There is no doubt that thevalue of grass -as a feed will largely depend upon the, proper kind of plant food in the soil in which it is, grown. I wish to emphasize the fact that the feed value of a bale of hay to your horse or cow does not depend so much upon the bulk, or size of the bale, as7 upon the soil in which it was grown, namely, as the-
amount of sugar, glucose, proteids and fats are increased or diminished in corn, cane, and other of the sorgum, family by the systematic use of different fertilizing chemicals, so it is reasonable to expect that the feed value of the grasses mentioned in this paper are also beneficially influnced by cultivation and proper fertilization, being members of the same great family.
Much has been printed about the growing of alfalfa in Cuba and it will be a blessing to the Island when it can be profitably grown, but at present alfalfa growing is still very much in the experimental stage,, though there is some prospect of growing alfalfa in some parts of the Island, with the aid of proper fertilization, irrigation, etc. At present it would be very much more profitable for the American or Cuban farmer to spend a fraction of his time in growing the profitable native grasses which we now have at hand. We do know them to be excellent feed and pasture grasses. Not only are they fattening, but they are also good milk producers, as we have found by experience.
I think I have already emphasized the need of properly cultivating forage crops to receive the best results.
For the past four years, during the very severe dry winters cattle have been dying, practically all over the Island, by the thousands.
Not only does this happen once in a great many years, but nearly every dry year the small farmer, as well as the cattleman, loses a large per cent of Mi cattle, not so much for want of water, as for the need of nourishing pasture. During the wet season the cattle are lost in the rank vegetation,-more than half of the grass is trampled down and rots upon the ground, to be licked up during the dry season by the fires which usually over run the country. If it'is not burned up, it is useless as feed. 'When, the dry season comes on the cattle soon eat up the green herbage, then finally the greater part of the dry grass which remains upon the stalks; if the season is long and
the pasture rather small for the number of cattle they will even eat the dry, stubs to the ground and finally die for want of feed. We know this to be a fact as we have been eye witnesses of the conditions here mentioned. No attempt is being made by the farmer or the cattle raiser to save any portion of the large amount of surplus grass during the wet season. There are, possibly, three remedies for preventing the wholesale destruction of cattle by starvation: lst.-To keep less cattle on a given acreage.
2nd.-By fencing off at least half of the pasture. during the wet season, to be preserved for the cattle when they shall have exhausted the first pasture, which would possibly be about Christmas time. This second half of the pasture might again be cut in two by the fences and the cattle be turned into the first half or section of the entire pasture, preserving the. other half or section for pasture when they shall have cleaned up the second portion, and so on. This svstem might be carried on without limit; or
3nd.-Jnstead of letting the cattle trample down the larger half of the grass during the wet season, one or two fences might be thrown across the field and the greater part of the grass, at the beginningof the dry season when the weather is favorable, might be cut with a mowing machine or scythe, be, dried and stacked for feed when the pastures wereconsumed by the cattle. This would at least keep the cattle from starving to death, as is so often the. case, and would be very little expense to the farmer. It would simply be necessary, in this case, to exercisea little judgment and forethought in order to save the herd.
As far as the writer can see, there is absolutely nonecessity for the wholesale destruction of animals by starvation and thirst during our dry winters, when the soil easily produces an abundant amount of feed for all. A little systematic conservation of' the supplies at hand will go far toward bettering the condition of the Cuban farmer, be he native or foreign.
BY MRS. P. S. EARLE.
Possibly it is correct to say ornamentals are forthree different purposes viz for cut flowers, for decorating the house and for patios, and for outside orlandscape effects. It is a broad heading and as it is, impossible to touch on all classes of such plants, it may be well to consider briefly and in a general way, only such as are most universally used in beautifying the home park and drive ways.
