THIRD ANNUAL REPORT
COMPILED BY THE SECRETARY
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
Printers P. Fernandez & Co., 17 Obispo Street.
OFFICERS FOR 1909
PROF. C. F. AUSTIN, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
Ila'ana Provin ce. H. A. VAN HERMANN, Santiago
de las Vegas, Cuba.
Pinar del Rio Prouince.- LIN)LEY COLLINs, Herradura, Cuba.
Matanzas Province. D. H. HOWELL, Ceiba Mocha,
Santa Clara Prov ince.- L. M. PATTERSON, San Marcos, Cuba.
Canwmagiiey Provice. CHARLES E. HALL, La Gloria,
Santiago de Cuba Province.- THos. R. TowN, Holguin, Cuba.
Isle of Pines.- FRED C. MASON, Santa F6, Isle of
H. C. HENRICKSEN, 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba.
S. L. LAUGHLIN, Taco Taco, Cuba.
CorL. H. E. HAVENS, Herradura, Cuba. MR. LORENZO SANCHEZ, 35 Obrapia, Havana, Cuba. PROF. C. F. AUSTIN, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. H. C. HENRICKSEN, 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. S. L. LAUGHLIN, Taco Taco, Cuba.
STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1908
TRNSP0ORTATION. Cap't. L. S. McIrwin, Guanabacoa; R. C. Bourdett, La Gloria; Forest Nelson, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines.
PACKAGES A N) PACKING. E. H. Ives, Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines; E. E. Tolksdorff, McKinley, Isle of Pines; Glen E. Moe, Candelaria.
MARKETING. F. C. Mason, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines; L. Collins, Herradura; L. L. Newsom, La Gloria; Henry A. Young, Camagiiey; H. H. Olcott, Havana.
CITRITS. Prof. C. F. Austin, Santiago de las Vegas; Dr. E. W. Kellogg, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines; C. H. L. N. Bernard, Ceballos.
PINEAPPLES. Prof. C. F. Kinman, Santiago de las Vegas; E. A. Orr, Taco Taco; J. Schmitz, Guanajay.
NATIVE AND TROPICAL FRUITS. J. H. Kydd, Ceballos; A. Cox, Ceiba Mocha.
TEMPERATE ZONE FRUITS. W. P. Ladd, Santiago de las Vegas; F. D. Griffith, La Gloria.
VEGETABLES. Prof. F. S. Earle, Herradura; W. P. Gowell, Giiines; J. Handback, San Cristobal.
OR-NAMENITALS. H. A. Van Herman, Santiago de las Vegas; Miss L. Collin, Herradura; Miss Abbie Phillips, Havana; Cap't. C. R. Mundy, Ocean Beach.
ORCHARD MANAGEMENT. E. W. Halstead, Bahia
Honda; T. R. Towns, Holguin; F. C. Payne, McKinley, Isle of Pines.
INSECTS AND DISEASES. Prof. William T. Horne, Santiago de las Vegas; J. S. Houser, Santiago de las Vegas; Geo. W. Mace, San Crist6bal.
LEGISLATION. H. E. Havens, Herradura; Lorenzo Sdnchez, Artemisa; Ed. A. Kummel, Havana.
FERTIIZER. Prof. J. T. Crawley, Santiago de las Vegas; D. H. Howell, Ceiba Mocha; A. B. Storms, Herradura.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Berndes, Ren6, 64 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Bortwick, Mrs. Frances R., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Conklin, R. R., 1 Wall St., New York City, N. Y. Dart, D. W., La Gloria, Cuba. Earle, Prof. F. S., Herradura, Cuba. Hall, Charles E., La Gloria, Cuba. Haug, S. Chr., Maravi, Baracoa, Cuba. Henricksen, H. C., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. Kiimmel, Edw. A., 27 Nineteeth St., Vedado, Havana,
Landis, A. C., 61 Aguiar St., Havana, Cuba. McIrwin, L. S., Guanabacoa, Cuba. S6nchez, Lorenzo, 35 Obrapia St., Havana, Cuba. Towns, Thos. R., Holguin, Cuba. Van Hermann, H. A., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
Abbey, C. D., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Adams, Edw. L., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. Aldab6, Enrique, Monte 427, Havana, Cuba. Alfonso, Juan Bta., San Ignacio 82, Havana, Cuba.
Allan, Wm., 136 West 79st., New York City., N. Y. Allison, B. M., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. American Grocery Co., 13 O'Reilly St., Havana,
Andrews, Geo. B., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Anderson, J. A., Guanajay, Cuba. Anderson, O. T., Santa F6, Isla of Pines. Archibald, A. R., Columbia, Isle of Pines.
Bahler, Albert, Artemisa, Cuba, Baker, W. H., La Gloria, Cuba. Ballard, W. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Bascuas, Federico, San Jos6 de las Lajas, Cuba. Beatley, Chas. A., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. Bernard, C. H. L. N., Ceballos, Cuba. Belinka, M., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. Berry, H. C., East McKinley, Isle of Pines. Bellizo, J. E., La Gloria, Cuba. Benson, Portland, Ceballos, Cuba. Bennett, Garrett, La Gloria. Becker, Fred. C., 120 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Belden, R. E., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Beit, W. R., Box 875, Havana, Cuba. Bjelke, Gillis, La Lisa, Baracoa, Cuba. Blasco, Dionisio, La Gloria, Cuba. Boston, John, La Gloria, Cuba. Bolster, A. B., Moorehead, Minnessota. Borde, Gaston, Giiines, Cuba. Brown, W. H., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Brown, Lester, Columbia, Isle of Pines. Brown, Cloris C., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Brown, A. M., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Briggs, H. A., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Brandley, B., Holguin, Cuba. Broughamer, Frank, Herradura, Cuba. Brobery, Ben C., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. Brinkerhoff, J. O., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. Buttler, H. K., Ceballos, Cuba. Burford, Chas. R., Camagiiey, Cuba. Burnet, H. G., Paso Real, Cuba. Burnside, Henry, La Gloria, Cuba.
Bullit, Chas., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Buenaventura Plantation Co., Buenaventura, Cuba. Buenavista Fruit Co., Room 645, John Hancock
Bl'dg., 49 Federal Street, Boston, Mass.
Catteau, Geo., Hotel Miramar, Havana, Cuba. Carlton, William, Omaja, Cuba. Carlton, D. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Cirdenas, Francisco, Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Carballo, Luis J. de, Calvario, Cerro 593, Havana,
Campbell, Angus, Holguin, Cuba. Cervantes, F. L., Gervasio 153, Havana, Cuba. Chambers, A. B., La Gloria, Cuba. Christy, Lyman, Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Chamberlin, W. A., Bahia Honda, Cuba. Cleeland, Ralph, McKinley, Isle of Pines. Collins, Lindley, Herradura, Cuba. Collins, Mrs. L., Herradura, Cuba. Collins, Miss A. E., Herradura, Cuba. Collins, B. E., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Collins, Lester, Moorestown, N. Y. Cooper, Geo., La Gloria, Cuba. Coan, H. V., McKinley, Isla of Pines. Cox, Alfred, Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Corbin, S. R., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Collison, W. L., Ceballos, Cuba. Cowdery, O. P., Herradura, Cuba. Crossman, G. A., Ceballos, Cuba. Cristy, T. C., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Crinsin, Helmut, McKinley, Isle of Pines. Cressy, Geo. F., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Crabb, R. R., Las Tunas, Cuba. Crawley, Prof. J. T., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Cramer, Geo., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Cramner, J. A., Herradura, Cuba. Currier, A. B., Herradura, Cuba. Currier, Frank, Herradura, Cuba.
Desvernine, E. B., 52, Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Dennison, A. E., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines.
Desvernine, Eduardo, 22 Mercaderes St., Havana,
Dillinger, Dr. G. A., Empire Bl'dg., Pittsburg, Pa. Dudley, A. Sr. Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Dunn, W. J., McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Earle, Mrs. F. S., Herradura, Cuba. Early, John F., La Gloria, Cuba. Eldridge, Paul, San Claudio, Cabafias, Cuba. Emmons, Geo. M., Herradura, Cuba. Emmons Hattie C., Herradura, Cuba. Ericson, Emil, Mexico City, Mexico. Fair, W. A., Lansing, Arkansas. Fabian, A., Hato Guane, Cuba. Fern6ndez, Augustin C., Amistad 52, Havana, Cuba. Field, C. W., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Ford, Sidney, La Gloria, Cuba. Ford,, C. E., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Ford, E. S., Magnolia, Caibarien, Cuba. Frances, J. C., La Gloria, Cuba. French, Elmer, Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Fries, Archibald, Co. B. & O. S. W. R. R., Cincinatti,
Franklyn, Edward, Garden City, La Gloria, Cuba. Fulton, A. S., Herradura, Cuba. Fulton, W. B., Herradura, Cuba. Fuller, Win. C., Colton, California.
Garcia Zamora, Pedro Luis, Punta Brava, Cuba. Gardener, A. W., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Germain, J. R., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Giltner, L. C., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Gillespie, F. L., Herradura, Cuba. Goetz, E. C., Herradura, Cuba. Gonzlez, Braulio, Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Gocio, H. G., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Griffith, F. D., La Gloria, Cuba. Granger, Dr. F. C., Randolf, Mass. Grasselle Chemical Co., 784 The Arcade, Cleveland,
Green, Joseph, Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Grisson, Geo., San Crist6bal, Cuba. Graves, J. W., 244 Jackson St., Grand Rapids,
Gutschow, John, Ceballos, Cuba. Gutidrrez, victor, La Gloria, Cuba. Gushee, Edward G., 2,122 North 28th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Gunz, Mike, Herradura, Cuba.
Hayden, V. P., La Gloria, Cuba. HIathaway, W. W., P. O. Box 1182, Havana, Cuba. Haass, Henry, I St., Between 15th and 17th, Vedado, Havana, Cuba.
ilalstead, E. W., Herradura, Cuba. Havens, Col. H. E., Herradura, Cuba. Harris, Waldo E., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. Harvey, Col. S. S., 99 Prado, Havana, Cuba. Harvey, Frank K., 99 Prado, Havana, Cuba. HIasting, S., 213 Niorth Cottage Ave., Grand Rapids,
Handback, Julius, San Crist6bal, Cuba. Ifegelund, H. L., 1196 N. California Ave., Chicago,
Herman, J. B., 38 S. Union St., Rochester, N. Y. Hewitt, W. C., Buenaventura, Cuba. Hernindez, Pedro M., 156 San Fernando St., Cienfuegos, Cuba.
Herring, William A., Herradura, Cuba. Herring, Mrs. Lillie L., Herradura, Cuba. Heintz, J. L., Bahia Honda, Cuba. Hornet, J. H., La Gloria, Cuba. Horne, Prof. Win. T., Estaci6n Agron6mica, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
Howell, D. H., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Hodge, J. T., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Houser, Prof. J. S., Ohio Agr. Expt. Station, Wooster, Ohio.
Houghtalin, F. E., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Hoffman, John F., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. Hubbard, H., McKinley, Isle of Pines..
Humes, O. S., Herradura, Cuba. Humphreys, Mrs. C. A., Ceballos, Cuba.
Jackson, Walter B., P. O. Box 325, Manchester, Mass. Jenkins, R. C., Holguin, Cuba. Johnson, C. M., Zulueta 9, Havana, Cuba, Johnson, W. C., 303 Majestic Bl'dg., Detroit Mich. Jones, E. B., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Jones, G. D., Valley City, N. D. Judd, S. H., West McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Kastorf, Fred, Ceballos, Cuba. Karutz, Dr. Paul, C/o H. H. Olcott, Baratillo 7,
Kendall, Roland, Holguin, Cuba. Kellogg, Dr. Edw. R., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Kerr, D. E., Camagiiey, Cuba. Keiser, Win. G., Candelaria, Cuba. Keenan, T. J., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Kirk, Dr. W. H., Room 800 Keenan, Pittsburg, Pa. King, C. L., Manacas, Cuba. King, J. R., Los Indios, Isle of Pines. Kies, H. U., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Kleinkauf & Cole, Santa Ana, Isle of Pines. Kotwick, John, Los Indios, Isle of Pines. Kubin, Jos6, San Agustin, Santa Clara, Cuba. Kydd, John H., Ceballos, Cuba.
Laughlin, S. L., Taco Taco, Cuba. Ladd, W. P., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Lawton, H. C., Room 305, Commercial Club, Bl'dg.,
Lewis, Chas. S., Herradura, Cuba. Leitner, John, P. O. Box 64, Fingal, N. D. Lindstrom, Fred., Manistee, Mich. Lind, John C., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Lind, Dr. A., Palmarito de Canto, Cuba. Loundes, H., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Littleford, Walter, Ocean Beach, Cuba. Lout, John, Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Lumbert, O. N., La Gloria, Cuba.
Lombard, O. E., Prado 99, Havana, Cuba.
MacBeth, N. E., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Mason, Fred. C., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Manley, W. H., Herradura, Cuba. Mace, Geo. W., Candelaria, Cuba. Marshall, J., La Gloria, Cuba. Mains, Samuel, Ocean Beach, Cuba. Matteson, C. H., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. Mahoney, E. P., Apartado 724, Havana, Cuba. MeQuire, S. D., McKinley, Isle of Pines. McAbee, G. N., La Gloria, Cuba. McQueen, J., McKinley, Isle of Pines. MeMullan, Geo. R., McKinley, Isle of Pines. McKenzie, John, Santo Domingo, Cuba. McPherson, J. C., Los Indios, Isle of Pines. Merritt, Henry K., Newton Clayton Bl'dg., Indianapolis, Ind.
Meyer, A. E., 314 Farmers' Bank Bl'dg., Pittsburg,
Miller, E. R., Ceballos, Cuba. Miller, J. A., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Miller, J. A., 3145 Irving Ave. So., Minneapolis,
Miller, W. R. J., 608 Nicolletave., Minneapolis, Minn. Miles, J. E., La Gloria, Cuba. Middleton, W. D., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Michell, Adolph, La Gloria, Cuba. Miner, W. S., La Gloria, Cuba. Millard, F., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Montejo, M. A., P. O. Box 310, Havana, Cuba. Moe, Glen E., Candelaria, Cuba. Montros, Francisco, P. O. Box 310, Havana, Cuba. Moore, P. C., Beachwood Bl'dg., Pittsburg, Pa.
Nason, Lewis, Herradura, Cuba. Newsom, L. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Newton, John S., La Gloria, Cuba. Neustell, J. J., La Gloria, Cuba. Neville, H. O., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Nutall, John, McKinley, Isle of Pines.
Nfiiiez, R. E., 61 Aguiar, Havana, Cuba. INye, James P., Mountain View, Blandford, Mass.
Odell, Fred., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Olcott, Harry H., 7 Baratillo, Havana, Cuba. Orr, A. E., Taco Taco, Cuba.
Paine, F. C., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Pattin, F. J., Giiines, Cuba. Patterson, L. M., San Marcos, Cuba. Parker, Newell C., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Painter, E. O., Sect., Fla. State Horticultural Society, Jacksonville, Fla.
Parker, Newell, San Marcos, Cuba. Pennie, James, Archivo Nacional, Havana, Cuba. Peirson, E. C., Omaja, Cuba. Pedroso, Alberto, 48 Rue de Laborde, Paris, France. Perry, Duana C., Holguin, Cuba. Pearcy, Edward, Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Pulserfer, A. A., La Gloria, Cuba.
