Citation
Annual report

Material Information

Title:
Annual report
Creator:
Cuban National Horticultural Society
Place of Publication:
Havana, Cuba
Publisher:
Cuban National Horticultural Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Fourth Annual Report 1910
Physical Description:
volumes

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Horticulture -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Horticultura ( qlsp )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1-8, 1907-14.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Marston Science Library
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Resource Identifier:
690376189 ( OCLC )
035875201 ( ALEPH )

Full Text
FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
CUBAN
NATIONAL HORTICULTURAL
SOCIETY
FOR
1910
COMPILED BY THE SECRETARY
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
HAVANA
1910
HAVANA
Printers Alvarez & Fernandez,
99 Obrapia Street







OFFICERS FOR 1910.

PRESIDENT:
Col. H. E. Havens, Herradura, Cuba.
VICE PRESIDENTS:
Havana Province.-Ren6 Berndes, Havana, Cuba. Pinar del Rio Province.-E. W. Halstead, Los Palacios, Cuba.
Santa Clara Province.-L. M. Patterson, San Marcos, Cuba.
Camagiiey Province.-L. L. Newsom, La Gloria,
Cuba.
Santiago de Cuba Province.-Thos. R. Towns, Holguin, Cuba.
Isle of Pines.-Chas. F. Young, McKinley, Isle of
Pines.
SECRETARY:
H. C. Henricksen, 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba.
TREASURER:
H. A. van Herimann, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE:
Rena Berndes, Havana, Cuba. E. W. Halstead, Herradura, Cuba. Col. HI. E. Havens, Herradura, Cuba. H. C. Henricksen, 30 Empedrado Havana, Cuba. H. A. van Hermann, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.




LIST OF MEMBERS
LIFE MEMBERS
Austin, C. F., Ceniitral "Nueva Luisa", Jovellanos,
(Ctiba.
Berndcs, lRcd, 64 Cuba St., Haviana, Cuba. Bortwick. MNrs. Frances R., MeKinley, Isle of Pines. Conklin, R. U., No. 1 Wall St., New York City, N. Y. 1)arl, I). \.. ,La Gloria. Cuba. 1)esvernine. E1nesto B., 52 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Earle, Prof. F. S., Ilerradura, Cuba. Green, Joseph, Victoria de las Tunas, Ouba. Haugh, S. ('hr., Maravi, Baraeoa, Cuba. Henricksen, II. C., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. Kiimnel. l,'dw. A.. No. 27 Nineteenth St., Vedado,
Havamna, Ciuba.
Landis, A. C., No. 61 Aguiar St., Havana, Cuba. Melrwin. L. S., Guanabacoa, Cuba. Sinchez, Lorenzo, No. 36 Obrapia, Havana, Cuba. To wns, rThom. I., Holguin, Cuba. Town-s. Mir'. Thos. R., H-olgiufi, Cuba. Van Hermanin, H. A., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.




ANNUAL MEMBERS

Abbey, C. D., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Adamson. Edward, McKinley, Isle of Pines. Aldabo, E., Monte 427, Havana, Cuba. Alfonso, Juan B., Quemado de Giiines, Cuba. Allan, Win., No. 136 West 79th St., New York City,
N.Y.
American Grocery Co., No. 13 O'Reilly St., Havana,
Cuba.
Anderson, J. P., Palmarito, Oriente, Cuba. Arter, A. Homer, Omaja, Cuba.
Beers, L. Maclean, Bank of Nova Scotia, Havana.
Cuba.
Beit, W. R., Finca Nazareno, Bahia Honda, Cuba.. 3elinka, Mathis, McKinley, Isle of Pines. Benni, Geo., Omaja, Cuba. Bernard & Humphreys. Ceballos, Cuba. Bjetllk, Gillis de Pointon, La Lisa, Baraeoa, Cuba. Bolster, A. B., Moorehead. Minn. Borrill, A., No. 24 O'Reilly St., Havana, Cuba. Bostol, John, La Gloria, Cuba. Bradt, Geo. -I., Publisher, Havana Post, Havana,
(Cuba.
rivs, 1. A., Santa F], Isle of Pines. 13iinkerhoff. J. 0., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Britten. Fred E.. No. 700 Fremont Temple, Boston, Mass.
Broberg, Ben C., Ilerradura, Cuba. Broghamer, F., Herradura, Cuba. Brown, A. G., Bartle, Cuba. Brown, Clovis C., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines. Brown, Win. H., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Bryan, H. S., Two Harbors, Minn. Buenaventura Plantation Co., Buenaventura, Cuba.




Burford, C. R., Camniagiiey, Cuba. Buttler, H11. K., Ceballos, Cuiba. Buxton, Geo. B., Palmarito de Canto, Cuba. Buxton, Mrs. G. B.. Paluarito de Canto, Cuba.
Carballo, iLuis J. de, (Calvario, Cerro 59:, iHavana,
Cuba.
Carlton, WVmi., Oiiiaja, Cuba. Carrier, ('assiuis At., Bal nvwo, i'ula. Cattau. (0eo. P.. P. O. Box 6:13. lavaina, Cuba. Cervantes, Felix L., 153 (lervnsio. Havan, Cuba. ulann, Jaines WV., P. O. liox 1293. Ilavanla, Cu tba. Christy. i, ., Santa F. Isle of PIiues. Collins, 11. E., Nueva 4erolmna, l le of Pinlies. Collins. Lindle, llendua, uba. Collison, W. L., (eballos, (Culba. Cooper, 11. K., (Camagiiey. ('iba. Crane, (C. L. Sanlita F, Isle of Pines. Crane, W. II., liglihaniton, N. J. Cuban Fruil Corporation, la (Gloria, Cuba. Cunimingham, James, Fabriea (de Petrolio de Serpta
v Cia., Matanzas, (0ba.
Desvernine, Eduardo, No. 22 Moreaderes, Havana,
Cuba.
Doering, A. E., Manaeas, Cuba.
Earle, Mrs. F. S., Ileradiiurn. Cila. Early, John F., La Giloria, Cuba. Enerson, O. P., Valley City. North Dakota. Engstrom, Arthiur, Bayate, Cuba. Ensor, E. T., Bartle. ubI)a. Evans, T. J., P. 0. Box 1221, HLavana, Cuba.
Fair, W. A., No. 127 East St., Rockfort, Illinois. Floyd, J. W., Buenaventura, Cuba. Francis, J. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Franklin, E., Garden City, Via La Gloria, Cuba. Freidlein, S. S., Obrapia and San Ignacio, Havana, Cuba.




Fries, Archibald, C/o C. & O. S. W. R. R., Cincinatti,
Ohio.
Fuentes, Alberto, Lamparilla 66, Havana, Cuba. Fulton. W. B., Sidney, Ohio.
Gaiger, F. H., Holguin, Cuba. G(ardner. A. W., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Germinain, J. R., Ocean Beach, Cuba. ( lYsteen, l )r. H. V., Bartle, Cuba. (Ioetz, E. C., Herradura, Cuba. (i6nmez, 1)Daniel de la Fe, Mereado de Tac6n No. 33,
Hlavana, Cuiiba.
Granger, Di)r. F. C., Randolf, Mass. O riffith, P. C., La Gloria, Cuba. (uetschow, John, Ceballos, Cuba. iiGushee. Edward G., No. 2122 North 38th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Halstead, Mrs. E. W., Los Palacios, Cuba. Halslead, E. W., Los Palacios, Cuba. Slalstead. I). W.. Los Palaeios, Cuba. f rriingto,, A.. 300 Dovercurt Road, Toronto, CanThart. W. S.. "Bellevuie," Hawks Park, Fla. larve \, Col. S. S., :11 Amiargura, Havana, Cuba. llarvev, Frank K.. 31 Amiargura, Havana, Cuba. Havenss( Col. II. E., Herradu ia, Cuba. legehund. fH. L., No. 2825 Johnston Ave., Chicago,
Illinois.
Heintz, J. L., Bahfa Honda, Cuba. Itermian, J. B., 38 South Union St., Rochester, N. Y. Ilermndez. Pedro M., 156 San Fernando St., Cienfueeos, Cuba.
Hodge. John F., Ocean Beach, Cuba. 11olalan, John, National Bank Bldg., Galesburg, Illinois.
Holmes, W. L., Bartle, Cuba. Horne, Prof. Win. T., Agr. College, Berkely, California.
Houghtalin, F. E., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Howell, D. H., Santa F. Isle of Pines.




Ingermansen, Andrew, Bayate, Cuba.
Jackson, M. F., Canet, Via Minas, Cuba. James, Irwin 1H.. Barreto, Matanzas Prov., Cuba. Jenkins, R. C., Holguin, Cuba. Johnson, W. C., Majestic Bldg., Detroit, Mich. Jones, E. B., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Jones, G. D., Manacas, Cuba.
Karutz, Dr. Paul, Camagiiey, Cuba. Keenan, T. J., Nueva Gerona. Isle of Pines. Kendall, Roland, Holguin, Cuba. Kerr, D. E., Camagiiey, Cuba. King, C. L., Denhoff, North Dakota. Kobler, A., Paso Estancia, Cuba. Kubin, Jos6 L., San Augustin, Santa Clara, Cuba. Kydd, John H., Ceballos, Cuba.
Ladd, W. P., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Lamar, Manuel, Vetardo v Dos de Mayo, Matanzas, Cuba.
Leeder, R. H., Itabo, Cuba. Lewis, Chas. S., Hooguita, Cuba. Lind, Dr. A., Paliiarito de Cauto, Cuba. Lonnsberry, 1). II., Santa F, Isle of Pines. Lumbert, O. N., La Gloria. Cuba.
Mahoney, E. P., P. O. Box 724, ITavana, Cuba. Maule, R. F., Bartle, Cuba. Mason, Fred., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Matson, K., Camiagiiey, Cuba. Merritt, Henry K.. Newton Clayton Bldg., So. Indianapolis, ind.
Millard, F., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Miller, J. A., Nueva Gerona. Isle of Pines. Miller, J. A., 3143 Irving Ave., So., Minneapolis, Minn.
Miller, E. R., Ceballos, Cuba. Mineas, N. 0., Consolaei6n del Sur, Cuba. Moe, Glen E., Candelaria, Cuba. Mor'an, Chas, B., Santa F6, Isle of Pines.




Moses, Lindley, Herradura, Cuba. Muller, R. R., Palinarito, Cuba. Mc(av. Allister, Bartle, Cuba. MAlhiire, S. D)., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. McKe(nzie, John. Santo Domingo, Cuba. .I[lTherson, U. C., Los Indios, Isle of Pines.
Newsomni, L. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Nickerson, H. 11., Bartle, Cuba. Norman, W. 11., Bartle, Cuba. Nfifiez, I. E., 61 Aguiar St., Havana, Cuba. Nutail., John, McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Orr, A. E., Taco Taeo, Cuba.
Painter, E. 0., Jacksonville, Fla. IPalan. ignacio, Inquisidor No. 39, Havana, Cuba. Palmer, Hlarlon C.. ANcKinley, Isle of Pines. Parker, N. C., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Payne, F. C., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Patterson, L. MA., San Marcos, Cuba. Patton, J. F., La Lonja, Havana, Cuba. lea rson,-Janles, 778 Mlain St., Pawtucket, R. I. Pedroso, Alberto. No. 48, Rue de Laborde, Paris,
Peirsion E. ( .. Onmja, Cuba. Pemnic, Jamies, Amargura 31, Havana, Cuba. Peterse n, F. J., a vate, Cuba. P( ]rn., I ph St. J., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Pr'ry, Di)uane (C., No. 150 Nassau St., New York,
N. Y.
Phillipps, Miss Abbie, 57 Obrapia, Havana, Cuba. P1o [le. F. C.. McKinley, Islec of Pines. Po>well. l 0.. B'artle, Cuba.
misdell, I)Dr. F. R., Cohlumbia, Isle of Pines. lapalnje. E. H., P. O. Box 1182, Havana, Cuba. Reldeiition Plantation Co., Buenaventura, Cuba. Rind, Edward, Paso Real, Cuba. Roberts, J. E., Bartle, Cuba. Roberts, Geo. D., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Robins & Co., F. G., Obispo 69, Havana, Cuba.




Rosado, F., Traffic Manager, Cuba R. R. Co., Camagfiey, Cuba.
Rose, Henry A., Santo D)omingo, Cuba. Shore, Eli, La Gloria, Cuba. Simpson, T. W., 3281 Lincoln Ave., Ogden, Utah. Storms, L. E., Herradura, Cuba. Storms, A. B., Constamia, Rodas, Cuba. Stroebele, Rev. Albert, Tiffin Via Nuevitas, Cuba.
Tanner, Perry E., (eballos, Cuba. The Cuba & U. S. Fruit N'r. & Mere. Co. Elizabeth, N.J.
The Slherman Willianis Co., Newark, N. J. Thomas, W. 0., Ceballos, Cuba. Thomson, S. E., Bart-le Cuba. Torre, Mamel (le la, Cienfuegos, Cuba. Tos(.a, Dr. edo, ('atledritio del Instituto de Matanzas, Cuba.
True., (lo. B., Nuena Ge(rona, Isle of Pines. Tuker. i. L., Sainta F, Isle of Pines. Turikeri, F. N., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines. Tiunmell, A. W., Baiwo Naional, Cuiba.
Van Iermiann, Mrs. I. A., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
('111w.
\an Hess, (leo., Bar'tle, Cuba. Villaume. V. Sr., Hlerradura, Cuba. Villaume, N. Jr.. IHerradura, Cuba. Vipond & Co., 606 St. Paul St., Montreal, Canada.
Ward. Carlos A., La Gloria. Cuba. Waterman, J. I., Mayarf, (Cuba. Wegemann, A. II., Santa F, Isle of Pines. Wilcox, Chas. C., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Williams, John L., McKinlev, Isle of Pines.
Young, Geo., Bartle, Cuba. Young, Chas. F., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Young, Albert B., 1048, Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. Young, S. W., Pinar del Rio, Cuba.




CONSTITUTION
Article 1.-The name of the Association shall be The Cuban National Horticultural Society.
Article 2.-Its object shall be to advance the horticultiiural interests of Cuba in all branches.
Article 3.-The members of this Society shall consisl of persons interested in raising the products of the soil, ori its allied interests.
Article 4.-Any person who is interested as per Article ( mayn become a nimemiber of this Society by making aI! plication to the Secretary and paying the annail dues. Said dues being payable at the beginning of ech calender year.
Article 5.-The officers of this Society shall consist of a President, one Vice President for each province of 4'uba and one for the Isle of Pines, a Secretary and Treasurer and an Executive Committee of five members, three of whiich shall be the President, Seeretarv and Treasurer of the Society. These various members shall be elected by ballot at the annual meet ing. Their term of office shall begin at the close of the meeting at which they are elected and shall continue until the close of the following annual meeting. The outgoing Secretary, however, shall be charged with the proceedings of the meeting at which he officiated, the newly elected Secretary assuming all other duties.
Article 6.-The annual election of officers shall take place at 3 o'clock P. M. on the second day of the annual meeting.




12
Article 7.-The duties of the officers of this Society shall be those usually performed by the officers of like organizations.
Article 8.-The Vice President from the province in which the annual meeting is held shall be considered the Senior Vice President and shall act as President in the absence of that officer.
Article 9.-This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting of this society by a two thirds vote of the members present.




BY LAWS
I.- -The annual dues of this Society shall be one ( ollar Am. currency, and life membership ten dollars.
I .-The Executive Committee shall have power to fill all vacancies which occur between the annual 111etqilgs.
IIL.-The Standing Committees of this Society shall (onsist of three, or more, members, and shall be appointed by the President on the approval of the Executive Committee.
IV.-The Chairman of each Standing Comtitee shall make a written report for each annual meeting, and as often between meetings as may be requested by the Executive Committee.
V.-This Society shall have the following Standing Committees:
1.-Transportation.
2.-Packages and Packing.
3.-Marketing and Storing of Fruits.
4.-Citrus Fruit.
5.-Pineapples. 6.-Vegetables.
7.-Native Fruits.
8.-Fruits of the Temperate Zone.
9.--Orrinamnentals. 10. -Orchard Management. 11.-Tobacco.
12.-Diseases and Insects. 13.-Legislation and Relations with Government.




CONTENTS
Address of Hon. Ortelio Foyo, Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor.
Response to Address of Secretary Foyo, by Col. H.
E. Havens.
Address, by Vice President H. A. van Hermann. Relation of Science to Agriculture, by Dr. Ram6n
Garcia Osis, Director of the Cuban Agricultural
Experiment Station.
Response to Address of Dr. Os6s, by Mr. Thos. R.
Towns.
Improved Agriculture, by Prof. Jos6 G. Curet, Vice
Director of Cuban Agricultural Experiment Station.
Presidents Address, by Prof. C. F.Austin. What can be Raised in Cuba and What Ought to be
Raised, by Dr. Paul Karutz.
Diversification of Cuban Agricultural and lIorticultural Pursuits by Col. II. E. Havens.
Citrus Fruit culturee hr Mr. Thos. R. Towns. Vegetable ('iiltire, by Mr. E. W. Halstead. Fertilizing, )by Mr. E. 0. Painter, Secretary, Fla.
State Horti(icultural Society.
Sugar Cane, hy Prof. F. S. Earle. Wind(lbreaks. by Mr. TI. Adolf van Hermann. Henequen (Agavai foureodydes), by Dr. F. R. Ramisdell.
Coconut DI)iseases, by Prof. John R. Johnston. Assistant Pathologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Practical Plant Pathology, by Prof. William Titus Horne. Assistant, Prof. of Plant Pathology, University of California.
Native and Tropical Fruits, by Mr. H. Adolf van Hermann.




