JANUARY 6 7, 1908.
PUTTBLISHTED BY TI-IE SOCIETY
EXHIBITION HELD BY C. N. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY JAN. 1908.
OFFICERS FOR 1908
COI,. S. S. HARVEY, Havana.
Havana Prozvince.-HI. A. VAN HERMAN, Santiago de
Pinar del Rio Provin ce-E. WV. HALSTEAD, Bahia Honda Matanzas Province.-D. H. HOWEvLL, Ceiba Mocha. Santa ('Clara Prozince.-NEwVELL PARKER, San Marco. ('anma11iey Provilcce.-J. H-. Kyw)i, Ceballos. Santiago de Cuba Proviince.-T. R. TowNs, Holguin. Isle of Pines.-IAFREoD C. MASON, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines.
i. C. HIENRICKSEN, Havana.
S. L. LAUGHLIN, Taco-Taco.
PROF. C. F. AusTIN, Santiago de las Vegas. W. R. RoBERTS, Giiines. COL. S. S. HARVEY, Havana. H. C. HENRICKSEN, Havana. S. L. LAUGHLIN, Taco-Taco.
STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1907-1908
'I'lo\NSP ORTATOX.--L. S. lcirwin, Guanabacoa, \V.
R. Roberts, Giines and S. L. Laughlin, Taco-Taco.
PACKAGES AND PACKINc.-W. R. Roberts, Giines, S.
L. Laughlin, Taco-Taco, and W. P. Ladd, Santiago
de las Vegas.
AIARKETING AND STORING.-H. E. Havens, San Cristobal, C. F. Austin, Santiago de las Vegas, and Geo.
W. Mace, San Cristobal.
CITRUs FRurs.-C. F. Austin, Santiago de las Vegas,
T. R. Towns, Holguin and J. H. Kydd, Ceballos.
I NEAPPLE's.-Col. S. S. Harvey, Havana, Geo. W.
Mace, San Crist6bal and WV. P. Ladd, Santiago de
NA'rTIv: AXNI) TROPICAL FRUITS.-H. C. Henricksen, Havana, C. F. Austin, Santiago de las Vegas and C. F.
Baker, Santiago de las Vegas.
TEMPERATE ZONE FRUITs.-W. P. Ladd, Santiago de
las Vegas, H. E. Havens, San Crist6bal and C. Westerkamp, Artemisa.
VEGErTABLES.-P. J. Putman, Taco-Taco, L. Collins,
Herradura and W. R. Roberts, Giiines.
ORNAMENTALS.-C. F. Baker, Santiago de las Vegas,
H. A. Van I lerman, Santiago de las Vegas and H. C.
ORCHARD MANAGEMENT.-Geo. W. Mace, San Cristbal, E. W. Halstead, Bahia Honda and T. R. Towns. Holguin.
INSECTS AND DISEASES.-Wm. T. Hornet, Santiago de
las Vegas; C. F. Baker, Santiago de las Vegas, and H. C. Henricksen, Havana.
LEGISLATION.-H. 'E. Havens, Herradura, Col. S. S.
Harvey, Havana, and NV. R. Roberts, Gfiines.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Berndes, Rene, No. 64 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Earle. Prof. F. S., Herradura, Cuba. Hall C. E., La Gloria, Cuba. Henricksen, H. C., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba. Haug, S. Chr., Moravi, Baracoa, Cuba. Kmrinel, Ed. A., 61 Aguiar, Havana, Cuba. Landis, A. C., 61 Aguiar, Havana, Cuba. MclIrwin, L. S., Guanabacoa, Cuba. Sanchez, Lorenzo, Havana, Cuba. Towns, Thos. R., Holguin, Cuba. Van Herman, H, A., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
Abbey, C. D., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Abbott, G. B., Cuba Co., Camagiley, Cuba. Alfonso, Juan B., San Ignacio 82, Havana, Cuba. Andrews, Geo. B., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Austin, Prof. C. F., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Austin, H. C., Alto Cedra, Taco-Taco, Cuba. Baird, M. L. La Gloria, Cuba. Harker, Jacob, 28 San Lizaro, Havana, Cuba. Bascuas, Federico, San Jos6 de las Vegas, Cuba. Bates, H. D)., La Gloria, Cuba. Reatley, Chas. A., 30 Empedrado, Havana, Cuba.
Beandry, Geo., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, WV. 1. Becker, Fred C., 120 Cuba St., Havana, Cuba. Beldon, R. E., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Bernard, C. H. L. N., Ceballos, Cuba. Benson, Portland, Ceballos, Cuba. Bennett, G. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Bolster, A. B., Morehead, North Dakota. Borrill, A., Cotorro, Cuba. Boston, John, La Gloria, Cuba. Brasse, M. H. Alton, Illinois. Bradley, B. L., Holguin, Cuba. Brandon, C. L. .o02 Aguiar, Havana, Cuba. Briggs, H. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Brown, J. A., Columbia, Isle of Pines, W. I. Browne, E. J., La Gloria, Cuba. Buena Vista Fruit Co., 49 Federal St., Boston, M\lass. Bullett, Chas., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, NV. I. Burford, C. B. La Gloria, Cuba. Bourdette, R. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Burnside, H. M., La Gloria, Cuba. Burnett, H. C., Paso Real, Cuba. Butler, H. K., Ceballos, Cuba.
Caraballo, Luis J. de, Cerro 593 Havana, Cuba. Carlton, W., Omaja, Cuba. Carlton, L., La Gloria, Cuba. Carol, C., Cardenas, Cuba. Castler, F. W., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Castro, A. Fernandez de. Egido 5, Havana, Cuba. Casey, Jim, La Gloria, Cuba. Cervantes, Felix L., 153 Gervasio, I lavana, Cuba. Chambers, A. B., La Gloria, Cuba. Christy, L. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Clifton, D. W., La Gloria, Cuba. Collazo, Ramiro, No. 8 San Jose, Havana, Cuba. Collins, Lindley, Herradura, Cuba. Collins, B. E., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, WV. I. Cox, A., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Cooper, Geo., La Gloria, Cuba. Crawley, Prof. J. 'P., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Crane, W. H., La Gloria, Cuba.
Cressy, Geo. F., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Cuba Camara Co., 9(6 O()bispo(, Havana, Cuba.
l)olz, Eduardo, M\alecon 2-, avana, Cuba. D)esvernini, IPablo, Banco Espafiol, HIavana, Cuba. )Donnelly, Arthur 'T., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines,
ID)udley, A. Sr., Menominee, Mich. D)elaney, J. K., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Early, J. F., La Gloria, Cuba. El(lrige, IPaul, San Claudia. Cabafias, Cuba. Ennmmons, Geo., Herradura, Cuba. Ewing, R. P., Columbia, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Farrer, C. S., La Gloria, Cuba. Fonts, Arturo, No. I I Broadway, New York, N. Y. Ford, S., La Gloria, Cuba. Frances, J., La Gloria, Cuba. Fries, Archibald, co B13. & O. & S. WNV. R. R., Cincinnatti,
F'ulton, W. B., Herradura, Cuba.
Garcia, A. E., No. 3 San Tomas, Marianao, Cuba. Germain, J. R., Ocean Beach, Cuba. (;etman, Frank L., Deputy State Engineer, Albany,
Gocio, H. G., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Goetz, E. C., Herradura, Cuba. (;olden, H. WV., Troy, N. V. Gowell, NV. P., Gilines, Cuba. Green, J., Las Tunas, Cuba. (Griffith, john, La Gloria, Cuba. (;riffith, T. D., La Gloria, Cuba. (Guetzchow, John, Ceballos, Cuba. (Gutierrez, Victor, La Gloria, Cuba.
I alstead, E. NV., Bahia Honda, Cuba. Ilanuond, Chas. N., nlmira, N. Y. Ilandbl)ack, J., San Crist6bal, Cuba. I arvey, Col. S. S., 99 Prado, Havana, Cuba.
Harvey, Frank K., 99 Prado, Havana, Cuba. Haughy Bros., Holguin, Cuba. Hernindez, Pedro M., 156 San Fernando, Cienfuegos, Cuba.
Herman, J. B., 38 So. Union St., Rochester, N. Y. Heath, B. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Hegle, E. A., La Gloria, Cuba. Heintz, J. L., Bahia Honda, Cuba. Hickstine, Adolf, Ceballos, Cuba. Hierro, M., 68 Obispo, Havana, Cuba. Hintel, B. F., East Liverpool, Ohio. Holt, W. E., Larimore, North Dakota. Holmes, S. T., Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Horne, Prof. W. T., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Horn, G. H., La Gloria, Cuba. Houser, Prof. J. S., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Howard, J. M., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Hrdlicka, R., La Gloria, Cuba. Hyden, V. P., Riverside Park, East Liverpool, Ohio. Howell, D. H., Ceiba Mocha, Cuba. Huelsenkamp, C. J., Bacuranao, Cuba.
Isaacs, P. J., La Gloria, Cuba. Iorns, Dr. M. J., Agricultural Experiment Station Ma
yagiiez, P. R.
Jenkins, R. C., Holguin, Cuba. Johnson, W. C., 303 Majestic Bl'gd., Detroit, Mich. Johnson, C. M., Bernaza No. 3, Havana, Cuba. Jones, G. D., Valley City, North Dakota.
Karr, B. F., La Gloria, Cuba. Keenan, T. J., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Kelly, J. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Kelsey, F. M. San Crist6bal, Cuba. Kerr, D. E., Camagfiey, Cuba. Kendall, Roland, Holguin, Cuba. Kies, H. N., Victoria de las Tunas, Cuba. King, Ben, Santa F6, Isle of Pines, W. I. Kinman, Prof. C. F., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Kubin, Jos6 L., St. Agustin, Cuba.
Kydd, J. H., Ceballos, Cuba.
Lacluvise, C. de, La Gloria, Cuba. Ladd, W. P., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Landon, A. E., La Gloria, Cuba. Lawton, H. C., 1709 Atlantic St., Spokane, Washington Langhlin. S. S., Taco-Taco, Cuba. Leightner, J., Fingal, North Dakota. Lewis, Chas. S., Herradura, Cuba. Liveridge, H. C., La Gloria, Cuba. Lind, A., Minneapolis, Minn. Lind, J. C., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Littleford, M., Ocean Beach, Cuba.
Mace, Geo. W., San Crist6bal, Cuba. Mahoney, E. P., P. O. Box 724, Havana, Cuba. Marshall, J., La Gloria, Cuba. Mason, Fred. C., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Mans, Samuel, Ocean Beach, Cuba. Matterson, C. H., Victoria, Cuba. Meyer, Hlenry, Nuevitas, Cuba. Michel, A., La Gloria, Cuba. MIiddleton, WV. D., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. 1. Miller J. A., 3145 Irving Ave., So., Minneapolis, Minn. Miller, J. A., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Miner, WNV. S., La Gloria, Cuba. Moe, Glen E., Candelaria, Cuba. Montejo, Miguel A., Mercaderes 35, Havana, Cuba. Montrose, Frank, Mercaderes 35, Havana, Cuba. Mundy, Cap't. C. R. Las Barragonas, Guane, Cuba.