Ramsdell, Dr. F. R., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Redenci6n Plantation Co., Buenaventura, Cuba. Riegel, F. M., San Crist6bal, Cuba. Rind, Edward, Pres., Paso Real Fruit Co., Paso
Robins, Frank G., Aguiar 102, Havana, Cuba. Rockwood, P., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Rosie, Win. S., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Roberts, Geo., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Rose, H. A., Santo Domingo, Cuba. Runyon, E., Elizabeth, N. J.
Salas, Fernando, San Crist6bal, Cuba. Schmidt, J., Guanajay, Cuba. Scott, L. C., Lacota, N. D. Scheldt, J. T., 2597 Lowell Ave., Chicago, Ill. Seibert, B. Frank, Paso Real de San Diego, Cuba. Shriver, A. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Shoell, S. R., La Gloria, Cuba. Shore, Eli, La Gloria, Cuba.
Shifly, A. M., West McKinley, Isle of Pines. Simpson, T. W., 3281 Lincoln Ave., Ogden, Utah. Simmons, Joseph W., 52 Leicester St., Port Chester,
Sonville y Cervantes, A., Neptuno 34, Havana, Cuba. Sorenson, M., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Spencer, B. B., 184 Junean Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. Storms, A. B., Constancia, Cienfuegos, Cuba. Storms, L. E., Herradura, Cuba. Stokes, A. B., La Gloria, Cuba. Stephens, C. F., La Gloria, Cuba. Stroebele, Rev. Albert, Piloto, Via Nuevitas, Cuba.
Tanner, Perry E., Ceballos, Cuba. Taylor, M. S., Candelaria, Cuba. Taylor, L. W., Methuen, Mass. Thomas, W. B., Ceballos, Cuba. Tolksdorff, E. E., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Tosca, Prof. Pedro, Quinta "Tosca", Matanzas,
Tripp, W. H., Herradura, Cuba. Tucker, F. L., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Tucker, E. C., P. O. Box 957, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Tucker, F. N., Santa F6, Isle of Pines.
Utter, Debbert, Lake Beulah, Wisconsin.
Van Ettep, F. M., 238 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. Van Maitre, Win., Columbia, Isle of Pines. Van Schoonhoven, C., Manacas, Cuba. Van Vranken, M. B., 207 Houseman Block, Grand
Villaume, V., Sr., Herradura, Cuba. Villaume, V. Jr., Herradura, Cuba.
Ware, S. N., La Gloria, Cuba. Wells, E. E., Mercaderes 11, Havana, Cuba. Wegeman, A. H., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Wellwood, Jay, Herradura, Cuba. Wellwood, Clarence, Herradura, Cuba. Werder, Dr. X. O., Mersey Hospital, Pittsburg, Pa.
Weiard, Frank, McKinley, Isle of Pines. White, Earle, Bartle, Cuba. Whitney, Chas. P., S. W. Cor. Madison & Lasalle
Sts., Chicago, Illa.
Willis, E. A., Santa F6, Isle of Pines. Wilcox & Tracy, Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Wolfe, C. D., La Gloria, Cuba.
Young, Henry A., Carnag-iey, Cuba. Young, Geo. F., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Young, Chas. F., McKinley, Isle of Pines. Young, L. W., Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Young, Albert B., 1032 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y.
ARTICLE 1. The name of the Association shall be THE CUBAN NATIONAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.
ARTICLE 2. -Its object shall be to advance the horticultural interests of Cuba in all branches.
ARTICLE 3. The iemnbers of this Society shall consist of persons interested in raising the products of the soil, or its allied interests.
ARTICLE 4. Any person who is interested as per Article 3 may become a member of this Society by making application to the Sercetary and paying the annual dues. Said dues being payable at the beginning of each calender year.
ARTICLE 5. The officers of this Society shall consist of a President, one Vice President for each province of Cuba and one for the Isle of Pines, a Secretary and Treasurer and an Executive Commitee of five members, three of which shall be the President, Secretary and Treasurer of the Society. These various members shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting. Their term of office shall begin at the close of the meeting at which they are elected and shall continue until the close of the following annual meeting. The outgoing Secretary, however, shall be charged with the proceedings of the meeting at which he officiated, the newly elected Secretary assuming all other duties.
ARTICLE 6. The annual election of officers shall take place at 3 o'clock P. M. on the second day of the annual meeting.
ARTICLE 7.- The duties of the officers of this Society shall be those usually performed by the officers of like organizations.
ARTICLE 8.-The Vice President from the province in which the annual meeting is held shall be considered the Senior Vice President and shall act as President in the absence of that officer.
I. The annual dues of this Society shall be one dollar Am. currency, and life membership ten dollars.
II. The Executive Committee shall have power to fill all vacancies which occur between the annual meetings.
III The Standing Committees of this Society shall consist of three, or more, members, and shall be appointed by the President on the approval of the Executive Comnnittee.
IV The Chairman of each Standing Committee shall make a written report for each annual meeting, and as often between meetings as may be requested by the Executive Committee.
V.- This Society shall have the following Standing Committees:
2. Packages and Packing.
3.- Marketing and Storing of Fruits.
4. Citrus Fruit.
7. Native Fruits.
8. Fruits of the Temperate Zone.
10. Orchard Management. 11. Tobacco. 12. Diseases and Insects. 13. Legislation and Relations with Government.
The Cuban National Horticultural Society was organized September the 12th 1906 at a meeting held in Havana by some of the American fruit growers of Cuba. Fifty-two members were enrolled before the First Annual Meeting, held May 20th, 1907, and a 64 page report was published by the Society.
The Second Annual Meeting was held January the 6th and 7th, 1908 and the Society had enrolled 275 members for that year, of which ten were life members. A 120 page report of that meeting was published and widely distributed.
The object of the Society, as stated in the constitution, is to advance the horticultural interests of Cuba in all its branches. Much could be included under this broad definition but it soon becanie apparent that the Society ,could not undertake anything in the nature of a business organization and a separate Society, called the Growers and Shippers Association of Cuba, which is in no way connected with the Horticultural Society, was organized September 22, 1908.
The Third Annual Meeting, which is reported in this volume, was held in Havana January 21, 22 and 23, 1909.
The first session was opened with prayer by Rev. Mr. Colmore and six sessions of three hours each were held during the three days. The sessions were held in the hall of the Centro Asturiano and the Horticultural Exhibit in connection with the meeting was held in the exhibition room of Messrs. Harris Bros. Company, 108 O'Reilly St.
Several of the papers includecl in this report were read by title and consequently not discussed as the
time would not admit treating all of the subjects on the program.
None of the sessions were as well attended as could be desired, which was wholly on account of the exhibition. Most of the members present were also exhibitors and for them it was business as well as pleasure to remain by their exhibits. The exhibition which was open six days was visited by 50,000 people at a low estimate, aiong whom were many government officials, including the Honorable Julio de Crdenas, Mayor of Havana and the Honorable Ortelio Foyo, Secretary of Agriculture, who also addressed the Society at one of its sessions, giving the assurance of hearty cooperation in future work.
Presidents Annual Adress by Col. S. S. Harvey. Report of Standing Committee on Citrus Fruits by
Prof. C. F. Austin.
Citrus Fruits on Savana Lands by Mr. L. M. Patterson.
Orchard Management by Mr. Thos. R. Towns. An Experiment on Orchard Cultivation by Prof. F.
The Blue Green Beetle by Prof. J. S. Houser. Report of Standing Committee on Insects ((Jd Diseases by Prof. Wim. T. Horne.
Pineapple Culture by Prof. C. F. Austin. Pineapple Culture by ,Sr. Jos6 Miguel Trujillo. Report on Pineapples by Mr. Geo. W. Mace. Report on The Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable
Industry in the Province of Santiago de Cuba by
Mr. Thos. R. Towns.
Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry in the
Western part of Santiago de Cuba Province by
Mr. E. C. Peirson.
Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable Inlustry ini Matanzas Province by Mr. D. H. Howell.
Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry in Pinar del Rio Province by Mr. E. W. Halstead.
Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry in the
Isle of Pines by Mr. Fred C. Mason.
Report of the Standing Committee on Vegetables
by Prof. F. S. Earle.
Egg Plant by MT. W. B. Fulton. Tomato Culture by Mr. Julius Handback. Marketing by Mr. Fred C. Mason. The Mango by Mr. H. A. Van Herman. The Preservation of Native Fruit and Ornamental
Trees by Mr. F. L. Cervantes.
Some New and Introduced Plants by T. R. Ramsdell
Ph. D. M. D.
The Farmiers Dooryard by Mr. Lindley Collins. The Avocado by Mr. H. A. Van Herman. Bananas by Prof. C. F. Austin. Strawberry Culture by Mr. W. P. Ladd. Evaporation from the Soil by Prof. H. Hassellbring
Value of a Local Growers Organization by Mr. A. B.
Report of Standing Committee on Transportation
by Capt. L. S. Melrvln.
Report of Committee on Quaran tine Law by Col. H.
Report of Secretary by Mr. H. C. Henricksen. Report of the Treasurer by Mr. S. L. Laughlin. Election of Officers.
a Committee on Legislation.
b Committee on Awards.
c Committee on Final Resolutions.
d Committee on Auditing.
e Committee on Constitution.
f Committee to call on the President. Report of Committee on Auditing. Report of Committee on Constitution. Report of Committee Appointed to Visit The President Elect and invite him to visit the Horticultural Fair.
Report of Committee on Awards.
President's Annual Address
By COL. S. S. HARVEY
Members of the Cuban Nat. Horticultural Society:
It is my pleasant duty as President, to greet you on assembling this year, and as is customary, address you, calling your attention to matters of interest to our organization.
The most important matter to call your attention to is the Secretary's report. From it will be seen that the Society has increased in membership materially, and that the business of the Society has been ably handled by the Secretary. It was rare good fortune that the Society secured so able a man as Mr. II. C. Henricksen for Secretary for this year. It is not alone his very great ability as an educated agriculturist and business man, but the fact that he has been able to give the Society an amount of work that if measured in dollars value it would be impossible for the Society to pay. In this connection, I most earnestly urge on our organization the necessity of providing compensation to the Secretary of the body for the large and increasing labor of the Secretary's office. This is a matter I beg the Society not to ignore. I know by experience the past year with the Secretary and the employees in his office that it is not to be expected or desiderable that such an amount of work should be performed by the Secretary of this Society without compensation.
A matter f the greatest importance to the citrus fruit and vegetable growers of Cuba is the tariff on products entering the United States. It is well known that an extra session of Congress will be called in March to consider the tariff question. A conunitee of the House of Representatives of the United States
has had for the past several months the proposed new schedules under consideration. Before that committee has appeared, representatives of the agricultural interests of the United States, making strong pleas for the retention, or increase, of the present duties., The ten million dollars invested in Cuba, in fruit and vegetable interests has not been represented before that committee. It is a case of sleeping while your interests are in great danger. I consider it impossible to meet with reasonable commercial success here in the citrus industry with the present tariff against it in existence.
The reciprocal trade relations between Cuba and the United States is at present beneficial but could be materially improved as to the fruit industry, if proper interest is taken when the treaty is next up for consideration. The Horticultural Society should take some interest in this matter.
Beginning with the initial effort of a little over a year since the members of the Society have come to expect and desire an annual exhibition of agricultural products. If continued by the Society in the future there should be careful consideration of plan and scope. Probably a special committee designated to take charge of the entire matter.
The first exhibition of Cuban products was opened at Prado 99, Havana, on January 6th, 1908. The initial work was performed by Prof. C. F. Austin, Prof. H. C. Henrickson and myself. We were ably backed and assisted by members of the Horticultural Society and ladies who took an active interest in making it a success. While small, it was a great success, and attracted much attention, especially from those who had doubted the possibility of raising the very best of citrus fruits and vegetables in Cuba.
It attracted the attention of Cubans, even to the politicians, as they immediately got up a second exhibition. A number of Cubans have become members of our organization, and during this meeting we will have some valuable papers from Cuban gentlemen. If we can print the present proceedings in
Spanish, I feel sure our membership -will increase to double its present number during the coming year. No better illustration of the want of knowledge of the horticultural possibilities of Cuba could be, than an incident of that January exhibition. An elderly Cuban lady, after going over the exhibits, asked me if it were possible that all of it was raised in Cuba. After being assured that all of it was Cuban products, she said, 11 was born in Cuba, I have raised a f amily here, we are planters, and are wealthy, or well-to-do. If I had -supposed all this lovely fruit and vegetables could have been raised here, we would have had much of it e'er this. I will make the boys start in at once".
After the January exhibition, the Festival Committee of the City, headed by the Mayor, decided to hold a second exhibition of products as part of the entertainment during the Carnival. The Acting Secretary of the Island Government, was the designated head of a committee that, had charge of the March exhibition. I was invited by Dr. Vildosola, Acting Secretary of Agriculture, to become a member of that Committee and assist them in organizing an exhibition. I accepted on the grounds that it was to the interests of the members of the Horticultural Society to work in harmony with the Agricultural Department of Cuba.
During the past year it hoped and expected that a building would at least be started suitable for a permanent exhibition of Cuban products. I felt sure Governor Magoon was in sympathy with the idea and would give government aid to the matter. In June :1 consulted with the Governor about it. The income of the Government had fallen off so much and so rapidly that it was impossible to secure assistance in starting a building or preparing the grounds. I met the Governor several times later but there was no improvement in income. I tried to interest the City authorities but failed in that. In November, your Executive Committee met and after careful consideration of the situation decided to hold an exhibition in January on lines similar to our last
January exhibition. Af ter much labor and time in trying to find a suitable location f or the exhibition, M~essrs. Harris Bros, off ered us the use of the present location free of charge. Your Committee accepted the offer and at once gave notice for a January exhibit. They solicited premiums, from the business houses of Havana, and succeded in getting offered a very respectable amount.
After much of the work had been done and it was very much work to do it your Secretary and myself were invited to a meeting by the Mayor (Alcalde) of Havana to consider holding an exhibition during the coming Carnival season, to come on about the first of March. After several consultations, your Executive Conmmittee decided to go ahead, and have an exhibit ourselves, as originally intended. The Carnival Conmmittee will hold a second exhibition abount March 1st.
The matter was settled without unpleasant friction; in fact, each agreeing to assist the other. I stipulated with his Honor, the Mayor, that he raise as much as $.5,000-00 for premiums for the March exhibition, as our people could not afford to hold products for that fair without very considerable premiums were offered.
The situation is not desirable. It would be much better -that the expense, labor, and time should be expended on one effort. It would result in more good to agriculture, and I hope that the City and the Island Government may be induced to prepare suitable grounds and a suitable building for permanent exhibitions.
Agricultural interests are sadly neglected by the powers that be, in Cuba. I fully believe that organization, united effort, can bring about a change for the better. Look over the appropriations by the Govxerment and one will find the Agricultural Department at the tail end, when it should be the one department more liberally supplied than any other, for here all depends on the agricultural productions of the Island. The money the bankers, brokers and
merchants do business with, the diamonds, silks, satins and fine raiment the ladies wear, the clothing, f ood and houses of the wealthy and the poor, the Judges salary and the lawyers' fees, all come f rom agriculture. It is the only source of income.