15
Cuban Agriculture, by Secretary H. C. Henricksen. Report of Secretary, by Mr. H. C. Henricksen. Report of Committee on Necrology. A Summer Exhibit, by Col. H. E. Havens. Report of Auditing Committee. Report of Nominating Comnittee. Report of Committee on Awards. Report of Committee on Final Resolutions.




INTRODUCTION
The Fourt Annual Meetinig of the Cubaii National Horticultural Society was held in the old Post Office Building in 1Havana during the first week of February, 1910.
As ill former years an exhibition was held in con nection with the meeting which was greatly facilitated by the govermelit allowing the society th( use of the N hole lower floor of the buIilding for its exhibi tion and melin',. Four sessions ere 11h asilg from 9 a. in. to 12 110011 aid the exAhibition was oi en from 12 ioon to 10 1)- m.
The whole affair was a pronounce(d success ad11( received( a great deal of praise from the newspapers and the public although it was far from being wht it might have been if exhibitors had received notice further in advance. The meetings, while they were not well attended, judged from the total number of members belonging to the society, were never-theless very interesting and in view of the experience of former years it became necessary to judge the importance of the annual meeting, not by the number present, but by the individual members who attend. Many colonies and local societies send one or two representatives only becanse it is impossible for a large number to attend on account of the cost and the time which is especially valuable at that season of the year. This may influence the character of future meetings and it will unnuestionahly hat n the time when the society shall become what it was ori'inallv intend(led to be. a national center for the numerous local societies that are now being formed.




ADDRESS OF HON. ORTELIO FOYO
SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE AND LABOR
Members of the Cuban National Horticultural Society:
iBy reason of my official position as Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, I have had thehonor to be invited to the opening of this Exposition, which also promises to be an educational success. Great as the honor is, it is not greater than the pleasure I feel in being here, in the presence of and with such enlightened and enterprising men, sons of the great North American nation, which, made illustrious by science and practical works, is a shining example to the entire world.
This Exposition is a splendid illustration of the energetic, active and advanced spirit of the North American wherever he is to be found; and I, who desire for my country the adoption of scientific methods in cultivation, an end towards which all my official and individual efforts are directed, view this exemplary work with great admiration and satisfaction. This Horticultural Exposition is an achievemeni of the private undertaking of North American citizens, represented by the "Cuban National Horticult rural Society". I might here assert that it would un doubtedly have had a far greater scope could it luhave been associated with that of the Cubans and would have given a more convincing manifestation of its progress in agriculture and industry as well as in its exhibit of women's work. In fact, the Government last year obtained a specified amount from Congress for the purposes of an Exposition and the preliminary steps were taken. However, through the misfortune of two cyclones having made their de-




vastating force felt in the towns and the rural districts of the Island, particularly in the Provinces of Pinar del Rio, Havana and Oriente, the Government decided, on account of the shortness of time, not to carry out its project this February, but to post)one it until about this month next year, 1911. This lapse of time will enable the progressive element of the country to conveniently prepare suitable exhibits for the Exposition which will show the capability and measure of our agricultural and industrial resourcefulness.
For imy part I am already occupying myself with the organization of said, Exposition, counting on the co-operation of all the growers and any others who miay take an interest in this enterprise.
Now, if the iinfortunate circumstances, to which I have referred, have deprived us of making known in an unmistakable and efficacious manner the full extent of the progress of our industries and development of C'uban agriculture, it has, on the other hand, served to show, by the eloquence of facts, that among us live useful men, capable and resourceful, who have an affection for Cuba and strive by every effort to widen the agricultural horizon of this land.
I wish to assure you Gentlemen, of my sincere and enthusiastic congratulations.




RESPONSE TO ADDRESS
OF HONORABLE ORTELIO FOYO
Secretary of Agriculture.
BY COL. H. E. HAVENS
Mr. Secretary:
The onsiderate and kindly words which you as the Chief of the Agricultural Department of the ( uan Government have been pleased to speak to this Association are exceedingly gratifying. And th'v encourage the hope that the organization may, in tihe future, become an important instrumentality in the de velopment and growth of valuable Cuban industries.
It is to be regretted that the membership of this society does not include a larger number of Cubans. This condition however, is not the result of unfriendliness, but is in part accounted for by the embarrassmants of unfamiliar language, and, perhaps, in greater part by the industrial conditions to which Cubans have been accustomed through many generations. Systematic government policies, reaching into the far-back past have limited Cuban Industrial opportunities to two or three great fields of labor; and the Cuban, trained in those fields, and familiar with their roniirements, does not become enthusiasp oronositions that would divert his energies n and strange channels. It is easier to cling
to the old and accustomed ideas and methods than to study and employ new and sometimes difficult ones. And so the Cuban Horticultural Society offers no alluring attractions for the mass of Cubans who toil in the fields. But time and the progressive influences of this wonderful period of the world's pro-




gress and development, will sooner or later, change all this, and bring into harmonious cooperation all the elements of Cuban people, in every field of human effort and enterprise. And the moral influence and friendly support of the Cuban Government, extended to this Society will contribute greatly to hasten this desirable condition.
One of Cuba's greatest needs is a greater variety of occupations and employments. No people can attain the highest development of which they are capable when their mental range and physical activities are restricted to few and narrow channels in the occupations by which they live and acquire property. Ambition and enterprise must be stimulated by an abundance of opportunities. The individual man must be enabled to think and study, and to. exercise judgment and discretion, as to the pursuits, in whch he will engage. Surrounding conditions must invite him to climb upwards if he can. Under these conditions he grows and develops into a stronger and noble manhood, and becomes a better and more valuable citizen.
The Creator has endowed men with many varying and divergent capacities for achievement, and ill these should be made available and brought to contribute to the aggregate of national wealth atid power.
A great people are the growth of great opportmities for employment. Therefore ,let every avenue of human endeavor be opened wide a;id the people Olourage(l to eillCr ffd oeiupy t hen, l all the nlties of the people be brought ihito a otivitx ,y a t added to the forces of progress.
Unfortunate conditions in Cuba's part history obstructed her progress and limited heri development.. Those conditions, however have hapily passed away; and now that Cuba and her people are independent and free the way is open for a march of progress that will speedily place her abreast of the progressive nations.
Cuba is annually purchasing from the United




,States and other countries food-stuffs and clothing to the extent of many millions of dollars, a great part of which may be produced in Cuba by Cuban people. Corn, hay, potatoes, beans, rice, canned fruits and vegetables can all be produced abundantly in Cuba, and their production by the Cuban people would retain millions of money in their hands, and contribute greatly to their prosperity and comfort. It would widen the range of employments and experiences, stimulate a greater pride and ambition in the individual citizen, and make the Republic more independent and self supporting.
The leading aim and purpose of this organization is to encourage and develop Horticultural interests. Here is a broad field almost unoccupied; and in it there are great opportunities for intelligent industry and enterprise. Perhaps there is no spot on Earth where more luscious fruits in greater variety can be grown than here in Cuba. Both the growing of the fruits by skilful and scientific methods, and on a commercial scale is vet in its infancy. With all its possibilities many of Cuba's choicest fruits have not been introduced to the world's markets and are scarcely known beyond the island's shores.
The mango, the aguacate, the maumey, the sapote, and numerous others possess attractions of qualities that only need to be exploited in the world's markets to make them sources of great revenues. And these added to the extensive Citrus Fruit and Pineapple plantings already made, and being made, should be the foundation of an immense Cuban industry.
California's fruit crop the past year brought to that state more than $50,000,000.00. With superior natural advantages and opportunities Cuba should surpass California in the variety and extent of her produ.t. In the beginning California encountered obstacles and discouraging conditions far greater I than any that confront the Cuban grower, but she lhas mastered them, and her reward is an immense source of wealth. With equal enterprise and energy 'uba may gather in a still richer reward.




And if thle Society shall succeed in the work it has undertaken-if it should succeed in arousing a livelier interest, and in spreading usef il information 1upon the subject, it will render a valuable service to the (ouiitry.
In all the range of human emlploymlents there is no other more enticing and enjoyable than that of horlicillu ilre. To live among the trees and direct their growth and developinelt is a perpetual joy. A beauiftili tree is one of nature's ehoicests creations, andl w gaze o11n it011 1ljestic proportiolls, its s*ylmetrv of forn, ao(d t it (harinig vrlur with e0no1110tioniis of delight. The trees under which we played in clild(hood can n(ver be forgotten and are p(reiolls n11'111lores. But whn1111 the treeTs collie to 11us la(l') with flowers, and hiscious, fruits, and rich perfumes, we are brought as nIear to encliating influences as we 'n hope to attain. Under such suroundin(111s w( cal labor and nIot grm'ow wear'y. The op) niing )1id alild swelling fruits are a cotllnllual reminder of Natme's 1lagic 11ysteries, ad(1 bring us nearer to Natire and to Nature's ( od. Pilrer ald Iobler thoughlts a1d1 aspirations are borii amidst these charming ifluenlCOs, ai(d we are ispireed( with more exalted aiis ait ambitions. It is a work that is both educational and eniioling and builds more elevated and substantial character.
But the way of the Horticulturist is not one of entire pleasure. Constant study and investigation are essential to success. There are difficulties to overcome; and scientific knowledge and practical experiments must be made available. Industrious study and intelligent work must be unceasing. The careless and the indifferent man cannot be a very successful horticulturist. It is the man who finds delight in regarding Nature's laws, and bringing his trees and their product to the highest perfection, who will achieve the greatest success.
Mr. Secretary, it is aleays a pleasure to visit Havana. But when we come as the Cuban Horticultural Society, and are welcomed by a distinguished repre-




sentative of the Cuban Government the pleasure is greatly enhanced. And we are assured that with the hospitalities so extended our stay will not only be profitable but very enjoyable.
It requires no strain upon ones credulity to predict that Havana will at no very distant day become one of the world's greatest cities. She occupies about the same relation to Cuba that New York City does to the United States. New York is the great financial and commercial centre of the United States. To that center all things tend and pay tribute. And her growth keeps steady pace with the nation's developmient. Havana's position as the great financial and colnnercial center of Cuba is equally controlling. It is said that only about one tenth of Cuba's soil is under cultivation. If for safety we double this amount the four fifth of her available soil remain to be developed. And if one fifth of her soil unaided ) by great manufacturing industries make Havana what she is to-day what must she be when the other foir fifths are brought into subjection and made to contribute to her growth and wealth. And if to this are added great manufacturing industries, which are sure to (omen when governmental conditions are fully assuring, we may safely contemplate the future HavanM as oNcupyving high place among the world's greatest cities. We may not be here to witness the full mieasiiure of her greatness, but perhaps the Cuban Horticultural Society will be, and that for good work, well and faithfully done, it may claim a modest share in the triumps of that day.
Again, Mr. Secretary, on behalf of the Cuban Horticultural Society I thank you for your generous welcome.




ADDRESS
BY VICE PRESIDENT H. A. VAN HERMANN
Ladies and lentlenell, MeHmbers of the Cuban National lHorticultuial Society:
In the absence of your president, Mr. ('. F. Austin, who is temporarily detained by pressing duties, it devolves upon me, in his stead, to welcome you on this occasion.
The president of an organization of this kind is exp)eted to give a review of the progress and cardinal points in the history of the Society. The future is also considered by way of suggestions pointing out the principle features and methods of dealing with th< manifold problems that enter into and shape the future policy of the Society.
We now find ourselves at the beginning of the Fourth Annual Meeting of this Society. Humble as were the beginnings, the membership has gradually grown: our courage is increasing, our faith is a little stronger. But we are, as it were, still in our swaddlin clothes. Is it not time that we bestir ourselves and be strong and alive to our niission? We are a ,part of the element constituting the foundation of every prosperous government, namely, agriculture. We are an agricultural people. The existence of the government, commerce and society, and all pertaininv thereto, are dependent on the needs and products of the soil. Yes, we are farmers, and we stand on both feet to look the world square in the face when we say it. The drudging, "hayseed" days are passing. It is time that we realize the responsibility of our position as the corner stone in the foundation of our social




system, and as such, that we know and keep our place under the protecting care of a sister republic.
The past four years of our existence have not been without disturbing elements: Political and railway strikes have considerably impeded the progress of the farmer. Three successive dry years, of distressing severity, show the need of irrigation and intensive farmning, namely, less acreage and better cultivation. Iii the same period devastating storms have swept the island. In some sections the results have been rather discouraging to those who are in the business of rowing fruit. The effects of such storms might be partially overcome by the systematic planting of tall growing trees as windbreaks through and about the orchards.
Members of this Society have many other subjects to contend with and by local organization and cooperation have made progress toward solving many of the questions so vital to the successful growing and shipping of fruits and vegetables to foreign markets. But the way is not yet clear along these lines and much more needs to be done that will call for the best tact and statesman-like ability and patience upon the part of the Society before the door is open to success. In spite of all these discouraging features, we have courage for the future. We have at least learned our lesson well and are strong to meet the coming events. We may have lost our money, but we still have glowing hopes for the agricultural interests of Cuba.
W1e have reason to thank the present and past officers for their untiring efforts to favor the progress of the Society. And especially is this true of our amiable and valuable secretary, whose varied and constantly multiplying labors in our behalf must soon become a burden unless some material assistaice be provided.
So much, then, for the retrospect: And now let us look to the work before us. 1st.-We are aliens in a strange land, where language and customs are all new. Yet, in spite of racial




and other conditions, our relations with the Cuban people and their officials have always been friendly and we trust will continue to be of a kindly nature. As foreigners we have equal constitutional rights with the people of European nations and should aeujaint ourselves with those rights. We are not a privileged people, but are looked 1upon as living examples of Americanism.
It may, further, stand us in good stead to learn the Spanish language, to interest ourselves in Cuban customs so that we may better understand the conditions under which we are living. In so doing we may help to smooth out some of the inequalities.
With the uneducated we are sometimes objects of suspicion and our motives are often misunderstood, partially because we have so little in common with our Cuban neighbors. A common tongue will also facilitate and extend our business relations. Cuban character is very pliable, and the exercise of a little diplomacy on our part will make life pleasanter for ourselves and set a good example to be followed by our countrymen.
2iid.-I would plead for a closer union between the Local and the National Societies, and the auxiliary societies throughout the island: that we enter into closer affiliation with the various Spanish agricultural and scientific associations of the island. We have much to learn from these old and influential societies that will be a complement to our experience. They, in turn, may lend some influence in our favor by way of assistance in securing better protection for rural properties, many needed changes in the present system of transportation, and extending our membership among the most intelligent of the native population.
Many of our minor troubles may be overcome by a better knowledge of procedure: especially is this true in local matters. We sometimes experience much annoyance from local officers and think ourselves imposed upon because we are not familiar with the local laws, which to us may seem to be out of




date and a hindrance to the dispatch of business. think we will find most municipal officers ready to give advice free in regard to the laws covering proprt v and rural transactions. Influence may, in time, be brought to bear toward modifying these laws and tini-worn customs, but the change must necessarily be slow and will, no doubt, come with time. 3rd.-Perhaps the most serious impediment to the progress of the average American farmer in Cuba may be attributed to his lack of knowledge or experienece in general agriculture, or thorough knowledge anti experience in growing any specific crop. Cuban agriculture should be made a study by each and every farrier and the results of experience recorded for future reference.
4th.- The munber of orchards is increasing throughout the island and the question of harvesting and shipping the fruit is a very important one and will inecd the most careful attention. This, with the subject of ways and means of marketing and transpofting vegetables and fruits, falls to the Growers aid Shippers Assoeiation, but since the Growers and Shippers Association is the child of this Society, we feel free to point out a few needed reforms. Perhaps we are all acquainted with the recent order of a certain shipping company regarding the guarantee of freight to New York. This seems to be an additional difficulty in the way of the small shipper and very strikingly illustrates the need of a powerful organization and the union of all the agricultural interests in Cuba, in order that sufficient pressure may be brought to bear upon transportation companies conveying these goods to foreign markets. Yet, out of fairness to the transportation companies, it is needless to say that they have not gone to this extreme without some previous provocation, and we trust that the Growers and Shippers Association will take up the question in an unprejudiced manner.
5th.-Agricultural fairs, in this generation, seem to be a necessity: Aside from being very instructive, they add a stimulus to enterprise.




It has always been our misfortune to prepare for an exhibition on short notice. The date of the exhibit, the place and space should be known at least six nionths before the time of the meeting. This being the case, under ordinary circumstances enough produce might be grown to fill the space of twenty times our present exhibit. On the other hand, considering the circumstances, we have no reason to complain but rather to be encouraged with the appearance of our present efforts.
6th.-A very important matter which I wish to bring to your notice is that the matter of favoritism o' partiality should not enter into the selection of officers for the future. This Society transacts its business through its officers and due consideration should be given to the importance of selecting men who are best fitted to fill the office in question.
7th.-This Society also needs a periodical to reprtsit the iiitercsts of its members, in which agricultural knowledge and experience may be tabulated, to serve as a medium of common interests and social union.
In conclusion, we trust that the members of the C. N. II. Society will overlook any mistakes or failure to include in this address mention of any subject of vital importance to the Society, as the speaker brings an apology in lieu of sufficient time to properly fornmulate the subjects to be treated.