With a genuine desire and a little water to use during the dry season,, everyone in this island may easily add to the charm of their homes, by a little judicious planting of some of the numerous trees and shrubs suitable 'for such purposes. In their out-door use ornamentals are simply tools -and colors, which with the right treatment, assist nature in beautifyingplaces made ugly, by man's improvements; and the manner of planting is often as important as the colorof their flowers, or the shape of their leaves. As a rule give each individual plant room for full development, and a bit of lawn for a foreground, then borderthe principal walks and drive ways, tie the buildings to the ground with the proper shrubs or vines, and, your picture is well begun.
Palms easily head the list of ornamentals. Nothingexcells them in their dignified gracefulness. Theirsize, long life and in some cases, indifference to careful attention, are points in their favor. The veryname, palm, immediately brings to mind an almost sentimental or romantic picture of the most decoratively beautiful of all plants. Grown as an individual or specimen plants, nothingapproaches them; a planting of one variety is charm
ing; different varieties grouped are pleasing in a fascinating way; in many places they combine with other plants most strikingly; and for stately avenues what can equal the Royal Palms, with their tall trunks, in certain lights so closely resembling pure white marble columusl After palms are well established their beauty increases from year to year, on almost indefinitely. As we are in the land of palms we ought to add to the beauty of the country, and our own pleasure, by setting out and caring for a few of these most noble plants.
A number of our native palms are well adapted to ornamental purposes, and with care may be transplanted, but as a rule all palms in the market are pot grown from seed, to ensure their safe and easy handling.
For real stand-bys, especially for hedge or border planting, when color is desired, nothing takes the place of crotons, azalias, and acalaphas. They are beautiful in their marvelous and brightly variegated coloring, and pleasing in the shapes of the foliage. They grow easily and as though it gave them genuine joy to see how much they could accomplish.
Unlike the crotons, whose value is in the bright leaves, the hibiscus displays all of its brilliancy in the flowers, which are almost barbaric in their gorgeousness, and produced without limit. The single varieties are more profuse both in growth and blossoms, but the double ones atone in the added amount of color in each flower. As a rule they are best when one variety is planted alone. They are ideal under the trees in an avenue, and along walls and fences.
* Bulbs are of great importance, their value being often over looked, and with bulbs we must not think only of their blossoms, but of the decorative features of some of their leaves, as for instance the great race of caladiums. They are very-pleasing under shrubbery and also in solid rows along walks where nothing taller is required, and for a specimen plant nothing is more tropical in appearance than one grand plant of the largest variety of the crinums, the
stems often reaching a height of several feet, andwith leaves 'and flower stalks from five to eight, and at times thirty-five flowers in a cluster. The colorof deepest carmine, shading through pink to white. Like other crinums they open just at sunset and fill the air with their heavy perfume. Another point in favor of this crinum, besides its immeasurable size, is the fact that with water, it blossoms with greater freedom during the dry season than any of the others. But by selection one may have bulbous flowers all the year. Some of the terrestial orchids are very dainty and pretty between palms and shrubs. planted in clumps.
Vines are indispensable for arbors, screens, walks, for smothering weeds and covering unsightly places, and in vines such a variety is offered from which tochoose. Rank rampant growers, quickly covering fences or buildings, and others of more dainty habit, which are lovable enough to have near one's window. Some will produce flowers in such profusion and of such vividness of color that they fairly scream. Others have flowers of queer shapes, sometimes resembling animals. Probably the two vines most generally planted are the Bouganvillia and Antigonon, the latter is here called "coralilla". They are of entirely different habit of growth, but both are absolutely the best of their class.
Annuals do not fill the place here which they doin the States. Their blooming season is shorter, and on account of extremes of climate, conditions have tobe favorable for them to be a success. The moredeeply rooted plants are preferable.
The acme of gracefulness is found in the ferns,. which are so charming for patios and sheltered corners. There is such a variety of ferns, all beautiful, and all shade and moisture loving. They harmonizeso well with some of the begonias.
These are only a few remarks and suggestions regarding ornamentals. Their variety cannot be described, nor their different combinations numbered, but each person should work out what to them is a.
good planting scheme, in harmony with the house and surroundings, and so add to their own pleasure and that of their friends, by making their small portion of the world just that much more beautiful.