I suggested to a prominent Cuban gentleman, that -1 know feels a deep interest in agriculture, that the Cuban people had just elected a gentleman President, that while he he was a General, and evidently somewhat of a politician, was first and greatest an agriculturist, and that we could expect something better for the Agricultural Department in the future. The gentleman shook his head. I suggested that thorough organization of the agricultural interests could influence the situation. He said no to have influence one must have taken his machette, gone to the woods and become a Colonel or General.
With it all I hope for -muore consideration from th e new Government f or the Agricultural stations, agricultural schools, and a first class agricultural college, where the Cuban youth can be educated in that which is of more importance to his country- than anything he can learn in a bank, lawyers office or behind a counter.
I feel sure that General Gomez, as President, will hark back to his first love, and show a deep interest in agricultural matters.
I1 most earnestly thank the members of the Hlorticultural Society for the great honor done me, in electing me President for the year now closing. I as earnestly ask to be relieved by your electing someone of the many able members you have to the Presidency for the ensuing year. It will be a labor of love to mie t(, serve the Society under any President von may elect, in any and all ways that are possible.
Report of Standing Committee on
BY PROF C. F. AUSTIN
Mr. Presideid and Members of the Society:
The report of the Citrus Fruit Committee will be
largely what the Chairman has to give, for after (arefully writing the other members of the Cormmittee he has been unable to get any information from them.
The question of varieties of citrus fruits is in about the same tangle that it always has been. During the past year there have been several prominent fruit growers from Florida on the Island and I have also sent a good many specimens away for indentification, but up to the present time have but very little information regarding definite varieties.
The list of published varieties remains practically unchanged from what was given in the last report.
One of the interesting conditions has been the earliness with which navel oranges mature in this Country. They are proving to be one of our earliest oranges, very often the first setting of fruits is edible in the latter part of August and early September. Their quality is also proving very good when grown on the lighter lands. My observation has been that when oranges are carefully sprayed so as to be free from rust mite they are developing good color on the older trees that have had good cultivation and fertilization.
It may not be out of place for us here to say a few words about a question of cultivation and to suggest a method for this work. This method will not meet all requirements for there will be exceptions to every
method suggested. The method that we have followed with the best results has been to sow some cover crops in the orange grove during the rainy season. This should be put in any time from April to June according to the weather conditions. We have found it best to sow them in rows and give a few cultivations so as to get the plants well started. After the plants begin to cover the ground well, cultivation may be laid aside until time to plow under the cover crop in the fall which under no conditions should be latter than the latter part of September or early October. The ground should then be carefully nDlowed and harrowed and kept in clean cultivation until time to sow the crop in the spring again. By clean cultivation we mean working the soil up thoroughly and having it free from grass and weeds and going over the ground with a harrow at least once a week.
My observation has been that very few of our planters give their groves the care and attention they should receive in regard to cultivation. This is the foundation of successful fruit growing and it must be carefully followed in some form in order to make a success. This brief outline brings up a few questions that will probably be asked. One is what shall we use for a cover crop and in answer to this I will say that there is probably no one plant that is adapted to all soils and conditions. The plant to my mind that comes-the nearest to this condition is the velvet-bean. Other crops that have given good success are cow-peas, beggar weed, canavalia gladiata, etc. The next question is how are we going keep the vines off the trees. We have found this very easily done by having the men as they hoe the trees work the vines away or if they are very troublesome a man with a machete will easily keep them down.
I believe that to make a success with citrus fruits some from of irrigation must be provided, for every year since we have been here there has been long spells when the trees suffer from the want of water and this is specially true as the trees come into heavy bearing. By careful cultivation we may be able to
grow the trees until the bearing age is reached but every condition points strongly to the fact that we must have more water than is naturally provided for the development of this industry.
Citrus Fruits on Savana Lands
BY L. M. PATTERSON
Mr. Chairman and Members of the Cuban National
I have been assigned the subject for a short paper on Citrus Fruits on Savana Lands.
I wish to state that my experience in citrus fruit culture has been confined to the last four years and consequently am not in as good a position, possibly, to give advice and information on this subject as many of you who are here present to-day; but I am willing to do my little part and possibly my few limited ideas may cause discussion that may prove interesting as well as profitable to those interested in citrus fruit culture.
The idea that most foreigners, and especially Americans, have, who are contemplating coming to Cuba to embark in the citrus fruit busin ess, seems to be that one can with but very little effort produce citrus fruits any where in Cuba. That may be true tc a certain extent but it should be remembered that all countries, as yell as Cuba, however rich in their producing qualities, contain a variety of soils, and those who would excel in the production of any particular kind of crop must select his soil and have great care in regard to the location and drainage and other matters that enter into the successful production of that particular kind of crop. It seems to me that the main thought that every one who is contemplating growing citrus fruits should be, what kind of land will produce the very best fruit with the least possible expense and its location such that his fruit can easily be marketed at the lowest possible cost for transportation.
It seems natural that most people should judge the different kinds of land by their ability to produce crops with which they are most acquainted. This is not always a safe proposition. Each kind of land has its purpose and each kind of land will yield bounteously if planted to the kind of crop that is best suited to the chemical make-up of such land. Ask our Cuban friends if savana land will produce cane and they will shake their heads. Ask them if fancy Havana wrapper can be grown in every place in Cuba and they will promptly answer no. Showing that there are only certain kinds of land that will prove a success in the production of these kinds of crops.
The writer has visited citrus groves in many places in Cuba, from the old plantation black lands and the heavy red lands to the lighter soils of the savana districts and I have found that the owners of the heavy lands were having a great deal of trouble in caring for their groves and some of them had almost given up in despair at not being able to keep the Pard grass subdued, that almost always is found ii, heavy lands. I have also found that the owners of groves on the lighter soils or savanas were having a comparative easy time and generally had clean groves.
I have found that many groves on the heavier lands were not well drained nor could they easily be, but that the groves on savana land, if they needed drainage at all, could easily be drained.
I have found that while the heavier soils did not need as much fertilizer as the savana, yet, the saving in cost of the care of a grove on the savana land would more than pay for the extra fertilizer. I believe that savana land with a good subsoil will hold moisture and carry a grove through the long dry seasons, which occur in Cuba every winter, better than any other kind of land with which the writer is acquainted, and during the wet season, the savana being usually much better drained, the excessive rains will not seriously affect the grove, as the water soon runs off and in a very short time after such heavy rains the
soil can be cultivated, which means very much in keeping ahead of the grass and weeds and in preventing the land from baking.
I have seen very few producing groves on savana land but those that I have seen convince me that the savana lands ought to grow in favor for citrus fruit purposes.
1st. It costs less to clear, plow and prepare the land.
2nd. It costs less to care for the grove after it is set out.
3rd.- It holds moisture well if well cultivated.
4th. It can be cultivated at ahnost any time of the year.
Notwithstanding that I believe that savana land is the best, all things considered, for citrus fruits, Yet no land will produce good fruit without a great deal of constant care. One should analyze and study his soil and add to it in fertilizer what it lacks in chemical properties to produce the very best fruit possible.
One should not be satisfied merely with good fruit but with the best fruit.
Most savana land has been burned over year after year for many years, consequently it is lacking in humus and nitrogen which must be supplied in some way.
By all means never burn any grass or weeds; plow them all down and in a few years you will be surprised at the difference in your soil and even without any fertilizer this grass and weeds will assist in holding the moisture in the land during the dry season and will also act as a preventive against the washing of the land during heavy rains.
Never burn grass or weeds on savana land.
Always plow it down.
Grub out all the stumps before setting trees.
Plow well and harrow well.
If possible grow one or two crops of cow peas or velvet beans on the land and plow them down before setting out the trees.
Get the very best trees obtainable.
Don't set out more than you can care for well.
Have an eye on the demands of the market and set out up to date varieties.
Never let the grass grow in your grove.
Cultivate thoroughly and often.
In the dry season keep the soil loose and the top well harrowed with a fine tooth harrow so as to form a dust mulch. This will prevent to a great extent the moisture in the soil from evaporating.
In the wet season, as soon as possible after each heavy rain, harrow again. This will keep the land from baking.
Permit no growth on the tress but what you want there.
Train the little tree as it should be and when it is grown it will be a delight to the eye and a money producer.
Care for it as you would a little child. Feed it.
Nurse it when sick.
Protect it from insects and other things that injure and annoy it and in due time it will repay you many fold.
Henricksen. For those who are not acquainted with Cuban soils, will Mr. Patterson please describe Savanna lands.
Patter8on. There are, I believe, several kinds of Savanna lands. The Savanna lands that I have had experience with more particularly, are those that grow the high palm, the leaves of which are used for roofing purposes. One kind of soil is a sandy loam that we would term a grayish black; not exactly black loam, but what you might call a gray sandy loam with a gravelly sub-soil. Some have a sub-soil of a hard, sticky clay but that is not the kind I have reference to. You will find in almost all Savanna land, spots of hardpan under the top soil, and as a rule, I would not consider that a very good place for a tree, but the Savanna soil that is sandy, that is, of a
grayish black color with a gravelly sub-soil, is what 1 consider the best for citrus trees. That, I believe, is in some places, called Pine Land.
Castler. With reference to what Mr. Patterson said in his paper, about the plowing under of green vegetable matter, I would say that it has been my experience that if grass is plowed under while it is green, it will cause the land to become sour.
Patterson. I mow the grass, letting it get thoroughly dry and then have men go with forks and put it into the furrows, and plow it under. I would not be in favor of plowing green grasses under.
Dr. Ramsdell. I am in favor of plowing so as to have the furrows stand on edge and not harrow very soon after. That will, in some measure, prevent the souring of the soil, as it lets in some air.
Laughlin.- I would like to make a suggestion. We use a large cut away disc harrow. I Ilave had nine years experience with it. It is the finest thing we have ever found to subdue the grass and mix it, with the soil. I am very much in favor of the Cuban, plow for certain purposes. The way it is used in Cuba the soil is ridged up and exposed to the air, in which condition it soon becomes mellow.
Pearson. -As different experiences are being related, I have mine to relate. I came to the Island about three years ago. I had to study a good deal as to how best to handle the grass oil this prairie land and came to this conclusion. I let it burn over in the winter and early in the spring take a plow and plow about three inches deep, turning it over; then take a disc harrow and work it down.
Harvey. The last of April or the first of May, I paid a visit to the Isle of Pines and visited probably 70 or 75 groves. I was on more than a hundred clearings. I observed very carefully the results of cultivation and of noncultivation, and of partial cultivation by working around the trees. I found in every case, at te tail end of the long, dry season, that where the ground had been thoroughly cultivated and harrowed and kept thoroughly pulverized, that the citrus
trees of all kinds looked well and did well. They were suffering but little. In cases where they had worked arouLnd the trees to six or 8 f eet, there was a partially good showing. In cases where the grass was left to grow (and some had allowed it to do so) their trees were in a bad condition and I think almost every one of them recognized that they had made a great mistake in letting the grass grow in their orchards. This is the experience I wanted to relate and believe it of interest.
BY TIHOS. B. TOWNS
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Society:
Our Executive Committee as well as the Chairmian of this Committee have given me the same subject as at our former meeting. It takes me back to school days when the teacher looked stern, and said Boy take that lesson over again.
Orchand Management from a business standpoint.
In my paper of a year ago, I gave my views of labor, how best to handle it, the kind of laborers etc. Before going further I would ask the Society, after the reading of a paper that it be discussed, where there is any one who feels that he does not entirely agree with the writer. There is not enough discussion among ourselves on these papers, and if you have troubles not touched on by any of the papers, make them known; we have taken the time to come here, therefore let us try and profit by the exchange of ideas and discussion.
Now to orchard management. To ever have an orchard to manage, you must have soil capable of making one. There are some soils where the crusty formation is so near the top, that it is not possible to make a grove; if a tap root cannot penetrate it, you don't want it. However the roots of an orange tree are very deceptive, and penetrate many soils that look nearly impossible. The drainage on hardpan soils must be by evaporation, and sourness prevents the proper nutrition and growth of plants. Having gotten a good piece of land properly located, you need some good trees to plant thereon. Some say that they must be budded on trifoliata, sour orange, rough lemon, ponderosa lemon, shaddock, lime grape fruit,
or sweet orange roots. I like them all except the sweet orange which will, without any seeming cause, gum. Any of the others mentioned are good stocks and if the roots are not plowed to pieces at too frequent intervals, will not gum to hurt. If you will watch your trees, and find any gumming, take a prunning knife and cut from ground up several feet, as deep as the knife will penetrate. This will allow all the gum to escape, and the tree will soon be healthy again. At least three cuts should be made to drain the tree of gum,the tree cannot exudate this substance through its leaves, as it does other refuse from its feeding. The knives used in cutting should be sterilized after cutting each tree. If this cutting is not done early the gumming spreads, puffs the fruit, and frequently kills the tree; the stock is condemned as a bleeder, or liable to foot rot, or mal de goma and is no good, when just the opposite is true. Without the rough lemon, ponderosa lemon, and shaddock as bud stocks, the citrus fruit business would never be a complete success. On the shaddock and ponderosa lemon, I am getting two crops of navels yearly. Everbearers, June and November. No need of any valencias, when you can have rich juicy navels all summer. I am not positive but think I have a grape fruit that is an everbearer on these stocks. In my exhibit, I have fruit from a grape fruit, on shaddock roots, that bloomed in October 1907, May 1908, and October 1908, when spring or fall comes, and the tree is not loaded with fruit, it puts on the deficiency. I am getting entirely away from my subject of orchard management, but we must have something to manage, and when I am through with this paper, I would ask a discussion of stocks, would like to hear from growers, and brother nurserymen.
Time to plant trees. Trees should be engaged ahead and planted as soon after the spring rains as possible. October, November, and December are also good months. When you get-your ground ready, and before it grows up to grass and weeds you should get it planted, this idea of letting ground stand a year is all bosh on citrus soils; it may do on soils where little
or nothing will grow, and you work it a year to get up soil action but such soil should never be planted. With your trees planted get a cover crop started to control the grass and weeds, on grass lands and the bushes on timber lands. If planting on grass lands, a strip should be plowed six to eight feet wide in the tree rows. Plant both trees and cover crop on this strip, and break the centers at your leisure.
I have always advocated velvet beans, they are a splendid cover crop, but since trying the beans distributed by the Experimental Station two years ago, the dolichos lab lab, I am inclined to favor them; they are the most vigorous grower on all soils I ever saw, covering the ground completely. With me they are perenial bearing their crops in February and March of each year, very prolific, edible for both man and beast, with an enormous amount of leaves continually falling and enriching the soil; I am very pround of them and hope to see them generally used. I find that going over the grove monthly during the growing period, will be sufficient to keep trees free of cover crop vines. I am satisfied that soils lacking in hunmus, will be greatly benefited by them, they check the grass and weeds, preserve the moisture, and enrich the soil, feeding the owner his cow and hog. If the grower should wish to plow the crop of vines under, it can be easily done with a disc plow. There are some who do not believe in a cover crop, and wish to crop the middles between the trees, for all such, I would suggest pine apples, tomatoes, or siniilar crops, these crops will reduce the cost of the grove care very materially and if a community canning plant is handy, the small crops will cover the cost of grove care. Each colony or community should have its cannery and preserving plant, to use all ripe vegetables, pine apples, and other fruits; cull oranges make as fine preserves and marmalades as the best stem cut fruit. The tidal wave of prohibition that is sweeping Uncle Sam's domain, is
opening the way for fruit juices like the orange, and grape fruit, to be used similar to the splendid grape juices used at cool drink parlors. The preparation and sale of these goods can be made highly profitable to producers and sellers alike.