Nay, Henry M., La Gloria, Cuba. Nelson, WV. Forrest, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, \,. I. Newsom, L. L., La (;loria, Cuba. Neustel, J. J., La Gloria, Cuba. Neville, H. O., Ocean Beach, Cuba. Nfiez, R. E., 61 Aguiar, Havana, Cuba.
Olcott, H. H., go Calzado, Vedado, Havana, Cuba.
(O)rr, A. E., Taco-Taco, Cuba.
(O)strand, Per., La Gloria, Cuba.
Parish, W. B., La Gloria, Cuba. Parker, Newell, San Marco, Cuba. Pedroso, Alberto, 79 Rue de Miromesnil, Paris, France. Perez Pequero, Dr. Gregorio, 8 Estrada Palmna, HIavana, Cuba.
Phillips, Miss Abbie F., 57 Obrapia Havana, Cuba. Piel, Mrs. F., 4 Ena St., Havana, Cuba. Pierson, F. J., Mgr. Omaja Nursery, Omaja, Cuba. Pierce, William, Buena Vista, Cuba. Pincike, M. E., Herradura, Cuba. Price, William, Bahia Honda, Cuba. Pulsifer, A. A., La Gloria, Cuba.
Ramsdell, T. R., Columbia, Isle of Pines, W. I. Requa, Mrs. H. K., Candelaria, Cuba. Reno, Luis, Santa F6, Isle of Pines, W. I. Robins, frank G., 102 Aguiar, Havana, Cuba. Roberts, W. R., Giiines, Cuba. Rose, H., Santiago de las Vegas,.Cuba. Runyan, E., Box 197 Elizabeth, New Jersey.
Schiftner, J., La Gloria, Cuba. Schoefield, W. H., La Gloria, Cuba. Scott, L. C., Lakota, North Dakota. Schmidt, Joseph, Guanajay, Cuba. Schmelsenback, J. W. A., Riverside Park
Shimmerhorn, R., Havana, Cuba. Shriver, A. L., La Gloria, Cuba. Shore, Eli, La Gloria, Cuba. Shoell, Sam, La Gloria, Cuba. Siefert, D., La Gloria, Cuba. Smalley, S. W., La Gloria, Cuba. Sonville y Cervantes, A., Neptuno 34, H Storms, A. B., Herradura, Cuba. Stevens, C. F., La Gloria, Cuba. Stokes, A. B., La Gloria, Cuba. Stewart, Rev. James E., La Gloria, Cuba. Starquel, G. W., La Gloria, Cuba. Stover, J. C., Battinean, North Dakota. Stover, N. W., Battinean, North Dakota.
, East Liver-
Taylor, G., La Gloria, Cuba. Thompson, J. P., La Gloria, Cuba. Thompson, WV. Jr., 61 Aguiar, Havana, Cuba. Tolksdorff, E. E., McKinley, Isle of Pines, WV. I. Tosale, It., La Gloria, Cuba. Turner, M. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I.
Upton, Eldro, La Gloria, Cuba.
Van MIatre, W. S., Columbia, Isle of Pines, W. I. Vuillaume, V. Sr., Herradura, Cuba, \Tuillaume, V. Jr., Herradura, Cuba.
Walker, W. F., Cobalt, Ontario. Wall, R. I., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Warner, E. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Warner, Dr. James, 69 O'Reilly, Havana, Cuba. Washburn, C. E., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Watt, Albert T., La Gloria, Cuba. Watt, R. S., Bahia Honda, Cuba. Wellwood, J., Herradura, Cuba. Wellwood, C., Herradura, Cuba. Weeks, Cap't. J., 3 Animas, Havana, Cuba. Willis, E. A., Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, W. I. Wilcox, C. C., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Wilcox, Frank B., Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I. Williams, W. R. J., Medical Block, Minneapolis, Minn.
Young, Henry A., Camagiiey, Cuba. Young, L. W., Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Young, Albert B., 1032 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y.
ARTICLE I.-The name of this Association shall be the Cuban National Hlorticultural Society.
ARTICLE; 2.-Its object shall be to advance the horticultural interests of Cuba in all branches.
ARTlcIE 3.-The members of this Society shall consist of persons interested in raising the products of the soil, or its allied interests.
AR'rTIcLE 4.-Any person who is interested as per Article 3 may become a member of this Societ\ by making application to the Secretary and paying the annual dues.
ARTICLE 5.-The officers of this Society shall consists of a President, one Vice President for each province of Cuba and one for the Isle of Pines, a Secretary and Treasurer and an Executive Commitee of five members, three of which shall be the President, Secretary and Treasurer of the Society. These various members shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting, and shall hold office until their successors are elected.
ARTICLE 6.-The duties of the officers of this Society shall be those usually performed by the officers of like organizations.
I. The annual dues of this society shall be one dollar Am. currency, and life membership ten dollars.
11. The Executive Committee shall have power to fill all vacancies which occur between the annual meettings.
11. The Standing Committees of this Society shall consist of three, or more, members, and shall be appointed by the President after the approval of the Executive Committee.
IV. The Chairman of each Standing Committee shall make a written report for each annual meeting, and as often between meetings as may be requested by the Executive Committee.
V. This society shall have the following Standing Committees:
2. Packages and Packing.
3. Marketing and Storing of Fruits.
4. Citrus Fruit.
7. Native Fruits.
8. Fruits of the Temperate Zone.
io. Orchard Management.
i i. Tobacco.
12. Diseases and Insects.
13. Legislation and Relations with Government.
Cuban National Horticultural Society
The Second Annual -Meeting of the Cuban National Horticultural Society was held in the Masonic Lodge Hall at Prado 99, commencing January 6 19o8 at 1:30 p. m. This 'Meeting was called by the Executive Coininittee on that (late in order that it might be held at the same time as the Horticultural Exhibit.
It was suggested at the former meeting to hold an exhibit of fruits and vegetables and the work of planning such an exhibit was left to the Execueive Committee. The Chairman of that Committee together with :;ome of the members residing in and near Havana took up the work early in the season, hut found that no suitable place for holding the exhibition could be obtained free and as the Society was not able to pay for such accommodations as would be required, the matter nearly dropped. It was finally decided to hold a small exhibition in the arcade of the Harvey Hotel, Prado 99, and strenuous efforts were put forth in the short time available to make the exhibition a success. Several committees and many individuals respond ed by sending fine samples of products which thoroughly demonstrated that the very finest quality of citrus fruits can and are being produced in Cuba.
Although the exhibition was small, it was thoroughly enjoyed by thousands of visitors and ably described by the Havana press.
I.-Call to order by the President, Prof. F. S. Earle. 2.--Alinutes of the previous meeting read by the Secretary A. B. Storms.
3.-Annual Address of the President, Prof. F. S. Earle. 4.-Reading of correspondence from McKinley Fruit
Growers Association, Isle of Pines, suggesting cooperative work between the two societies. Matter referred to the Executive Committee.
Correspondence from Bahia tIonda asking for Statistical facts on citrus culture in Cuba: referred to Co nmmittee on Citrus Fruits.
5.-Appointing of committees.
Committee on the Revision of the Constitution
Henricksen, Towns and Horne.
Committee on Nominations
Halstead, Havens and Kvdd.
Commnuittee on Awards
Henricksen, Kinman and Homrne.
6.-Report of Standing Committee on Insects and
Diseases by Prof. William T. Horne, Estacion
7.-Report of Standing Committee on Tropical Fruits
by H. C. Henricksen, Havana.
SECOND S ssrON
i.-Call to order by President Earle.
2.-Report by Committee on Revision of Constitution.
3.-Report by Standing Committee on Orchard Management:
First paper by T. R. Towns, Holguin; second
paper by E. W. Halstead, Bahia Honda.
4.-Address by Prof. J. T. Crawley, Director, Cuban
Agr. Experiment Station.
5.-Report of Standing Committee on Citrus Fruits
by Prof. C. F. Austin, Horticulturist, Estacion
6.-Report of Standing Committee on Pineapples:
Paper by Col. S. S. Harvey, Havana.
I.-Call to order by Prof. Earle.
Second paper on Pineapples by Geo. WV. Mace. 2.-Paper by Prof. C. F. Austin on Orchard Cover
3.-Paner by T. R. Towns on Planting Orchards on
4.-Paper on Citrus Fruits by H. A. Van Herman,
Santiago de las Vegas.
5.-Paper by H. A. Van Herman on Ornamentals.
(Read by Title).
6.-Treasurer's Report by the Treasurer, Cap't L. S.
7.-Report of Committee on Nominations.
8.-Election of Officers.
9.-Paper by Prof. G. S. Houser, Estaci6n Central
Agron6mica, on Spraying.
io.-Report of Committee on Awards. I I.-Resolutions.
13.-Standing Committees for 1908-1909.
PROF. F. S. EARLE
members of the Cuban National Horticultural Society, Ladies and Gentlemen:
It becomes my duty as President to make vou at least a brief address at the opening of this meeting. I am sincerely glad to welcome vou here and I note with pleasure the interest in our aims that has led you to leave your homes at a time, which is for most of us, our busiest season.
The year lust passed has been a trying one for the Ilorticultural interests of Cuba. The almost unprecedented drouth of last winter wvas followed by scanty summer rains and by another short drouth this fall itist at the period when we expect our heavies rainfall. This long continued scarcity of water has proved very trying to our citrus orchards, especially where cultivation has been in the least neglected or where there has been much injury from the attack of root grubs. It is in such period as this that those orchardists who are provided with irri-ation in some form have a tremendous advantage nver their less fortunate neighbors. In comparing the condition of orchards on the different types of soils it seems to be a fact that those on the red lands have suffered most, especially where the lands are old and w orn. ThorouIgh cultivation on the heavy black lands has been of considerable benefit in holding mois-ture but where these lands have not been cultivated trees have suffered badly from the deep cracking of the soil. Everything considered trees that have been well fertilized and cultivated on the sandy lands have stood the trial best, but neglect is even more fatal than in richer heavier lands. The year's experience, too, has served to sharply emphasize the fact that we have many
kinds of sandy lands and that they differ widely in drouth resisting properties. Unquestionably the very light pine and "barragona" palm lands have stood the test far better than the richer but heavier royal and cabbage palmn ridges. Heavily fertilized and thoroughly cultivated youting orchards on these lightest soils have continued to grow finely throughout this entire period even when trees on the richer lands were loosing teir foliage from drouth.