THE AMERICAN COLONIES IN CUBA
BY COL. S. S. HARVEY.
(Read by title.)
Large and small, there are some thirty colonies in Cuba. The predominant characteristic of all the American Colonies in Cuba is, that not five percent of the colonists had ever done any work on a farm, or knew anything about horticulture, before they came down here. At least three fourths of them had never lived south of the Ohio River, so that they were not at all familiar with the climatic conditions they found in Cuba. Neither had they any knowledge of soils, plant growth, cultivation, fertilizing, propagating, spraying, etc., etc. In fact they were lawyers, doctors, shoemakers, engineers, machinists, conductors, carpenters, etc., etc. Everything but farmers or horticulturists. They sailed in and planted fruit trees and vegetables. Most of them overloading themselves with citrus fruit trees.
That these were innumerable failures goes without saying. The greatest wonder is that there are so many successful fruit and vegetable growers in Cuba, as there are today. The lawyer, doctor, shoemaker, etc., has made good. Americ an brains energy and nerve have come out of the long contest on top. One can now visit colony after colony, and find man after man, able to talk in an intelligent manner on all the delicate intricacies and complications that enter into a proper manner of producing the finest quality of horticultural products. At our fairs or exhibitions during the last few years there have been exhibits of the very finest quality of citrus fruits and vegetables. There is no question of quality any more. Everybody knows that there is nothing better grown in the wide world.
There is one objection in regard to quantity, and that is that the growers almost invariably allow their trees to carry too much fruit for their age.
A lesson worth recording came from the American colony of Herradura during the past six months. Unfortunately they were in the path of the four days October storm. Their country was laid waste. Their citrus groves were stripped bare of leaves. They were as devoid of leaves as decidous trees in mid winter. Their seed beds were destroyed. Their houses and fences down, and it looked hopeless. Those former commercial travellers, lawyers, machinists, etc., ordered seed, made new seed beds, and set the plants as soon as they looked anything near large enough. Result: they raised good crops and in January were shipping thousands of crates of the very finest of vegetables to the northern markets. In February they sent up to the Cuban National Exhibition some twelve or fifteen varieties of extremely fine vegetables, and notice, these vegetables were packed for market in the very best merchantable manner. Best of all they received fine prices, fabulous prices, for some of their earliest shipments.
While those American amature horticulturists were doing that, the Government was feeding the Cuban farmers (?), who were trying to raise tobacco. Raise something to eat. Raise everything to eat, is a cry that I want to din into the American colonist. Many are doing something on that line, but it is ther weakest thing in the colonies. Raise something for your horse, cow, chickens and pigs. Raise more than they need, and what the pigs won't eat, you can feed" your family on.
I have always believed that a family living in the country should live better than any rich man living in the city.
They can have the first choice in everything good to eat. I would be very happy if I felt that I could' visit any and all of the American colonies, and not have to eat anything out of a can.
The American colonies of Cuba have passed over a rough and rugged time, but they are on the upward road to prosperity. Knowledge has come to them, and the next few years will see the effects of it.
BY PROF. H. C. HENRICKSEN.
(Read by title.)
Ladies and Gentlemen:
While I am no political economist I shall not apologize for the presumption of talking to you about cooperation. The subject was discussed by everybody and on every occasion 40 years ago hi the country where I was born. I imbibed the principles of it with my mother's milk and I learned the practice ,of it simultaneously with the A B C's and the Lord's Prayer.
To cooperate means to operate together, to do a thing by the united effort of many instead of one only. It does not matter what the task is. It may be building a road or a packing-house, it may be operating a store or engaging a lecturer. It is simply the elimination of waste. This doing a thing together with less loss than when doing it alone is the principle of cooperation.