We have gotten our grove planted with either cover crop or, not as the owner cares, I would suggest that with either plan, the trees be kept clean with a hoe a yard in each direction, at the end of a year some pruning can be done with the shears, opening up the inside of the tree, and distributing the limbs to remain, and every few months thereafter the trees should be gone over pruning only where needed, taking off any fruit up to the third year planted, when the tree should be large enough to carry some fruit; the size of the tree should determine the amount. Young trees will frequently load up on one side and tilt the tree over to such an extent that the tap root is weakened, two or three of the best limbs broken of etc., the fruit scissors must be used before the damage occurs, fruit props can also be used profitably; where too much fruit is left on the tree it will be undersized and will not bring the owner a profit. From Cuba it will not pay to ship anything but the very best of fruit, packed in the best of shape, this applies to anything shipped out of Cuba. The cannery and preservery must exist to take care of the part we do not ship, we can ship a ripe tomato in a can -but not in a crate, the cul or skin blenmished oranges must be sent out as marmalades and preserves not as fruit. To do the grading and packing that will be neccessary it would seem to me that the grower would find it most convenient to send his fruit to a central packing house, where grading and packing is done by those who thoroughlN- understand How to grade and pack. A uniform commercial pack will sell your products for a much better -price, than even fancy fruit improperly graded and packed. There will be a time, and I hope not far distant, when each port of embarcation will have its packing houses and sales department; I am a great
believer in selling at home if you can, ship when you cannot. During the second year some spraying should be done. If commenced in time and carefully looked after there is little to fear, while there are some pernicious scale, all is successfully combated. Your neighbor should also keep his trees clean, or yours will suffer. Some growers make the mistake of allowing their trees to get quite full of scale, thinking, that when they do get at it they will use the spray double strength, and kill it all. It is a mistake, you will find that any spray used too powerfully is very hard on the trees, something mild is better even if you have to use it two or more times to clean your trees, usually two sprayings a year are sufficient, be your own judge, but keep your trees clean: you will also have to decide about feeding your trees, generally speaking, all the open lands planted to grove should be fed after trees have reached one year planted. Ammoniated plant food will make a quick tree, the amounts to use and the kinds will be determined by the grove owner; he sees what his neighbor does, and corrects his errors, or copies him.
Mason. On the Isle of Pines, it has been my experience that it is best to have a small nursery for our own grove and I have watched a great many who have had the same experience. On all lands in, the Isle of Pines, we have noticed that the sour stock has proved by far the best stock. I might say that the grapefruit has proved a very good stock also, but I think, from my own experience, that there has been more gumming from the grapefruit stock than the other.
Prof. Earle. It was my good fortune last summer to spend two days with my friend Prof. Rolfs, of the Florida Experiment Station. He is the best posted man in the state of Florida on everything connected with fruit growing. I told him we had been discussing this a good deal in Cuba. He stepped over to the wall and drew his finger across a map of Flor-
ida, about at Jacksonville and said that there was only one stock worth planting there and that is trifoliata. About half way down the state he drew another line and said the best stock to use there is the sour orange. He drew another line still further down the state where the grapefruit stock is the best to use and the remaining part of the state, the rough lemon should be used, and it is probable that there is no such thing as the best stock in Cuba. There are many soil areas here and we will find certainly that one stock will be better for one class of soil and another for another class of soil. Again, we have a large range of citrus fruit here in Cuba and it seems that some of these are better adapted to one stock and some to others and I feel sure we will not without further experience agree as to the best stock.
Newsom., I lived in Florida 35 years and from my experience there, as well as in La Gloria, I1 find the sour stock the best all around stock. I note what Brother Towns says about having two crops of navels on citron stock. I1 can show him the same thing in La Gloria on sour orange stock and will give him some good Washington Navels, as good as he ever ate, every month in the year. The navel is considered a shy bearer everywhere, but they can be made to bear and to hold the fruit by running a knife around the trunk of the tree cutting through the bark, but not removing any of the bark, when the blossoms are about half grown, before they are open. You will find that those you girdle will hold all the fruit you want them to bear, whereas the others will have less fruit.
Patterson. I would like to ask a question. I have been told by a number of gentlemen who have had a great deal of experience, that after transplanting a tree budded on the lemon root, that the tap root is not liable to grow much longer and does not run down as it should, like the sour orange for instance.
Towins. We discussed that, I believe, at our first meeting. We had a paper by Mr. Van Hermann, who stated that the rough lemon had no tap root. If it were possible that the rough lemon had no tap root,
I think I should double my planting, because there are a number of hardpan soils in Cuba, the owners of which would pay me four prices for that class of tree. My experience with the rough lemon, or in fact with the entire citrus family, is that all have a tap root.
Collins. Two years ago this question was discussed by Mr. Mace and Mr. Van Hermann and they found that the rough lemon had little, if any tap root. I had occasion a few years ago to set out about 1,600 rough lemon trees of the age of one year from the bud. I could take the rough lemons and set them in a row on top of the ground and they would nearly all stand up. There were plenty of laterals, but there was no tap root to tip those trees over. Now Mr. Towns tells you that the trouble came from transferring the tree from the seed bed to the nursery. If it was an isolated case and I found one tree in ten, I would agree with Mr. Towns. I think there is no question, but that the tap root of the rough lemon is a short root. The question, however, is which is the best for us to plant? The rough lemon while young is nearly three times as large as the sour orange, the sour orange making a much slower growth than the rough lemon or the shaddock. But will the rough lemon and the shaddock withstand the drouth as well as the sour orange with the deeper root system? We can get a tree much quicker if we take the rough lemon or the shaddock, but I am told that the sour orange in the course of from seven to ten years, will make a growth that will stand side by side with the shaddock of the same age. If this is true and it is a better root and will take care of the tree during the hurricane season, is not the sour orange the best, knowing that it comes into bearing about the same time the others do?
Van Hermann. I will modify my statement of
last year somewhat, but in the main it still holds true. There is a chance of there being a mistake. As long as we have blue green beetles in this country, we will not have much chance to decide which is the better
stock, as the grubs eat the roots off, no matter what stock the trees are budded on.
Prof. Earle. I think I am safe in saying that we do not know anything about the question of stocks as yet, but Mr. Van Hermann has made a suggestion that is well worth considering. It is not the question as to which stock has the deepest root but as to which stock will recover the quickest from the grub.
An Experiment in Orchard
BY PROF. F. S. EARLE
The members of the Society will remember that at our first meeting Prof. C. F. Baker, who at that time was still botanist of the Cuban Experiment Station, read a paper on tropical leguminous plants that might prove to be of value here as orchard cover crops, and that he exhibited specimens of a considerable number of them. In the following May he sent me seeds of over twenty kinds and requested that I give them a trial on our sandy lands at Herradura. For want of a better place I planted these seeds in the tree rows between the trees in a two year old orange orchard. Aside from testing these different legmnes on our lands my object was to find some cover crop that could be utilized to keep the ground in the row free from grass while the space between the rows was occupied by vegetables or other crops which prevented cross cultivation. Four or five of the kinds planted seemed to have value for various special purposes but only two gave promise of being serviceable as a permanent cover crop. These were one of the large seeded horse beans Canavalia gladiata and the Gandul or Pidgeon pea, Cajanus Indicus. The first of these at first did not so strongly attract my attention and I failed to save the seed and increase.the planting. The original row however, remains. The bean, which is a half trailing bush rather than a vine, has covered the ground with a dense mass of vegetation three feet thick which keeps down grass perfectly and forms an ideal mulch, the ground beneath the tangled vegetation remaining moist and friable even
in the driest weather. The plant seems to be an efficient nitrogen gatherer and the trees in this row have on the whole made a more satisfactory growth than any of the others. While there is some tendency for it to climb up on the trees it is nothing like as troublesome in this respect as the velvet bean or the Indian bean Dolichos Lablab. The seeds are rather larger than an ordinary lima bean and are produced in a thick fleshy pod eight or ten inches long by an inch and a half or two inches broad. These large fleshy pods are edible when young and may be prepared and cooked exactly like snap beans which they closely resemble in flavor. The beans also are edible but they have a thick tough skin which is objectionable. These few trees are thriving so nicely surrounded by this dense mat of vegetation that it suggests the possibility that they would continue to thrive equally well even if the middles also were planted to this bean, thus doing away with cultivation altogether as where a northern apple orchard is seeded down to red clover. This however, is for the future since the experiment has not yet been tried.
The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the possibility of using the gandul as an aid in orchard management. From the first this plant grew so thrifty as to attract immediate attention. It forms an erect widely branching shrub. At the end of two months it was as high as the trees and by November seeds planted the first week in June had formed a dense hedge six to eight feet high and equally wide that was bending almost to the ground with its weight of seed. The seed is edible, resembling the cow pea in flavor. It is hard and round, about half the size of the common garden pea and is produced in a small flat pod. The pod adheres quite closely to the pea and may be allowed to hang for weeks after it is ripe with little danger of loss from shattering. In India it is a very important food crop and it is largely used in Porto Rico and other American tropical countries. Here in Cuba it is frequently found scattered about native settlements but it does not attract much
attention. The Cuban kind seems usually to be much less fruitful than this one which was imported direct from India by Prof Baker. The gandul is eaten greedily by pigs and chickens and it promises to be a useful grain feed for mules and horses. When grown between the trees it does not form a dense mulch on the ground like the horse bean but it soon shades the ground sufficiently to keep down the grass. It makes an effective wind brake and it gives small treess a certain amount of shade which on the whole seems to be beneficial. Even in the extreme drouth of last winter it did not seem to affect the trees unfavorably. Of course the middles between the rows are being cultivated during the dry season. It is an effective nitrogen gatherer since the roots are plentifully supplied with tubercles. Above all it will grow and thrive if planted at any season of the year when the soil is sufficiently moist to admit of germination. Most of our other soil improving legumes can only be grown successfuly during the rainy season. When planted like this in single rows the stenis grow to be one to two inches thick and become quite woody so that they would be difficult to plow down. If however, the seed is broadcasted thickly or planted closely in drills only separated enough to admit of one or two cultivations the stems would not grow too large to be handled by a disk plow. It can thus be used as an ordinary cover crop for soil improving purposes. It promises to have certain advantages over either cow peas or velvet beans for this purpose. It does not climb on the trees and it will grow during the dry as well as the wet season. Its chief advantage however as a cover crop would be in those cases where it was desired to keep the land occupied for more than one year as in renovating worn out sugar lands. It has the use however in converting ,each tree row into a hedge or wind brake thus avoiding all necessity for cross cultivation that has appealed to me most strongly and during the last year I have planted it in the row between the trees over the greater part of my forty acre orchard. It is necessary to go around two or three times during
the summer and trim it back near the trees in order to prevent crowding.
Ramsdell. I am very much pleased with Prof. Earle's description. I raised gaudulas purposely to shade m-y mangoe trees. I planted it in a three quarter circle, leaving the north side open. The plants grow very rapidly and make good shade. The peas are also good to eat when young. I see by comparison that the ones I have raised are much finer than any J have seen in any other places. What I have are perfectly round and white, of very fine flavor and I brought up a peck with me and have them for the benefit of the members of the society to take -what they want.
Prof. Earle. I think by selection we could get the kinds useful for different purposes. I can also say that the trees treated in this way are making a better growth than those that have no shade.
Hlenricksen. -This is very interesting to me. I have watched it in Porto Rico and it seems to me that the only road to success in tropical horticulture is to start with the plant that will grow fast and build up protection for the trees that we intend to grow, and I would like to have that brought out at this meeting. What is the experience, here; what has the gandula, or any~ other plant done in keeping the scale in check ? We found in Porto Rico that bananas, or anything we could get as a wind brake among the trees, would greatly lessen the danger of scale.
Towns. My idea as to the shading of the young tree is that it is very bad, but trees should be protected against winds. Anything planted between *the. trees is a help to them but the trees should not be shaded. The tree must have light, but if it can be protected against the winds, a newly planted tree probably makes double the growth of one left out in the open and not protected. So far as the scale is concerned, I1 do not think the trees are troubled with scale, up to two or three years, if they are clean when
they come from the nurseryman, which they
Dr. Ramsdell. I suppose the gentleman is speaking of citrus trees. The cacao and mangosteene have to be shaded. They will not grow in the sunlight. I have mangosteenes growing in that way and believe I am the first man to have grown the tree in this country. If speaking of the citrus fruit, they need light and wind protection.
Cervantes. This gentleman has spoken of mangosteenes. Has that nlant been successfully grown in Cuba ?
Ramsdell.-I have ten mangosteene trees growing. The first two years they grew 1/16 of an inch before they put out leaves, but now they are up to 4 feet high.
Howell. I am very much interested in this question of cover crop. For the past year I have been planting, to some extent the gandula and also the lablab. Three years ago our trees were very scaly and today there is scarcely any scale to be found in the grove at all. I think the cover crop must have something to do with that. Before that time I was spraying my trees all the time. Now there is no scale on the trees at all. The shade of the ground is undoubtedly beneficial.
I might say that the red fungi keep the scale effectually in check in my grove.
Laughlin.- I agree with Mr. Towns in regard to not shading the citrus trees themselves. The smaller plants do not shade the trees but shade the stem of the tree and it gets the sunlight from above in nearly all cases and from what I have noticed of it, it is directly benefited by it.
Prof Earle. -Shading the orange tree completely is very bad, but I am of the opinion that a small amount of shade, such as you get from the gandula plant, on the sunny side of the tree, is an advantage. I don't think heavy shade is advisable at all.
W. S. Brown. I have found that the blue green beetle is very fond of gandula and while working on the gandula they will not bother the orange trees. I
planted a row around my place which before had been troubled with the beetles. Now they eat the gandulas and leave the trees alone.
Collins. Is not the gentleman making a breeding place for the blue green beetle?
Lauglin.- I would suggest that he should poison the gandula with Paris Green, thereby making this a beetle trap.
Brown.- I find that the green beetle comes from the "arroyo" along one side of my place and there is something they like about the gandulas and leave the trees alone. The chickens eat them as well.
The Blue-Green Beetle
BY PROF. J. S. HOUSE
Without doubt no other natural condition has a greater bearing upon the production of good citrus products in Cuba than has the so-called blue-green beetle. Like the well known white grub of this and other countries the injury is not confined to work during one stage of the development of the pest, but both as a larva and beetle injury of a most destructive nature is done.
For some time the proper scientific classification of the-blue-green beetle common to Cuba has been in confusion, and in order to settle the matter, sonic time since we sent a miscellaneous collection of the insects to the Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, for examination and comparison with the named species. Mr. Schwarz of the Bureau, reports that our fauna as represented by the collection consists of at least three known species and in addition, one specie which is not described in the literature of Science and hence is new. Further, one of the known species is divided by the separation of a variety, so we have at least five names for the blue-green beetle of Cuba. The list follows, arranged as we believe in the order of economic importance, the more destructive species heading the list: Pachnaeus azurescens, Pachnaeus litws, Pach laeits azurescens variety griseus, Pachnaeus distatis and Pachnaeus new species. It is to Pachnaeus azuiresces that most of the injury to Cuban citrus products may be attributed. We have never collected any of the other species in abundance, and some have been collected in the scrub growth of the hills, in grasy lands and other places only. Nevertheless it is not at
all unlikely that all might become citrus pests under change of conditions as concerns decrease in natural food supply etc.