THE RELATION OF SCIENCE

TO AGRICULTURE
BY DR. RAMON GARCIA OSES
Director of the Cuban Agricultural Experiment Station
(Translated from Spanish)
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Your great and noble purpose in presenting to the public the authentic evidence of your skill is certainly praiseworthy and the exhibition of remarkable fine sp cimens of fruits produced in this country cannot fail to be of benefit and encouragement as well as to set a good example to that part of our comnunity most entitled to our consideration on account of its merit: our farmers.
Objective lessons being those which most strongly impress our senses and leave an uneffaceable trail in our interested minds, you could not have found a better ilethod to benefit this people, eager to learn; and as in the present state of human knowledge truthis seldofl the result of isolated opinions; diversity, lid at line so coniradictorv ideas are the ones which, submitted to judicious and calm scientific argumentatioll, bring forth the real truth, eliminating all the errors caused by our temperament and the imperfection of our senses, that which in scientific language we call the observer's personal equation; these are the points from which truth breaks forth most brilliantly.
Judging by what lays before our eyes, the progress made in aricultural development in our country has been rapid, and this form of scientific development isthe one which, without doubt, will most rapidly con-




vey us to a high degree of intellectual culture, and shall, in the near future, cause the vessels which at 1 'present enter our ports laden with exoti(- mier(chandise, to sail fron it carrying to oter countries the products of our agricultural and industrial work.
Scientific work must necessarily be eminentl collective, as is the case with all human works, and in this you can he our most assiduous fellow-workers.
All new roads of investigation have a real valtc, \which, some times, remain neglected during some Vyea'S 1ut liO\W cil'cuIStalCeS arise to akniIowledge their iporane. Up to the present, agricultu1re had becen (ast in oblivion, for although the truthI is that during ihe il' 1)ubli's fi rst period nIew horizons were appar-itly opened y the establislhment of al Agri ctu ltui ra 1 laI ( itiin tal Stati(on whe rei l merit aliols s ud(ies Xel n tad( and the( p)opulahrization of agricultIlre Was )puirs d, it was later neglected; bit tll,
I'(t I- i t', this v'(W i ;111(1 t1hlose studies now ap t(': HiliW a(Itid ill be ho'ile forth w\itli 0)gl Slvte i111l)llB eaPllse 01o 1 (Iovo llliellit begisll to l)prciate that the wealth of the country rests chitfIy on its ge 'i(lntur and its industries.
We, although bIeginninig wVith bhut few elements, ar oatih t, etfuse wVithin man's works there is nothing, relatively, small, the basis of the ietho I is to begin, to proceed steadily anlld earnestly, and he who starts with faith and vigour may do things that seemlled impo Agricultural work, from a moral point of view, is eminently meritorious, since, while tending to the physical improvement of humanity, it contributes to the general perfecting of the individual. Decorous work, healthy and adequate food and the comfort obtained, compensate the disappointments and displeasures some times experienced, and the satisfied man is honest; but this form of development is, furthermore, what will lead us to a high degree of intel lectual culture, and we farmers shall then demand the glorious portion to which we are entitled for our contribution to the outspread and maintenance of




the worship of the great and disinterested objectives of science at a time when agricultural progress was still difficult.
If we cast a retrospective glance, we may appreciate that in the past we have had men who struggled, ha ing as profound knowledge and unfortunately being as badly understood, as the Count of PozosI)uiiles, Reynvioso, etc., and that we have them at present, such as my dear and wise professor, Dr. Francis(o de Zayas, and yet the element that was and is now prominent, has not been willing to profit by them; but the status of culture of a nation is not measured by the altitude reached by a small number of pIrivileged scientific men who surpass the common lev\-eI, it is measured by the average level of culture of its inhabitants.
The work of the Agricultural Experimental Statioins, is not the kind of work the results of which mtay be appreciated in a short time, and it requires the patient and painful investigations for years of many investigators, and when a great number of facts have been collected, referring to the same kind of phenomena, these produce something like the condensation of energies long accumulated in many brains; therefore, to speak justly, there is not one discoverer but several discoverers; but if the sacrifices which have been made to assemble that aggregate of general principles for the investigation of truth, this real treasure of the human spirit, called science, are great, the benefits that remain and by which humanity profits, are still much greater, contributing, more than any other study, to the moral and material perfection of humanity.




RESPONSE TO ADDRESS OF DR. OSES
BY MR. THOS. R. TOWNS
Mr. Towns responded to Dr. Osis's address with a few graceful remarks in Spanish, thanking Secretary Foyo, Sub Secretary Luis P6rez, Dr. Osis and Prof. Curet for being present at the meeting and for taking interest in the welfare of the society.
IMPROVED AGRICULTURE
BY PROF. JOSE G. CURET
Vice Director de la Estaci6n Agron6mica.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
You will pardon me if my unpretending address is not worthy of the cultured persons who surround me and of the "Cuban National Horticultural Souiety" that I have the honor of greeting, because I had not prepared myself to speak in public.
I shall say a few words of the relations that should be established on the increase between the powerful Republic of the United States and the young lepublie of Cuba.
The flight of the North Amnierican Eagle has filled the whole world with admiration for its strength and power. The development of the financial and social wealth of the 'United States, in one century, is unequaled in History. The Republic of Cuba is an unexperienced youth with excellent wishes, but we




expect that the North American Nation, which has acted as its mother, will not forsake the solitary star, and on the contrary that it will serve the latter as a model and an encouraging example.
The United States is our Commercial Metropolis, it buys most of our agricultural products and sells us the greater portion of what we consume.
We believe that our financial and agriculturalties should be more and more strengthened.
One of the first things for which Cuba should apply to her weatlhy neighbor is good agricultural machinery to till her soil, to cultivate her crops, to irrigate and to drain.
Our old styled Cuban ploughs should be replaced all over the Island by modern American ploughs.
We need much irrigation to improve the working of our lands, because water is "the soil's blood." We should import from the North, to establish a system of irrigation, punps, hoisting machines, wind mills, hyd(laulic explosion, and in some cases steam motors.
North American agricultural machinery is recommended in Europe as less expensive and more simple and practical. Prof. Rimungelmann, Director of the Permanent Machinery Exposition at Paris, especially reconniends it in his engineering courses. The more reason why Cubans should import it on the increase into our country, improving by degrees our cultivation and our industries, thus somewhat helping our marvelous climate and. Nature which has been so kind to us.
Many agricultural products could be extended in Cuba, to the benefit of the two neighbor Republics.
Sugar cane cultivation could be improved, taking as a sample the scientific methods used in the Hawaiian Islands and so magnificently carried into effect by Dr. Maxwell and Mr. J. T. Crawley at the Eperimental Stations of said Islands. We should select our sugar cane, irrigate and fertilize the same, work our fields with modern agricultural implements and improve the machinery in most of our sugar mills.
Tobacco should be made the object of our care, as




recommended by the cultured commission in its report lately rendered to the Honorable the President of the Republic. We should never forget that Havana tobacco is unrivalled in the world.
Coffee culture, which at the time of the Spanish Colony was one of Cuba's principal products, should be extended; you know that Artemisa, on account of its beautiful coffee plantations, was known as "Cuba's Garden."
Cocoa could also be cultivated on a greater scale. The same can be said of rubber, agave, manila and many more. I have never been able to understand why we import our gunnies from British India, when we could easily obtain them in our country.
But w hat we should take more interest in developing is Horticulture. Fruits, Cuban vegetables during winter and tropical fruits at all times find a wealthy and enormnious market in North America.
The Republic of Cuba is predestined to be the Garden of the United States.
That the Great American Nation shall defend and guard the independence which it so liberaly granted our country, and we, who have a heart and know how to be thankful, shall lovingly share with the MotherRepublice the products of our beautiful land.
The ITonorable the Seretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, Mr. Orteli'o Foyo, will promote with his invariable will and love for this country, day after day, our grienlture, applying to Coigr-ss and to the HfonorIble the Presidnt of the Republic for protection and help for our farmers.
Dr. Rami6n Garcia Osts, Director of the Agricultnral Experimental Station, and Mr. Jost( G. Conret, the Assistant Director, aided by the Chiefs of the Technical Departments of said Station, will continue experimenting to improve the cultivation of industrial and food plans, vegetables and fruits; to improve the cattle raising, to research the Island's Flora and Faune and to analyze soil and fertilizers; and at the same time they will continue to investigate the manner of extinguishing the plagues or dis-




cases t1hat affect our domestic animals and our p)ialu s.
\ hen Congress grants the necessary appropriations, popular agricultural education will be disseminated in the country by lectures accompanied by stQIh)1)tic veiws which will help the people to )c'ome better acquainted with our natural agrienultural resources and the present state of our agricultural products and rural industries.
'I'The example and the capital of North Americans ae rq(luired for the agricultural development of the Uelpblic of Cuba.
We have to becomnie better acquainted with each of le, r, not to look upon one another with distrust, I ach other in good faith; Americans must learn Spanish and Cubans nmst learn English to better n : stand ea(-ch other.
All that will, I believe, be of benefit to the powerful American Eagle, which shall continue its marvelous flight protecting the independence of its daughtewr, the Republic of Cuba, and aiding her in the promotion of her Agriculture, her Industry and her Commerce.
VOTE OF THANKS
Moved by Prof. Earle and seconded by Mr. Collins to extend a vote of thanks to the officials of the Department of Agriculture.




PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS

BY PROF. C. F. AUSTIN
Ladies and Gentlemien and Members of the Cuban National Iorticural Society:
It is useless for me 10 say that it gives me great pleasure to 1meet wilh yol again. To 1ie there is no gathering e(tiual to one made up of live active fruit and vegetable gro\xers. I hope every one has come full of mlerest a nd ready to give and take in the miler of d(iscilssioi. For a meeting full of interest all ni ust be ready to take part. Let no one wait, if you have something to say let's have it. For the discussion is the most important of all that is said.
I believe this is the fourth gathering of this body, and many of s rnemnibe r the begiming andll have watched the steady growth. Each Annual Report has been larger and better than the previous one. I truly b lieve we (an be proud of them and I hope that the present one will still be better, both in size and material. We must go forward so that each year will see progress. We are glad to report that the financial condition of the society has never been better for all bills have been paid and there is a good balance on hand with which to enter the coming year.
In this paper I wish to call attention in a brief and general way to a few points that seem to me the most important for the (levelopIment of 1our fruit and vegetable interests. There are two things that always interest the grower. First the growing of a crop, and second the selling of the same. Very often the latter is the most important of the two. The development of any industry in a new country has many difficulties to surmount, and many things to learn be-




fore it is put upon a sound commercial basis. Those of us who are interested in the development of the agricultural and horticultural interests are no exception to the rule. We have much to learn for all is new and in the developing stage. The things we grow will have to be changed and developed to meet the need(ls of this country. There has been much speculation and often it has resulted in failure. What is true here is true of any new country. You may go over the de elopmient of the fruit interests of any country and you will find it strewn with failures of those who have tried and given up, and the same will be true here. However those who have the stamina in themn and hold out while the country is building up will have their reward for being first on the spot. They will feel like the American in the Catacombs, with which a story is connected about an Englishman, an American and I believe a Frenchman, who were inii the Catacombs of Italy. The Englishman and Frenlchnan thought it would he a great joke to get the Amieriean drunk and bury him in the bones, so they got hint fully loaded, and hid him in there, then uni(hed for a time, and after a while he began to kick and crawl and got up on top of the heap and looked all around and (didn't see anybody, so he yelled out "Resurrection I)ayV, Glory to God, Americ. the first Nation up." That is how I feel about this exhibition here,-We are right on top and I hope we w ill keep) there.
Of the many points that interest the grower from thle grower's standpoint is the question of thorough cultivation and irrigation during the dry season. Around these two points are gathered many others, such as fertilization, pruning, spraying, etc., but they are not the foundation rocks. With careful study of these points for the past five years I do not see how success is to be made on our average land without more attention being paid to these two points. Cultivation is one of the foundation stones, and for this country on an average we must have more water than is supplied during the months from November




to May. Success with winter vegetables cannot be had without cultivation. With water and cultivation you can grow almost everything in the garden line with success. I know a liberal supply of water on our average fruit lands is going to work wonders with the fruit interests. How I wish I could drive this home so that everyone will strive to obtain water if only enough for a small garden to begin with. While it has not been demonstrated by actual work, I can see no reason with irrigation inll our fruit orchards why we should not be able to control the blooming period so as to have earny fruit, which usually brings a good price. The amount of water needed will vary with thle season, soil, age of trees : 1d crops grown in the orchard (during the dry season, and very 1much on the condition of soil and amount of cultivation given
-along with the irrigation. For after each irrigation just as soon as the soil is dry enough, careful cultivation should be given until another irrigation is needed. They should be given often enough to keep the tr( s inll a strong vigorouls condition. Front the s pointpoit of growing the crop success or failure, 011one year with another, depends upon irrigation and cultivation. W 1ith irrigation you cani practically guariantee a crop, without it, you are taking a desperate risk, and luck I believe is your only hope of success.
Let us now look at the selling side of this question, for after a crop is grown it must be sold and well sold in order for the grower to obtain a profit for his labo r. h n the markets are close at h and and each growe r cail either take his products there and sell thel i self or by shippiilg a short distance have them sold, the groW 'r V c ell come a(uained wiih the seller, S d 111hv mtie market o editions and each grower can get along ver y well alone, but when you are located as the fruit growers are in this country, a long way from market, and with poor shipping facilities, careless handlings of the products, some other conditions must be had for handling the crop. 'he only solution I can see for this problem is for active local organizations at each principal point




and these formed into one strong central, one which will have control of the handling of the products. One man or one company alone unless a very large grower can do very little in the way of improving the shipping and selling conditions of our fruit, but with a strong organization backed by the growers, you can get about what is right, for the railroads and steamship lines will listen to a person if he represents an organization with products to ship. An individual grower with his few crates cannot do imuich alone, but when formed into an organization with 100 growers and representing thousands of crates you can talk business. There is also the question of uniform packages, uniform packing and grading of the fruit which must be had before the products of this country will give the best result to the grower. Aside from getting better shipping facilities, better distribution, better grading and packing of our lpro(ducts there is one condition that we must have for the development of both our local and foreign markets. We must go into the leading markets of the United States, Canada and England and make a place for our products. Our winter vegetables must have better distribution, our grapefruit placed on sale in all the leading towns and cities and especially the native fruits. Aguacates and mangoes are scarcely known outside of our seaport towns. England gets her supply of minangoes from India. Why should we not have some of the trade? Why should we not educate the people to want our fruits and vegetables? Many of you remember when tomatoes and celery were not considered fit to eat, and vet look to-day at the sale of these vegetables. Our malangas and chaiotes are good, Why should not they be sold? Our sapotas and mamey Santo Domingo are all good, and why should they not be sold? To my mind it is estirely the question of the people not knowing what we have in this country and how to use it. It is for us to show them what we have and how to use them. Put our fruits on the market and if necessary give them away until the people become educated as to their




40
use and demand then. Put our grapefruit into the small towns and cities and educate the people to use thiem. These are conditions that must be had before olir horticulture is put on a fil'lm basis and I cainot see how it is to be done without strong organizations. These are some of the points that I want to leave with you. Let us think then over, and see if there is not brains and energy enough in the Americans located in this country to work out our own salvation 11and1 put the horticulture of this country on a firm financial basis.




V7HAT CAN DE RAISED IN CUBA AND WHAT
SHOULD BE RAISED
3Y DR. PAUL KARUTZ
To b ginl with, most everything can be raised in (Ctu)ba. bui not everything can be raised economically, 1nor d(iisposed of profitably.
To impress these simple facts upon the minds of new 1and old settlers seems to me a very important point for avoiding discouragement and loss of time 811l 1tOUP(.
Real-estate dealers and agents are naturally in.li ed to exagerate, and the exagerations are often < nVi-n e~ because they are backed by actual results, obtained here and there on small pieces of land by anl vii unusual skill and a large amount of handXVnOk. lBut the,;, results are misleading for the averaue 's ti r: th( v should be avoided and can be avoid(d for t he simple reason that the farming proposition in Cuba is good enough without exageration.
I shall not he ha 1I on the real-estate business, for I realize fully the hbih credit deserved by that profession in regard to opening and developing new countries. Also I shall not say that there is anll intended misrepresentation, but there is too much drawing on imagination, which can do no good to any~body.
Believe me, it does not pay to exagerate,-the iklin truth is inviting enough. Fairy stories are believed by a class of people who cannot succeed, cannot supply the necessary amount of energy, brains and determination. Such people are not stickers, and every deserter is liable to discourage many good people from coming.