With vegetables the lessons from the drouth are m,:-e sharply marked. The experience of last winter and of this fall has amply demonstrated that on the low, black, sandy "barragona palm" swales it is perfectly possible on well l)repared lands to grow a good crop of vegetables without irrigation and without a drop of rainfall. The pine lands, too, stand drouth remarkably well but are not equal to the "barragona" lands. Experience has demonstrated equally clearly that the planting of vegetables without irrigation on any of the other Cuban soils is exceedingly risky.
Besides the unfavorable climatic conditions that have prevailed, most communities have been greatly inconvenienced by the disturbed labor conditions and the consequent demoralization of the rail road service. This has been most severely felt in the region tributary to the WVestern Railway. For many weeks we were unable to get fertilizers and other necessary supplies and a portion of the earliest maturinet vegetables were lost for lack of transportation facilities. At this writing this trouble has largely passed but the vegetable growers are confronted with broken markets in the States, a condition due in considerable part to the prevailing finacial crisis.
Notwithstanding these unusually unfavorable factors I think I will have the endorsement of all present in saying that the future of the fruit and vegetable industry of Cuba never seemed more fully assured and never promised a more rapid development than at the present time. It was inevitable that mistakes should have been made in the earlier plantings-many of these are now clearly recognized and will be avoided in the many new
orchards that are constantly being planted. Other troublesome questions will be discussed and finally cleared up at this and subsequent meetings of this society and the crop of citrus fruit that will be harvested from the older groves the coming year will be large enough to attract wide spread attention and to increase the already active interest in citrus plantings.
The l)ineapple industry continues to be prosperous and profitable and it is constantly but steadily growing. The Artemisa district in the red lands has come to the front very rapidly in the past few years and promises soon to be one of the most important centers. The success of recent plantings at San Cristobal, Taco Taco, IPalacios and Paso Real in the sandy lands promises a rapid development of the industy in this general region and shows that commercial pineapple growing will no longer be confined to the red lands. The two questions that most urgently need solution are as to the profitable use of fertilizer and whether some modification of the Florida method of planting on wide beds can be advantageously substituted for the Cuban method of planting on narrow ridges or "canteros".
The principle need of the vegetable industry aside from the more extended use of irrigation is for improv(d methods of transportation and for a wider and more intelligent distribution of the crop. With our present facilities we are obliged to pick such crops as tolnatoes while still very P-reen. It is impossible for even the most skillful picker to gather green tomatoes at just such a stage that they will all ripen up evenly at the same time. The consequence it that when our crates are opened up in the market they present a very uneven appearance, some ripe or perhaps over ripe and others still green. This necessitates expensive repacking in order to obtain crates in condition for the best trade and causes much vexatious delay in closing out different lots and remitting for them. Tomatoes picked so green that they have not rilpened on reaching New York are too green to ever ripen up with full quality and appearance. This accumulation of poor green stock always has a very depressing effect on the market. There is no question but
that a nmch larger quantity of tomatoes could be sold and at much better average prices if every crate opened up uniformly colored so that each lot could be closed out on arrival. This could easily be (lone by the intelligent use of refrigeration. The Steamship lines ha\ e alrca(l (lone their part. Practically all the steamers now carrving vegetables have more refrigerator space than is being utilized. In fact we cannot utilize this space until we have refrigerator cars in wich to load our goods and hold them until they can be put directly aboard the ship. To1 put ul) goods fit for refrigeration they must be picked and packed every day just as the tomatoes begin to show the first tint of color. I am confident that the vegetable carryin!" roads would furnish us these cars if we ask for them and guarantee to use them.
The question too of getting the steamers alongside the Paula dock thus avoiding the rough hldling inci(lent to lighterage is one of great importance. This is (lone for the pineal)ple shipments, why not for the vegetable shipments also?
At the present time our distribution is even more faulty than our transportantion. The great bulk of the crop is dumped on the New York market with the inevitable result of frequent gluts and much avoidable loss. There are at least a hundred cities in the United States that ought to be receiving direct Cuban shipments regularly. With such a distribution prices could be uniformly maintained and a much larger quantity of goods disposed of. Now we go it blind and when New York breaks we turn and flood some other market. If we even had published promptly on the sailing of each steamer a list of the shipments consigned to each make it would be a great aid in so making shipments as to avoid overloadin" any of the smaller markets. In fact I do not think this society could do a wiser thing than to arrange with one of the Havana papers to publish such statistics dailv and if to this could be added a daily cable service from each of the principal markets giving quotations on sale of Cuban products the aid in securing a proper distribution would be very great. In fact, gentiemen of the society, I strongly recommend that a coqm-
lnittee be appointed to take up this matter and see what arrangements are possible.
It is probable that ultimately it will be found necessary to organize a central union which can handle and plr)erly distribute the products of its members. Whether or not the society should ever undertake to become a business organization is perhaps an open question. PerSonalv I have felt that for the present at least it is wiser I or it to remain as now a consultive body representing the entire island, leaving the closer business unions to be formed by the different local associations or perhaps iny the different industries as for instance, a Citrus Fruit Union, a Pineapple Union or a vegetable Shipper's Union. In any case, however, I cannot too strongly urge the necessity for greater cooperation along whatever may prove to be the most practical lines. Local Societies should be formed at each shipping point not only for packing and distributing produce but for purchasing fertilizers, crate material and other supplies. The corn mercial interests of the inland seem to be strangely back ward in appreciating and catering to our needs. Not a season passes when fruits and vegetable are not lost owing to a shortage of crates and yet none of the business houses with which we deal are sufficiently enterprising to carry an adequate stock of packages to meet the normal demand. Each community should take up this matter and see to it that a sufficient quantity of crates are secured well in advance of the shipping seas. on. Prices are always lower then, than when every one is sending rush orders.
At our last meeting my opening remarks were chief ly confined to discussing the aims and purposes of the society as illustrated by the ground that it was hoped to cover by means of each of our standing committees. At this meeting we hope the reports from these committees will be so full that any discussion or suggestions on the part of the chair will be superfluous. One idea however has occurred to me that I should like to suggest before closing these brief remarks. The Honorable Provisional Governor has seen fit to appoint a commission charged with the duty of advising with him in regard
to all matters affecting the Agricultural interests of the island. This I am sure is a step that we all heartily approve. As I remember the versonel of this commission the sugar interests have, as is very proper, by far the largest representation. A number of the members are also interested in cattle and the list includes one prominent tobacco man. All of the leading agricultural interests of the island may thus be said to have representation on the commission except that of horticulture which at the present time is doubtless growing more rapidly than any of the others. I suggest that our committee on Relations with the Government be instructed to seek an interview with this commission and try to make some arrangements by which representation of this society may be consulted in regard to measures that may specially affect our interests.
Gentlemen our )rogramme promises to be a crowded one and I will trespass on your time no longer.
Report of the Committee on Insects
BY PROF. WILLIAM T. HORNE
One member of the committee, Prof. C. ]. Baker, formerly Botanist of the Esctacion Agronomica, has left Cuba having sailed in November to take a position in the Museum Goeldi Para, Brazil. Prof. Baker for three years and a half had been a tireless worker and enthusiastic naturalist and not only did a vast amount of botanical work but collected many insects and was always ready to give the aid of his vast knowledge of insects and natural history in general.
Your committee desires to report first, on a few of the insects of a general injurious nature and second, to discuss a few of the more important insects and diseases of some of the principal horticultural crops.
BIBIJAGUAS, PARASOL OR LEAI CUTTING ANTS
These ants are too well known to need description. They live in colonies and in chambers in the ground. Some of the chambers of a large colony may be as much as eight or nine feet below the surface of the ground. The leaves which the ants cut are carried down into the chambers, cut up to fragments and arranged in a corallike mass. On this they plant and care for a mushroom or fugus which makes a thick white growth. On this they live and feed their young.
Swarming is of two kinds, that when a colony moves off from a large nest and occupies new quarters, and the swarming of the queens.
During the fall and winter small colonies probably have only one queen. Large colonies may probably have several. It is not konwn whether colonies which appear
at this time of year always have a queen but they certainly do a great deal of migrating (luring the winter.
The queens appear in the spring. They are the large winged forms. They swarm in great numbers during showery wether. \\hen a queen comes to the ground she sheds her wings, makes a short gallery several inches deep and a small chamber. Here she soon begins to lay and with good fortune may have a fairly strong colony by the end of the year. This probably accounts for the appearance of many small colonies in the fall, especially in very mellow land.
From this we see that the best time for killing bibiaguas is when you have them or when your neighbors have them. But it would be particularly desirable to destroy as many large nests as possible before the swarming of the queens. This could probably be done in February. Ribijaguas will cut almost any plant, even tobacco, egg-plant, or the leaves of cabbage paln, but their choice is particularly for citrus fruits, roses or strawberries.
MIethods of destruction are many but we will mention only two. Carbon bisulphide poured into the holes and these stopped with earth is effective and easy. In very dry or loose ground it is practically worthless. Sulphur fumes may be generated in a pot made of a section of six inch iron pipe eighteen inches long with a (orate four inches from the bottom and a cover screwed on the top. Near the top a hole is threaded for a three fourth inch tube which is connected with a strong bellows by means of a rubber hose. A charcoal fire is made in the grate and a small handfull of sulphur added. The machine is set over the bibijagua hole without disturb ing them and the sulphur fumes pumped directly into the chambers. Properly arranged one man can manage this outfit with a wheelbarrow and it has proved reasonably satisfactory at the Estaci6n Agrondmica. The points in which we hope to see improvements in this machine are in securing a more portable and practicable bellows or pump and in so preparing the sulphur as to insure freer burning. Arsenic mixed with sulphur may
nake the ant chambers unwholesome for future occupation but it does not increase the immediate efficiency.
Temporary protection of a tree may be had by painting a ring of tree tainglefoot on the trunk. Dust and trash is easily blown against this making it worthless but it is a resource of considerable value in the struggle with bibijaguas. Duplicate rings are more effective than single ones, leaving three of four inches between the rings.
Some people maintain that the best method is to dig out the nest to the bottom and kill all the ants. This process is very costly and not more effective than fumnigation where this can be made to succeed.
CUTWORMS, CRICKETS, SNAILS OI' SLUGS
Although these are very unlike one another, their injuries are considerably similar and the same treatment may be useful for all.
'oison bait mnay be distributed about the infested fields and one treatment usually sufficiently reduces their damage. Some benefit may be had from distribut ing the bait among seed beds and growing plants, but to secure the best results it should be applied to land prel)ared for planting and clean of all vegetation.
Bran or cornmeal . . . 50 lbs.
Paris green or white arsenic . I ,, 1\olasses. . . ..... I qt.
Water to make the mass sticky.
Or the Paris green may be sprinkled on the leaves of tender grass, tobacco, tomatoes, cabbage or similar plants, and these distributed over the field.
In Australia the bran and poison mixture has been used with excellent results but using a little salt instead of the molasses.
S EID AND GR AIN I)ESTROYING INSECTS, wEE'ILS, ETC.
Naphthalene is one of the best preservatives for small amounts of seed. Put the seed in a tight package or jar with a number of naphthalene balls or broken naphtha-
lene. All the insects will (lie and the seeds remain uninjured.