What the original natural food plants were is undecided. It is known however that the members of the genus Pachia eus are rather general in their feeding habits. According to the observations of Dr. Cook and Mr. Home as recorded in Bulletin No. 9 of the Estaci6n Central Agron6mica, the leaves of the plants of the following list were eaten by the adults while in confinement, with varying degrees of avidity. Citrus sp., cow pea, velvet bean, peanut, pecan, anone, coffee, aguacate, Japonese persimmon, rooster vine (Aristolochia sp.), and rose. In adition to this list we have to add an observation made by Mr. Horne during the past year where the roots of field tobacco were injured by the larva of Pachnaeus litus, one of this year in which we found the larvae doing serious injury to the roots of strawberries; and lastly an observasion made by Mr. H. A. Van Hermann in which the larvae were found injuring the roots of the pigeon pea or gandul. The species of the latter two have not been determined.
The adult beetles appear in the early spring soon after the rainy season begins. If the season starts with extremely heavy, soaking rains, the beetles appear almost en masse, and after the first flush they are not to be seen in quantity throughout the season. The past season was one of this type, the greater portion of the brood appearing during the latter part of May and early June.
If the season is opened with occasional rains of moderate severity, it appears the emergence of the brood is lengthened and we find the beetles appearing in considerable quantities for at least two or three months and probably longer. The season of 1907 in the vicinity of Santiago de las Vegas, was illustrative of this class. Under such conditions there appears to be more than one brood of the pest per year, but at the present time we have no conclusive data to present upon this point.
Upon emergence the beetles crawl up the trunk of the tree and begin feeding voraciously upon the tender foliage of the twig tips, thus disfiguring and checking the growth of the tree. An interesting fact pertaining to the physiology of the beetles at this time, is that for the first day or two following emergence the wing covers or elytra remain sticking together, thus preventing flight. This condition, first observed by Mr. E. W. Halstead has a considerable bearing in an economic way as will be explained later.
Shortly after their appearance, the beetles pair and egglaying soon begins. "The individual eggs are somewhat cylindrical with rounded ends, about nine tenths of a millimeter long by thirty five hundreths of a millimeter broad, shining white in color, and are deposited in two or three layers between two leaves or under the turned margin of a leaf, the surfaces being held together by a sticky material in which the eggs are embedded". To the unacquainted eye, it is difficult to find the egg masses in the field, but when a few have been observed, it is comparatively easy to pick out the leaves which are stuck together. According to the unpublished notes of Mr. HJorne it is entirely possible for one female to deposit at least two thousand eggs and it is estimated that one of the females under observation deposited in the neighborhood of twice that amount during the thirty eight days upon which oviposition occurred.
With the immediately preceding facts in mind the gravity of the blue-green beetle problem seems intensified many times, and it truly would be, were it not for the fact that the journey from the egg mass to the roots is a very precarious one for the newly hatched grubs. About seven days following the placing of the egg mass the tiny white footless grubs or maggots hatch and it is thought by some that the first meal is made upon the epidermis of the protecting leaf. At any rate within a very short time the small insects wriggle out and drop to the ground where they become the prey of the host of small ants and other insects which swarm about.
Being footless they do not crawl readly, hence it is without doubt true that only a very small percentage which falls near the base of the tree and afterwards run the guantlet of their enemies ever reach the feeding ground on the rootlets beneath the surface.
In the event of a safe entrance into the soil, the small roots are eaten first, but later the large roots are attacked and the grub eats its way downward along the root taking off all the bark as it goes in a line slightly wider than its body. According to Mr. Van Hermann in the Proceedings of the Society for last year the grubs may enter the soil to a depth of two feet.
Upon the completion of larval growth pupation occurs in an earthen cell in the soil, and after a time, depending largely as we believe on rainfall, the beetles appear and begin their work as previously described.
The small ants which swarm the fields without doubt destroy countless numbers of the newly hatched larvae after they have fallen to the ground and are attempting to make their way down to the roots of the trees. Theoretically it would seem that clean culture at least about the bases of the trees at the time of hatching would facilitate the work of the ants and afford less chance for the young larvae to make a safe entrance into the soil.
Birds and domestic fowls have a great liking for the adult beetle. It is the practice of some to entice the chickens into the grove during beetle season and shake the trees that the beetles may fall and be eaten. This is a most excellent plan but of couse is applicable to small areas only.
Last year we observed the large yellow and black robber fly, Mallophora scopipeda Rondani, doing excellent work during the beetle season. The beetles were seized by the strong legs and feet of the fly and carried to a near by perch such as a dead weed, and the sharp beak inserted in the body tissues just beneath the wing covers. After the body juices were
extracted the search was resumed for another beetle. The flies were not abundant, and the observation was interesting mainly because it is the first instance we have to record where the adult beetles were destroyed by other insects.
lit has long since been the practice of some growers upon the appearance of the beetles to collect and destroy them. Simple hand picking is the method more commonly employed but a cheaper and more rapid way to do the work is to shake the beetles upon a cloth frame placed beneath the tree. This is especially efficient if the work is done during the first or second day following the emergence of the beetles, for at this time as previously stated the wing covers are stuck together and flight is impossible. The beetles are torpid during the early morning.
Concerning the newer remedial measures, we can scarcely say that the year has not been marked with progress, but our progress is of a nature which will scarcely benefit the grower. We have only succeeded in demonstrating that some of the remedies which have been suggested from time to time are not wholly effective. Generally speaking the investigations have been conducted along three lines: 1st. Laboratory tests with repellants intended to kill the grubs or to drive them from the roots.
2nd. Laboratory tests to determine the susceptibility of the adults to poisons.
3rd. Field tests with poisons to destroy, the adults.
In the laboratory work against the grubs, the insects were placed in pots or boxes containing soil, and water solutions of the following materials added in quantities sufficient to wet the soil but not to mechanically smother the grubs: Potash whale oil soap, lime, tobacco extract, creoline, kainit, common .,salt, kretol and crude carbolic acid. It is useless to ,enter into detail concerning the work as the results of the single experiment were more or less conflicting. Moreover the tests were made with grubs nearly full grown and we believe that the older grubs are
harder to kill than the younger ones. Ve may say however that present indications are against operations of this type.
In our laboratory tests with poisons the beetles were confined in cages with citrus leaves, and counts made of the dead beetles during regular intervals. Paris green at the rate of one pound to one hundred gallons, and arsenate of lead at the rate of three pounds and also six pounds to fifty gallons of water were the poisons used. Because of unforeseen difficulties this series of experiments as with the preceding was not as productive of results as we had anticipated and we only succeeded in determining that at least five or six 'days were required for the poisons to kill fifty percent of the beetles, while some individuals of the remaining fifty percent lived in confinement with poisoned food only, for three weeks or more; that no preference was made between poisoned and non-poisoned food and that no difference could be noticed betwen the killing power of the different poison solutions. During the present season we anticipate doing this, as well as the preceeding series of experiments along more exhaustive lines, eliminating as near as possible the difficulties which arose during the work of the past year.
Our field experiments have been conducted upon nursery stock and have demonstrated three points of interest, viz: 1st. That spraying with poisons cannot be relied upon to fully control the beetle. 2nd. That the ordinary spray mixtures of poisons, with difficulty adhere to the oily, growing shoots of citrus plants. 3rd. That knapsack sprayers are wholly
inadequate for nursery orchard spraying.
In closing the writer wishes to say that he fully realizes the limits of the present paper, that he has been unable to give specific directions for effecting the control of the insect under consideration. And he wishes to repeat that the blue-green beetle problem is the problem for the citrus grower of Cuba. It ranks parallel to the boll weevil problem of the southern states. And as it is now with the boll weevil, so it
seems that for some time hence the grower need not hope for a simple effective remedy for the blue-green beetle. The collecting of adults, encouragement of the birds, possibly spraying with poisons and the promoting of the general health of the trees are the best weapons of defense.
Dr. Ramsdell. In killing the beetle with the poison is there a danger of killing birds and chickens?
Houser. There would be no danger, because the beetles would contain such small amounts of poison, that it would have no effect on the birds or chickens.
Report of Standing Committee on
Insects and Diseases
BY PROF. WM. T. HORNE
Mr. President aind inembers of the Cuban National
Your committee begs to submit the following report for the year ending December 1908.
About the first half of the year under consideration was excessively dry in most parts of the island and especially in the western provinces, while the rainfall of the second half may be considered as normal. In Cuba, where the variations in temperature are not excessive, the variation in rainfall is the principal controlling factor in agricultural production. This is true mainly on account of the effect of moisture or drouth on the plants themselves, causing them to grow well or poorly and affecting their ability to resist their enemies, but also it is very markedly true on account of the effect of moisture or drouth on the plant diseases and insects themselves.
A few observations may be mentioned here which are not all new but which may be considered as normal and which it is apropriate to record in the transactions of this Society.
The Blue-green Beetle (Pachnaeus):-By all odds the most serious of citrus troubles now in Cuba, as for several years past, is the blue-green beetle, discussed by Mr. Houser in a paper prepared for
this meeting. The drouth has apparently not diminished the number of these beetles nor their injury, while it has prevented the injured trees from forming new roots rapidly. Many trees have been killed but many more have been stunted and have failed to respond to improved conditions, as yet, in a way to promise real recovery. The winter drouths greatly increase the seriousness of this pest and indicate that irrigation together with other intensive measures will be necessary to make the citrus industry a financial success.
Red spiders: -The mites known as red spiders suck the juices from foliage and give it a gray color. They are usually noticed in dry times and mostly disappear in times of heavy showers. During the ex.cessive drouths of the past two years probably all groves suffered considerably unless they had been treated with sulfur. While the injury caused is not liable ever to be of a disastrous nature apparently it will pay to spray with the sulfur preparations wherever the injury by these mites becomes evident during the winter or early spring. Where spraying is done for the rust mite the red spiders will be killed also.
It should be remembered that the rust mite is a different kind of mite from the red spiders. We do not know that it will pay to begin treatment for rust mite before the increase in value of the crop due to the treatment will justify the cost of the operation. What we have said about red spiders applies as much to nurseries and young trees as to those in bearing.
Rust mite: -The drouth of the early part of the past year accentuated the condition known as russet oranges until some fruit was entirely black. It appears that there is only a normal amount of russet fruit this season. Sulfur spraying is being done in some orchards and we understand that results are satisfactory considering that these sprays have only been used for two or three years in Cuba.
Apparently it is going to be necessary to spray all lemon and grape fruit orchards for rust mite as
well as the orchards of oranges intended for export. We do not know how many applications will be necessarv, and this will probably vary in different seasons and in different situations. The application of the dry powder while the trees are wet with dew, and the flours of sulfur with water and flour paste are the forms in which the applications have usually been made.
Scale insects: -Cuba is fortunate in posessing probably all or very nearly all of the seriously injurious scale insects which attack citrus trees. It is a curious fact that an insect in its native home or where it has lived long is not usually desperately injurious. This is because exceptional prosperity makes an insect exeptionaly liable to the attacks of its enemies. It appears to be precisely this principle which makes Cuba fortunate in the matter of scales. Cuba is full of the insects and fungi which destroy scale insects.
Four years and a half ago there was an abundance of the lorida white fly at the Cuban experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas. Today your comntittee could not agree to find a single living specimen in that neighborhood nor in any other part of the Island. At the same time all citrus and most ornamental plants at certain points (if not all) from Florida to New Orleans are as black as if they were in Pittsburgh from the white fly. Very recently the Experiment Station in Florida has turned its attention away from sprays of resin, soap and kerosene emulsion and cyanide fumigation and has been spraying the fungus diseases on to these white flies extensivelv enough to do some good. The results are very satisfactory.
There is probably not a five year old guava bush from Cape Maisi to Cape San Antonio which has not at some time been affected with a species of white fly closely related to the Florida white fly, and probably half of these affected bushes have been practically cleared by the same fungi which destroys the Florida white fly. Is it any wonder then that the Florida white fly has not prospered in Cuba?
But let us not be too hasty. There are several species of white fly and there are several species of fungi which destroy them we do not know exactly how many in Cuba.
The principal fungus which attacks the guava white fly in Cuba looks like the principal fungus (Aschersonia aleyrodis) which attacks the Florida white fly and the cottony white fly.
We do not know that it is the same fungus, nor is there any one who can tell us whether it is or not. We hope that our Experiment Station can give us this information in positive form at an early date. In the second place we know that there are two white flies which attack citrus trees in Cuba, the Florida white fly and the cottony white fly. We know that the white fly generally found on guava is not either of these but we do not know that either of the species found on orange may not also propagate sometimes on guavas.
Altogether it appears to be safe to say that the citrus grower in Cuba may ignore the white fly problem. However it should be done intelligently; and we do not recommend the introduction of trees infested with white fly or any other pest.
In previous years we have seen the long scale and the oyster shell scale destroyed in a sweeping manner by a gray fungus (Ophionectria coccicola) while during the latter part of the past summer we have seen the round black scale (frequently called the red scale or the Florida red scale, but which is not the red scale of California) attacked in a very effective manner by the red or flaming fungus (Sphaerostilbe coccophila). The round black scale is largely a leaf injuring pest and at the end of the recent drouth it had multiplied in a grove which we had examined so as to cause considerable alarm, but in September it was hard to find one of these scales which did not show the red flame shaped fruit of the fungus at one side.
During the drouth many trees were seriously injured and some killed by scale. We think we may
consider as thoroughly demonstrated now for Cuba that, generally speaking, citrus trees should be protected from serious injury by scale insects during the fall and winter (the dry season) by spraying or by other artificial means, while the natural enemies should be introduced if not already present and be given a free change during the summer (warm and wet season).
It is a general belief and it seems almost axiomatic that a vigorous tree with dense strong foliage, and especially one close to a wind brake, will be a better harbor for the enemies of the scales than a poor thin tree exposed to the rapid drying effect of the wind.
There are possible exceptions to this method just indicated for controlling scale insects. They are the large Cuban turtleback and the Chionaspis, or snow scale. The Cuban turtleback is apparently peculiar to Cuba and if uncontrolled is probably the most destructive of all the scale insects of Citrus trees, although its spread from tree to tree is slow. It has no lack of natural enemies but they are active mainly in spring and summer. Some females manage to hide about chinks in the bark or below the ground and produce young enough to do some harm before the natural enemies find them. What appears to be this identical scale lives on aguacate trees very abundantly and for this reason and on account of the bag worm it will probably not be advisable to plant aguacates and citrus trees near each other.
TheChionaspis or snow scale seems to be rather .exempt from natural enemies. We believe it will pay to keep a young grove entirely free from these two scales for as long as possible.
Orange borer (Apate carinelita) :-More frequent reports than formerly have come to us of injury in young citrus trees by the orange trunk borer, (Apate carmelita), a black beetle about one half inch long. Evidently the insect is brought to the nursery in stakes cut in 'the woods. It may bore into almost any stem from a mahogany sapling to a stem of gandul
or pigeon pea. It is not likely to be more than locally injurious. The insects should be removed with a wire or dug out and the wound closed with cement or putty.
A very small gray beetle has appeared at two places which eats the surface from leaves and fruit, causing bad scars. It has not yet been indentified.
Scab of lemons grape fruit etc.: Scab is one of the diseases which we fear has not received its share of attention. Some very badly scabbed lemons and grape fruits have been sent in to the Experiment Station during the year. It is the disease which causes the warty deformities on young sour orange plants. Lemons should be planted in blocks and in positions as isolated as possible from other citrus fruits which are susceptible to scab, as sour oranges, citron, grape fruit, and Satsuma. It will probably not be necessary to spray grape fruits, but the loss may be considerable if they are near the other susceptible varieties of citrus trees.