'The practice of cooperation you all know more or less about. There are but few things in our daily life surroundings but what have been produced by cooperation, of a kind. The light on the wall for example, is a product of cooperation. The oil wells were assigned to different men handling different machines in which the cost was lowere,1 to a minimum and all the by-products saved. Why then do we call the Standard Oil Co. a corporation? Because although someone affected a saving in products and operating expenses he did not share that gain with the ones who did the work. Cooperation means therefore not alone to do a thing in union but also to share
the profit from the saving affected by doing it in that way.
This seems simple enough. It would be merely a question of bookkeeping to distribute that money among the many instead of a few leading men. But in actual practice it is not so simple. A cooperative society does not work like a machine, because the different wheels were not made in the same mould. The question of personality comes in and on that very point hangs the success or failure of the undertaking. When a man enters the service of a corporation he becomes one of the wheels of that machine. If he does not fit in as such he is not retained. That is simply business conducted on today's business principles. But in a cooperative society when a man becomes a member he becomes an integral part of the organization, not alone of the working, but also of the governing force. If he does his part and if each member does his part the society will be a success, if not it will be but a partial success and it is liable to be a total failure.
The real useful member of a cooperative society*is the one who does unto others as he would have them do unto him and does it with all the vigor and enthusiasm that is in him.
FORMS OF ORGANIZATION.
What we are especially interested in is such forms of organization as will be of benefit to a rural population, and some of these I shall try to describe.,
We have first the purely social form, such as the Ladies Social Club, to which a mere man is seldom invited but is interested in, probably for that very reason. Next we have educational societies in which the agricultural questions of local interest are discussed, as well as state and national horticultural societies in which questions of broader scope are discussed. Societies of this kind may often profitably take up a number of problems but usually it is not
best to branch into anything that cannot be successfully conducted except by a business organization.
Cooperation for buying, selling, manufactu ring oranything requiring capital and business management should be organized on a business basis. A social or educational society cannot successfully conduct business but a business organization may include the others although it is best to liave them separate even if the majority of the members are the same in both.
Another organization that is of no less importance in this discussion is the church. In this we have the greatest means for unity, especially in the rural communities. But looking at the church from that standpoint without any other consideration we find that we are very much behind Europe because here we. cannot speak of the church but of a number of churches. We all know that it is usual for members of one church to associate socially and to some extent in business, and you can readily imagine what a help it would be from a cooperative standpoint if a whole community belonged to one church instead of three or four different ones.
To observe the influence of the church in agricultural societies we do not have to go very far afield. In our own neighboring Island, Jamaica, the ministers in the rural districts are often the leaders agriculturally and frequently the parson of the church is the President or the Secretary of the rural society of which there are about 70 in the Island. It is obvious that the church, where there is but one, can take up such social problems as rural economy and thereby get in much closer touch with all the people. But where there are more churches such work is apt to create dissention instead of unity. This phase of usefulness of the church is seldom considered but I mention it because it has an intimate bearing on rural organization.
VALUE OF ORGANIZATION.
I was a farmer at one time and it is not longer
since than I can distinctly remember what the state horticultural society, the county horticultural soci,ety and the picnic club meant to me. After working in the orange grove for a couple of weeks with no other companions than two or three colored men who ~sang hyns and drinking songs to the same tune and did that incessantly except when they hollered at the mules, I assure you that it was most edifying to attend the meetings of the horticultural society and ,discuss the questions of sour stock versus rough le-mon or deep plowing once a year versus clean culture during the entire year. In fact organization is educational. We all get into a rut by staying at home and looking at and thinking of our own problems in our own one-sided way all the time. We need
-to know what the other man is doing and thinking and we need to argue the point with him in a friendly way in order to get the "moss rubbed off."
I mention the educational value first because it is
-the one least appreciated. The business value of a business organization is much more readily apparent yet the educational society usually comes first.
Farming today is probably less remunerative than
-any other occupation compared to the capital, knowledge and energy invested, just because farmers do mot cooperate to the same extent as those engaged
-in trades and professions.