Tropical climate, tropical vegetation and tropical life in general are fascinating; they make our heart run away with us. To sit under pains and rosebushes at Christmas-time, while our northern brother is shoveling snow and putting coal into the furnace, sounds like living in a paradise; it stirs up the wildest imagination. But, while it is charming to sit under palmhns, that pleasure has to be earned by hard work, exactly as other good things in the North have to be earned by hard work.
Anyhow, it is a fact that an agriculturalist or horticuiltfist cani do better in Cuba than anywhere else, if he can command the necessary amount of money to start right; further, if he is willing and able to apply here the same amount of energy, brain and determination that hie would apply in The States for a similar enterprise. Cuba is not an easy snap by any lean s; inut, representing a comparatively virgin couit ry with only a tenth of the population it could support, the opportunities are large and many. The even climate and the delightful winds can appeal to everybody, the soil and water conditions are good throughout, so are the transportation facilities and the safety of public life.
When I am asked by a supposed settler, what he should raise, I usually advise to start with the products needed and imported into Cuba.
While making a living with the needed products, many chances for betterment will show up and last, but not least, it provides the time for learning and investin'ating Cuban conditions and markets.
To star in farming requires investment. (nba is not a poor man's country, and ani Am rican fanmilv (annot live and dwell as the average (Cuban faruiner does. We ieed a good well, a house, livestock and good tools at least. Further w\e need money to live on until the first returns can help us along.
Then comes the question what to raise; well, raise just what is wanted in your neighborhood or in the next country store. Are yon located near a city where a number of American families are living? So, look




them up and offer to delivery fresh country bread, vegetables, eggs, poultry, etc. They want good things to eat just as bad as you want to sell them. Are you located near a sugar mill, where some thousand people are employed for six months in the year? You will find it profitable to raise plantains, boniatas, chickens and hogs. Regarding plantains, they represent the national food for the natives, and bring an average of 70 c. per 100. One acre should yield 400 bunches (each bunch bears about 30 plantains), after 12 months, and about 1000 bunches the following year: thus one acre will yield from $84 to $210,according to the age.
I n raising vegetables and potatoes, it must be realized that irrigation is necessary, and that such crops will not grow during the summer months, unless shaded. The success depends on the local demand, and will give profits to a few growers only. I known that a few parties have been very successful with potatoes, due to a favorable location.
In raising tomatoes on a large scale for shipment to The States several sections have accomplished successful results, when located conveniently for quick transportation. But the returns are uncertain and it would be much more advisable to combine for erecting a modern cannery. The market for canned tomatoes should not be limited to The States, for there are broader fields available.
Pineapples do very well in Cuba and the output has been increasing every year. The profits are depending entirely on the market conditions in New York, and most likely last year's experiences have ,dl( a bad showing for the growers. To ship pineapples to Europe would pay better, but so far no colds~oma e steamers are available. To conduct a large cannery for pineapples seems to be a good business proposition, though it will require a pretty big capitl for advertising the Cuban product, since the I awaii product has occupied the vv orld's market and is working with a very large capital, mostly invested in advertising and opening new markets. Anyhow,




the small grower will find a good home market for his pineapples, when he goes after it right.
Now we are coming to the pet of the real-estate prospectus-to the citrus fruit.
The raising of citrus fruit should be taken up by parties who are prepared to keep up the necessary expense for five years at least. Don't let the trees bear too early; it does not pay in the end. I know it is very tcnpting to demonstrate to your friends what you have aecomnplished with a 3-year old tree. You can make the tree bear in the third year, but it is not economical, as the following years will prove.
So far as oranges are concerned, I believe in supplying the home market, and the later you can deliver, the higher the returns. There are reliable means to produce a keeping orange. I cannot advocate the hazardous export to The States, except when the grower can sell his oranges on given orders to his friends there.
Regarding lemons, I doubt whether Cuba can compete with California and Italy. California has no duty to pay, and Italy has the advantage of ridiculously cheap labor. But large lemon groves would pay very well for manufacturing calcium citrate, imported into The States free of duty for making citric acid, the more, when the lemon oil is utilized too. The deniand for citric acid is increasine fast, for the increasing cotton industry absorbs large quantities for fixing colors in cotton. The increasing demand for soft drinks all over the World is very encouraging too. There is lime everywhere in Cuba. Lime delivers the calcimn, and to deliver large quantities of lenions is up to the growers.
The future of grapefruit seems to be assured since Europe is on the point of becoming educated to its use. But even with grapefruit the growers should depend more on their connections in The States for disposing of the crop. To depend on the returns obtained in Auctions is not business-like.
The Cuban grapefruit is in quality the best on the market, but in appearance the worst. Spray, fertilize,




wash, cure and pack right, and the outside would show up much better and the returns would be higher. The buyer judges by the appearance, and pays accordingly.
The necessary investment for bringing a 10-acres grapefruit grove into bearing is about $3,000. When proper care has been exercised, the returns in the fifth vear should amount to about $750 net, and should increase every year. By using the native sour stock, by budding with buds from SILVER CLUSTER and MARSH SEEDLESS, by proper
cultivation, exact fertilizing, careful spraying and by looking after many other things, I think it safe to ib est in grapefruit groves. Cuban soil will produce the best grapefruit in the world, but dont forget the umial behind the gun,-he has to do his full share or the result will be a loss.
I'egardiug the raising of corn we are hearing the wildest tales. Indeed we can raise two crops a year when May and September planting has been done on w(l prepared soil or on newly cleared and burnedover woodland. To plant corn between the sugar cane in the first year has paid well, and ofteu paid for the planting of the cane but I would not advise to depend on corn for making a living. The country to plant corn commercially is the United States.
An excellent business proposition for Cuba regarding corn is to buy up small quantities from the many small native farmers, and to store large quantities in vats, till highest prices can be obtained. This, of course, requires considerable cash investment, not only for the corn, but also for the vats, in which the corn has to be treated repeatedly with carbon bisulphide for exterminating weavil. At harvest time the average price of corn is about $1.20 per 100 lbs., going up in following months to $3.00; sometimes $4.00 have been paid. These datas are certainly inviting. To raise here American corn and sweet corn has been a failure, apparently due to the thinner husks.
Good profits can be made by raising cowpeas, velvet beans and lab-lab beans, not only for feeding




but also for seeds. The grove owners are favoring more and more the cover crop method, and will become heavy purchasers of leguminous seeds. Between May and December, I have raised three crops of cowpeas on the same plot, each crop delivering the seeds for the following crop. I planted seeds inoculated and not inoculated,-there was no difference in the growth noticeable. The same experience I have had with velvet beans and alfalfa. This seems to indicate the presence of the nitrogen bacillus in Cuban soils, and in fact we have several native leguninous plants thrifting in our woods and on the grass land.
Alfalfa is doing well in Cuba. For making hay and money there is nothing better than alfalfa. Alfalfa aiid plenty of fresh water will produce the best pork. Raising hogs has to pay here, not only for the home market, but also for supplying ships with salted and canned provisions. For disposing of these products, I am advocating packing houses with ice plants, which can be done by combining the hog raisers for said purpose.
Here I like to add, that the future of American settlers in Cuba will depend on the spirit among the settlers. For heaven's sake combine, co-operate and do business on a broad scale. Co-operation spells power and success, while the individual is always on the wrong side of the fence.
To raise a limited amount of arrow-root for the manufacture of starch is advisable, too. Arrow-root starch is higher priced than any other starch; it is mostly exported to England for pharmaceutical and kitchen purposes. Exporters in Havana pay on an average 30 c. per lb. The net profit per acre will amount to about $120. For manufacturing the starch out of the roots, I come again with the suggestion of co-o)eration. The by-product of a starch plant can be worked over into a hogfeed, and should be mixed with molasses, which can be obtained very cheaply from any sugar mill.
Cassava or yucca is another source of starch, most-




li used for techincal purposes, for laundries and for dressing cotton goods. The value of yucca starch is very much lower than of arrow-root starch, but the yield per acre very much larger, so offsetting the difference and resulting in pretty nearly the same return per acre.
Several settlers should do well raising medicinal plants or roots, for this I have no practical experience to offer, but it should not be difficult to interest a wholesale drug house in The States for making coutra(ts for raising certain herbs and roots.
The most profitable and certain crop in Cuba is represented by the sugar cane. Of course it requires capital to plant and to care for a large acreage, but the investment pays from 25 to 40 per cent. and the fields are producing paying crops for ten to twelve years without replanting. In some parts of Cuba we can find fields which have paid for 25 years, but that is not the rule.
For sugar cane mostly virgin wood land is cut and burned over and the seed cane is planted between the stumps and half burned logs.
On an average an acre of sugar cane, highpriced land included, will require $100 investment. Under the colonia system, land and the money for clearing, burning and planting is advanced by a sugar mill. The next few years will see several new mills going iup in Cuba, and he who is "Johnny on the spot", will have a rare chance to land something good. I should like to talk more about the raising of sugar cane, but cannot do it today. Anyhow, I can state that there are a number of colonos who started with nothing and today they have their check for $20,000 for this year's crop.
But dont let us forget that these men were wise enough to learn from the Cubans; they did not only learn their methods, but also their language and the dealing with their peculiarities.
We are too easily inclined to ridicule the ways ofother nations; we should not do that, we should IYearnm




from the Cubans and modify their methods by adding our modern way of doing things.
Speaking about learning from the Cubans, I doubt whether any kAmerican will succeed in raising tobacco without depending in the start on a well posted native. Tobacco raising is a big business in Cuba but it is not advisable to undertake it before having made a very close study of it. The same warning can be applied to the raising of coffee, cocoa, rubber trees, cocoanuts, etc.
There are so many chances to make a start with products having a ready market and available informnations, that it is not necessary to start with experimnenting and fancy farining. To make experiments with all kinds of plants around the house is advisable and highly educating; it might cx en lead to some good aceoniplishmients, but at the same time the living has to be made by something inmore subslantial.
By all means specialize and stick to a few things only. Any land section and any man, making a specialty out of a certaiin line, is bound to succeed, while a "jack of all trades," although interesting, is bound to be a failure from the standpoint of practical political economy.
Good profits can be made by raising mules. They are bringing high prices. Chickens and other fowls will obtain good returns, but the success with poultry is individual. Some people can raise chickens under any old circumstances, while others cannot do it under the most favorable conditions. I could tell you a great deal about chicken raising, and could explain to you the most beautiful scientific methods, yet I could not raise chickens to save my life. Why ? Because my temperamnient is against it. So you see the success with chickens depends on the disposition of the raiser.
In sununary we have to admit that Cuba is offering any very good opportunities to a settler who is able to follow up investigations with stern determination and courage. Naturally a change in the way of




living is indispensable from many small unpleasant things, but they don't amount to anything. They cannot spoil the final success, but are stirring up our fighting ability. For my part, Cuba is good enough for me. I believe in a bright future for Cuba, and believe also that a very large number of American and European people will find here a prosperous home under excellent conditions. Not by dreaming under palms, but by being a man in the best sense of the word, and by co-operation with his fellow citizen.
(Supplementary remarks)-You know I am the Industrial Agent of the Cuba Railroad Company, in Camagiley, and I am authorized by that Company to invite the Society to hold the next Exposition in Camagiiey. It is a little distance from here, but we have come this year just as far as you would have to travel next year. The Railroad Company is willing to give you an excellent Exhibition Hall, furnish it with tables, electric light and every convenience you w\ant, and also willing to give prizes for the best fruits, vegetables, plants, or anything else. Sir Williani is very much interested in the development of Cuba; he has adready done a great deal, and the future will show that he is willing to do still more. Indeed he would be very glad if you would take up these questions, because the eastern part of Cuba is becoming more important every year. The eastern part of Cuba is a new country, but it is a splendid country, and well worth while looking it over.
It was moved that the society extend a vote of thanks to the Cuba Railroad Company for its kind invitation and that the matter be referred to the Executive Conmmnitte.
DISCUSSION
Col. HIarvey-Did Dr. Karutz say something about
competing with California on oranges? Dr. Karutz-I did.
Col. Harvey-I would like to say that I have examined this matter very carefuly,-have taken the




rates of freight and the time to Chicago, to Kansas City, to St. Louis, and from there east to Boston. As regards our competition with California, after laying down a box of oranges in Chicago, they have eight cents the best of us. In New York we have nine cents the best of them. In Boston we have nine to eleven cents the best of them. The whole of that great eastern market, where the great bulk of the fruit of the United States is used is open to us in Cuba if we will send good fruit, well handled and well packed, and it can be sent there in competition with fruit from any place in the world. We can raise better fruit than California ever raised. California never has raised a real first-class orange, while Cuba has and does raise an orange that is superior to anything that has ever gone out of those markets. There is no question but what we are able to raise oranges in Cuba that will compete with any in the world.
Dr. Karutz-Your figures are well known. We all know these figures. It is not a question of duty, transportation, etc., but a question of organization, of advertising the fruit, of uniform packing of one variety, etc. You have half a dozen varieties here and vou have not got enough to pay for the organization and advertising in the States like California does. As long as you ship your boxes to Commission Houses in New York, and they send it to auction houses, it is not a good business propositionl. Now, grape fruit is a business proposition, because th're are new markets waiting to take it up. Tllat is iiiY arguneiwnt.
Col. Harvey -As far as grape fruit goes there is no place that can conipete with Cuba. There is no qi,,stion whatever in regard to the quality of our frill, and it is a positive fact that we can pay the duty and land our fruit in New York cheaper than California. We can land it in three days and California takes from II to 22 days. Most of the cars leaving California do not arrive in New York inside of 22 days, and less than 14 to 16 days is very rare. We can leave from this dock and arrive in New York inside




of three (lays. I have shipped fruit from here, leaving on Saturday at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and it was sold on the dock in New York on Tuesday before 10'clock in tilhe morning, some five to ten thousand eraites of pineapples.
M r. Newsom-Last summer there was formed in NewX York an organization known as the "Cuban Fruit Corporation". We have with us this morning o.r Vice-President, Mr. James C. Perry, of New York. I would like to hear him on this fruit question.
Mr. Perry-This is my first trip to Cuba. I have been interested in Cuba for some time. We are taking this matter up in just the same manner as our friend has suggested,-as regards uniform packages, correet packing of the fruit, and selling of the fruit in New York by our own representative, and next year w\o will show you some results. We are here to put conditions at La Gloria where they ought to be. and as far as competing with California is concerned, we are fully able to do so. I have given them some instructions in La Gloria which I hope may be productive of results. Our trees there are young yet, and we cannot now hope to take the market away from California, which has been producing for a great many years, but I firmly believe that the time is coming when we can do so. I believe Cuban fruit is able to compete with any market of the world. A year or two will see the development which our friend says we can produce.
Mr. Halstead-I would like to ask Dr. Karutz about the successful production of alfalfa.
Dr. Karutz-You must put on lime and lots of lime to produce alfalfa. Prof Bernard has seen my ,-mall experimental plot of alfalfa, which was planted in June, and was ready for the second cutting in November, without irrigation. Plants picked out in November had roots about two feet long. I got my seed from the North, and I will do more experimenting in Camagiiey, at the new Experiment Station there. From my experiments to date I am entirely convinced that you can use alfalfa to good advantage. Of




course it depends on the soil. This is the first year I have raised it. This year I will plant some acres of it. You have to put at least a ton of lime to an acre, or two tons will be better, in order to grow alfalfa.
See. Henricksen-In my opinion the experiments so far conducted in growing alfalfa are not far enough advanced so that we can draw conclisiois from it. The experiment that l)r. Karutz mentioned is small. I saw alfalfa growing in Ceballos, but only a few short rows. Mr. Kvdd said that he had cut three times. It was growing, that is all. What we want is that the Experiment Station should take it up and plant an acre or two acres in different places of the Island. We cannot draw conclusions from small local experiments. I do not think it will be a success, although I should like to see it.
Mr. Van Hermann-I think Dr. Karutz started out by saying that we are too apt to draw conclusions from innatlure experiments. We have seen alfalfa growing in Cuba; we have seen bales of it, but from a connnercial point of view it is a failure. I do not doubt but what we can grow alfalfa, but it will possibly be by selecting our own seed from one, two or one hundred plants that may be growing in such experiment plots. We have seen it 10 months old, and seen it wiped out like we sometimes see potatoes wiped out. by a blight, a fungi running over the top of the plant and entirely cutting it off. That is just an instance.
As far as shipping fruits to the States is concerned, w e c n ship fruit, and the time may come when we will successfully compete with California, but at present we cannot. We must first get our own agents in1 the field, as La Gloria has d(lone apparently, and advertise our fruit. Our fruits go to New York, are put up at auction, and the auctioneer may say "This is Cuban fruit", and Cuban fruit in general has a black eye, especially when put on the auction block, because California has their agents there,-Florida has their agents there, and they do not give a rap about us. In order to compete successfully, we must




have our own agents in the market, and they must be there with great big placards to tell the people lthat this is (uban fruit. First of all we must put fruit o ii the market that will command and demand a prie; we do not have to sell our fruit on the auction block. \\ hen we have spotted fruit we can put it on th( 1 i1c andi it need not be said where it comes from. Soine shippers ship only their good fruit under their own ani, and their spoited fruit goes into the market unnier another name, and I think it is policy and business. The same may be true about all the 1est of o ( nban product. I t is true(, for anodhnr 1 ing. thait our native fruits an unknown. Who know what a mainev is in the States ? Not one man oul of a thousand, and who is going to buy a mamey when he does not know what it is? We must demonstrate what these things are,-eat them ourselves anI! clonunarge our friends toalo so.
Prof. Bernard-Following the remarks of Dr. Karnutz, I wish to say that it is my idea that we have not got together on the question of cooperation. One man ships a few boxes of his fruit, another man does the same thing in the same way, and so on. There is no question but that Cuban fruit is good, we all know that, but what we lack is the spirit of cooperation. To give you an idea of the lack of cooperation here I will cite one instance: A few months ago, after the rainy season, the road in front of our property was so bad that I could not get out of it with four mules. Well, I went to dork and built a road that cost me $300.00 for one mile. As soon as completed I went to see my neighbor on the other side of the road, and I said to him, "Look here, I built that road, it cost me money, etc." but the answer made, although the road had been cut up and made useless by the use of his carretas was "Well, I will not use that road, so work on your own hook." I am convinced that Dr. Kirutz wanted to impress the lack of cooperation.
Prof. Austin-I might say that there are too many chips on shoulders runing around here to keep knocking them off all the time. We must get together,




shoulder to shoulder on the wheel and do some pushing.
Mr. Pierson-The subject of selling fruit has been sufficiently discussed according to ny idea of things. Uutil we have solletlhiig to sell how are we goilig to sell it ( Cuba has not an fruit yet to sell. Our trees are young, and the matter of selling fruits in the market is in its infancy, so consequently until we get somlliiiig to sell we need 1ot worry about selling it, inasmuch as we know that we can grow fruit here, botith aS regards expense and as to (j1uality of fruit, equal to any other in the world. Those are points of fhit that we can first lay down as a )asis on which to work, and not feel discouraged because so many have said that ( 'Cuban fruit will not compete favorably with that of California and Florida, and we can feel safe to go ahead and grow our fruits.
C(ol. Harvey-In regard to this question of shipping fruit, I do not tl, ink that the people who are growing fruit consider? their own local market. It w1 tyke in my opinion a million and a half oxess of fruit to supply the loal markets in Cu('n, and that would he ot prices that will pay well. Now there is not anything like that quantity of fruit raised in the Isla md toray. Another thing is that we are in our infan(v,-our fruit trees are young, our experience in packing is very crude, and we are only gradually working towards the successful handling andl packing of our fruit, for the foreign markets, but for the pr'- i I would urge our 'rowers to consider their lo i rkct. I 'saw orange sell hlre all last sununer for 1.00 a dozen. TIm i p n p r~e the( rrlvi o ever svll for in New York City or anywhere in Chicago, and it