Gummosis or foot rot: Our attention was called to a very fine small nursery in Pinar del Rio Province budded on sour stock which was attacked seriously during the past summer by gummosis. The chairman of this committee was unable to visit the nursery, but excellent specimens were sent him. Fire ants were very abundant also and were apparently carrying the disease from one plant to another in addition to injuring the plants by biting. At the suggestion of Prof. Earle the bases of the trees were wet with a 5% solution of creoline. The owner of the nursery reported that the treatment was entirely satisfactory both for the gummosis and for the ants. This suggestion is well worthy of note by every citrus planter in Cuba.
Your committee considers that the most fundamentally important question in connection with the health and success of citrus trees in Cuba is; what are the most suitable soils and what ones should be avoided.
For further information concerning citrus troub-
les in Cuba the reader is referred to the two preceeding volumes of the Proceedings of this Society and to Bulletin No. 9 of the Estaci6n Central Agron6mica at Santiago de las Vegas.
Your committee has very little that is different to report from the troubles discussed in the proceedings of this society for last year and in Bulletin No. 12 of the Experiment Station. The chairman of the committee has taken much interest in studying the plants. However it must be admitted that very little progress has been make in methods of treating the leaf spot, fruit rot and stem rot. These troubles are not entirely avoided but considerable vigor is given to the plant by budding on the wild Solanum (Sola nitm torvurn) or pendejera. This is practicable for securing a few fruits in summer for home use and the best variety which we have seen is the large white one.
A lace wing or small sucking insect became very bad on some plants last summer but it is easily killed by a careful spraying with a whale oil soap solution as strong as the plants will stand with complete safety about twelve or fifteen pounds of potash whale oil soap to fifty gallons of water. The egg plant seems to, have little resistance or power of recovery from unfavorable conditions and the leaf spot and fruit rot which we have observed, especially in the lighter soils, could only be treated by giving the necessary water and fertilizing from the start.
The insects and diseases of tobacco have been much as reported in Bulletin No. 1 of the Cuban Experiment Station, excepting that there has been very little harm from the primavera or horn worm.
As during the proceeding year there was much
damage during the early part of the season from the tobacco split worm.
Mr. J. S. Houser has prepared an article on this insect which is soon to be published in the report of the Experiment Station.
A serious wilt disease has appeared in foreign varieties, but the Cuban tobacco does not suf fer from this trouble apparently at all, so that no alarm need be felt.
Collins. -There is one question I -would like to ask Prof. Home and that is what per cent, of crioline he uses.
Patterson. -I1 would like to ask Prof. Home if any fungus on scale that he speaks of, ever become enemies of the tree ?
Horne. As far as we know none of the f ungus diseases preying on the scale insects, attack the orange tree.
Nl enricksen. -Have the natural conditions anything to do with keeping the scale in check?
Horne. It was suggested but not dwelt upon in the paper, that the moisture and temperature arc the conditions that cause this fungi to propagate and when the season is very dry, you will not have any successful propagation of this fungi but when the season is humid and you have an abundance of rain, the fungi, if they get a start, -will be detrimental to the scale.
Patterson. -I would like to ask Prof. Horne if the cultivation will have any effect on the blue green beetle 1
Horne. -That is a question I cannot answer. The blue green beetle is a new thing to the orange man, and while cultivation was supposed to be a benefit, I1 cannot say that it is or not.
H. C. Burnett. Does the blue green beetle feed on any plant besides the orange tree?
Home. We have tried the experiment of giving them different things and I do not remember anything the beetles would not eat.
BY PROF C. F. AUSTIN
The pineapple, Ananas sativus Schult., is a native of tropical Am6rica. It has been grown for many years for home use and the local markets, but it is of comparitively recent commercial importance.
The principal pineapple section of this island is in the red lands of Havana Province and extends from Marianao to Artemisa. The industry is rapidly spreading and reaching out of the red lands into the loamy soils of Pinar del Rio Province and to parts of eastern Cuba.
The red lands, while deep and heavy, are very open and porous, and drain easily. The water passes through them almost as easily as through sand. In their virgin state, most of these lands were very rich, but by long continued use and exhaustive methods of cultivation, much of the red land has become worn out and will have to be restored by modern methods of agriculture.
The laomy soils in many sections are giving good results in pineapple culture.
Preparation of the soil. In the preparation of the soil it should be plowed and harrowed to a fine mellow condition just as for any other crop, such as corn. With new land the work of preparing should begin several months before planting time, so as to have the soil well subdued.
Systems of culture. There are two systems of culture used in this country, the ridge row system and the bed. In heavy lands the ridge row system is practically the only one used. The rows are laid off 5 feet apart and then ridged up from 10 to 18 inches into a low, broad, rounded form. The rows are then
cut into sections from 25 to 40 feet long by openings which cross them; this is to give drainage. From 30 to 33 plants are set to a 25-f oot section of the row. It is a coinnon custom to place 3 plants at each end of each section and the rest in a single row on top of the ridge.
With the bed system the planting is done in rows on the level, with the plants from 18 to 24 inches apart each way; there are from 3 to 8 rows in a bed, the usual number being 4. An opening or strip of land from four to five feet wide is left and then another bed is set out, and so on until the land is full. Cross walks or openings of from 3 to 4 feet are left at every 100 to 200 feet so as to make it easy to get out the fruit and work among the plants. The beds are kept clean by hand cultivation. The walks are cultivated with a horse. I have seen the bed system used on a small scale in the red lands and my observation has been that it is equal if not superior to the ridge row system. It is also very much more economical. This system is the only one used in light, loamy1 soils.
. \ Tith the ridge row system all of the work has to bc done by hand. The plantations are gone over 4 to 6 times a year to cut out weeds and keep the ridges i shape. Akll of the red lands that have a good depth andl bottom drainage are suitable for the bed method ot planting, and it is doubtful if heavy lands of any other type should be planted to pineapples.
Fertilization. Very little is thus f ar known of pineapple fertilization, but it is certain that, to obtain success, fertilizers will have to be used. The Florida Experiment Station, after a, long series of experiments, made the following recommendations as to materials for fertilizers. For the phosphoric acid, finely ground, steamed bone gave the best results; bone meal and slag phosphate also gave good satisfaction. Nitrogen from dried blood and that from cotton seed meal were rated highest, and the potash from both high and low grade sulfate of potash gave the best results.
The formula which proved most satisfactory was a mixture of 5%l nitrogen, 45 available phosphoric acid, and 10%7 potash.
About a tablespoonful of cottonseed meal in the bud of young plants is also used.
This formula from Florida has also given good results in Porto IRico.
In this country, use the mixture at the rate of 500 to 1,500 pounds per acre according to soil conditions, giving it in 2 applications per year, the first just before the spring rains commence and the second just before the rains stop in the fall. It is also a good plan to give a light application of fertilizer when the plants are set out.
Plants for setting. -There are two kinds of settings, the criollas, or suckers, and the coronas or slips. The suckers are large, strong plants from 12 to 20 inches long. They are borne in the axils of the leaves and, when left to grow, produce a fruit. When these plants are set during March and April they will produce a small crop in from 12 to 14 months. The slips are smaller plants running from 6 to 12 inches long. They are borne on the top of the fruit stem just below the base of the fruit. In cutting fruit it is usually necessary to break off one or more of the slips. They are ready to remove and set out any time after August. The plants set during August and September will bear in .18 months.
Planting and cultivation. The plants should be set very carefully, taking pains to see that the leaves at the base are brought up close and tight to the main stem. Set from 2 to 4 inches in the soil, according to size of the plant, and be sure to make the soil firm around them. Be very careful not to get dirt into the crown or the axils of the leaves.
The pineapple field should have very caref ul attention as to hoeing and keeping down of weeds, for pineapples will not do their best when grass and weeds are left to grow around them.
Harvesting. In the harvesting of pineapples, very careful work is required, especially in the hand-
ling of the crop from the field to the packing house. The proper stage of ripeness is known by the color of the fruit and the development of the individual eyes. During March and early April the pines should be left on the plant until they just begin to show traces of color. The eyes should be fully developed. As the season advances they should be cut a little greener. There is absolutely no reason for cutting the fruit in the unripe condition in which much of it leaves this country.
Pick the fruit very carefully, using a sharp knife and cutting the stem just below the base of the fruit and above the slips. One or two slips will have to be removed in order to get the fruit. When cutting, two persons are needed, one to carry the basket to receive the fruit and another to do the cutting. Place in each basket what one person can handle easily. They should not be touched from the time they are cut until they are taken out and put onto the packing benches. In the pineapple regions I have seen 40 to 50 bushels of pineapples placed loose in an ox cart with two or three men riding on top of the fruit, wicih was hauled several miles to the packing house. Good fruit should never be handled in this way. It should be transported from field to packing house in small baskets and on light, smoothly running spring wagons.
Sorting and packing. -The sorting and packing is done by hand. In sorting, a person soon learns to tell at a glance to which size a fruit belongs. Th6 fruit is sorted into sizes to fill the standard pineapple crate, which holds 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, or 48 fruits, according to the grade. 18s to 36s are the most profitable sizes to grow.
In packing, each fruit is carefully wrapped in a sheet of light brown paper, 15 by 18 inches. Soine growers have the brand, name of grower, etc., printed upon the paper. The fruit must he packed very ,closely into the crates so that it will not move from the time it is put into the crate until it is unpacked. The top should be carefully nailed on, the number of
fruits to the crate marked on the end, and the person to whom it is shipped the address, etc., plainly marked on the crate.
The Florida Experiment Station gives the following packing diagram:
Package of 18 fruits, 3 layers of 3 each in each end of crate.
Package of 24 fruits, 3 layers of 4 each in each end of crate.
Package of 30 fruits, 3 layers of 5 each in each end of crate.
Package of 36 fruits, 3 layers of 6 each in each end of crate.
Package of 42 fruits, 3 layers of 7 each in each end of crate.
Package of 48 fruits, 3 layers of 8 each in each end of crate.
The first layers should be placed in the crate with the crowns away from the packer, the second with the crowns reversed, and the third like the first.
There are many different ways to build packing houses, but two points should be kept in mind, convenience and plenty of room. People cannot -work to advantage when they are too crowded.
Productive life of field. -A pineapple field in this country with good care will give from four to five crops without replanting. The size and yield of fruits depends very much upon the care, especially as the plants grow old. The first crop is usually smaller than the second and third, while the fourth is about equal to the first. The production of suckers and slips runs in about the same way.
Season of crop. Some pineapples are produced the whole year around, but the principal fruiting season is from March to July. The earlier the crop the better, for very often the losses are heavy late ini the season after it becomes warm and wet. The time of fruiting, size of fruits, etc., depends very much upon the care of the plantation, quantity of rain, etc. During the very dry seasons the crop is short and the fruit small.
Varieties. -The Red Spanish is the variety to grow for the export trade. For the local markets the Sugar Loaf is best. In the home garden one should have Golden Queen, Smooth Cayenne, Charlotte Rothchild, Sugar Loaf, and Red Spanish.
Crate. The size of the standard pineapple crate is 12 inches wide, 101/2 inches deep, and 36 inches long. It is usually made of pine and the following material is required for a crate: 2 heads, 12 by 101/_9 by 11/,S inches; 1 partition, 12 by 101/2 by 13/8 or 17/8 inches; S slats, 41/2 by 5/16 by 36 inches.
Crates of other sizes are sometimes used by growers who are selling fancy large fruits.
Shipping rates, duty, etc. The shipping rates, duty, etc., as based on New-York City, are about as follows per crate. -Cost of crate, paper, nailing, ,etc., $0-30; lighterage, $0-03; freight from Havana to New York, $0-35; and cartage, $0-05; duty is $0-07 per cubic foot for shipments in crates and $7-00 per thousand pineapples in bulk. This makes the duty about $0-16 per standard crate. To these charges must be added the freight from point of shipment to Havana, brokerage, consular invoice, and commission on sales. The entire cost is from $1-00 to $1-25 per crate laid down in New York City. The charges to other points are in about the same proportion, considering distances, etc.
Cost of producing the crop. The estimated cost of preparing the land, planting, and caring for plantations is as follows:
Plowing, harrowing, planting, etc., per acre
about $ 40-00
Plants, per acre about . . . . 1 30-00
First cost per acre. . $ 70-00 Cultivating, hoeing, etc., per acre, per year ,1 30-00
Yield of plantation. A good average yield from a plantation in this country is from 100 to 150 crates per acre, per year, or from 400 to 600 crates during the 4 years it is in fruit.
The number of plants that can be sold is f rom 400 to 500 dozen during the life of the plantation.
The selling price of the fruit is very changeable, being all the way from $1-25 up to $3-0O or $4-GO per crate, according to season, size and condition of fruit, etc. The commercial production of pineapples is considered a very good business, however, taken one year with an other.
The selling price of plants varies a good deal with the supply and the demand. For the past few years plants have been scarce and high, running from $60-GO to $90-GO per thousand dozen, this being the count by which they are sold in Cuba.
A pineapple grower reports the following as the yield from a nine acre field. The plants were set in September, 1900.
First crop (1902). ..1,400 crates.
Second crop (1903) . . 1,600 Third crop (1904). ..1,600
Fourth crop (1905). MOO100
This gives a production of 5,600 crates from the
9 acres during the life of the field.
During the first crop there were no plants produced to sell; the second an 'd third crop together gave 500 dozen per acre and the fourth crop a very few.
A good deal of fruit is sold locally and the price runs from $1-0O to $1-20*per crate delivered in Havana or from $0-10 to $0-20 per dozen pineapples in the field.
Exportation. -The exportation of 'pineapples, from Havana to the different ports of the United States from Jan. 1, 1907 to Nov. 30, 1907, by month was as follows:
January. .......3,909 crates.
February .. ......4,803
March .. .......13,122 7
April .. ......65,201
May .. .......297,790
June .........234779 ,
July. .. ......15,570
September. .. .....2,205
October. .......4,213 1
Total for 11 months ... 768,862 crates.
Notes on the growing of large pines on loamy soils and recommendation in. connection, with the handling of plants and fruit. *
An essential to succes is the careful and thorough Preparation and subsequent cultivation of the soil.
Choose land that will drain naturally.
If convenient to the lay of the land, have the beds run from east to west. If planted from north to south the outside row of pines on the west side will be liable to sun scald.
Plowing. -1. Turn over the land with a breaker plow in the fall.
2. Break it up thoroughly with a disc harrow in the spring just as soon as sufficient rain has fallen to render it mellow.
3. Next use a disc plow, regulating depth of cut by the strength of your mules, i. e., plow as deeply as you conveniently can.
4. Harrow a second time with the disc machine following this up with a spike tooth harrow having the teeth turned flat so as to break up the clods and level the ground without tearing out grass roots.
5. Clean your field of all sticks and stones.
6. Plow again to full depth of disc plow.
7. Harrow thoroughly as before with disc and spike tooth implements.
* These notes were kindly prepared by Mr. A. E. Orr of Taco Taco.
Mr. Orr has made a success of pineapples in a loamy soil which until recently would have~ been considered unfit for their culture and his recommendations form a valuable addition to this circular which, in the main, has treated of the methods and conditions of pineapple production in the red lands.