Carbon bisulphide is probably the most practical mnaterial for destroying weevils in moderately large amounts of grain. The grain to be treated should be put into a bin and the carb6n-bisulphide poured into a shallow dish above the grain. Keep covered for twentyfour hours or more. The standard amount used is one ounce for 6212 cubic feet of space.
Hydrocyanic acid gas is the best material to use for general fumigation where a perfectly tight room and experienced fumigators are available. Dry food materials are not tinted and the most delicate fabrics are uninjured. However the deadly nature of the poison and the difficulty of making a sufficiently tight room make it probable that it will never be much used by farmers.
In the experiments of the Estaci6n Agron6mica it has been found that of the two fumigants just discussed the former is preferable for treating grain in the box or bin as the fumes are heavier than air and settle through the grain, thus destroying any insect life that may be contained therein.
Root grubs or the blue-green beetle (Pachnaeus). This insect is not known as a citrus pest in other countries but at the present time it not only threatens to ruin some but most of the citrus groves now planted in Cuba. The adult beetles appear with the spring rains and continue to eat and lay eggs while they live. Practically all have disappeared by December. The eggs are laid on or between folded leaves with a little sticky material which holds the leaves together until the eggs hatch, which is about a week. The young grubs drop and bury themselves in the soil at once where they begin the work of eating the bark from the small roots. Where very numerous every particle of the bark is eaten from the roots to the surface of the ground and the tree dies. The roots may be badly eaten and the tree show no signs of injury or only a slight yellowing. New roots are formed read-
IV in moist soil but the vigor of a tree must he greatly reduced by repeated root injuries from year to year.
All measures to destroy the grub in the soil must be of a temporary nature. To lift the trees and pick the grubs out of the soil is evidently a ruinous process but it may be better than to loose the trees. We have had good repr'orts from pouring a solution of whale oil soap) so that it would settle about the crown. We hope to report more fully on this matter later.
'The ,rubs may be prevented, by destroying the beetles when they first appear and before they commence to lay. The best method for this we have seen is a curculio catcher or frame with strong cloth spread over it which is spread under the trees and these shaken, the insects falling on the cloth may be poured into a pail containing water and kerosene. On a cool day or early mornin- the beetles drop fairly well.
Poultrv and all kinds of wild birds should be encouraged in the orchard at this time to help in the destruction of the beetles.
Soraving with arsenate of lead, four of five pounds to fifty -allons of water and the same amount of soap to make it stick better is recommended but we do not know that this will be entirely effective.
Clean culture will make it possible to destroy the beetles much more easelv.
The injury to fruit is serious, the bitings of the heetles when the fruit is young causes deep scars when it matures.
IHornia bra'a of fire ant. In addition to the bibijaguas mentioned as a general pest this small ant often does serious harm to small citrus trees especially in new land. By repeated breaking up of the nests on and about the base of the tree and at the same time spraving some insecticide on the disturbed ants the tree may be protected until the bark becomes thick and strong. The injury which they do to the youn growth will probably not be serious on large trees. They also injure young fruit. Complete clean culture for a time is probably the best remedy.
Purple scale or oyster shell scale. Long scale or Glover's scale. Round black scale or Florida red scale. Chionaspis scale or small white bark louse.
Calafornia black scale.
Hemisphere scale or brown scale.
Hesperides scale or Florida turtle back scale.
Cuban or large turtle back (A new scale).
A red scale which is probably the California red scale.
Florida white fly.
Cotton white fly (Improperly called guava white fly.).
At least ten of the fourteen are, or may be dangerous. Probably the four most serious are the purple scale, long scale, chionaspis and Cuban or large turtle back. The last is probably the worst of all if unchecked but its natural enemies are many and effective. The purple and long scales are about aqually serious, the latter less universally present but rather more destructive where it occurs. Chionaspis is probably least affected by natural enemies, the slowest to spread but the most universally injurious. The males are small and white, the females resemble purple scales but are straighter and blacker. It covers leaves, twigs, and trunks and causes tender bark to harden and check in long cracks.
Natural enemies; In Cuba there are a large number of natural enemies which destroy scale insects. These are various kinds of insects and fungus diseases. A great deal may be done in the way of propagating and helping the natural enemies and where they will work they are the most constant, economical and effective remedies. However when a tree becomes seriously infested with scale it should be helped out by some other remedy.
Sprays: The spray mixture that has seemed to find mOst general application in Cuba is the soft or potash soap of whale oil, mixed with water at the rate of 20 pounds to ;o gallons.
Kerosene emulsion is also excellent.
Pure kerosene may be applied to citrus trees with an atomlizer in bright dry weather and is an excellent insecticide but in careless or inexperienced hands may kill the tree.
Rosin spravs are along the cheapest and most effective mixtures but there is always danger of injuring the trees by their repeated use.
T ime sulphur is promising but we have not tried it suficientlh.
umigation with hydrocvanic acid gas. In California, Australia and South Africa this is now the most al proved method of destroying scales. The work is exiiensive and dangerous in the hands of inexperienced persons. It cannot he done in strong wind, when the foliage is wet, or in strong sun. For large hearing orchards it will n)robablv nav well to fumi-gate and the Estacion Agronomica hopes to give this work a thorough trial soon.
\\Wi(ldbrakes are stronglvy recommended for making conditions favorable for scale fungi etc.
Rust mnitc. Russet and silver oranges, grape fruit and lemons are caused hv the rust mite. The remiedy for this is sulphur. For a few trees throw handfulls of flours of sulorur into the trees whenever there is the first sign of the mites or of russeting. On a large scale it will probably pay better to mix the sulphur with a cooked flour paste and use it in a liquid spray. The following forimula is good:
Flour of sulphur. .. ........7 lbs.
Flour. .. . . . . . . 2 ,
Water ... ........ . o gals.
Applied at the beginning or in a long dry spell this will practically exterminate the mites and also red spiders. Watch must be kept howerer as the mites may reappear at any time and they increase with great
rapidity. The action of the sulphur is very slow but under favorable conditions is wonderfully effective.
Red spiders. These are dry weather pests. They turn the foliage gray. Sulphur destroys them easily.
Purple mite. This insect is somewhat more difficult to control than the above and may require a combination of sulphur wash and soap.
Foot rot. This is a disease of heavy and wet lands to which lemons and sweet oranges are very susceptible. Sweet oranges suffer badly in the wet (clay) lands. When danger of foot rot is anticipated use sour stock or trifoliato. Good drainage and tilth are the important measures.
Twig aiumosis or die back g~tmnosis. This is evidently a physiological disease of twigs and branches. The remedy probably consists in correcting the condition of the soil. Cultivation, mulching or whatever will out the soil into a moist, well aerated conditions are the remedies. Supplying humus to the soil will be a great help in this way and we have also recommended the liberal use of potash or potash and phosphoric acid fertilizer.
This is not the Florida die-back and we have not seen cases where the trees were brought back to health enough times to be entirely sure of our recomendations.
Tust here we would like to correct two fallacies. First: It is not true that you must have poor land to grow citrus fruits. There is no land in Cuba too fertile naturally to grow citrus fruits, but much of it may be too heavy for the best results.
Second: Dot no try to get the organic matter or humus out of your citrus grove soil: conserve it by drainage, tilth and cover crops and balance it by fertilizers which are strong in phosphoric acid and potash.
Scab. This is the trouble that makes warts on lemons, sour orange and to some extent on some of the tangerine or mandarin oranges and grape fruit. The most serious injury is on lemons. It is due to a fungus
and may Ie) controlled byv spraying with fungicides such as Bordeaux mixture or amminoniacal copper carbonate while the fruit is small. On account of this trouble lemons should be planted in solid blocks and all sour oranges, rough lemons, citrons, grape fruit and tangerines should be kept as far aNway as possible.
Blight. This is a disease which is said to have ruined some of the best groves in Florida. A part of the tree or a whole tree d(ies suddenly without shedding its leaves. We have had a few cases of this type of trouble in Cubla and while we are not l)repared to state positively that it is blight, still we fear that there may be much more of it when the commercial groves get older. in Ilorida it is recommended to immediately dig up and( 1uArn such affected trees and plant new ones in their places. The cause of this trouble is not vet understood.
Cocoanuts suffer to some extent from the attack of a number of insects and diseases but only one of these is of very great importance.
The disease known as bud rot or heart rot occurs well distributed over Cuba so that it may be expected to appear at any l)lace. The symptoms usually seen in a hearing tree are first, the young nuts drop and the flowers blast. Flowers may be found dead within the unopened sheath or sword. Second, the leaves turn fellow and fire so that the tree becomes conspicuos at a distance. Third, the central bud or cluster of unopened leaves rots from above down into the heart of the top. The trunk and roots seem to b)e not at all afected.
Is has not been certainly proven what is the cause of the disease nor how it is transferred from tree o tree.
It is said that in Jamaica the disease is now very well controlled.,
Remedial measures consist in suppressing the infection. It will often be possible to save a sick tree. When a tree is suspected to have the disease it may be sprayed thoroughly with Bordeaux or it may be burned out The latter consists simply in setting fire to the dry
sheathing materials accumulate(l in the top. (O)n a still (lay when not too wet these will burn out clean. A\1l except the upper leaves spread and droop and a year's crop approximately is lost. If the tree recovers it should he in full bearing and good as ever in about a year. Whenever a case becomes pronounced the tree should be cut down and the top separated leaf by leaf and this piled up with dry materials and burned.
On account of this disease a large investment in cocoanuts would not be justified but in our opinion they are more promising as a secondary than as a principal crop.
VEGETABI,E INSECTS AND D)ISEASIES TOMATOES
Insects. Tomatoes are subject to the attack of a number of biting insects, some of whicli are the same as those attacking tobacco, Hand picking for small gardens and swaying with IParis green on large lots are the remedies. Some of the cut worms sometimes eat holes in the fruit. Paris green will pr(oabably 1be effective for these also.
Mite diseases or hairy stem. This shows as stunted growing points in which the young leaves and stems become densely white hairy. Sulphur will check this.
Leaf fungi, leaf blight, leaf mold and perhaps other fungus troubles. These troubles considerably shorten the productive life of the plants by killing the foliage. They are worse when drouth reduces the vitality of the plants or very moist weather increases the vitality of die fung-i. Thorough spraying with Bordeaux will check these fungi and we think it will probably pay well to give the tomato field a thorough spraying with Bordeaux mixture to which a small amount of Paris green has been added about the time the first fruits are half grown.
B3lossom-end rot. This is largely due to drouth.
Brown rot of green fruit. We have had this only from the Giiines district. It is said to be due to wet weather or wetting the fruit by irrigation water. It is caused by a rhizoctonia fungus similar to the one which
makes "pudricion" of tobacco s,,d beds. Green fruit is more readily affected than nearly ripe. It may be possible to dip the fruit in a fungicide before packing but this has not been tried.