DIVERSIFICATION OF CUBAN AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL PURSUITS
BY COL. H. E. HAVENS
In all countries the diversification of industrial pursuits has been found to be a wise and beneficial policy. And the greater the diversification, within the limits of profitable individual employment, the gri c a has been the development of wealth and the spread of intelligence and enterprise among the people. Restricted by unfortunate conditions, prior to her independence, Cuba now presents broad unoccupied fields wherein new avocations can be entered upon and whereby individual prosperity can be pron noted, and national wealth and commercial power greatly augmented.
Careful atudy and consideration as to prudent and safe directions for individual effort, are essential; nd some suggestions bearing on the subject may be a vantageous.
The cultivation of citrus fruits has already been extensively entered upon. And it is an enterprise of e'rent promise. But it must not be overlooked that lere we come in competition with the very highest deree of skill and enterprise the world affords, controlling enormous interests well established. Those JE vS 41 have the constant aid and support of an enli'h1tned and generous Yovermnent, which annually expiwIs large sulls of money in the em1ploymeit of Experts, and in experiments d(esi(gn(ed to overcome the difficulties encountered, and to place the best fruits possible to be 1)roduced, upon the markets in condition to conmmnand the most remunerative prices. They are also further aided by the imposition of pro-




teetive tariff duties which the Cuban producer, who .s toi the United States for markets, must pay. And before we can reach the advai'ed position they oc( lip' N we ha (' 1111101 10 lea ln all 111111 to (to.
I view of these fats would it not be well to reach o1ti ;11( i11cl1de 1 011or efforts sonm of thos' pod 1ts t1 are strictly tropial, and which the Unlited States ao 111t produce! By so doing we should eliminae I'olillit1011 flo ii that direction, ad11(1 fiindi a p(sll er 811\10o8s to buy without the impositiol of prote(li ve (Iduties.
(uhba is a tropical country calpble of producing anI t-1 Ievi troy al 'rowth. Why slihould we not take advalilage of lir tropial (1a1racter and multivate those things wXhi(h cun only be prodiuceid in a tropical locality, and which' all the rest of th le world 1muist have The fact that that (lass of produ(ts are not now c11ltivated ill Ciba (does not1101 come fromI anY in'apacity of the coluntrv to produce them, but it is the result of a sy xstematic policy on the part of Spain when she ruled the island to prevent, both for business and political reasons, a diversification of interests, either in agriiculture or manufacturing.
To keep the common people under control and as little able to resist Spanish authority as discouraging conditions could make them they were restricted by the operation of systenmatic and business policies to as few fields of industry as possible-these being fields from which large revenues could most easily an I certainly be collected. Hence there is no general inar.strv in existence in the way of the production of strictly tropical fruits, and no important manufaturing interests outside of tobacco.
1But the fact that these things are not now produced in Cuba on a commercial scale seems to be accepter h many as sufficient evidence that they cnnmmot be. This however is an entirely erroneous assumptiol-. Th' unfortunate andl depressing conditions under which Cuba labored for a long period prior to brl indo endlonce coiut- for the absence of much that is possible. And Cuba is constantly paying heavy




tribute to other countries for necessities which she is e iitii'l \ capale of porodiiijng herself, and(1 is losing the profits of a great business which she is abundant1Y c ,I e of coiduclting.
ijlilla, cacao, (Minaiiloul, rubber, coffee, yucca, co(aine and numerous other products that are sources & ireat profit in some of the tropical islands w01ould all flourish here. In fact vanilla, Spices, cocaine, cillIlhailon aii( other growths are found wild in the woods in some parts of Cuba, only waiting the hand of enterprise to make them sources of profit. Would it not be wise for soine of the enterprising 1n'll of Cuba to, at least, col)inle with their citrus frait iiud tob c co interests some of these things wDich bl troe less competition in the markets and pay 110no wotitive duties to the United States?
I -i dI1 t 1ro(Il1ctS mentioned there are many valiuiable Cuban fruits that should be made sources of profitable industries. The mango and the aguacate only n ieed to be exploited in the world's market to eOeate (emland thait could not easily be supplied. The mango. especially, presents exceptional inducenients for its extensive culture. Combining the substantial food character of the apple with luscious qualities surpassing even those of the peach, it is very appropriately known in the East as the "King of Fruits" -TIn all creation there is no fruit that surpasses it.
When I speak in these terms of the mango I do not wemn the common seedling mango now growing in C7,1. I refer to the varieties recently introduced from India into Florida by the United States Governicnt, and still more recently by individual enteriwise. Those who have only eaten the common Cuba mngo have very little conception of what a genuine wom1o is. and will experience surprise when they encounter an Fast India Mango. Their price at the present time places them beyond the reach of any buit the very wealthy. A prominent business man of Havana recently told me that when in New York 19-t summer he saw some of them exposed for sale




and thought he would enjoy one of them himself, but the price of $1.30 each effectually repelled him. The usual price in New York when they canll be obtained, at all, is from 50 cents to $1.00 each. And large quantities of then could be marketed at those prices if they were obtainable.
Tlhe aguiaeate also brings very high prices in the Nort hern markets, and the supply is very limited. Of these there are good varieties already growing in Cuba.
I suggest to the growers of citrus fruits, as well as others, that the growing of somine others of some of Cu'nba's rich fruits might be found expedient.
At the presellt tilne I know of no American, and but)111 few Cu( bans, who are attempting to prodlce anlything that is not also produced in the United States. AIl ienica is are more particularly raising vegetables for Northern marllkets-all of which are produced in the United Stlates, also they do so under the greatest disadvantages, and are finding the profts irregular and mleertain anid the business hazardous and iunsatisfactorv. After paying railroad and steamship transportation, forwarding agents and con111ssion mIlerehialts, draviiien and(1 tariff (dulties, the prodluer takes what is left, and generally gets left himself. Occasional successes lure him on, about as the gambler is enticed to continue in the game; or when his losses confront him like the gambler he seeks to retrieve them by trying a'ain. And altogether, I venture to10 sugest that veetable growing inll Cuba under existing conditions brings no stea(dyi or reliable profit out of which any prudent or ambitious 1an call 110ope for conlltilule(l prosperity or the aeeu niulatiol of a competenee. And why (, 10v Ien of intelligence continue to engage in it? Is it not true that arollid thei on ever yv hand there are almndaii opDortuflities where the marIkets are regular and certain and the profits exceedinp:1v renunerative, which they pass carefully bv in pursuit of phantom fortunes in raising vegetablles for the United States.
Besides the strictly tropical products to which I




have referred there are numerous crops which the local demand would make very remunerative, and most of which could be more easily raised than veget b les. Inmniense quantities of corn, hay, potatoes, I IlS, rice, ,ow-peas, velvet beans and some other things are annually imported into Cuba from the United States and elsewhere, and on account of tariffs, transportation charges, and profits of dealers, (0lllanud pic(es that would appal a citizen of the Unite(i States if he had to encounter them there.
Over half a million bushels of corn are irmp)orted othly fromni the United States. Its price in Havana is about $2.50 per hundred pounds, and much more w ben it reaches the country towns, bringing about Ithre times the price obtained in Ithe North. It is true ithlat the yield of Cuban corn is much below that in the United States, but the difference in price would (owpenpsate for a much greater difference in yield thal i atually v exists. Besides, if the same care and skill were used in the selection of seed and in methodts of cultivation that are used in the corn states of the United States there is no doubt that the yield of Cuban corn would )e greatly increased. The yield of Cubhan corn has degenerated to about as low a point as careless and improvident methods could bring it, and methods of improvement would be certain to bring valuable results. I understand that work in this direction is being carried on at the Experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas, and if so, important results may reasonably be expected.
Create quantities of potatoes are annually imported also. and their retail price is from three to five times 0, o'roat as is realized )v the producers in the United S' fin s. There is meh soil in Cuba that would pro(Nee excellent potatoes. In fact the quality of Cuban potatoes is equal to the best produced in the North. It li)s been said that (Cuban potatoes will not "keep". But this is a mistake. During the past year they have been kept by growers in the Pinar del Rio Province from six to ten months in perfect condition. The yields have not been so great as in some of the potato




sections of the North, but with the greater prices, have been sufficient to insure much greater prolii s.
ILarge an-ounis of hay are inmport(d also, and the prices in Ilax aiia range from $35.00 to $45.00 per toi. And vet good hay can be made in Cuba, of seeral grasises,>and the yield is far above that in the N ol'th. PI a ia ra>1 ss g s I u xi ci a t lv e c wvher, a d makes good hay. And it is \ ithin safe limits to say 1that1 ten toiis per acre per a1nnii (can be relied upon. Iltrodiutled ito Soutlein Texas w liin recei t years it has yieldled, in thie vicinity of adlveston, fifteen tons per acre of good nmarketalble bay, and it would veil'aiil v do as well on the soils of Cuba.
In sonie parts of the tUied States the raising of ains is an important and profitable industry. In ("0Iif'ornia last year a single coinity had under ciltivation 60,.000 acres, while a numliber of olher counties had front 5,000 to 20,000 acrs. These figures are from the "The Pacific Fruit World of Los Angeles". The New England States and New York, and some other states also, are large producers of the same crop. Cuba imports large quantities from Mexico, Germanv and the United States, and the people pay for them at the retail stores from six to twelve cents per pound, depending on the variety; or from three to six times the price in the countries from which they come. And yet Cuba can produce them with the greatest success.
Rice enters largely into the food supply of the great mass of the Cuban people, and it is nearly all imported from abroad. The price in Texas, where most of the United States crop is raised, ranges from 75 to 90 cents per bushel of 56 pounds. The Cuban consumer pays for his rice 5 and 6 cents per pound, or about $3.00 per bushel.
Last year the Texas crop reached 6,000,000 bushels, and under improved methods, introduced by Japanes cultivators, the yields on many plantations were from sixty to eighty bushels per acre; and the estimated cost of production was twenty-five cents per bushel. In this industry many men have speedily




grown wealthy, and the industry is rapidly extending. A single individual the past season sold his crop of 8,000 acres for $350,000.
I am not prepared to say with what success rice might be grown, but I have been told that some experiments have given satisfactory results. And there is no reason to doubt that there is an abundance of rice lands equal to those of Texas along the streams of Cuba. And if some of the cane and tobacco-growers would investigate the Texas methods of growing rice they might find a field of opperations far more profitable than that they now occuv.
Cuba produces no grapes. In former times Spain prohibited their cultivation and the belief seems to have grown that they will not flourish. There is scar ely a spot on the Earth where grapes of some \ arieties do not yield abundantly. The grape is more universal in its adaptation to varying conditions of soil and climate than perhaps any other fruit. It pushes its way into the frosts and snows of the North and yields its luscious harvests there; it wanders into southern lands and offers its refreshing juices where tropical suns and heat prevail. It asks only the nurturing care and skill of man in aid of its struggle with the conflicting influences of natures laws; and in return for this it makes its home in all lands and among all peoples, and greatly responds with an abundance of one of the most healthful and lifegiving products that the Creator has given to man. And it is only necessary to search out the varieties suited to Cuban soils and climate, or to develop new ones, to establish it here. Where the wild vine flourishes luxiiriantly in the woods, as it does in many parts of Cuba there need be no fear that cultivated varieties cannot be made to flourish also. A few vines growing at several points in the Island that escaped the destruction of former times are said to yield good crops. And these should be made available for thorough practical experiments.
The grapes now sold in the Cuban markets all come from foreign countries, and are sold at prices that




forbid any but the rich from enjoying them. The wines, of which large quantities are consumed, are still largely supplied by Spain, and come burdened with cost that should be saved to the people of Cuba. For the pioneers who shall place the grape growing industry of Cuba on its feet there are fortunes waitin .,
These are some of the crops to which attention miight well be given; and there are others also. They seem to offer superior fields for enterprise and industry. They would have ready and convenient narkets here at home. Commission merchants would not be necessary and steamship companies would not have to be reckoned with. Reports of "arrived in bad order" would not trouble the hopeful toiler. The hazards of transportation would be practically elininated; and tariff duties and Custom House expenses entirely avoided. A market at all seasons of the year would be at hand without money or price.
In passing indifferently by the opportunities to which I have pointed and clinging to the illusory hope that the appointed road to suweess and prosperity is found in shipping vegetable products to the United States are we not making an important mistake' Is not the Cuban who clings exclusively to cane and tobacco fields while he )ays other countries enormous prices for nmueh of the olothiin he wears and the food he eats, making a mistake also?
And is it not a mistaken policy that surrenders the markets of Cunba to other countries as to those things that Cuba is able to produce abundantvly, while Cuba ooes to other countries in search of markets for those things she actually does )roduee?
Mar it not be also, that the Cuban tobacco grower is too slow in recognizing that interest is seriously affected by the development of tobacco growing in the United States, brought about by the protective duties imposed there. and that all indications point to the fact that it will be still further depressed as the competing influences continue to be developed, and the market occupied ? Is not the cane growing




iniiustry being slowly affected also, by the operation of similar competing regulations; and under the continued developments of competition, and the weight of heavy duties, is it not possible that the cane growing interest of Cuba may at no very distant day, be shorn of, at least some of the preeminence it once enjoyed. Both of these great Cuban interests are being affected by the increasing production in the United States, which lessens the demand for the Cuban product; and by the duties which impose an unequal burden upon the Cuban grower. And might not some of the capital invested in these enterprises be prudently diverted into other channels? Sooner or later necessity may require it to be done.
But now that the political conditions in Cuba are settled and quiet it may reasonably be expected that enlightened and patriotic measures to aid the people in solving the problems that confront them will be inaugurated.
The Cuban Agricultural Department has a great field of usefulness before it. Cuba is essentially an agricultural country, and her agricultural department stands nearest to the people in relation to those things that most concern them in their daily struggle for the means of livelihood. In the improvement of the character and qualities of the old productsparticularly of corn and tobacco-and in the testing and introducing new ones, by which new industries inav be opened, it can, through its Experiment Station, render inestimable service.
I hear it said that this crop and that one will not thrive in Cuba; that this thing and that cannot be done. To such statements I give little weight unless they are made as the result of scientific investigation an(l experiment by competent men. When men capable of reaching safe conclusions have determined that a given crop cannot be profitably grown it will be soon enough for the man who don't know to declare it impossible.
Some striking examples of the unreliability of hasty opinions by incompetent men are to be found