Industries recognize that in union there is strength
-and farmers need the strength that unity confers for securig legitimate advantages, for defence against the aggressions of organizations and for utilizing the power that belongs to them as a class. The mainstay of this country is farming.* The farmer is
-the one who feeds the rest of the community yet the 'farmer has very little to say in the councils of the lawmakers. This is not neccessarily due to the fact
-that a lawyer is a better lawmaker than a farmer, in fact if we had more farmer legislators we would 'have more good farm laws and less obnoxious in-dustrial laws.
In touching upon this point I do not advocate
farmer's political clubs nor any organizations for political purposes solely, but it is due, it is right, that the farmers of any country should have a chance to assert themselves and that chance they can get only by cooperating. Through cooperating we find out what we want and by demanding what we want we get it if the demand is backed up by eziough intelligent people standing together.
Cooperative business organizations axe formed with some economic object in view, such as buying, selling or manufacturing with the profit of the middle man eliminated. Many such societies have been formed in the past and are being formed today on principles that are termed unsound in business circles. In business the factor of "good will' is valued according to -what it appears to be worth, but in cooperation "good will" is over-estimated. In studying the history of cooperative organizations we always find that the "good will" represented by the enthusiasm of the members and especially of the leader was far the greatest asset. But when dissention arises in the organizations built on -enthusiasm without capital to back it up it always fails. A man less favorably disposed towards cooperation might tell you that most cooperative organizations have failed, but statistics show, that recognized in percentage, less cooperative stores have failed than stores conducted by individual store-keepers.
Another thing we must not forget is that although an organization may dissolve after a certain number of years and the shareholders may loose the original investment the, undertaking was not necessarily a failure. The members undoubtedly reaped material benefit from it while it lasted, and the educational value must be recognized also. I think we are all aware of the fact that we have to pay for what experience we get -and manyQf us have acquired some very high priced knowledge in Cuba.
In examining the history of cooperative move-
ments in various countries it is striking that although some one person always took the iniative no progress was made where the mass of the people were not in sympathy with the movement. This brings us back to the starting point, cooperating is operating together. It is not a one-man affair. There must be a number of people who feel the need of it and who believe in it and who understand enough about it to make it a success.
One of the first attempts at cooperation in the United States was the Brook Farm movement in 1842. This is interesting from a historical stand point and I mention it here because it gave the impetus to successive attempts of which the first was the Protective Union Store, started in Boston in 1845. It was started in a garret with a box of soap and a half box of tea and from that beginning it grew in seven years into an organization with 403 subdivisions doing business aggregating several million dollars a year. This phenomenal success was due primarily to a few leading men who were honest, capable and unselfish. When the organization became prosperous some of the members thought that others were getting more than their share and jealously caused them, to divide into two separate organizations both of which ceased to do business some years later.
Although this happened many years ago and although I might mention scores of others much closer to our time it is not necessary to do so because the principles of organization are thie same today as they were always and as they always will be. The reasons for failure, at that time are th reasons to day also. The beginning of their failure was dissention and jealousy among the leaders. The reason for failures among local branches were first: Incompetent managers. This in itself would be reason enough because a manager has great responsibilities. He must be an expert in his special line. He must he a good all round business man and of all things he must be a good deal of a diplomat. Such men can be found, we all know they can, but they are not plentiful and usually they
.become corporation managers instead of cooperative managers. The great difficulty with cooperative or,ganizations is that they are seldom willing to pay a man what he is worth, and right here let me say, for fear that I might forget it, when you organize en-gage the best man that you can get as manager. Just
-forget all about that a dollar looks as big as a cart-wheel to many of the individual members. Ten cents will look as big as that in a short time if you don't
-have a capable-man to manage your business. Co,operative organizations too frequently engage men not so much because of fitness but primarily because of the low price they are willing to work for.