Stcm blight or bacterial blight. This is a disease found thus far only in light sandy soils. The plants wilt and die quickly. Theoretically, affected plants should be immediately pulled tiup and burned and rotation of crops should be practiced.
These vegetables have many insects and other troubles hii the miost wor (th\ (If )ri attenltion1 is lthe bud wccil. \ small black weevil hides inII the buds and bites them, causing the leaves to be ragged when they expand und the H\ower 1huds to drop. 17v xverY careful andu(l repeated spraying with Paris green combined with Bordeaux mixture o()r with lime we have succeeded in effectively checking this insect, but the work must be thorough so that the poison is well introduced into the buds.
Onions are a promising winter crop for Cuba where irrigation and intensive work can be done. Most northern varieties fail. Their one serious insect enemy we have found in Cuba is a minute insect, the thrips. They make the leaves turn white and (lie. By means of a strong spraying apparatus it is said to be possible to control these pests by using tobacco extract, kerosene emulsion or whale oil soap solution. Hand sprayers are hardly effective enough.
This is one of the best 'Cuban crops. Its principal enemy is a root borer or "tetnan."
About he only measure we can recommend for this is rotation, i. e. planting each year in new fields, removed as far as possible from fields in which sweet potatoes
have recentl5 oeen planted. N
Probably the insects breed more or less in some of the wild morning glories or "aguinaldos".
SQUASHES, MELONS, CUCtTCUMBERS AND OTIER
Part of these may probably be made a success by selecting proper soil, irrigating and spraying udiciously. The principal enemies to be combatted are a j'his. the pickle worm and leaf blight. More thorough and careful horticultural and pathological methods than we have seen in operation in Cuba must be followed to make these crops at all secure. Nevertheless the promise of success in certain soils is inviting for cucumbers and certain varieties of muskmelons and watermelons.
We recommend that the plants be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture once each week or ten days, commencing with the expansion of the first true leaves. Close watch should be kept for aphids or plant lice. A number of remedies may be applied for these but we recommend spraying with extract of tobacco or a solution of whale oil soap. If sings are seen of pickle qcorni or strii'cd beetle add a small amount of some arsenical, such as one fourth pound of Paris green or one and one half pounds of arsenate of lead to each fifty gallons of Bordeaux.
Native and Tropical Fruits
BY MR. H. C. HENRICKSEN
Mr. President and members of the Cuban Horticultural Society:
"This subject is a very extensive one and although it is very tempting to treat the whole list of tropical plants from A to Z I shall not attempt to do so because I have in mind the difficulties we had this year getting money enough for printing the report and if I should present a whole volume the Committee might call upon me for an extra contribution.
Of fruits which are, and probably always will be of greatest economical importance, we have the Aguacate, Banana, Cacao, Cocoanut, Coffee and Mango. Of fruits which ought to be, and no doubt will be of considerable importance, we have Sapodilla or Nispero, Pawpaw or Papaya, Sapota or Mamey Sapota, and Guavo.
Besides these there are a number of tropical fruits which will always be of importance for home use and which will command a fair price in the local markets. Many tropical fruits are not as yet known in Cuba, and some are known in certain localities only, but people from the North too often loose valuable time and money trying to grow things that have been proven failures time and time again and which would be of doubtful value even if proved successful.
I'his fruit is not at present cultivated extensively in Cuba although a few trees are planted here and there to produce fruit for home use. Practically all the fruit sold in Havana and other cities of the island come from trees which receive little or no care or cultivation. The prices in the larger cities and even in the smaller towns
are usually good and Aguacates are often the best paving crop oi the farm. The Aguacate is also now being successfully shipped to long,- distance markets and with cold storage and proper facilities for handling there is absolutely no question about the Aguacate being a paying crop. The tree thrives in all kinds of soil, from sand to heavy clay, although a well drained clay loam produces a tree in less time than the very light or very heavy soils. Nothing has been (lone here coinmercially in the way of selecting and propagating from the better varieties, but from what I have seen I would judge that some of the varieties here are equal to those from which nurserymen in Florida are propagating. Although the seeds cannot be relied upon to produce fruits as good as the tree from which they originated it is far better to plant the seeds from a choice fruit than just the ordinary ones, but of course the trees should always be budded if it is possible to do so.
As far as I have been able to find out the Banana is at present of no great importance as an export fruit in Cuba. There are more Bananas produced in certain localities than is needed for local consumption and( from these places the fruit is shipped to tHavana and other large cities provided the transportation is cheap enough. One of the chief factors in 1profitalble cultivation is cheap transportation, without this it is useless to try, even if all other conditions are favorable.
The banana is one of those plants that will grow with out much care, which leads many to believe that all that is necessary is to plant it and wait for the fruit to appear, but this is a great error. A banana plant will not produce a marketable bunch of fruit without a reasonable amount of attention, unless the conditions are unusually favorable. With favorable conditions I mean a rich loam or muck soil, fairly well drained, and not subject to drought, located where the plants will not be subjected to strong winds. Under such conditions, bananas will grow and produce well with no other treatment than
cutting the weeds and thinning out the plants, but there are probably not many places in Cuba where bananas could be grown successfully for a great number of years with no other care than this. The banana is what we term a "gross feeder", 'That is it requires a large amounitt of plant food and is able to send its roots a long distance to search for it. At the same time it is a surface feeder anid does not go deep down even though the subsoil may Ie rich in plant food. The result is that unless a soil is unusually rich it soon becomes exhausted under a crop of bananas.
Where bananas are cultivated for home use or local consumption, the soil should be prepared as for any other crop. Ioles should be made just like it is for any tree and(l the plants should be set 6-io ft. aprat, according to the variety. The best suckers or "pichons" for planting are those which are most vigorous. They may be taken before the leaves expand, in which case they should not be trimmed. Suckers that have several leaves unfolded, may also be used, but in this case the whole top should be cut off, leaving only a few inches of the stem. The banana plant bears only one crop of fruit, after which it (dies, linbut at the time of maturity there will always be a number of suckers around the mother plant. These suckers should be cut off except 2-3 or not more than 4 of the .most vigorous and after that a crop may be harvested quite frequently because the field will contain plants in all stages of growth.
In cultivating bananas, one essential thing should not 1e forgotten, namely, that it requires a large amount of moisture, and unless this is present a good crop cannot be expected even though the soil may be rich. With the proper amount of moisture bananas may be grown successfully in most classes of soil and under these cond(litions commercial fertilizer would pay well if needed.
This is not grown extensively in Cuba, as a matter of fact Cuba imports considerable cacao from abroad. iust why this is it is difficult to say because much soil in Cuba seems well suited for this crop.
Cacao is planted in the British Islands in different kinds of soil and with different treatment. In Trinidad, the trees are nearly always grown under shade, while in Grenada, no shade is used. In Iamaica, cacao is plant ed either with or without shade, and it is not yet well settled which gives the best result. It is quite certain, however, that the physical conditions of the soil, as well as local climatic conditions has a great 1eal to (o with it, because it is not so much the trees that need the shade as the soil in which the trees are planted, and often the trees are of more importance as wind protection than as shade. Cacao needs considerable moisture, and it is probable that the trees would have suffered on most Cuban soil this last year on account of the drought, but nearly all other trees suffered also.
A good cacao soil could be described as, a deep loam, nearly level, situated so that it is well protected from strong winds and naturally moist without being soggy. Such soils can yet be found in Cuba in many undeveloped districts where the land is covered with hardwood growth and considerable leaf mold present.
I take this opportunity of describing the correct methods of proceedure under such conditions because these methods would, with a few modifications be correct for citrus fruits also.
The roots and stumps may be taken ot at once which would in many cases be costly. The timber imay also be cut off and hauled away, leaving only the smaller stuff to be burned, or burning everything right there, and in a couple of years the stumps will be much easier to take out, but no matter what methods are used, in clearing large areas of such land, strips of the natural growth should always be left at intervals of not more than 5o0 ft. in order to act as a permanent wind protection. In burning the wood, care should be taken not to burn more of the leaf-mold and other vegetable matter than is strictly necessary because immus is the me thing in which most Cuban soil is deficient and the one thing which is most difficult to replace after it has been lost. \Ve should also remember that by cutting, off this natural forest we change the conditions in many
respects, conditions which were favorable for growing cacao and which would favorable for citrus trees as well. It is well know to every one that in the thick virgin forest the air is always more or less hulnmid and cool, even though the sun may be hot out in the clearing and the soil in the forest will be moist when that in the cleared and unprotected will be dry and cracked. VWe know that it is necessary to cut down the trees, l)ecause the shade would be too dense for most cultivated trees, even for cacao, and beside this thev would lay claim to all the plant food present, so that it would he difficulted for a cultivated tree to succeed. We also kln(m that if it were not for these drawbacks cultivated trees would succeed admirably because the soil and air conditions are favorable. WVe therefore must try to replace the forest trees with some l)lant that will shade the soil so as to keepl) it, as well as the air, moist and cool, while it does not form too dense a shade for the cultivated tree, nor take too much of the plant food which is necessary for that tree. Of such plants we have a great many, although not all of them are equally well suited. \1! other factors being equal, we should always select a legume, that is, a plant belonging to the bean and pea family which plants absorb most of their nitrogen from the air and not alone the nitrogen which they need but also supl)ly enough for the use of other plants. In the British Islands, the Bucare or madre de Cacao is used extensively. The botanical name of this is Erythrina Umbrosa, or Erythrina Microl)teryx, prob(ialy the same thing). It is a large quick growing tree and any other large quick growing tree, such as the rain tree, /Pitlcolobinin Saiman might be used instead, but under conditions such as those with which we are dealing here I would recommend a smaller plant, such as the gandula, Cajanus (Cajan, which is one of the most all aroud desirable plants. ()f others which may be used we have bananas, sugar cane, Jaminaica Sorrel, Hibisculs Saldariffa. castor oil plant and many others that are not nitrogen ,-atherers.
After having cleared the land and disposed of most of the wood, the ground should be staked off in
straight lines, placing the stakes 15 ft. apart. The gandulas may then be planted without any preparation of the soil,but as it is impossible to use plow or cultivator among the stumps and roots, it will be necessary to plant and cover by hand Planting may be done in rows 1 -2 ft. apart with about the same (distance between the plants and a space of 6 ft. left around each stake. The cacao seeds should be planted in sections of bamboo, using the whole section from joint to joint. The seeds should be covered very lightly and the soil not packed t(,o heavy in order to facilitate germination. In 3 -4 months the plants will be ready for setting in the field and in that time the gandulas will be far enough advanced t, afford the necessary shade. Before setting the plant, a fairly large hole should be d(lug in the soil and again filled in. The bamboo joint should be split open and the plant taken out without disturbing the roots and transplanting can be accomplished without any loss. The trees should he kept free from weeds for a space (f not less than 6 ft. in diameter, which will be all the cultivation necessary for a couple of years. After 2 years, the roots and stumpl)s should be taken out, the soil ploughed, and another crop of gandulas planted immediately. With this treatment, the cacao trees should begin to bear at 3-4 years old and hear a good crop at 8-To years. In some soils an application of air slacked lime, about a ton to the acre every 5 years would be beneficial. After the trees begin to hear good crops an application of 200 lbs. of high grade potash and 400oo-50oo lbs. of acid phosphate would no doubt be necessary in order to produce a profitable crop. The nitrogen would he amply supplied by the leguminous plants.