8. Clean fields once more.
9. Level ground with a palm log.
10. Plow into beds.
The plowing into beds may be done (a) by means of a double mouldboard plow, driving it along lines which mark the center of the spaces between the projected beds and drawing the earth to the center of the bed by means of a cotton hoe or rake; or (b) by means of a disc plow, running twvo furrows down a line marking the center of the bed and them throwing the first furrow back over the second and continuing this reversing of the plow until the desired width of bed is attained. Afterwards smooth of f with an acme or spike tooth harrow.
Setting out. In the opinion of the -writer the best and most economical way of planting pines is in beds 6 or 7 feet wide with four rows of pines to each bed, and the plants set out eigteen inches apart each way. From experience he has proved that when this mode of planting is followed and the cultivation is properly attended to, the pines will be as large as when the plants are set more widely apart.
1. Commence setting out as early in June as you can procure slips of good size, i. e. not less than eight inches long, taking care to stipulate in your purchase contract that all plants which do not come up to this standard will be rejected. Also have your slips delivered in sacks and you will save money by reducing their loss to a minimum and by facilitating their distribution in the field.
2. Allow as little time as possible to elapse betweenr taking slips off the parent plant and setting them out.
3. Before planting, trim the callous end of the slip with a sharp knife and pull off the leaves which cover the root nodules at base of same; this will materially hasten its growth.
4. Press the soil firmly around the plant after putting it one quarter of its length into the ground.
Cultivation. This consists in keeping the beds
and the spaces between them free from weeds at all times.
Use the scuffle hoe for the beds and work always from the outside. No walking on or crossing the beds (except what is unavoidable at time of planting) should be permitted.
(2) Picking and packing. 1. Try to get your experience as to when and how to cut from an expert, in the field, by ocular demonstration.
2. Remember that one pine, size 24, is worth from 20 to 40 slips and do not try to save slips at the expense of pines by cutting too close to the fruit and damaging it.
3. Handle pines just as little as possible between picking and packing.
4. The cutter must lay the fruit carefully in a basked or on the ground. No dropping or throwing about can be tolerated either in the field or in the packing house. See to this yourself.
5. Have springs on all your wagons.
6. If possible allow pines cut after 10 A. M. to cool in the packing house until 1 P. M. and those cut during the afternoon to cool over night. By teaching the field f oree how to work in the packing house this can be managed.
7. Have your pines packed like sardines in a box, every row solid. Small sizes must not be laid flat, but with the crowns inclining upwards so as to bring the top row high enough to project slightly above the crate. No movement of the fruit should be possible inside a closed crate even when it is subjected to rough handling.
S. Buy the best crate material you can get. It is not economical to purchase poor stuff at a low price.
9. Utilize the faultier slabs' for the sides of the crate, where least pressure comes.
10. Do not economize nails when nailing up. See that all crates leave in perfect shape. A little extra trouble and expense in making them secure will repay itself handsomely.
Pineapple Culture in Cuba
BY JOSE MIGUEL TRUJILLO
At the time of the discovery of Cuba, the first settlers arriving on the Island found among other plants in the tropical flora one noteworthy for its graceful and vigorous aspect and producing a fruit of a most delicious flavor. This plant, indigenous to the Antilles, was known to the Indians by the name of Anan~is and may have been cultivated by them, although we do not know of its being cultivated extensively until the beginning of the last century.
This fruit, the rich and beautiful pineapple, was first found growing wild, but always vigorous and healthy. As it became better known it was cultivated in a primitive way in the surroundings of Havana until about 1860 when more interest was taken in its cultivation.
According to old pineapple growers, the first plants were cultivated in Barcos (a plantation near Luyan6) and also in Bataba:n6, later on it was extended to Santiago de las Vegas and Santa Maria del Rosario. But its cultivation was not taken up extensively util 1865 when the first plantings were made in the neighborhood of Punta Brava, Havana Province. This place was found well adapted to pineapple culture and as there were no centrals and the land not being well suited for tobacco the pineapples were given careful attention. The cultural methods employed there were those, which with slight modification, are still used in Cuba.
Of varieties we have two, one of which is the Blanca or Habana, Anansa Sativa and the other Morada or Cuba, Anansa Cubense. The Blanca is handsomer and better shaped than the Morada, is of
a finer flavor and more fragrant, has less acid and does not leave a burning sensation in the mouth after mastication, but perhaps on account of these qualities the culture of it is more difficult. The plant is not as vigorous and healthy as the Morada and the fruit is of poorer keeping quality. This variety, reputed to have been introduced from Porto Rico, was the first one extensively cultivated here, but as it did not keep well when exported it was consumed largely in Havana where the other class of pineapple has never been liked.
Later on, the Morada or Red Spanish, became inore generally known. This is distinguished from the other variety by being shorter and thicker and to a less extent conical shaped. It is more acrid and less aromatic than the other, but keeps a long time after maturity and for this quality it is especially prefered for exportation. Therefore at the present time the Red Spanish is the variety mostly cultivated and the production of the Blanco does not at present amount to 5%.
In selecting a soil the Cuban pineapple grower chooses one of the red clay type, being free from noxious weeds. They always avoid loose soils which they call polvillo, and prefer those containing a certain amount of gravel. Black soils are not well liked for pineapple planting although they give very good plants during the first and second years, but the field rarely lasts more than four years. As a rule virgin soils are preferable but in choosing a pineapple soil it should also be considered whether the land will grow bananas, beans, corn or such crops, which can be planted between the beds and which are of great value to the grower. For example, red sandy soils are very good for pines but often discarded because of being no good for bananas. Soils containing noxious weeds are too costly to cultivate and fields becoming too weedy often have to be abandoned for this reason.
There are many ways in preparing the soils, for in this as well as in many other things each farmer has his own ideas and prepares the ground according
to his particular method. Some prepare the soil- six or eight months before planting while others prepare it two months before, but of course this depends chiefly on the condition of the soil and the weather. The land should be plowed from four to six times and allowed to lay long enough between each plowing to break up the clods and destroy the weeds.
The land is.given the final preparation immediately before planting, levelled and laid off in rows about two varas apart, the rows being ten varas long. These distances of course vary, some planters make their beds eleven to twelve varas but the ten vara bed is the one most generally used.
The pineapple plants for propagation are found either on the base of the stem of the old plant, in which case they are called rattoons, or on the base of the fruit when they are called slips. These plants differing from each other gives rise to the two kinds of planting, that which is called slip plantings and which produces a large fruit within eighteen months, and that which is called sucker planting which produces a smaller fruit but bears in twelve to fourteen months. The suckers are planted in March or April while the slips are not planted before August and the small late formed suckers not before October and November.
Many pineapple growers plant the slips in heavy soils and the rattoons in lighter soils, basing their reason for doing so on the fact that the latter takes root easier and therefore pines give best results in that soil.
Once the pineapple is planted it needs no more attention except to clean out the weeds, but that is the most expensive part of the cultivation. Pineapple fields need five to six hoeings per year and if very grassy ten to twelve times may be necessary, especially in rainy seasons. This work is paid for at so much per bed, the price varying from two to five cents per bed, according to the amount of grass.
* A vara is 33 inches,
Formerly when the fruit and slips commanded fabulous prices great care was taken in cleaning, often using a mason's trowel to place the earth around the plant, but that will not pay at present prices.
Sometimes beans and corn are planted in the rows between the pineapples, which if planted in September will be ready to harvest in December, after which melons and bananas can be planted. The bananas are not desirable in the pine beds especially in years of drouth but they recompense for the harmi done as the cost of weeding is less.
The duration of the pineapple field varies a great deal, as it depends on the conditions of the soil, but the usual time is from four to six years. In many plantations near Punta Brava they have lasted even 14 years, which is thought to be the maximum time. In soils which are not well suited for the pineapple, sometimes only one crop can be gathered and the pines are of poor quality,which results in great losses.
In abnormal years, the pineapple is of a dark green color. The plant grows until the budding period begins, when the leaves turn slightly yellow, and the center or point from which the stem is to come forth, become a reddish color, which it losses once the fruit has been gathered. The budding period usually begins in November or December and is four months in developing the full grown fruit, which may take a month to ripen on the plant, if the rains, which precipitate the ripening, are not very frequent. The years of heavy rains are prejudicial to the pine, for they not only retard the budding but also give a smaller fruit. However, this is preferable to years of drought, when the plants suffer and the fruit is small although sweeter and firmer.
The first year's crop, or the crop called "plant crop" is the most prolific, but the second year has the advantage that many of the plants have reproduced new suckers, which when grown, are so many more plants, increasing the number already planted.
As a rule a large plant produces a la-rge fruit.and
vice versa, and it is on this principle that buyers base their calculations as to how many pineapples may be obtained in one crop from a pineapple field, and what results their purchase will give them.
Planters nearly always sell before the fruits have bloomed by the aid of these calculations, which can be made very exact, and the gathering, sorting and packing of the fruit remains to the expense of the shippers or exporters.
The gathering of the fruit is now done very carefully so as not to damage it. It is taken out of the field in baskets or on horseback and at the road loaded into carts waiting to convey them to the packing house. The gathering of the fruits is a work which requires some skill as it is not easy to become accustomed to the spines of the plants and above all it is not easy to judge which are the pines that should be cut and those that are to be left. In order to make the complete gathering of a pineapple field it must be gone over several times so as to cut the fruit at the proper stage of ripeness.
The fruits are so placed in the cart that they will not be damaged, and they are unloaded with the same care at the packing house where they are sorted according to sizes and quality: tender, ripe, bruised, over ripe, etc.
They are then wrapped and packed properly for export.
We should like to enter into other important particulars concerning the culture of the pineapple. not only as to the work of the fields and the labor of packing but also as to the cost of planting per square and the expense of packing and the better methods by which this could be done, but we have already taken up too much space in this paper, which is only a superficial resumen of this interetsing subject and we do not wish to tire the attention of the audience.
During the last few years the culture of the pineapple has taken great strides in Artemisa and vicinity where it is a great source of wealth, while at Punta Brava the industry is declining.
Report on Pineapples
BY GEO. W. MACE
The pineapple culture in and around Candelaria and San Crist6bal has made rapid strides during the past five years. Starting with eleven acres five years ago and now reaching 350 acres. Seventy five acres were planted to pines during the last year.
Our last season's crop was not as good or as large as previous years but even then it was fair. The sizes were amaller owing to the long drought. The. prospects for a large planting during the coming season is very promising. Some are now contractig for slips to be delivered in July, August and September. Both Americans and Cubans are engaging in the industry.
The Red Spanish for the foreign market is planted mostly. The sweet variety sells well in the home market but the consumption is very limited.
We have several methods of planting. The single (antero system where 30 plants are planted on one cantero, the Cuban method. Then the single row system and the bedding system. In the single row system, the plants are put in straight rows four to five feet apart. In the bedding system, the plants are put in beds of four or five rows to the bed. The pines seem to thrive equally as 'well in one method as in another, other things being equal.
The question of cost of cultivation in the above mentioned methods has not been thoroughly tested as yet. In the single cantero system, the Cuban hoe is the only implement used while in the single row system many are using the cultivator to good advantage, while in the bedding system the scuffle hoe may be used if taken in time and applied systematically.
We have found it very profitable to prepare the
land thoroughly before planting. Three plowings have proven to be more economical than less. The first plowing shallow and the last two very deep. The final plowing, if done just previous to seeding, aids greatly in the putting in of the slips.
We have used the reversible disk harrow in putting up the canteros and found it both useful and economical.
Our locality has planted the Red Spanish for foreign trade. Our local trade is very small and although it calls for the sweet varieties we 'do not find it of sufficient magnitude to plant the other varieties.
The fertilizer question is being discussed and practiced by some to good advantage. By a judicious application of fertilizer an earlier and larger apple may be produced. We have not given the attention to intensive cultivation that the pine needs but the tendencies are towards more and better methods.
The handling of the fruit after the crop has been grown has not had the attention that it should have had and in somecases poor results have been realized. The apple is very tender and is ,easily bruised during the gathering.
Our present selling system is not as satisfactory as it might be as we have been selling blindly and paying into the other fellow's hand but the future looks brighter as some of the firms are offering deposits per crate on the coming crop and a few are buying in the field.
The cost of getting our product to the market needs some looking after and we are in hopes of obtaining these results through our combined efforts in our Horticultural Society and its worthy committees.
Report on the Progress of the Fruit
and Vegetable Industry in
the Province of Santiago de Cuba
BY THOMAS R. TOWNS
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Society:
I beg to report to the Society that never in my experience have I found it so difficult to get together anything like a report upon a subject.: The Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable Ivdustry in the Province of Santiago de Cuba.
I have written to at least 12 of the most important places asking that I be furnished for my report an approximately correct acreage of the fruit and vegetable plantings in their vicinity etc. Two of the places responded, telling me of their own as individuals and suggesting that I could get their neighbors' planting by personal correspondence.
I herewith submit figures which I think are approximately correct, and beg of the Society to accept same as my best effort.
The acreage given applies to citrus fruit as there are no vegetables grown for export, and as yet very little fruit is exported, most of it is used at home at very profitable prices, the cane field laborers, as well as the best Cubans, are our patrons and give promise of a consumption never dreamed of. They willingly pay from 75 cents to $2-00 per 100, gold, for our Tangerines, Kings and Navals, which is a surprise when they can buy the Chinas at 40 to 50 cents per 100.
As best I can judge the acreage is as follows:
Nipe Bay and vicinity .... Bayate .................
Pasa Estancia ..........
H olguin ................
G ibara .................
Las Tunas ..............
B artle ..................
4,000 acres. 200 100 125 100 50 50 500 200 500
This acreage will be increased quite a good deal during the coming spring, at a number of the places named.
As a rule the planter is taking care of his grove and promises well for the future.
I have just been assured that Omaja is to have a starch factory, cannery and preservery during this
-coming fall. Other colonies are contemplating similar additions.
While the land companies as a rule are somewhat more prosperous than the average colonist, he is in
-very good shape and satisfied.
Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable
Industry in the Western Part of the Province of Santiago de Cuba
BY E. C. PIERSON
To the Cuban National Horticultural Society:
I take pleasure in reporting to the Society something of the increasing interest in the growing of citrus fruits in the western part of the Oriente Provinee along the line of the Cuba Central R. R.
The colony of Bartle has several hundred acres, Las Tunas several hundred acres and at Omaja, of which I can speak more particularly, they have four hundred acres already and are preparing to increase their plantings the coming spring.
The soil at Omaj a is neither heavy clay nor sandy, but is rather a dark loam, with some sand and the subsoil is a yellowish clay with sand, which is not a hardpan and does not leach out, but a good water reservoir.
The groves so far are promising as good practical men are looking after them and are growers of some experience in the work.
We have had but little appearance of the citrus fruit enemies but expect to come in for our share of them, but hope by profiting by the experience of others who have done the fighting, to steer clear of the rocks, even if we run onto others.
Besides the growing of oranges there are planted some 200 acres of yucca to be manufactured into starch and more than one ton of tomatoes were shipped to other markets as well as 12 to 15 cars of corn.
The first colonist came to Omaja less than three years ago.
The Progress of the Fruit and
in Matanzas Province
BY D. H. HOWELL
Mr. President and fellow members:
I beg to submit the following as the result of my efforts to obtain information on the subject assigned to me.
I estimate that there are now growing and producing fruit in Matanzas Province, about forty thousand native sweet seedling oranges, ranging in age from ten to 100 years. These trees, with few exceptions, have had very little care. Most of them are entirely too close together and the limbs are badly interlapped and full of dead wood. In spite of this condition, they go on producing fair crops of delicious fruit year after year.