The second reason for failure was lack of unity,
-lack of cooperative spirit. Too many forgot the quesltion of economic reform and thought of immediate gain only. They traded at the union stores when they wanted flour, sugar and other staples on which the
-margin of profit was small. But when they wanted luxuries such as tea and coffee on which there was a good profit they would go to the private stores and buy because they could get a package of needles or a
-spool of thread as a premium. This led directly to
-the third reason for failure, namely that the cooper:ative stores tried to compete with the private stores in useless and modern socalled improvements for which farmers had no use but which Mrs. Tom thought she ought to have because Mrs. Dick and Mrs. Harry had them.
That again led to the fourth reason for failure, the
-well known evil of credit. As long as the farmer bought necessities only he was able to pay cash but
-when luxuries were added he had to have some credit. Naturally in that way the stores assumed some risk and lost some money and in order to make up for it they were obliged to charge the cash customers more for their goods. That was "the straw that broke the camel's back." It was no more profitable to trade at the union store than at the private store and the union store ceased to exist.
. COOPERATIVE MANUFACTURING.
Among the class of cooperative manufacturing of agricultural interest the cooperative creameries. stand at the head. In fact it is the only successful cooperative form of manufacture of importance that I know of. Just why there are not more cooperative creameries I do not know, but I presume it is due to several economic causes, the principle of which is not readily apparent. I am well acquainted with cooperative darying and I know some of the reasons why it i's successful and also some reasons for failures. In a country like Denmark where the farms are small, where they are close together and where all farmers are dairy farmers it is successful because of the constant supply of milk and the steady demand in the English market for a uniform grade of first class butter. There are other considerations, however. The farmers there have graduated from the school of cooperation so to speak.
They have the cooperative spirit. They know what benefits they can derive from cooperating and they know how to perform their duties as members of a cooperative organization. The latter is a point well worth remembering, the individual members of an organization subscribe to certain rules and in order that the organization may be a success those rules must be strictly adhered to, even though it may cause personal inconvenience.
As an illustration we 'will take a creamery., Of course the manager is responsible for the grade of the butter but he cannot make first class butter from third class milk. The fanner must feed his cows. certain feeds and refrain from feeding others that are known to cause deterioration in the butter. His milk must be of good flavor, it must be clean, it must not be skimmed and not mixed with water, etc.
It is readily apparent that such regulations would be difficult to enforce in a great many places, but the mere fact that a chain is no stronger than its
individual links makes it absolutely necessary that each man should live up to his contract. There is where the "golden rule" comes in. But those who
-will not practice it may often be reached in some other way. I shall mention one example. When I was a child, some other children and myself passed
-a farm every morning going to school. It was a good farm with fine buildings and well kept up, but everybody knew that the lady of the house did not enforce the rule of cleanliness and that the milk which was entirely in her charge was not over clean. She had a temper, however, and I think the board of directors was not over-anxious to interview her. But one morning in passing there we children heard a great argument which on closer investigation we found to be between the milk driver and the lady. The bone of contention was a large skimming spoon which the driver had found hanging in one of the milk pails. The lady said it was an accident and that she had not skimmed the milk and the driver was almost convinced, but what was the use of that. After we children were aware of it you may know that the whole neighborhood shared the secret before night and of course there was an investigation. I do not remember if the people were fined but that is of minor importance. In a case like that it is not the loss of a little money that hurts, it is the shame, it is what the neighbors say. Ordinarily I think nothing is more detestable than neighborhood gossip, but for some of us the moral fear of our neighbor's talk may be a healthy suasion to right doing.
Cooperative manufacturing is especially interesting to us here because it seems in so many cases, to be the only way in which -we can obtain a market for a number of products that we can produce cheaply 'enough to compete with other countries. But such undertakings must be established on business principles and conducted in a business like manner. These are the following points involved: (1) The raw product; can it be produced in large enough quantities, and if so at what price 7 (2) The labor;
can it be obtained and be relied upon, if so at what price? (3) The finished product; can it be marketed Is the demand sufficient and constant enough to warrant a factory being erected and is the price high enough to make it profitable ? if these things are all satisfactory the question of a factory with machinery and equipment must be settled, and there are several ways in which this may be done. It all depends upon the magnitude of the undertaking. If it is a small affair some may pay their stock in labor, others in money and still, others in products. But no matter how small it is there should be business rules and the rules should be strickly followed.