The cocoanut as grown in the West Indies is one of the stel)children who is expected to take care of itself. If it makes a tree it is alright because it looks nice, but the fruit is usually of minor importance as it is so high up) that no one can get at it except the boYs. Nevertheless, cocoanut growing is a very profitably industry
and would be so to any one who would devote one fraction of the care to it that he does to citrus trees.
\Ve all know that cocoanut succeeds well in sandy soil near the sea coast, and this is naturally the place where we would think of planting it. It does succeed inland, however, and grows quite well in heavy clay soil. The methods of cocoanut planting arc as f ollows: Select the very largest and very heaviest nuts from the best bearing trees which must be uninjured, that is they must not be thrown down when picking, so as to crack the shell. F'or sprouting the nuts, select moist shady place, lay the nuts on the side, close together. Fill up the spaces between them and partly cover them with decay\ed sea-weed, leaf-mold or any organic, moisture holding material. This should be kept fairly moist by watering it if necessary, and in a few months germination takes place. The top appears at one end of the hull and the roots come out through the hull on the ,wer side and after the top reachees a height of 1-2 ft. it is time to transplant. Cocaunuts should be planted about 5o to the acre, and the grass kept away from the plant the first two years. Ilere in the \West Indies, the cocoanut is not cultivated and it is apparently not necessary that it should be, but in countries where it is grown as a main crop it has been found profitable to grow a secondary crop between the trees and to keep the soil cultivated. Circumstances will naturally determine which method wotl be most profitable, but this we know f)r certain that the trees should be planted far enough apart to afford then plenty of light and air as well as wind. The wind keeping the leaves in constant 1motim accelerates transpirati(mn and of course the moisture giveil off by the leaves must le taken upl by the roots and the water passing through the roots carries plant f (od which is elaborated into fruit or building up the tree. This all goes to show thai in order to ), r )w\ cocoanuts successfully the soil must be ainpl)y supplied \with water, ailnd it is well kllnown that a 1)ro(lono(d dry spell which leaves the water-table bel()w reach (f the roots is iniurious to the extent of cutting the crop short for several seasons.
The greatest obstacle to cocoanut cultivation in Cuba is the cocoanut bud-rot which threatens to exterminate the trees at the present time. This trouble is further discussed by the Committee on Diseases and Insects.
I know very little about the coffee industry in Cuba, but I know that a great deal of coffee is imported and I know that there is a duty of $i1.7o por oo pounds on all coffee except that from Porto Rico which pays only $9.36. Now I have studied the coffee situation in Porto Rico and I know that it is grown there and a profit is made with coffee selling for just what the duty is here. It is not reasonable to suppose that we can grow a large quantity of coffee equal to the Porto Rico coffee because we have not enough land of sufficient elevation but we can unquestionably produce a coffee equal to the Brazillian, and as long as we have the protective tariff, it ought to pay, at least to the extent of domestic consumption.
The methods described for growing cocoa would answer for coffee also, that .is, when planted under those conditions. When grown in the mountains, like in Porto Rico, the naturalforest is only partly cleared and shade trees are planted. The stumps are all left unlisturbed and all cultivation done with a machete, that is the cultivation consists of cutting the grass only. Fertilizers, when used, are applied in holes on the side of the hill above the tree. If I should start a plantation of coffee or cacao or even oranges on some of the average Cuban land, I would still begin with the gandulas, planting at the same time Madre de Cacao or rain tree or any of those leguminous trees, even the algaroba, Albizzia lebbek, which grows alongside the roads, in this )rovince especailly, would be very good.
I am emphasising this question of shade because nothing has impressed me so much in my tropical experience as the necessity of keeping the soil protected from the hot sun and adding nitrogen through the medium of leguminous plants. Our soils here are poor, irrespon-
sible statements nitwithlistanlding, and the question confronting us is how to produce maximum crops with minimum expenditures.
TheI mango is a fruit that is well worth propagating, which may he difficult for many to comprehend in view of the fact that thousands of bushels are going to waste annually, even so close to Havana, that they could be sent to market in (ox carts. unt there are miangoes and mangoes, there is onlh occasional a tree, the fruit of which is really good, and it is possible that there are no varieties in Cuba as good as those from India. There are, however, s-(me very good mangoes here, and( if there were enough of them to make shipments it would pay to do so. \Vhat has been said about aguacates holds for mangoes also, it is only a question of improved varieties anld e )ll storage, because we can 1)roduce the fruit and the United States can consume all we produce.
FRUITS Or MINOR IMPORTANCE
Of these were mentioned Sapodilla, Paw-paw, Mamey Sapota and Guavo. There is probably no reason why they should be of minor importance except this that the time will not allow us to discuss them as fully as the others. The Sapodillas and Sapotas are fruits that will certainly sell in the States, and cold storage is not necessary for shipping them. The Paw-Paw would also ship well and I would be very much surprised if those large melon paw-paws would not bring 5o cents to 75 cents a piece in Park and Tilford stores any day from November to April.
What is the matter with the guavo? A few acres of the improved varieties would keepl) a small cannery busy for some time, still we have to eat California pears because the canned guavos are too expensive. Frankly now, without any projudice, don't you think that the cascoc de guayavo is almost equal to quince preserve? In this connection we as a Society and as individuals ought
to work for Cuban products, on every and all occasions, and we can do so in a great many ways. It is very common to find only second or third class fruits on first class hotel tables, this gives a bad impression of Cuban fruits and it canl be changed by continually calling attention to the fact.
\[r. Kvdd: lave Aguacates been successfully 1)uldded, if so to What e\tent ?
Mr. Ilenricksen: Aguacates have been successfully budded in Florida for the last six years. The method used is usually shield budding, like orange trees are budded. I tried various methods in Porto Rico and found shield budding the most successful. I have not found it so difficult to bud aguacates, but I have had some difficulty in getting the buds started and I have also found it dif ficult to transplant the Aguacate. I would recommends planting them with a ball of earth.
Prof. Farle: What kind of bud-wood is best for budding aguacate?
Mr. Henricksen: \Veknow that coffee is grown in old as to cause the buds to be dormant, because of the difficulty of starting them. On the other hand it must be well hardened up because the aguacates do not callous as readily as some trees, and consequently it requires longer for the bud to "take".
Mr. Emmons: In growing coffee is it necessary to shade the trees or the land?
Mr. Henricksen: We know that coffee is grown in Brazil without shade and I have seen it grow in Porto Rico with scarcely any shade but I believe that where the soil is subject to drying out that it should be shaded even though the trees might do without.
Mr. Towns: At Nipe Bay some coffee is grown at sea level and about from loo to 200 sacks produced annually. It is o-enerally shaded but it is probable that the burning of the leaves and drying up of the ends of limbs is caused as much by the drying of the soil as by the direct effect of the sun on the tree.
Report of Committee on revsioni
Mr. President and Members of this Society:
Your Comnittee would recommend for your consid oration the following changes in the constitution:
Article i to read "Cuba National Horticultural Society".
Article 5.-'he officers of this Society shall consist of a P resident one Vice President for each province of Cuba and one for the Isle of Pines, a Secretary and Treasurer and an Executive Committee of five memhers", three of which shall be the President, Secretary and Treasurer of the Society. These various members shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting, and shall hold office until their succesors are elected.
Article i. Add: and Life Membership $io,oo.
H. C. Henricksen.
Thos. R. Towns.
Vim. T. Horne.
The report was adopted as read.
BY THOS. R. TOWNS
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Cuban National
Gentlemen: ()ur chairman, MNIr. Mace. has alh 'wed me to take my choice of our committee work on orchard management. This being subdivided, I have taken as follows:
Orchard management from a business standpoint; purchasing of supplies; sale of products. Being three beads either one of which if properly treated, would require more time and space than I am able to give it. I will take it up in the rotation named: Orchard mangement from a business standpoint. This subject is a very broad one. There is no set management for all classes of soil. Man's pocketbook varies more or less in size; what it will do on one soil will be wasted on another; what needs to be (lone on another cannot be afforded by the owner, and so it goes. One of the first things to be done is to get a good piece of land that will grow things without too much coaxing. There are some soils in Cuba that will require brainy men to make them profitable; others that success is yours with half the energy applied and half the time.
If your soil is lacking in humus put on a crop of legumes, and if one crop does not do it you had best put on another, and if the legume does not grow well feed it and make it grow. Kee) the barnyard cleaned up and the compost heap growing, but if it is to buy plant food buy just what you need. If it is ammonia buy it, but don't buy bone and potash as well if you don't need it.
In starting a young grove you need for treemaking, ammonia. The potash and bone will be needed later. In other words you needn't buy a complete fertilizer because
(you nelied some one of the foods. Until nitrogeneous bacteria are in good tilth in the soil only a limited amount of plant food can be used on it to advantage. Soil building is an art, and when acquired the step to success is easy.
1anlv of us arrive at our concnlusions without proper thought. Ideas are faulty, too quick to criticise our neighl(bors every action. Each conniunity should have its farmers' clut) to meet at least once a month and talk (ver \lat you are doing, and what you contemplate doing, and get your neighbor's idea about it. You will o (hind ( )uit that )v staying at home a man gets rusty Keelj (ni good terms \with your neighbors to be able to get their willing advice and you \Nwill find it pays. _No warning community ever goes ahead without neigh borl'y ,eiglibors. In your club work you can decide how mlanV hours per day you should exact of the hired man, just what his wage will be, and what privileges will be given hinm. Some of our brothers here in Cuba have an ldca that blanking hours should rule because the coipany's booklet said that a grove at three years old Would pay $io0 per tree per year, and he has i,ooo trees planted and cash enough to carry the wqrk on for this three years. lie not only spoils his owxn labor, but his neighbor's as well. The years roll around and the trees (to not respond with the Io per. The cash gives out Mnd the place is allowed to go to waste. This would-be owner has the pleasure of saying: "The company lied", and find work in another line. Farming is no good aniw ax. I find that the more working hours you require and, if you pay a fair wage and p)ay it promptly, and provide your labor with convenient quarters, you will soon have labor that will push ahead in your work. When you find any idleness or carenessness don't waste time quarreling-pay them off and get more.
I prefer Spaniards who have\C families with them. Give them a ranch house, exact sun to stlun of honest application, give him his proper noon rest, and you have a good man. He has no feast days, no 'baile" to attend and cock fights are not on his menu.