There are about ten thousand budded orange and grapefruit trees planted within the last few years, of which perhaps five thousand are beginning to bear. In this province the Ceiba Mocha district is in the lead in the production of citrus fruits and in the superior quality of the fruit. This applies both to the native seedling trees and the budded fruit. Some of the native oranges are far superior to a great many varieties of budded fruit. Not only are they superior in quality but they are wonderfully prolific even so badly neglected as most of them have been.
The greatest enemy of the native sweet seedling orange seems to be foot-rot, and that can be largely avoided by budding these seedlings into sour stocks and planting in proper soil.
Practically all the citrus fruit trees in this Provice are planted in the red and chocolate soils. Some are on land entirely free from rock, but a great many of the older trees are on land that is quite stony, but the rock is generally of a loose formation with plenty of deep pockets of soil for the roots. In nearly all of the old groves coffee has been planted under the orange trees and is producing well.
Up to the present time, the greater portion of the fruit has been sold to the native buyers on the trees. for a lump sum or at so much per thousand.
The last few years the price on the tree has ranged from f our to eight dollars Spanish gold per thousand. Of course the distance from R. R. station makes a difference in the price. The fruit is picked from the trees and loaded into the large Cuban carts in bulk. After bumping over the rough roads to the R. IR. station it is loaded into the cars in bulk for Havana. Of course fruit handled in this manner is not fit for export. Within the past f ew years, a f ew of the groves planted by Americans are coming into bearing, and a little fruit is being properly handled and has brought good prices in the Northern markets.
Nearly all sections -of the Province have lands well adapted to the production of bananas and plantains and the Matanzas market is kept well supplied with these fruits.
The principal vegetable industry of this Province seems to be confined to the immediate vicinity of the city of Matanzas, in the valley of the San Juan and Yumari rivers. The soil is generally black along these rivers, and the lay of the land and the ample fall of the water makes it quite easy to irrigate these lands, and this has been done to considerable extent for many years. The principal crops raised are: Irish
potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, egg plant and lettuce.
The average crop (or two crops) per year, of Irish potatoes is about thirty thousand barrels, and of onions about five thousand bushels.
It is hard to make any estimate on the crop of other vegetables which are all sold in the -Matanzas market. The bulk of the Irish potatoes and onions are sold in Matanzas and nearby towns, but at times shipments are made to the States. Two crops of Irish potatoes are raised during the fall and winter months. The other crops are scattered along through the year.
Under the heading of fruits 11 made no mention of the numerous native fruits which are in great abundance all over the Province. I did not mention pineapples as I understand that one of our members who understands the business was assigned to that subject.
Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable
Industry in the Province of
Pinar del Rio
BY E. W. HALSTEAD
As Vice President for the Province of Pinar del Rio I have been requested to prepare a paper on the above named subject, and to do this, and to show as accurately as possible, the conditions which prevail at present, in the province, I have been in correspondence with many of its representative growers, all of whom I wish to thank at this time for their hearty cooperation, and from their replies to my inquiries the following data is compiled:
In Artemisa there are about 100 acres in citrus fruits, with no new plantings during the past year; five acres in vegetables, viz: tomatoes and peppers, in the district from here to and including Guanajay, immense quantities of pineapples are grown, but accurate data as to acreage has not been obtainable.
Bahia Honda has 2,830 acres in citrus groves; no vegetables are grown here.
Candelaria has 25 acres in citrus fruits; no new plantings. Vegetables about the same as last year; 40 acres; principally tomatoes, peppers, egg plant
and okra. Also 40 acres in pineapples, 25 acres of these were planted in 1908.
In San Crist6bal the total citrus planting will approximate 320 acres, 5 acres of which are newly set. About 70 acres are planted in vegetables this year, which is about half the acreage of last year. The varieties mostly planted are tomatoes, peppers, egg plant and squash.
35 acres of pines have been set the past season, making a present total of 110 acres.
In Taco Taco 70 acres of new groves are reported, making a total of 350 acres in this locality. Also 150 acres in vegetables, which is about the same as last season. Tomatoes, peppers, onions and egg plant are the varieties mostly planted.
Los Palacios reports a total of 500 acres in citrus fruits, 80 acres of which have been planted within the last year. No vegetables are grown here.
PASO REAL DE SAN DIEGO
Paso Real de San Diego has 362 acres in citrus groves and 50 acres more being planted; 21/2 acres in cabbage and peppers; 12 acres of pineapples and 40 acres more being set.
In Herradura 163 acres of trees have been set in the past year, bringing the total citrus plantings in this colony up to 827 acres, and many more to be planted this season.
There are about 70 acres in vegetables, principally tomatoes, peppers, squash and cucumbers.
There is also a large acreage of tobacco.
CONSOLACi6X DEL SUR
Consolacion del Sur has 280 acres in citrus fruits, 27 acres of which were planted during 1908.
40 acres of pineapples were also planted during the year. No vegetables grown.
PINAR DEL RIO
Pinar del Rio reports no progress in fruit planting; 85 acres of citrus fruits; no vegetables grown. A large acreage in tobacco.
Ocean Beach reports a total citrus planting to date of 500 acres, 100 acres of which are new groves. No vegetables grown except for local use.
The tobacco acreage is much larger than last year and the colony will produce this year 1,200 to 1,500 bales of tobacco.
Recapitulation gives a present approximate acreage in the different localities as follows:
A rtem isa ............... 100 ..........
Bahia Honda ........... 2,830 ..........
Candelaria .............. 25 ..........
San Crist6bal ........... 320..........
Taco Taco .............. 350 ........
Los Palacios ............ 500 ..........
P aso R eal .............. 362 ..........
H erradura .............. 927 ..........
Consolaci6n del Sur ...... 280 ..........
Pinar del Rio ........... 85 ..........
Ocean Beach ............ 500 ..........
40 70 150
0 0 0
6,279 .......... 3371/2
Making a total acreage in the Province of 6,279 citrus and 337 / vegetable plantings.
Drouth is considered by many as the chief cause reasons given I quote: "Unreliable and inexperienced labor". "Want of care in handling and packing of fruit and vegetables". "Poor seed". "Poor markets". "Unfavorable political conditions also financial troubles". "Trying to do too much and consequently not attending to, any one crop well ". "Lack of irrigation". "Trusting to Providence to bring about rain at just the time to suit us".
Then as to the qualifications and conditions that bring success I quote: Systematic irrigation must be developed". "Success from deep plowing, fertilizing and thorough cultivation ". Success depends first, on a competent man at the head, second competent labor, third a good season or irrigation". "Beep plowing and good cultivation has held my crop up through the drouth". "Success comes from hard intelligent work". Another epitomizes the whole question as follows:
"What brings success? 1st. -One must have money; must have experience as a farmer; be a good worker and hustle".
Hlenricksen. From the standpoint of the Secretary, who has to compile the reports, I will say that this is the kind of paper we want. This will make very interesting reading. If we could have reports like this from every province we would know what was being done and whether progress was made or not.
Progress of the Fruit and Vegetable
Industry in the Isle of Pines
BY FRED C. MASON
3ir. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen of the Cuban
National Horticultural Society:
Vegetable culture on the Isle of Pines is gradually progressing, having started in 1901, when the first Americans settled in the vicinity of Nueva Gerona and Columbia. American seed and American methods have proved very successful, but conditions have been so vastly different from our northern climes, that those same variations had to be discovered before colonists could be in positions to make any headway. Every American has planted his garden for home use and whatever surplus they had was sold for town use, so experiments were gradually worked at little expense. Vegetable raising for northern markets has proven a success as to the raising of the produce, but transportation from Havana, being limited practically to New York, has been the great drawback. One boat about every ten days to New Orleans and no boat whatever to Mobile has made shipping to the central western cities almost prohibitive for marketing a vegetable crop. The Atlantic seaboard cities offer little encouragement on account of the changeable climates, the market is either short or glutted and no one knows what to -expect when he plants his seed.
Numerous parties have installed good irrigating plants, established packing houses etc., but conditions concerning the marketing of the crop has put a damper on the situation.
Most all of the American colonies on the Isle of
Pines are interested in the raising of citrus fruit and fancy pineapples. The mistakes and the successes of the pioneer settlers have proven valuable lessons to the new settler. The community practically without exception came from localities where the citrus fainily is unknown except as to the consuming end, although California and Florida people are am-ong the colonists, they have f ound conditions considerably different, still the experimental stage is past and the expense of bringing groves to the bearing stage will be considerably reduced if new people profit by the pioneer's experiences. The trees have been purchased from Florida, Cuban and native nurseries, grown on sour orange, grapefruit and rough lemon stock, and I am inclined to favor local stock if first class trees can be had. The early varieties have given the best results up to the present time, but as, groves become older that may change. Grape-fruit has been the best product, weight, thickness of skin and the fine flavor, has placed it very high in the grower's estimation, and the Pinero (Royal) Triumph, Walters and Marsh Seedless are the most popular varieties, although considerable Duncan, Excelsior, Pernambuco, Florida, Standard and Silver Cluster have been planted.
The Washington Navel has made the best appearance among the orange varieties being early, heavy, juicy, good flavor and good size. Other promising varieties are the Pineapple, Parson Brown, Bessie and Jaffa. The Dancy and King tangerines have appeared very promising.
There is great difference of opinion about the success of the lemon on the Isle'of Pines, although there has been some fine fruit raised.
Summing up the citrus fruit culture on the Isle of Pines, I1 am making a conservative statement when 1 say that 800 Americans are engaged in the cultivation of about 4,000 acres, and from all appearances they are a loyal, happy, hard working community with great hope of making the Isle of Pines fruit famous some day.
Report of the Standing Committee
BY PROF. F. S. EARLE
Commercial vegetable growing includes two quite distinct lines of business: trucking, or the growing of large quantities of a few special crops for distant shipment;; and market gardening, or the growing of niany different vegetable crops for selling in near by local markets. In Cuba, as in all the countries, the first of these branches is a risky business sometimes when all the conditions are favorable yielding large profits but again in unfavorable seasons resulting in heavy losses. In fact the truck grower is the stock gardener of the farming world. Market gardening on the other hand, while very laborious and conning, is-- quite certain, if a location has been chosen wisely, to. yield a safe and steady income. This branch of vegetable growing has been almost entirely neglected in Cuba. Very few of the towns or thickly settled rural communities in Cuba have an adequate local supply of vegetables and native fruits. Many inviting opportunities exist for skillful and industrious market gardeners.
IMr. Gowell, a member of your committee, has udertaken to compile some statistics that will serve to give an idea of the extent of the trucking industry of Cuba. Notwithstanding the large total amount of this business there are comparative few people who make truck growing their principal business. In the Giiincs district where by far the largest part of this business originates the greater part of the vegetables are grown as a second crop between the rows of young recently planted sugar cane. A large part of
this district is under ditch irrigation, the land is stiff and heavy and large crops are produced without the use of fertilizers. In the trucking district along the Western Railways in Pinar del Rio Province the greater part of the vegetables are grown between the trees in young orchards. The land is more or less sandy and holds moisture well so that in normal seasons it is possible to grow fair crops without irrigation. In dry winters however, yields are small and irrigation where practical would doubtless prove profitable. With very few exceptions the use of fertilizer is necessary on these lands. There is a considerabel onion industry at some points along the North coast in Central and Eastern Cuba, but with this exception the trucking interest is almost exclusively confined to the two districts above indicated.
The season of 1908-9 was a disastrous one for the truck growers of Cuba. An unprecedented drouth ruined the crop on the non-irrigated lands while at the same time the dry Fall permitted preparing the land and planting an unusually heavy crop in the irrigated district. The heaviest Decemnber shipments iu the history of the island were dumped on the broken markets in all parts of the United States. Owing to unsettled financial conditions and general business depression the market was unable to rally and ruinously low prices prevailed throughout the season. This had the usual effect of discouraging planting this Fall and with a sharply decreased acreage and better general business conditions in the States prices so far this season have been much more satisfactory. What the final outcome for the year will be it is yet too early to determine.
The principal truck crops of Cuba are tomatoes, potatoes, onions, egg plant and peppers. A limited quantity of squash and okra is also grown. A word may not be amiss as to the chief enemies of these crops that are encountered here.
Tomatoes are very subject to the leaf mould (cladisporium). The fields are nearly always prematurely defoliated by this fungus causing the loss
of all but the first two or three clusters of fruit. The light fields so universally complained of here are almost exclusively caused by this pest. It can be quite completely controlled by spraying with Bordeaux Mixture. Experiments are on record where spraying with Bordeaux has doubled the yield of the crop. Bordeaux is also useful for protecting the early seed beds from injury from flea beetles. In some seasons there is much complaint of the spotting of tomatoes during transit and their consequent failure to ripen properly. At times also seemingly sound fruit is found to have a dry black rot in the interior. The cause for these troubles has not been ascertained. The well known "Blossom End Rot" of the Southern States occurs here but ordinarily it is not very troublesome and we are practically free from damage by the boll worm. Losses from bacterial bligth are confined to certain very light sandy lands.
Potatoes suffer from scab, early blight or target board blight, and on very sandy lands from bacterial blight or wilt. Scab can be prevented by soaking the seed in a solution of formaline provided the planting is in uninfected land. The early blight which almost always causes the premature dying of the tops can be largely prevented by spraying with Bordeaux Mixture and as this also has a stimulating effect on the growth of the plant its use will doubtless be profitable. Nearly all the potato fields in the States are now sprayed regularly. Fortunately we have no potato beetles in Cuba.
Onions seem to have but one serious enemy. They are often badly injured by Thrip. This damage is usually worse late in the season and it may be largely avoided by early planting. In the Giiines district onions are usually grown from imported sets but along the North coast they are mostly grown from seed.
Egg plant is subject to two serious troubles. All parts of the plant, leaves, stem and fruit are liable to the attack of a spot fungus (Phyllosticta). On the leaves this does little harm but when it attacks the
stems it often girdles them thus causing the death of the entire plant. On the fruit the brown spots quickly develop into a soft rot. Most unfortunately the conditions in transit favor the development of this rot and fruits that seem pretty sound when packed are entirely worthless on arrival at market. Spraying with Bardeaux would doubtless protect the stems from this disease but if used late enough and freely enough to protect the fruit it would stain it badly. The trouble is much worse in some years than others. The NewYork Purple seems to suffer more from it than the Florida High Bush and other similar kinds. Serious losses with egg plants also occur from the attack of a small weevil. This insect hides in the axils of the young leaves and eats out the flower buds. Thus preventing the plants from fruiting. This pest can be checked to some extent by spraying or dusting with Paris green. The insects are however so well protected in their hiding places that the treatment is not fully satisfactory. In this case New York Pur~ple suffers less than the High Bush. Egg plants die on some soils from the bacterial wilt and occasionally are lost from the Sclerotium wilt. This last disease also attacks tomatoes, potatoes and many other vegetables.
Peppers as a rule are quite free from diseases of any kind. Occasionally the foliage is injured by a spot disease and a few plants may be lost froin the two wilts mentioned above.
Squash is liable to serious injury from the melon aphis. This is a very difficult insect to combat and no known treatment is satisfactory. The worst enemy is the pickle worm. This eats the foliage and bores into the fruits. It can be controlled by Paris green or arsenate of lead.
Okra is also attacked by an aphis and the foliage is injured by a black mould. No remedies have been tried for eiter pest.