in the United States; A number of years ago western Kansas was abandoned and almost depopulated because the people could not raise crops; but an enterprising Experiment Station, aided by a few earnest individuals with faith and courage, solved the problem of how to overcome.the difficulties; and now that country is peopled with prosperous farmers who are there to stay. But there were few who believed that it could he done.
For more than a hundred years rice was raised along the coast of South Carolina, and during all that time it was universally believed to be true that it could not be raised anywhere else in the United States. But only about twenty years ago it was show Nr that this long accepted opinion was a mistake aind that rice could be successfully grown in Lousiana and Texas. Last year the Texas crop reaed 6,000,000 bushels and brought returns to tihe pro ducers of about $5,000,000. The industry has been found very profitable, and is rapidly extending, though the price is only about 85 c(nts per hiishel. Large fortunes have been made, and are being made, out of the industry. Intelligent and enterprising men studied out the way, while mien of less courage and enterprise said that it could not be done.
Until recently the plains of Texas were regarded as uninhabitable desert lands fit only for the great herds of cattle and wild horses that roamed over them. Now they are being converted into beautiful fields; and at the recent Texas State Fair their exhibition of agricultural products was superior to10 that of the older portions of the state. A few years ago nobody supposed that it could be done.
Within my recollection it was generally helievcoJ that grape growing in the United States coul not be made a successful industry. It was attebdid by many difficulties and the early efforts were failures. But through the persistent work of a few scientific and earnest men, Hussman, Jaeger, Munson. Rogers and others, whose faith remained unsubdued. Varieties were developed and remedies for diseases and




insects discovered, which brought utbounded success and have made the interest one of the greatest in the United States. But there were many who had no faith.
Other similar instances might be referred to, but these are sufficient to show the danger of hasty and unstudied opinions.
It is easy to float along with the sluggish current, but it requires exertion and struggle to buffet the waves. It is easy to follow in the beaten paths but to cut loose from old habits and methods and study and apply those that are new and strange requires mental and physical exertion which many men seek to shirk and shun when they can. It also requires persistent courage and spirit of enterprise which all men do not possess. And to follow the suggestions I have made would require faithful study of the conditions that surround us, and of the methods necessary to overcome difficulties that might imperil success. But the field seen-is so open and inviting that it can scarcely be doubted that the rewards would be an ample compensation.
The industries which I have mentioned would greatly diversify Cuban occupations and would bring into action new forces, subservient to the general welfare. And this accomplishment would not only contribute to individual prosperity but would add materiallv to the aggregate strength and power of the Nation. It would enlarge the field for the employment of labor and lessen the number of the unemployed. It would make available for the production of T-rofitable -troducts much of Cuba's soil that is not -suited to either cane or tobacco.
The variousq capacities and inclinations of men in industrial fields should all be made available. Every avenue of human endeavor should be accessible to whoever may choose to enter it. It is thus that pride and ambition are stimulated to exertion and achievement. It is by this means also that the varied resources of the Nation can be developed and utilized for the venpril Pood. By the same means the mental




and moral strength of the people can be lifted to a, higher level and an advanced civilizationed attained.
Cuba's agricultural and horticultural industries should be diversified and broadened, but to these should be added manufacturing industries also. The mechanical ability of the people should be given a fair field of operations and development.
It should not be overlooked that each new enterprise becomes tributary to those that preceded it. All are aids to each other and mutually helpful. And together they build the perfect structure of industrial independence and power.
The recent message of President Gomez looking to the improvement of manufacturing interests is wise and timely and should have the cordial support of every citizen.
Supplementary remarks-I see no reason why anybody in Cuba should worry about alfalfa. We have Para grass here and that in my judgment is equal to alfalfa anywhere. I believe that it is as rich and as nutritious 'as alfalfa. I know this to be a fact because I have ha&~ a team of mules work for nearly three months exclusively on Para grass, and they keep in good condition, and I believe that Para grass is just as valuable as alfalfa. It w -ill grow on any kind of soil whatever may be the conditions of the water.
Secretary Henricksen-This excellent paper by Col. Havens covers~ so many questions that it will be impossible to discuss it at this time. We are all interested in these general questions but it will be necessary for us to specialize in order to get through our program.
Col. Harvey-I earnestly believe that the discussion of these papers is more important than the papers themselves. The papers go into our publication, and they die to a very large extent. Whatever benefits are derived must be from discussion, and I hope the time will be taken to. discuss the papers. Discussion is more important than a whole lot of




theories, a great deal more important. For instance, here is this question of hay, where a gentleman in Pinar del Rio has made a large quantity of hay by a method very few think about. The grass furnishes good hay. I never did believe for a minute that we needed l alfalfa in Cuba. I believe we have as fine grass as alfalfa. This is an important money item to the citizens of Cuba, and especially of this Society. This gentleman down here has taken and made the hay (luring the wet season, which is the proper timeHe simply bought what is known as cloth covers, a simple cloth that would shed the water. He cuts his hay, and protects it from the rain. In two or three days there will be sun enough to save that crop, and he has several tons of hay. He is doing a practical business with a commodity every one in the Island needs for his stock.
Mr. Van Hermann-In the matter of hay I think Col. Harvey has hit the nail on the head. There is not much use in buying hay. If we would watch our chance in August, when there is a spell of dry weather, lasting from 10 days to two weeks, we could make considerable hay. I have happened to hit that spell of weather twice at the proper time, and have cured as nice a hay as has ever been shipped into Cuba. We cured a great many tons of hay. What I refer to is crab grass hay. There. is no better in the. Southern States; it is equal to the best hay. Just lev-el down your fields at the beginnig of the wet season, let the grass grow until it is right, or the proper time comes to cut it, then cut it-and use your judgnient when to cut it-dry the hay, and you have all the hay you need all the year around. There is no need of anybody in this country buying hay. Another grass known as "Japanese Barnyard Hay" has run wild here and makes a splendid hay. I forget how many tons to the acre, but it made an immense amount. Alfalfa is not needed here.
Mr. Halstead-During the past year, since the first of last August, I have cut a great deal of homemade hay. Last year I planted a small piece of exough I should like to see it.




pcriment grass and fertilized it. I cut that three times last year after the first of August.
Prof. Earle-I want to bring up a matter that is important to all who have work stock. That is, the use of molasses as a very cheap item in the work stock rations. The Company I am working with finds it perfectly feasible to make molasses a part of its daily rations, mixed with hay or grass, for the work stock, which brings the rations of the mules below 20 cents a day. It saves at least half of the bill for feed.
Col. Havens- I do not think hay must be made during the rainy season. Para grass grows any time, no matter how dry it is. We have had a long dry spell in our country of nearly three months, and Para grass is growing everywhere, and I have a constant fight to keep it down. it is growing now rapidly, and it grows the year around. It is not a bad stuff to get rid of; if it spreads into the field it is very easily destroyed, but it will grow at any season of the year in almost every sort of soil. It grows in almost pure sand at this time in the face of a dry spell of two or three months.
Mr. Newsom [ have five acres unfortunately on which this grass grows and have been very discouraged with it, and have had to scrape around to find bay for my stock. I found that I could not cure this bay. I cut the grass and mixed it with crab grass hay, and TI found that the mules would not touch the crab grass until every spear of the other was removed from it.




CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
BY -MR. THOS. R. TOWNS
Mr. President and members of the society:
I assure you that it is a pleasure to attend another meeting of the society, to meet brother fruit growers, to discuss again the "How", "Why", "When" and "Where" of the citrus fruit business. This subject was discussed in Florida 30 years ago. Freezes have 'onme and gone, so have many groves as well as bank accounts, yet the same subject is taken up each year andl gone over again how to tight its many insect enemies, how to spray a grove, when to feed the trees, what with, how much, how to pick, cure and pack the fruit and ship it, with or without refrigeration,, or is it best to grow the fruit and sell it on the tree to the buyer, who attends to picking, packing and shipping. Our advantages here are many more than they were in California and Florida when the industry was young. We have the findings of their leading horticulturists, that are very helpful in a way, whil& not always positive, they indlicate a probable solution. In Cuba we are free from the wintry blasts that make the Florida qnd California man build fires and watch the freeze gauge and wonder if his fires will keep his grove above freezing. He has to fertilize and spray from January to January. He is a worker and is (loing things.
Cuba is not growing and shipping the amount of' fruit that she should after ten years. I don't believe the trouble is, not being able to produce a merchantable quantity or quality, but a lack of experience and Seriousness on the part of the pioneer. A great many have come and gone. Failures- have been many and




there will be more, but the buds of success have begun to shoot out here and there and the goal seems nearer. The best stroke of business that our growers ever made was the founding of the Cuban National horticultural Society-and remember that it is not automatic and self running. Your support of $1.00 per year will not carry it to any degree of success that will help you and your neighbors. We need your arguments and discussion, your presence here. While those who come, show deep interest, there are too many that stay at home and get a dollars worth'the report". Remember brother grower that you are of a school age and this is the school-playing "hookie" will never make you a successful orange grower; so come, each community should have a local society where at least monthly meetings are held. Then come to the yearly meet and oh what a difference there will be. You will leave a value to humanity not counted in dollars and cents. Well now to the subject. What is there left of this oft discussed subject? It does seem as though we would, could or should know it all by this time, but there is yet more to learn than is known. Practically speaking each grove is peculiar to itself and the owner should be at least on speaking terms with his trees. Just because Mr. Smith is able to spend $350.00 per acre to make his grove is no reason why it cannot be done for $250.00. I dare say that there is not a grower here who cannot reproduce his grove for less money outlay. This is what we want to know of you gentlemen-How would you make the next grove I
VARIETIES
One of the most important things to consider after your land, quality of same, location etc., is, What shall I plant? How many oranges, lemons, grapefruit etc? There are many things to consider. What succeeds in one class of soil is a failure on some others. Then there are varieties, that after trying them out we, we find that they go to market with less




decay, sell for 25 to 50 cents more each per box etc. Let's give our experiences and see if we can gain anything by them.
PICKING AND PACKING
During the past three years the United States Government has kept a force of experts in California and Florida under the direction of Prof. G. Harold Powell, and it has been clearly shown that the cause of much decayed fruit in boxes at destination is rough handling of the fruit in the grove and the packing house. That if fruit is properly handled at home it will arrive at its destination in good condition. At first many growers and packers knew more than all the experts, when results came, time and again the same, it had to be admitted. This saving to the grower runs into millions of dollars each year. All these things we have to learn.
PACKING HOUSES
Will each grower attempt to pack his own fruit? If so, he will make a mistake. A central- packing house is by far the most practicable. Proper machinery, trained labor and standard work-this is all done cheaper than it can be done at home. The work of packing citrus and vegetables is in itself a business. It requires care that can only come with years of labor and honest effort. Careless labor must find employment at other work.
What are we to do with our fruit after it is grown, picked and packed' Growing fruit is in itself a business. Picking and packing is another, and to market it is an art.
A marketing company is necessary. It is a central organization supported by local companies, guided by the central company. It is conceded that California has the best selling and distributing organization in the world. Florida has recently copied the Cali. Tornia method of selling. She stuck to the commis-




sion man and the commission man stuck to Florida until starvation forced a change. Shall we benefit by this experience or shall we stumble and bungle until our stomachs force us to think and act? When we decide on the above let's see where we are to sell our products.
Cuba is particularly well suited for the distribution of her fruits. From Havana the Gulf ports offer three gateways-Galveston, New Orleans and Mobile. Then there is New York with two or more sailings each week. Canada semi monthly, which can also be reached through New York. To Europe there are English steamers direct, also German and French steamers. These markets we can now reach via New York cheaper than can either California and Florida. In the market of the United States we must pay a duty of 60 cents per box. In Canada, England and Europe we enter free. Of course when the prices of the American markets will allow us, we will sell to them. The markets across the Atlantic must be made. At present there is no market to speak of there, but there is a very fine opportunity to build-one. The foundation should be carefully laid and we -can supply a territory that will take more fruit than will ever be grown in Cuba. With our present method of plant-feeding and handling our fruit it would not arrive in Europe in a very creditable shape, but with proper fertilizing and carefull handling we can successfully ship to these markets.
SUMMARY
Let'look the business squarely in the face, forget the fairy land story that brought you here, go to the collar and keep the traces taut and you will win.
Supplementary reniarks:-Yesterda v this subject was discussed at the Meeting, but it will do no harm to further discuss it.
If the Chair will permit me to speak a few words, I wish to say that I noticed at yesterday's meeting, and in fact at all meetings that our time is too




limited. We have more subjects to handle than we can handle. We do not handle any of them thoroughly. There has not been one yet introduced that has been handled thoroughly. We went into the hay business yesterday, and were left with a very little more knowledge about it than we knew prior to bringing it up,-about hay to feed stock, when to cut it and how, etc. We have not sufficient time, and if it has to come to that point we should have fewer subjects and discuss them well, and when we go home we will be able to say "Yes, we can produce that hay, we know when to cut it, when to cure it, and we can quit sending our dollars out to buy hay, some place else. Also, Prof. Earle suggested molasses as a good feed for work stock, which had been used by a number of the centrals. Only two years ago the Chaparra Sugar mill had to turn it into the sea. It is a cheap product, and could be had for five cents. a gallon. A gallon of molasses will feed a large number of mules, and give you a lot of motor power to haul, so let us if we have to in our next meeting have fewer subjects, or have more time. We need itProf. Earle.-In connection with this question before us I wish to call attention to the meeting tomorrow of the Growers and Shippers Association where certain features of this should be considered, and be considered quite at length.
Secretary Henricksen.-This is one of the subjects that ought to be discussed, and Col. Towns has touched on so many points that I think it ought to receive due consideration. Let us drop the shipping part of it and take it up tomorrow, and let us now take all of the orchard features. We must know somethingabout "How would you make a grove if you had to, do it over again." It is a vital question for us today, and anljvody who could not attend the meeting, should be able to receive the benefit of our expert ence through the printed report.
Prohf. Earle.-It seems to me if I were to begin to plant another grove I would begin by planting a water well.




Mr. Cervantes.-I think that when you have two exhibitions, one for the citrus fruits and the other for other varieties of fruits, such as aguacates, mangoes, etc., the fruit producer in Cuba will be more benefitted than he is today. I find that we confine ourselves and our exhibition to citrus fruits, while the other fruits are just as important, and just as good. I think the first thing is to have two exhibitions, one at this time of the year for citrus fruits .and vegetables, etc., and one at the season of the year when the other fruits are in the market, and which are now becoming very saleable in the United States.
Mr. van Herniann.-I never planted a grove, and do not know as I ever shall, I have had the care of one for some little time, but things got away from me in some way or other. I think if I were going to plant one for myself I would plant a small one, and then take good care of it. I think the main trouble is that people have gone into the business without due consideration of the cost in the first place. There might have been a mistake in the choice of land,-a good deal of it was not chosen, but just simply planted, trusting to luck to have something come up. To start with it should be selected carefully. For myself I do not think a man has any business with more than 20 acres of orange grove unless he has a good long bank account. A voice from the andience-"yes and you can cut that in half and still have your hands full." 20 acres is as much as any man can handle himself, and if he takes care of that, and it is anything like what it should be, it should give him a good income in the end, and pay him for his work. I believe in citrus fruit growing, and believe that the business in Cuba will be a success, but it will be when we plant less and take better care of what we have.
Col. Harvey.-As to Prof. van Hermann's remarks, I believe he could bring that estimate of 20 acres, down to 10 acres, and it would be a better suggestion. From what T know of the failures of groves in Florida and Cuba, I have come to the conclusion that it




has been caused from a grower attempting to take in miore than he could properly care for, either from a financial standpoint or from the labor he was able to furnish. He did not take into consideration and provide for his own living, the living of his stock, etc.
In regard to the cultivation of an orchard various kinds oY soil will do to raise a grove on. It does not require some special soil in some special neighborhood to do that. I think there are many growers of years experience who could raise a grove on almost any soil. To start with (and now I am telling you something I have just advised a Company I am being paid for advising) in the first place they wanted to put i 30 acres this year. I said Cut that down to 23, anid put all the labor you would put on the 50 on the 23, and I insisted upon thorough cultivation of the soil before the grove is planted at afl,-that the ground should be thoroughly ploughed, cultivated and irrigated by at least three good plowings and four if possible. Now the soil is good and rich, however I insisted upon fertilizing it, and I want to say here now that I do not believe there is any land in the Island of Cuba that will raise what is known as a first-class grove of first-class fruit without fertilizing. Here before us today is the evidence in fruit standing right over there, that is famed in Florida, from Mr. Hart, and it is equal to anything grown in the world. This is a well known grower who raises the very finest quality of fruit, and he has never used a spray. If you will ask him how he does it he will tell you that he makes his trees strong and thrifty and healthy, so strong that no insects or scales can get hold of them. He never has used any spray. That man is famed as being one of the very best growers and one of the most successful growers Florida has ever had.
Now there is an evidence of extreme force and strength put into the tree, and you must do that by fertilization and cultivation. I believe a young grove needs a watchful eye going over it at least once a week during the growing season. If it could be once