The purchasing of supplies such as crate material,
plant foods, etc., must be bought jointly to get best prices. There are certain packages used for this vegetable, another kind for that fruit. These being decided on, and a census of the needs taken, then go to the manufacturer for his figures on this lump amount to be delivered throughout the season as needed. Open competition will get a basement floor price.
PURCHASING OF FERTILIZERS
You will find it by far cheaper to buy it by the unit system than to get it made up as a balanced plant food There is too much filler to pay freight on that is of no value. Buy so many units of ammonia phosporic acid and potash separately, mix them yourself and apply fewer pounds than of the made-up fertilizer, but you get more food matter. It is cheaper and better for the reason that you put on just the special food you wish. The idea that I amn advancing here today will be derided by the fertilized man. You will be told that I am mistaken, etc. But insist as did the California orange grower, and get what you wa at and pay for what you get.
SALE OF PRODUCTS
Here is a subject with many sides. I'll suggest some of the methods used in the older fruit states. The idea that a small grower can always employ a broker to forward his ten or twenty boxes to his favorite commission man in New York, Chicago, London or elsewhere is a mistake. First, the grower cannot keepl) posted as to the best markets, and indiscriminate shipping will not only wreck the markets, but shippers as well. There is then the association conveniently located, with a manager with clerical forces to take your twenty boxes, my sixteen and the other fellow's seventy-five. He gets his cables and decides where it is to go in the following manner: He has sample boxes opened of each man's fruit and decides that all the A-I stock shall go to Toronto, Montreal, Buffalo and Boston. Then there is always some that, while not showing waste, should go
to a quick market like New Orleans or near markets. Then there are always some that must be sold at home; the fruit is not only weak, but packing is very slack and grading is bad. This association has its agents at the different centers to sell what is sent them and to tell just what the market is each day, in this way a very satisfactory business is carried on, the association charging a commission for the service, dividing with the agents at the different centers who are under bond for a faithful performance of their work. In the larger centers the auction plan in generally adoted, and in my opinion is best for citrus fruits. Vegetables are best handled in a jobbing and retail way.
Another plan is to establish at a central point a home auction and sell all receipts daily to the highest bidder. If this plan is supported by the growers, the buyers will come to yon, but must have to offer them quantity and quality.
This plan allows the grower to ship today, sell tomorrow and get his check next day. He then knows exactly what he is doing. No long, anxious waits, to learn that his fruit arrived wasty and sold very low. It's better to have it sell low on a home market and get his "jolt" and Live him time to find out what is lacking, improper packing, grading or what it may be. Then there is another plan. Buyers will go to interior points and rent a packing house and buy the fruit on the tree in a lump sum, or per packed box. In my opinion the quicker we can get buyers to come to us, buy and pay for it here, the quicker we show ourselves as business men.
There are other methods used in California that are ouite complicated, where the grower binds himself to do many things, etc., but we are not yet in position to take up anything of the kind, but let us all do one thing-pull together.
BY. E. W. HALSTEAD.
Mr. President and members of the Society:
The stock upon which the trees are budded is most truly the foundation of the grove, and the selection of a stock suited both to the soil in which it is to be planted and to the variety to be budded upon is one of the prime essentials to the future welfare of the grove, and should have the orchardists most thoughtful attention, fir a mistake in the selection of the stock may mean all the difference between success and failure.
The native sour orange is the stock best suited to most all varieties and to most all locations and next to citrus trifoliata the most resistant to that bane of the orchardist-foot rot.
Citrus trifoliata promises well, for a stock for the tangerines and mandarines on suitable soils and is practically immune to foot rot.
I have failed to find a single case of the disease among the many thousand trees on this stock that I have examined.
I should not recommend it, however, for other than the tangarines and mandarines. Rough lemon, while a sturdy, quick growing stock and possibly adapted to well drained locations and light soils, is very suscep-l) tible to this disease and when planting on low or heavy soils should be carefully avoided.
The same can be also said of pomelo sweet oranges and natives limes.
SELECTION OF VARIETIES
The selection of proper varieties is equally as important as the selection of a good stock, and for large plant-
ings choice should be limited to those varieties of proven worth. The best paying commercial groves in California are practically limited to one of two varieties. Here, Where we do not have cold weather to fear, the fruiting season could be extended from September to i\lay by a careful selection of three or four varieties-oranges, pomelos and lemons each having their advocates who believe them to be "the best paying crop, but this is a matter that time alone will prove, and in this as in other, lins of effort, the man at the head will be a large factor in the case. There is no reason why any or all of them should not be divided producers, as all are being very successfully grown here.
Many of the varieties not adapted to large commercial orchards should find their place in the home grove, and every grove should have a block where new varieties and varieties not yet fully proven out could be tested. Having decided on the stock and( the varieties, our next care should be to get thrifty well-grown trees of from eighteen months to two years old of the kind desired.
PROCESS OF PLANTING
After the selection of varieties and stock has been made the actual planting of the trees in the orchard is to be considered, and one of the first questions that presents itself is: at what dis'ance shall the trees be placed? This will be partially settled by the class of trees to be planted. The mandarins do not need so much room as some of the large growing sweet oranges and these in turn less than pomnelos.
After taking into due consideration the location, natural moisture or ability to irrigate and fertility of the soil, as well as the many other points that are controlled by the conditions surrounding each orchard, this question must he settled by each planter for himself.
All brush or timber should be cleared from the land, and if the land is level enough to allow for clean culture, it should be well plowed and harrowed.
If very uneven, mount culture may have to be used. In either case the land should be prepared some months
ahead of the time of planting, a year if possible, to allow it to settle well before the trees are set. Trees may he planted at any time when they are dormant and when there is sufficient moisture or when it can be supplied. The best results will probably follow plantings made just before or at the time the rainy season begins in the spring. Experience here as well as elsewhere, has shown that citrus trees should be set somewhat higher in the orchard than thy were in the nursery. Setting low seems to increase the tendency to disease. Great care should be taken when planting that the roots are so placed around the tree as to anchor and support it when later it has to bear heavy loads of fruit. Many trees have been killed or badly injured before planting by exposure to sun and air. Care in this respect, proper pruning of top and roots before planting, roots well placed and damp earth firmly packed about them, them sufficient moisture and you have a good start for a paying grove. Citrus trees will stand a great deal of abuse, but they thrive better without it.
On this subject I only intend to dwell long enough to enumerate a few of the ways and means that have been found to be most successful in dealing with the pests, of which we have enough, as any one knows who has raised citrus fruits in Cuba.
By some, bibijaguas are considered the most troublesome insect enemy with which we have to deal and many remedies have been used with more or less success. Where large, old-established nests are to be destroyed, light portable machines for introducing sulphur fumes into the nests and tunnels have been very successfully used. With them some digging is also necessary. A commercial grade of carbon bisulphide is of great help where only a few small nests are to be treated.
It is not so successful in large nests, as the tunnels do not all connect and the fumes cannot reach all the ants to destruy them.
BEETLES AND ANTS ON SMALL TREES
BIlue beetles on small trees are best gathered by hand. If this is done in the first few days after they appear, the work will be facilitated, as the wing covers will not be split and they cannot fly, and if the ground is clean below the trees the beetles can be jarred off and easily gathered. Cloth stretched on a light frame has also been used with some success.
The ants known as hormigas bravas do considerable damage. both by eating the tender young shoots and defacing the newly set fruit and in building their dirt tunnels on the trunks of the trees an eating the bark beneath.
They are most active just after a rain. Probably the most effective known method of combatting them at present is to spray the ants and nests wherever found, with kerosene, applied with an atomizer. As an emergency remedy a ring of tree tanglefoot may be put around the trunk a few inches above the ground. As the ants are persistent in their attacks, the trees should be looked after for several days, the ring freshened and 'nv tunnels they may have built destroyed. Scale insects are numerous and of many kinds, but their natural enemies are usually in good enough supply to care for them.
Sometimes however, it ,may be necessary to resort to spraying and when resorted to, it should be done with thoroughness. A good spray outfit for rough ground is made by putting a large barrel on the front of a "rastra" or sled made somewhat larger than usual, and mounting a pump on a heavy plank behind the barrel, with two lines of hose long enough to reach the trees on either side when passing between the rows. This requires a yoke of oxen and three men, two to handle the sprays, and one to drive and pump. Such an outfit has sprayed 200oo small trees per hour. It will be necessary to spray whenever red spider has been introduced. There are many formulas given in the various bulletins and books on this subject.
In some places the Guava white fly-Aleyrodes
Howardi has appeared on citrus trees and cansed some apprehension by being mistaken for Florida white fly-A. Citri It is not hard to get rid of however, if taken in time and the affected trees washed and sprayed thoroughly with a strong solution of whale-oil soap. Picking off the leaves most badly affected, or in some extreme cases the defoliation of the tree before washing, will aid in destroying the pest.
Guava bushes and wild orange trees are quite often affected with this fly and when near the grove should either be cleaned of the fly or cut down.
FUNGUS AND OTHER DISEASES
Treatment for fungus diseases such as wither tip, should be prompt and thorough, all diseased parts removed and burned. When necessary, the diseased tree, as well as the surrounding ones should be sprayed with Bordeaux Mixture. If looked after promptly, tle removal of the diseased parts is sometimes sufficient to affect a cure. The fallen leaves as well as the diseased branches should be gathered and burned. When pruning affected trees, the cut should be made well down into the healthy wood.
The' tools should be disinfected before being used again in healthy trees. The various troubles caused by Coilctetricun Glocosporioides have been most admirably handled by Prof. P. H. Rolfs in bulletin No. 52, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Among these are the lemon spot which gives considerable trouble here even while the fruit is on the trees, causing it to drop. The trees should be looked over often and all the fruit showing the disease as well as that already fallen, removed and either buried deeply or burned. Too much care cannot be taken in these matters.
Sooty-mold, Meliola Cauzelliae, sometimes occurs and in my experience in Cuba it usually follows one of the soft Lccaninm scales. It can be best combatted by destroying the scales on whose exudations it feeds.
Footrot, or 1[al di-goma, is to my mind the most
serious trouble we have in our groves at the present time, owing to the difficulty of affecting a cure, though as previously stated, we can avoid it to a great extent by the selection of a resistent stock. The best practice at present is the removal of all effected tissue, then applying anll antiseptic solution and a protective covering to the w ound and improving the 1pivhysical condition of the tree by thorough cultivation and drainage. ID)esinfect all tools after using and burn all diseased Parts removed.
PRUN I NG
In this as in other lines of work, in citrus culture there are "niany men of many minds". When young trees are carefully loked after from the time they are planted and are kept in shape by the pinching back or removal of sprouts and suckers while voung and tender, little pruning with shears or saw will be necessary to give the tree a form best adapted to the end desired-ability to carry a heavy crop of fruit without damage to the tree.
\Vhere trees have been neglected or are ill shaped, severe pruning is sometimes necessary. \Vhere this is the case such pruning had best be done during the winter v hen the trees are dormant as there will be less trouble from water sprouts than if done when the trees are grOwing vigorously.