Of all the forms of organizations we are probably most interested in selling organizations. We know by experience that the individual planter cannot reach the consumer and we know that selling on commission is not always profitable. The question is what can we do if we organize I To answer this question we may point to what the California citrus growers have done and what the Porto Rico Shipping Association has done for that Island as well as what the Florida growers are doing. The three of them are dissimilar. But organizations have helped them all. Our conditions are unlike those of California and those of Porto Rico but cooperation will help us as it has helped them.
The question is: Are we ready to organize? Have we the cooperative spirit? Have we the products to ship? Have we the money necessary to form a business organization? To the first question I will answer that as far as I have been able' to judge we have not enough cooperative spirit. In fact the majority of the planters in this Island do not know what real cooperation is. This however, should not deter us from forming cooperative societies because there is no other way in which we can learn, but we should go into it with the full understanding that the
conditions are as I have said and we should be prepared to meet the obstacles that we will be liable to encounter because of these conditions.
As to the second question: Have we the products to ship? We can of course answer yes. We have fruit and we can produce about as many vegetables as we can profitably sell. But we are placed in a peculiar position. Our best market, the United States, discriminates against us with a duty on all our products. This is a serious handicap in competing with the sub-tropical regions of the United States, because expenses, such as labor, freight and handling are as high here as there. There seems to be only one way to meet this condition viz, grow better products, handle them better and market them when there is least competition. But in this again we are handicapped because most of us lack experience. The conditions here are as favorable as anywhere. Nature has done her part but we must learn to interpret nature's ways. Our products have no name in the United States; our fruit sells for less in the open market than Florida'Is, products and this is largely due to the fact that we do not know how. Just as it requires first class milk to produce a first class butter so also it requires first. class fruit and vegetables to bring a good price in competition with a good quality of these products. Some of us may say that we know how and that wer are producing first class fruits and vegetables now. But that is not enough. We will not be able to market our products to the best advantage unless those, of our neighbors are also first class. The mere fact that the products are from here is enough to make the buyer suspicious as long as the bulk of our stuff has a bad name.
However, this is all educational and we can work out the problems that I have already touched upon without very much capital. There is still the business side to discuss and that will require capital. We know by experience that no matter how perfect our products are, how well packed and how well handled, we can realize no profit if the market is glutted, if'
the commission man is crooked or if something else is the matter over which we have no control. -We must form a business organization and we must back it up not alone with "good will" but with good hard cash.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS
Meeting called to order by Vice President Patterson.
The Chair: The first business on our program for this afternoon is the election of officers.
Mr. Collins: As a rule the presidents have been chosen from the western part of the island, and I think it would be a good thing to pass it round, therefore suggest that the 'office be given to somebody from the eastern part of the island. There are just as good men in the east as there are in the west, therefore I would nominate Mr. Thos. R. Towns as President (applause).
Mr. Towns: I thank Mr. Collins for the nomination, and I thank you gentlemen for the expression that you give it, still it seems to me it is a business proposition, and as such I believe there are others who could fill the office to better advantage than I, If I did not think so, I would have done some electioneering. I think that some one here in the west would be better fitted for the position, he being right here at home. What I want to say is this, that there are men right here in the western part of the island more capable of filling the chair as President of the Cuban National Horticultural Society, than I am, and I therefore wish to nominate Prof. E arle. ,
Col. Harvey:.I am pleased to second the nomination of Mr. Towns for President of this Society. It is better for our Society that -we go east this time for our President, therefore I believe the best this society can do is to elect Mr. Towns as its President for this year.
The Chair: Mr. Towns has been nominated as President of this Society and the motion has been second-