a day it would bhe better. But you cannot leave a grove from ten days to two weeks without raflsiiig that grove an injury.
In regard to trimmiing trees, a friend used to say that he used to get a nice big curled pruming knife, andl have it sharpened up, andl put it in his pocket but never took it out until he got back to the house. The idea was that a man could do proper andl better trimming with his fingers, by pinching the bud off at the right time rather than by a knife after the wood becomes hard.
I haven't seen a grove in Cuba but what has wanted the attention of a man that had brains. He must cultivate and fertilize and look after his trees like his children. I was interested in three groves in Florida, and it seemed to me I knew every tree as well as my own children. That gentleman and I have talked over this question of taking out a tree. If he has a tree in his place, three or five or ten years old that is not doing well, he will dig it out. You do not want to leave a tree in your grove that is not in a strong, healthy condition. You can make a grove that way, but let a man come here and put out five, ten or twenty acres, when he is really able to cultivate only two acres, and he makes a mistake. If half of the people who have planted groves in Cuba would have planted one-quarter and may be less, than they did, we would have better groves than we have at this time. There has got to be labor and continuous attention for a number of years before they produce, and then they will produce and become a gold mine in reahity.
Dr. Karutz.-I agree with Col. Harvey. The lack of knowledge concerning the groves in Cuba is something awful. There are many of these grove owners living in the United States. The Companies take care of these groves. The way they take care of them is a shame to Cuba. There are hundreds and hundreds of acres planted by men who have no knowledge of growing oranges whatever. I believe thait it would pay the Society to have a man in Cuba to help along




these things, and especially to prevent these Companies from taking money for work which they do not do.
Mr. Halstead.-I would like to say that I agree perfectly with a good many of the remarks of these gentlemen. One of the greatest troubles in Cuba is that when a man plants a grove here he plants all that his pocket book will stretch to just at that time. He does not figure that it is going to cost him anything to take care of that grove; he puts that thought behind him and tries to forget. Most of the people who live in the North who have groves here plant more than they have means to care for afterwards. This I believe is the universal experience of those who take care of those groves, and that is one reason, as Dr1. Karutz says, why so many of the groves are badly taken care of.
Col. Havens.-In line with what has already been stated here, it is proper to consider that the growers of citrus fruits are largely from the United States, and that they came here not knowing anything about how to raise orange trees, and they have blundered from the start, and principally in the very line that has been suggested here, in planting much more than they could take care of. The result is scrubby trees and poor fruit, and the newspapers and individuals have expressed the opinion that citrus fruits growing in Cuba were not likely to be successful, all caused by the condition in which the trees are kept. I know that I made the same blunder in planting too much,-more than I was able to properly take care of.
In regard to the question that citrus fruit growing may not be profitable, I will say this, If you will watch the market reports from New York and elsewhere in the North, you have never seen the time when first-class fruit was not quoted at prices that were highly remunerative. There is never a time when good fruit cannot be sold at profitable prices in any of the markets of the United States. It is the poorer quality of fruit that brings poor prices and




sometimes not even the cost of transportation. Do you not suppose that if the fruit which we have exhibited here was placed in the New York market it would not bring from six to eight dollars a box? It is better to raise five acres of stuff that will pay a profit than 20 acres of stuff on which you will lose money. The most important thing for the fruit growers of Cuba to consider is to limit their planting to such an amount as they can take cre of and produce that quality of fruit which will bring high prices in the market; then they will make profits, but they cannot do it and raise a cheap quality of fruit.
Secretary Henricksen.-As to these remarks brought up this morning, I will take up this one of Dr. Karutz that the Horticultural Society should help those people who are just investing here, and expose, as it were, the Companies who are misrepresenting things. This is a very difficult thing for us to do, but I wish to say that I am glad it was brought up, and it might be possible for us to offer the suggestion to the Government Information Bureau. We would get into legal complications if we attempted to do this, but the Government could do that very thing, and I think they would work with us on this matter. As to how to do certain things,-how to grow a grove on certain soil,-it varies very much; Herradura will have to do differently from La Gloria, or from Holguin or from Ceballos. The stock, the methods of cultivation, the amount of fertilizers and the kinds will vary. The Horticultural Society ought to get that much out of the Government that they can and will maintain sub-stations. I do not mean anything big by that, just cooperation, or through the Horticultural Society appropriate inoiey to cooper)ate. I will say that the Executive Committee will take it up with the government this year. We are tax payers-we ought to have it-we are entitled to it.
Mr. van Hermann.-The Government should aid us in this matter; we cannot do it individually. A man asked me for my private opinion one time about




citrus growing, and I told him my honest opinion. It appeared that he had come here with about $6,000 to buy land, and afterwards threw the deal up, and toldl the reason why he did so, and later I met a mian, a good deal bigger than myself, and there was a good deal of hot air that fortunately did not come to anything else, but which might have been a serious thing to myself, or the other fellow, I don't know whichi. I give warning to anybody not to give friendly' advice to his neighbor. I believe the Government is a very good agent for that purpose.
Col. llarvey.-I had a talk with Secretary Foyo.
asked him "Can't you furnish us money to publish the proceedings of the meetings of the Society in both English and Spanish for distribution throughout the Island? He said that he would put a bill before Congress asking that a definite sum per year be paid to the Cuban National Horticultural Society monthly that they could use in any way they might wish to advance the Horticultural interests. Now if he does that we will get a sum of money that can be utilized in the line spoken of by the Secretary and others.
Mr. Painter.-This talk is all very familiar to me. If there was a phonograph here that had recorded all the speeches and remarks at all of the nmeetings which I have attended' for the last 20 years you would recognize the similarity of all the complaints which have been made here this morning. We thrashed over the cultivation and the fertilization and the land schemes and every subject that voni mentioned here. Now as regards the land schemers, why even today in Florida there are Land Companies enough. They may not do business right there at home, but get as far away from the base of their operations as possible. They are offering and advertising five and ten acre farms, and they will pick out a single instance where a man has made a thousand dollars an acre on celery. Now one man might have done this, but they hold it up for an example, and these stories get circulated about up North, and~




sone manl that has got tired of the blizzards and of that kind of living up there says to himself '" May-be I can make a living down there", and they will come down and buy a 5 or ten acre farm and find that they cannot raise enough to get home on. Anid yet there are places in Florida where they are making the growing of all these different crops very profitable. In regard to your help from the Govermenllt 1 hope you will be more successful than we have been. We have sent out to members of the Legislature trying to get help, and every time we thought we had( or hands on it but could not get it. In regard( to new settlers rolling in, we did have solne trouble; young men would come in with a five dollar pocket book and a hundred dollar idea. I confess that I myself did some figuring with my pencil anid camine to the conclusion that I would be well fixed in a few yewas. However. as time went on we learne! a few thiligs,-we learned the best methods of taking care of a grove, that it was necessary to fertilize it properly, and we found that we were spending a good deal of 1mone o our groves that we had not reckoned on. Experience is probably the only teacher that we will ever pay any attention to. We have all got ideas in our head and it is hard to get thieni out, mand it is only when we get right square up against the wall that we realize that some of our ideas have to be laid aside. You take the men who are successful in our country; I believe they would be successful here( because they have their eyes open, and they are always watching what other mnen do and are willing to learn from what others have (done. The only man that c11 m make a lsuc''ess of 'I'\owing fruit or anything else is the man that cmi ati)pt himself to the situation. and leave his own ideas behind. If the growers in Cuba will trv to study the conditions and requirements of the soil and thie (r01) they are growing, and not pay attention to s) mnany of their own ideas, they will be more successful. I see same very beautiful fruit here on exhibition, and some of it will compare very favorably and I might




say is equally as good as our best. I see no reason why the success of citrus fruit growing cannot be maintainecd in Cuba, as well as anywhere else in the world.
Col. Harvey.-I wish to say that our relations with the Giovernmniit are rather peculiar. The native people here look to the Government for everything; they don't pretend not to do it. Here is one point: there is an organization here known as the Industrial Association, which has 158 manufacturers in this town. I have had intercourse with that organization in regard to a Fair. Every man,-amongst them the wealthiest in this town-said to me "We cannot do anything unless the Government will lead in it." That is the general feeling among the native people here, wealthy and poor.
Dr. E. R. Miller spoke at length on the advisability of dry land farming in Cuba which he had observed and practiced with good results in the United States.




VEGETABLE CULTURE
BY MR. E. W. HALSTEAD
Mr. President and Members of the Horticultural
Society:
There is an old saying that the man who tells the first story has the best chance, and we often find in listening to papers that others have taken our stories and told them possibly better than we could ourselves. So in the paper which I shall read I will merely -reiterate what has been said many times in this same session.
As we study the subject of vegetable culture in Cuba our researches carry us back to the time when white men first landed on our island.
Yes, even beyond that, for the Indians themselves practiced a rude husbandry, and it is said that primitive irrigation systems existed in some parts of the island prior to the advent of the first Europeans.
Be this as it may, the first Spanish settlers undoubtedly brought with them from the mother country and planted here, seeds of various vegetables as well as various fruits and grains.
Vegetable culture in its present sense of grmiing vegetables on a large scale for hoi-ne and especially for foreign markets is of comparatively modern development, in fact it scarcely dates back a dozen years.
The fiscal year ending July 1st, 1909 show, s a total of 22095 crates of vegetables shipped from the port. of Havana, divided as follows:
Onions . . . . . 16257 crates.
Potatoes . . . . 3235 All others . . . . 204603




The increasing shipments augurs well for the prosperity of the colonists, to many of whom it furnishes a means qf livelihood while their citrus groves are being brought to a producing age. However, it is not the colonist alone who profits by the winter market for his succulent products in the frozen north, but his Cuban neighbors also; for in places, seeing the success as conducted by his American friends the Cuban has entered and follows it with a fair measure of profit.
In its future development vegetable culture promises to be of great benefit not only to those who engage in it, but also to the whole island contributing its steadily increasing proportion to the general prosperity of the country.
Failures there have been and will be again; as a rule these can be traced to two causes. First, there is the failure to make a crop even after seed, feftiliL zer and labor have been expended. Where one such failure is caused by lack of the knowledge or the application necessary to success nine failures are caused by the lack of sufficient moisture just at the time it is most needed by the grownig crop. This is: true of practically all the shallow rooted crops, and the only remedy is cultivation and irrigation!
I do not mean to say that good crops cannot be raised without irrigation, for they can be and are; hut I do say emphatically, that the good crop would be made better, and the failure often made a success, by the use of irrigation.
Second, when a good crop has been made, failure to realize a profit on the produce shipped.
This may come froni various reasons, such as grasping, and as we sometimes think, dishonest comimission men; exorbitant freight rates, and spoiling of the goods on the way. This last is a reason much talked of and often quoted by the man at the other end.
Then we have at times poor markets-most ofus can readily call to mind the condition of th, markets two years ago during the panic when, 'vek




though a good crop was grown and shipped, we received expense bills instead of returns. This of course was exceptional, but it serves to prove the fact that the production of a large crop is not the only thing necessary to make a profit for the grower.
, Most of the failure to realize on a crop after it is .hipped, can in the last analysis, be laid to the lack of proper representation in the market and to a lack of proper distribution of these shipments, both of the individual shipper and of all in the aggregate.
To my mind there is only one remedy for these last troubles, and that is an organization composed of a majority of the vegetable raisers and fruit growers, having control of the shipments its members produce, and having its own well posted and reliable representatives in the principal markets-represenZati-ves paid by the association, and responsible to the association for all their acts.
The organization we already have in our Growers aid Shippers Association, but-we have yet to give it the life and power necessary to be of full service to us by giving it control of our fruit and vegetable shipments. Are we going to do this voluntarily, or must we, like California and Florida, suffer helplessly for years, to be at last forced to do it in order to save Our industries? I leave the question with you.
Dr. Karutz.-We are always coming back to the question of this Society needing a man to keep his eye on the markets for the placing of our products. I say you need a man to do this, with ability, and who will receive a white man's salary for doing it. le must not do that as a side line; he must do that and nothing else. It is an expense, certainly, but it is necessary. That is the only salvation for the farmers in Cuba, to have a man that will take care of their .interests. It will cost you money but you can afford to pay for it. Th.re are many people in Cuba who have had large ,) ss this year because they did not know what or how to ship or did not raise the right thing. If there is a man that will go to them regularly




and talk to them, it is different. You can send theni literature for a hundred years, and they read the papers which does not have any effect, but when a man visits them and tells them what to do it is a different matter.
Mr. Collins-I partially agree with what has been said by the speaker in his paper and I agree with Col. Havens in his remarks a day or two ago in his paper on the question of vegetable growing in Cuba. I think vegetable growing can be made a success. Wet can grow them here as fine as in any other country,. but can we get a profit? The speaker has given you figures as to the shipments of vegetables from this: Island for a certain length of time, but has he told ushow much the man who raises those vegetables gets; out of it, or how much he has to put up to get them into the New York market? Until we do something to make conditions better at the other end of the Island, vegetable growing in Cuba is a failure. Three years ago I got $6.00 a crate for a part of my egg plants that went into New York. Two years ago I got from 75 cents to $1.00 a care for a better egg plant. A commission man was here urging me to ship all I could to his house, but I said to him "Mr. Man, why did I get $6.00 last year and I get only 75 cents and a dollar for a better egg plant today?" He said "Well, conditions are bad, the financial conditions of the North." I said "Yes, but if I would go into New York today and attempt to buy my egg plant to put on my own table what shall I pay for it as compared with that of last year?" Answer: "Oh, you will pa' just exactly the same." Now you must pay just as much for your egg plant when you get 75 cents as you do when you get $6.00. I asked him why was this, and he answered "Oh, the Dagoes have got control of it, and they handle it; we cannot help ourselves." Now I say that until these conditions are changed we night just as well stop raising vegetables as to continue raising them with all these facts against us. I said to one man who wanted me to ship my beans to the New York market "you go back to your people,




and tell them that we will raise the beans, furnish our own labor and fertilizer and our own crates, pick and pack them and send 1them to Havana, anid pay the freight there, if your people in New York will pay the freight from ItInavana, and you can have them, but we do object to paying the freight fromni Havana to New York on top of all the rest. 1ie said "That is true, but I didn't look at it that way before." I say there is a market at home for a certain amount of vegetables. Let us raise our tomatoes for the home market. If we only have two crates we get something for them. We sell them for four cents a pound in the Cuban market in limited (quantity. That reminds me of one day I started out with a load of water melons. I went into town and the Cubans saw that I was loaded up with water melons, and every Cuban said to himself We will catch him before he gets out of town", and they did; I had to sell at their prices. One of my neighbors, working in the same market with garden truck went over with a wagon l(ad of tomatoes. They said "No, no." He went outside of town a little ways, and unloaded two-thirds of his wagon load and went back into town and sold the one-third he had in his wagon at four cents a pound. He got another one-third, went in and sold it for four cents a pound. He went back to where he dumped his stuff and took back the last one-third and sold it all for four cents a pound. If it were in New York he would have had to sell it for 25 and 50 cents a crate. There is a market here at home with a profit.
,Mr. Halstead.-This gentleman's remarks only serve to strengthen the statement which I made as regards the lack of proper distribution facilities for ,our products in the markets.




FERTILIZING
11 'MR. I. 0) PAINTER, J ACKSON\VILLE, FLA.
Mr. President Ladies and Gentlemen:
It is not many years ago that plant nutrition was practically unknown, as there had been no need of this knowledge. The virgin soil was producing abun(lant crops without assistance from outside sources. In our own country for a long time the manure from stables was left unspread and in the west the sheep corrals were torn down and moved, as it was cheaper to do this than to move the accumulated manure. All this is changed now, however, and the thrifty farmer gathers every bit of matter that will add to the fertility of the soil, as he fully realizes that unless he feeds the soil it will not feed him.
It is truly said that "Necessity is the mother of invention". When the fertility of the land was exhausted and it was impossible to raise paying crops, the subject of plant nutrition was taken up and, after years of careful study and experimenting by some of the best men of otr country, we have just begun to realize that plant nutrition is as much a-science as electricity and, as in electricity, we know the effects of certain combinations, though we are not even yet able to explain just how and why one plant differs from another in its faculty for food absorption and growth.
The Indians were the first in America to fertilize their crops, but their ideas of fertilizing were very different from ours at the present time. They planted a fish by a hill of corn, thinking the spirit of the fish would leave its carcass and enter into the stalk of corn, causing it to grow. They learned that two




fish made a better yield of corn than one, so realized that the more fish they used the more spirits they would have, consequently the more corn. The idea of spirits was not confined to the Indians alone, as is evidenced by the fact that even to-day we hear of "Spirits" of Ammonia, etc. It was discovered long ago that by applying diluted ammonia to growing plants there was a wonderful difference in their growth, consequently they reasoned that it was the ''spirits'' entering into the plants that gave them their rapidly growth.
Coming down to the present time, anyone who has made a study of the subject has come to realize that fertilizer is the beginning and the end of every living thing. Plants grow, mature, die and decay and as soon as decomposition is well under way they are giving up their plant food for other plants to take up and utilize in their growth. Animals consume the grass and grain grown on a farm and extract from it the matter that makes their bone, sinews and blood, and in the course of time this, too, is all returned and through the process of decomposition the plant food is liberated and again taken up by other plants, and thus the cycle goes on.
For a number of years the average farmer or fruit grower looked upon fertilizer simply as fertilizer and thought one kind as good as another, but he who has made a study of the growth and requirements of plants has learned that they, like animals, have their likes and (dislikes. The food that would cause one plant to thrive and grow abundantly would be poison to another. A good farmer w ill not give a milk cow the same food that he does a draught horse. A goat could be turned loose in an oak thicket and grow fat, while a Jersey cow would starve there, yet the same nutrition exists in both cases. To fuilly realize the likes and dislikes of plants you have but to look around you, If von go down to some of your bay, s wh-ere the salt w ater of the ocean haps the shores von w ill find plants and trees growing there with their very roots washed by the salt water, while




drawing nourishment from the soil. If you remove those plants or trees to a point back from the shore on high land they will die; and in the same way, if you should move a tree or shrub growing on your uplands t~o the spot from which the other tree was taken it 'Would perish, as it could not live on the same plant food on which the other tree thrived and grew abundantly.
Not only do different plants require different fertilizers, but the quality of fertilizer used makes a great difference in the production and quality of the fruit and vegetables. For instance: It is an easy matter to tell whether a sweet potato has been fertilized with stable manure or commercial fertilizer, as the difference can easily be detected from the flavor of the potato after it is cooked.
Not very long ago a firm in New Jersey conceived the idea of using a large quantity of fish, that had to be thrown away, for feeding poultry. It was a great scheme and the ducks especially did well on the cooked firsh, but what was the result? When the ducks were killed and sent to market no one wanted to buy' the second one from that market, as the fishy flavor was in the meat of the duck, and it became necessary before this firm could sell poultry again to guarantee that no fish had been used in feeding it. As the flavor of fowl is affected by the food it eats, have we not every reason to believe that fruits and vegetables will also be affected by the plant food given them?
One reason why Florida oranges have such a great, rej)Uttatioii for quality is that in most instances the soil is so poor that all the plant food the trees get must be added to the soil, therefore the grower can fertilize to give the very best flavors from known fertilizinig chemicals. Experience has also taught us that these different elements even with the chemical fertilizers have to be applied in their proper proportioins to give the best results.
Ii) experimenting on a pineapple field to ascertainjuist how mamch potash could be used to advantage,




we were surprised at the different results in flavor, especially in regard to sweetness and bouquet, where different percentages of potash were used. The beds of pineapples were treated as nearly alike as it was possible for human hands to treat them,.with the exception of the increased percentage in potash of one bed over another. The flavor improved up to 8%; from 81.4 to I'2>, very little difference in flavor cold be detected, but wherever above 12/ was used the pineapple was "sour enough to make a pig squeal", as one who tasted some of the fruit expressed it. This showed that the presence of potash helped to develop the flavor as well as to build up the tissues of the plant, and, up to a certain point, assisted in the transformation of the acids of the fruit to sugar until a neutral point had been reached, after which the acid was very strongly developed.
It is possible to so change the fruit of an orange tree in one or two years' time by fertilizing that one could not recognize it as the fruit from the same tree. A crop of tobacco can be ruined by the use of the wrong kind of potash. The growth, as far as man can see, will be perfect, the leaves large and abundant, but when made into cigars the burning qualities are lacking, consequently the tobacco is worthless. A sugar-cane field can be so fertilized that when the grinding time comes the juice will not crystalize to give a high percentage of sugar, but will give a large yield of syrup.
These things being true, how essential it is for the planter to know what form of plant food is best adapted to the crop he wishes to raise on the soil he desires to cultivate. Not so long ago the fertilizer factories were carefully guarded against anyone entering and every effort was made to keep the users of fertilizers as ignorant of their composition as possible, and it was utterly impossible to get fertilizer materials or chemicals from the fertilizer factories. It is so today in many parts of the country. Florida, however, enjoys the distinction of being the only state in the Union where a farmer can send and get




any kind of fertilizer materials or chemicals that he may need on his farm, or have a special mixture or formula made up for him. This condition was brought tabl)out fifteen years ago by the writer, who was at that time the editor of the Florida Agriculturist, and working to better the condition of the growers of Floirda. Now the intelligent grower knows what kiiid of plant food answers best for his particular soil. The more thoroughly he becomes posted on the requirements of his soil and the needs of his crops the better customer he becomes. Why' Because he is ab)le to get the best results at the least outlay of money. Hie knows what he wants and when to get it.
(oomiparatively few years ago the only fertilizer material that could be had was Peruvian guano. Now the grower has a long list from which to select. Beginning with ammoniates, we have sulphate of Ammnionia, Nitrate of Soda, Nitrate of Potash, Dried Blood, Blood and Bone, Caleinm Cyanamid, Cotton, Seed Meal, Castor Pomace, Tankage, Linseed Meal, Fish Scrap, Whale Meat, Hoof Meal, Leather Scrap, Tobacco Stems, Ponderette, Nitrogeneous Meal, etc., all of which a few years ago were waste products, with the exception of Nitrate of Soda and Nitrate of Potash.
The sources of potash are few, the principal one being the Stassfurt Mines in Germany. These mines produce, in the;concentrated salts, Sulphate of Potash 48 to 50%, Muriate of Potash 50%, Double Manure Salt 26 to 27%, Manure Salt 20%, Hardsaltz 16% and Kainit 12%. The last two are mined products,that is, used just as they come from the mines after being pulverized. Nitrate of Potash, Carbonate of Potash and Wood Ashes complete the list of sources of potash. Muriate offers the cheapest source of potash, but on account of the chlorin it contains it should be used with caution. It should not be used for fruits. tobacco, sugar-cane or potatoes. Carbonate is especially fine for tobacco; in fact, tobacco is the only crop it will pay to use it on. It gives good burning qualities. It is rather difficult to handle on account




of its hygroscopic and caustic nature. It is usually mixed with about three times its weight in bone meal.
Double Manure Salt is the best for high class fruits, as the magnesia it contains has a good influence on the development of the flavor and aroma or bouquet of the fruit. For this reason, more Double Manure Salt is used in Florida than all the other potash salts put together.
The sources of phosphoric acid are few. The hard rock and pebble mines of Florida are furnishing more them half of the supply of Phosphates used in our whole country. Tennessee, blue and grey rock is being used by those close to the mines.
Bone the original source of phosphoric acid for fertilizer is now growing more scarce every year, as the price it brings for other purposes exceels its fertilizing value There has been a good deal of discussion from time to time about the superior value of bone as a source of phosphoric acid, but there is but little use of keeping the discussion up for the uses of bone are multiplying and the supply decreasing so there is nothing to be gained for in a few years it will be practically impossible to get real bone at a price that it can be used in fertilizers as a source of phosphoric acid.
In conclusion I wish to impress upon the planter the importance of making a careful study of the plant's requirements in order to get the best resnit for money expended and remember that the real value of a fertilizer is its adaptability to the crop he wishes to raise no thrifty or intelligent farmer will feed his horses, cows and hogs the same food. Nor will the well posted grower fertilizing his tobacco, sugar cane or oranges with the same fertilizer.
In regard to the kind of fertilizer which a certain soil may need, one man I know had a grove in which it was impossible for him to ship the fruit in any way but by express, and reach the market in good




condition. ile explained the situation to me, and I made him a special fertilizer, with the result that the following year he was able to ship all of his fruit by freight, his soil simply lacking one element in order to grow the orange to perfection so that it would carry.
I have given these few remarks on fertilizers in general, leaving the balance to the audience to bring ouit as they may wish. I would be glad to answer any questions that might be asked in regard to the subject of fertilizers.
P~rof. Earle-D~oes the Florida practice still continue of using only the mineral sources of nitrogen for the orange orchard?
Mr'. Painter.-To a very large extent it does.
Mr. King.-Do I understand you to advocate the concentrated forms and higher grades?
Mr. Painter.-It has been my idea ever since I have been in the business to advocate the use of the higher concentrated fertilizers. If the lower grade will answer the purpose for which you want it then use it. Now in using potash we believe that we get enough benefit in using the sulphate to pay us for the difference we have to pay over the muriate, and in regard to concentrated fertilizers, if the party who uses them knows how to handle them, it is better to use them than the lower grade.




SUGAR CANE CULTURE
BY PROF. F. S. EARLE
Mr. President Ladies and Gentlemen:
I have realized for a long time that Horticulture is a big subject, and a hard subject to define, but I must confess I did not know that sugar cane was a Horticultural subject until I learned it from this programme. However, our Secretary is an authority on that. As a Society, I do not suppose we are very much interested in the question of the large sugar estates and the development of central factories, but many of you as individuals doubtless should be more interested than you are in the production of good cane. All those who have lands suitable to raise sugar cane, and who live near well conducted centrals, might well turn your attention more or less to the production of sugar cane. It is one of the most profitable crops grown in Cuba, which has been demonstrated for a great many years. In Cuba there are two very distinct problems to be considered:those that have new lands can produce sugar very easily. The old method of cutting down the timber and putting in a piece of cane is a good one on suitable- land. But where the original planting will last from 15 to 20 years. When the question of growing cane on old lajns comes up, we have a different problem, and some change in the ordinarily existing methods is usually necessary. The mistake that most planters will be most likely to make is not sufficiently preparing their land. Most of the old lands are infested with grasses which are veirv injurious to cane, and it is necessary to plow tle land repeatedly to kill these grasses before plant-




ing. After that it is almost identical with that of corn, and almost every good corn planter is a very successful cane planter. On new land fertilizer is not required, but on old lands planters are now getting to realize the fact that they must depend very largely on fertilizers.
Another important feature is the great advantage which Cuba enjoys in that she can produce so many crops from the one plant. All the other principal sugar producing countries, like Java, Hawaiian Islands, and others, never take more than two or three crops from a plant. In Java but one crop, while we here can, on the best lands, secure from 15 to 25 crops. Ex perience shows that with each successive planting a fewer number of crops can be secured before it is necessary to replant. The most important point of all to be considered is to adopt such methods as will continue to give us the advantage of producinig the largest number of crops from one planting.
DISCUSSION
Col. Harvey.-Do You believe it is- a good payingproposition to plow and cultivate the old fields and fertilize and raise cane? Would it be a paying proposition! I mean the red land?
Prof. Earle.-Yes it is. I should have said. there are two problems, red land and blaek land, which present dlifferent problems. I cannot say much about black land fertilizers. The principal problem of black land is the drainage. The red lands are well drained, and, I think it is demonstrated beyond question that the old red lands can pay.
Prof. Austin.-What do you think of the idea of' growing sugar cane for feeding purposes?
Prof. Earle.-Sugar cane is the best one stock feed in the world. It will produce more stock feed per acre than any other feed grown, and it is a very good idea to plant a little sugar eane for that purpose.




Mr. Van Hernann.-What is the value of sugar cane ordinarily as a feed?
Prof. Earle.-I have no exact data as to that. It is higher than most grasses, because it contains a greater degree of sugar, but I cannot give you Ilie exact data.
Mr. Vant Hermann.-After sugar forms in the plant is it more valuable?
Prof. Earle.-Yes; while it is green it only has the value of green corn. When sugar is formed it has an added sugar value.
Mr. Halstead.-In that respect, would you grow the sugar cane for feed?
Prof. Earle.-Yes, whenever I had stock to feed I would grow sugar cane.
Col. Harvey.-I think in this Island we have a large number of men who have come here from the North, and have moderate means to undertake to raise an orange grove. It is necessary that they should have some money crop, and I believe sugar cane, five or ten acres or even less, will be a valuable money crop to a man who wants to raise a grove in the future. It furnishes him feed for his stock and a money crop to live on, while he is getting his orange grove ready. I believe sugar cane is a very important consideration, and a matter that should considered by men who in the future want a grove. Now in regard to the old worn out fields, my question would apply to the red land cane fields, which is the best fruit land in this Island, and if a man could live on that land and fertilize it and raise cane as a money crop and a feed crop, it will go a long ways towards making success in his final efforts.




WINDBRE~AKS
BY H. ADOLF VAN HERMANN
Air. Chairman and Members of the Cuban National
Horticultural Society:
The effect of environment on plant life in general is so pronounced to the careful observer, that we will here only give a few instances by way of illustration,-namely:
We have undisputed record that ferns and tropical cone bearing trees at one tine were the dominant vegetation of the earth. But change of environment, principally climatic conditions, such as hot sun, dry or cold winds, have almost driven them from the face of the earth. They are now only to be found as fugitives, hiding in secluded places, protected liv natural formations of the earth, such as caverns and sheltering hillsides, and tall vegetation. Aside from these instances, straggling survivors,, or descendants, of the giant ferns and mosses are still to be found in some few tropical latitudes where the successive conditions have been favorable to their propagation.
The idea which I wish here to emphasize is that lplanlts are vitally affected by the effects of strong sunlight, and more especially by rough, dry winds. Every housewife, who grows ferns and other tender plants has found byv experience that the proper place for their best developmentt is in some shaded, sheltered nook, and that exposure to winds means dwarfed and rusty looking plants. We have here used an extreme for an illustration, but by observation we will notice that all plants are more or less affected by winds. How often, in the United States, have we




noticed the effect of a great wind and rain storm on our grain fields. The grain, while rank and tender, is sometimes nearly destroyed, the stalk of the plant being broken and forced to the earth, and very often the profit of the crop is minimized 1w 7 the effect of storms. This is also true with corn, and more so with fruit crops. In the case of fruit crops, the artificial dwarfing of trees has somewhat minimized the effect of storms upon fruiting orchards.
In some few sections of the United States farmers are encouraged to plant trees along country roads, the road taxes being reduced according to the number of trees growing on the public highways. The state knows that a country road will last longer where the roots of the trees are agents in holdingthe soil. In several instances farmers have also learned, from the effects of trees thus planted, that a part of the soil along these shaded roadsis lost for farming purposes, but on the other hand, good farmers have noticed that the crops for a certain distance beyond the reach of the roots of the trees are usually better than the crop further afield, and this has frequently been attributed to the shelter afforded by the protecting trees. The careful observer will also. have noticed that, as a general rule, small fields in woodled districts grow muich better and nicer crops than the same soil in sections where the trees have been entirely cut away, giving the winds a clear sweep over the country.
Some prominent citrus growers of California have encouraged planting windbreaks about their orchards. There have been a few instances where complaints have been heard against wvind-breaks from the fact that the roots of the fast growing trees,, usually planted for this purpose, do appear to waste considerable ground along the fields thus planted. Several growers of California do admit that two, and some times three, rows of oranges next to the wind shelters are practically lost, but that the fruit, a-rd the healthy appearance of the trees, further within the orchard, far exceeds the apparent loss of the fruit




on the few trees just mentioned: that the fruit is much larger and brighter and of better shape,--inj other words, perfect fruit, and that the per cent of second class fruit has been greatly reduced by the planting of wind shelters.
Porto Rlico, within the last year, has been receivingsome beneficial results from the planting of shade. trees by their citrus growers. These trees are apparently from three to six years old. The orchards, whieh before had a rusty appearance, the trees being stunted, the foliage injured and scale infected, are now recovering and have quite a different appearance than when they were wind swept. The fruit, also, is brighter and of better quality; the scale is less troublesome. We will take up each of these points later in our discussion.
Sometime since, the writer, while travelling in Florida visiting groves and gathering data, had the pleasure of inspecting the grove of Mr. W. S. Hart, of Hawks Park. Mr. Hart is, no doubt, one, of the best horticulturists, if not the best, in the state of Florida. Mr. Hart's groves are not extensive, the area not being over eighteen acres. Mr. Hart is famous as a fruit grower and has been for years. To him is usually awarded the first prize for fancy fruits at the various horticultural fairs of Florida. Mr. Hart has made the growing of fancy oranges a specialty. He is thorough in his work, every move being previously planned. In laying out his orchard, Mr. Hart, in a recent letter writes as follows: "I began with the virgin forest: after cutting out the underbrush, the orchard was laid off in plots of about two acres each, leaving between each block from twenty to thirty feet of virgin timber, this being done to shelter the orchard from the cold rough winds, principally from the cold. To prevent the roots of the forest trees feeding in the orchard plots a trench from two to three feet deep was dug around the orchard, cutting off the roots of the forest trees. This was afterwards filled up, and about every second year is re-opeifed and the roots again cut if they are found crossing the.




trench. After being open for a month or two, the earth is again re-placed."
SAt the time of my visit to this orchard the wind was blowing a stiff breeze from the sea, but in the orchard there was no wind noticeable simply a very slight draft of air under the trees,-there was no shaking of the branches perceptible. The fact is, nothing but a cyclone could possibly shake the trees to any extent.
SThe oranges were the most perfect the writer has ever seen, the skin being thin, the color bright yellow, and clean: not a sear appeared upon the skin, either from insects or from the action of the winds.
If one will carefully notice the fruit while passing through our best citrus groves, no matter how well the fruit is sprayed( and kept free from insects, there .will appear to a certain extent .and in many eases to a large extent, rusty or rough spots upon the skin of the fruit. This, in many eases, is due to the action :of the.winds. The epidermis of the fruit, while young, ;is very tenider and( easily bruised or scratciIled by the oceassional, or the constant, rubbing of a branch, a twig, or evIen the light rubbing of a leaf against the skin will injure the fruit to the extent that what .would have otherwise been a first class, bright fruit, becomes a second class, or cull.
It is the expressed opinion of some good growers that it will be impossible to grow bright, fancy fruit in orchards exposed to constant winds, or even occasional hard winds. Aside from the injury to the fruit, the trees are often injured by heavy gales of wind, such as appear in this country at various times and which are known here as vcyclones. These heavy storms are usually preceded by excessive rainfall, leaving the ground very soft. If the ground is of a .light sandy nature the trees are easily up-rooted or thrown to one side. The trees may be righted after the storm, but will never be exactly what they would .have been had their root systems not been disturbed. .Aside from being up-roted, the branches are very 4ften twisted and defoliated.