Suckers can be removed and light pruning done at any time nimost necessary or convenient to the orchardist.
Mr. MAace: Does the moss on the limbs and trunks of the trees cause much damage?
Mlr. Halstead: I think not, unless there is a thick covering of it, in that case it may have to be removed.
Mr. Storms: Is tree tanglefoot satisfactory in keep-l ing off ants and insects?
Mr. Halstead: I do not think it is, and it ought not to be used except in an emergency.
Prof. Earle: I have tried it extensively and do not like it. f am sorry I ever heard of it.
Mr. Towns: I have found that water heated to 120 degrees Fahrenheit not only stops but kills all the ants. Water hotter than 120 degrees will injure the roots of the tree.
MIr. Kydd: I have tried tree tanglefoot and am sorry that I ever did. I have found cyanide of l)otasium very good sprinkled in the nest and covered over with soil about one inch deep.
Col. Havens: \Vhat is "Foot rot" and when does it attack the trees?
Mr. Halstead: Speaking of "Foot rot" here in Cuba we usually refer to a gum disease attacking the roots as well as the trunks of the trees. There are two forms of gum disease though they are not very distinct one from the other. One kind appears on the trunk close to the ground and extends out on the crown root and will often girdle the tree. Another form appears higher up cn the trunk and on the limbs and can be detected by the exudation of gum in spots more or less extensive.
Col. Harvey: Are there any special soils in which the trees are affected more than others?
Mr. Halstead: The soil does not seem to have much to do with it. The trees are often as much diseased in high, well drained soil as in low moist soil.
Col. Harvey: "Foot rot" in Florida is usually caused by too much moisture at the roots of the tree.
Mr. Kydd: "Foot rot" usually occurs here in soils that are low and rich in nitrogen. Whenever it occurs I think it is better to let it alone than to cut into it. It is something objectionable in the tree and has to come out.
Col. Havens: There has always existed a doubt in my mind as to whether "gum disease" is caused by the ants or whether the ants are attracted by the gum.
Prof. Earle: The biting of the ants always cause a flow of gum, but this is not the gum disease.
Col. Havens: How can kerosene be applied so as to kill the ants without injuring the tree?
Mr. Halstead: Kerosene has to be applied very care-
fully, either in the form of an emulsion or with a good atomizer and it will always require several applications to destroy the ants. I have found a 5 solution of creoline a good remedy when applied around the tree. The soil should be well soaked with this in order to be effec-tive. It does not injure the tree.
Mir. Towns: In regard to gumming I find that often gum will start to flow from a wound caused bV bruisinand the tree will show symptoms of gumosis or "Foot rot", while as a matter of fact is it not this disease.
BY PROF. J. T. CRAWLEY
Director lstaciin Central A1gro'inzica
Before reading my paper I wish to congratulate the Society on its Horticultural ltxhib)ition which I consider a very worthy effort on the part of the fruit growers of Cuba. One of the greatest obstacles to the progress of Cuban agriculture is the lack of unity and harmony among the people. Certain it is that they have not that spirit of cooperation, of the forming of associations and societies for the comnnon good that we find in the more advanced communities of the United States.
It may be that the success that you are having at this meeting will be the beginning of fairs and agricultural exhibitions, of united agriculturists, that will be of great benefit to Cuba.
I also take this opportunity to extend an invitation to all members of this society as well as any planter who is not a member to visit the Agricultural Experimient Station. While this meeting last I shall make arrangements to have wagons from the Station meet the trains and shall take pleasure in conducting visitors through our laboratories and experiment grounds.
I shall in this paper give some of the fundamental considerations in the matter of fertilizing fruits and vegetables in general, and indicate the lines along which experiments should be made, rather than -give specific and definite advice to the Cuban horticulturist. This is because but little work has as vet been done in Cuba, and our knowledge of the fertilizer requirements of Cuban soils is rather limited.
The Experiment Station has undertaken under the direction of Professor Austin, some rather extensive experiments in fertilizing both vegetables and fruits,
but until these tests have run long enought to give exact data, we shall have to c(olifine ourselves to a consideration of the results obtained in other countries, and( to those principles of fertilization which are general and apply more or less to all countries.
As the subject of fertilizers has not been discussed to any considerable extent in Cuba, it might he well to enumerate some of the chief raw materials of which they are male, and (iscuss their chemical relations, as an int roduction to a more detailed consideration of the subject.
I'ertilizers in general are valuable only in proportion to the amount of hsph5 ic acid, nitr(ogien and potash that thel contain, and to the form or chemical combinathon in which the\ are found.
tPh oslphoric acid is derived chiefly from t\wo) sources, iiamely, hone meal and rock 1phoslphates.
Sulphuric acid is used to dissolve the plhosp)hate rock, and after this action the 1hlsp~aric acid is said to be soluhle and available to plants. A small allimount of sulphuric acid is occasionallyv added to bone meal and tankage so as to render its phosphoric acid more soluble or available. Chemists know no difference between soluble phosphoric acid derived from bones, and soluble phosphoric acid derived from rock 1)phosp)hates. Theretore so far as the soluble phosphoric acid is concerned it makes little difference whether it be of animal or mineral origin. The insoluble phosphoric acid, however, from bones is more valuable than that from rocks, inasmuch as it can be more quickly utilized by the growing plant.
The nitrogen in fertilizers is derived from nitrate of soda. sulphate of ammonia, or some organic source. Both nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia are cryslalline salts and soluble in water.
The chief organic sources of nitrogen are blood, tankage, and bones from the slaughter houses, waste fish, etc., and some vegetable substance like cottonseed meal or rape meal. Tankage is a slaughter house product composed of bones, flesh, blood, etc., and contains a very variable amount, both of phosphoric acid and nitrogen.
The nitrogen in nitrate of soda is at once available to plants, that from sulphate of ammonia and high grade blood being the other most readily available sources.
The nitrogen from other organic sources becomes available in time-the lenght of time depending on the nature of the organic material containing the nitrogen.
Potash is derived from the sulphates or chlorides, or some of the impure mixtures of these salts, and is accompanied by various foreign substances as sulphate and chlorides of magnesia, lime and soda.
ACTION OF FERTIIZERS IN TItE SOIL
it has been known for 'ang time that soils have the power of fixing or hol )hosphoric acid, nitrogen
wl n the form of am and potash.
,4 her words, if voi i funnel with a good soil an ~.) r into this soil, s pf 1)otash salts, of phosphi -s or of sulphate of ,,,)nia, the soil holds back th( various substances, and the water passing through the oil is comparatively free of them. This is of the gre est consideration in studying fertilization, since witl ut this power of absorbing the ingredients the torr tial summer rains common in Cuba, would soon was' ut and waste the fertilizers.
Bi '1 soils do not have the same absorptive power for t -elements and therefore a study of the behavior of di,,rent types ol soil in this respect would not oniv be int estming and instructive, but profitable as well.
A w ears a-o the writer made a few experiments with fjawaiir spils to determine the rapidity with whic the el, .eits are fixed, and t'.4, Ivarying lixing power possessed by different Hawaiian soils.
Fol wing are the conclusions arrived at:
I. I'he red iron soils of Hawaii have very great absortive power for anmmnonia, phosphoric acid and potash.
2. When a liberal (lose of soluble phosphates was applied to the soil, followed at once by a heavy irrigation more than one-half the phosphoric acid remained in the
first inch of the soil more than nine-tenths in the first three inches, and practically all in the first six inches.
3. When an interval of fifteen hours intervenes between the application of the fertilizer more than ninetenths are held within the first inch of soil and practicallv the whole within three inches.
4. Sulphate of ammonia applied in like manner, followed by irrigation, one-half was retained by the first inch and practically all by the first six inches of soil.
5. Potash was fixed rather more quickly than amnmonia, 7o per cent. heing held by the first inch, and l)ractically all by the first six inches.
6. Both sulphate of amn nia and potash can be washed out by)v repeated irrir ns, 190 per cent. of -he latter having been washed f six inches of soil b1
eight successive irrigatioli
7. On sandy soils, the 'ing descomposed ,
shells, etc., the potash an< gen as was to have Cn expected was washed or more ral)idly, the c, 'ride of potash having leac. nore rapidly than th. ulphate.
As is well known, nitrate of soda is riot fixed 1"' he soil, but is easily washed out. WVhen it is applied f the soil it is dissolved quickly by the moisture, and wh& ver the moisture goes it carries the nitrate. It is the ore found in drainage water. >
The foregoing facts are very important, indeed lthey are fulndamental in any consideration of the al .'tion of fertilizers. They show that there is little dI r of the phosphates being washed out from any ci able soil, that potashes and aninonia compornds are paratively stabl- 1 tVihat they are gradmlD ('ost fr( soils subject either c 'heav" irrigation, or 'tIiCvv i. fall, that care should be taken in fertilizing sandy sow's, as the elements of fertilization are subject to leachin -, and that in this latter case the potash should be apl) bd in the form of sulphate.
Vegetables as a rule are quick growing, plants and they should have nothing but very soluble and quickly available fertilizers, the winter is the time for growing of vegetables and there is not so much danger of losing
the fertilizer by heavy rain, therefore nitrate of soda can be advantageously used, and the fertilizer should be mixed with the soil SOme days before the plants are set out. The reason for this is that chemical fertilizers are acid, and( in this condition prove injurious to the roots of young tender l)lants, but the soil very soon after anplication corrects this aci(dit.
As is well known stable manure is one of the best fertilizers for gar(lens. Its chief effect, however, is in the improvement of the mechanical condition of the soil. rather than to supply directly plant food. A sufficient quantity of stable manure should he applied to improve the mechanical condition of the soil, but the main reliance for plant food must be in chemical fertilizers.
In the fertilizing of fruit trees, we have an entirely different problem, inanmtuch as they are long lived. Twol\ problems are here presented, nan:ely, the fertilizinog fIr the growth of the tree itself, and fertilizing for the fruit.
Nitrogen is one of the chief elements in the growth of young trees, its effect will be seen in a vigorous condition of the twigs and branches, and the healthy' green color of the leaves.
Stable manure, bone meal and tankage are fertilizers that last for a long time and they can well be applied in the hole and mixed with the soil intended for the young plant.
I would not recommend either nitrate of soda nor sulphate of ammonia for this purpose, as they will be leachcd from the soil, nor vet a great quantity of potash inasmuch as this latter will in time waste from the soil and moreover the young plants do not need it to any large extent.
When the tree is bearing fruit it needs a fertilizer containing a high content of phosphates and particularly of potashes. These should be applied in time for the young fruit to appropriate them. Fertilizers should he applied not to the trunk but to the roots, and particularly
to the y oung growviligo rootlets which are found at considerable distance fron the trunk. For the growth of the oung trees a nitrogeneous fertilizer can be used, and there is no objection to insoluble substances like bone meal, tankage, etc., but for the maturing of the fruit, less nitrogen and more phosphates and( potashes in a soluble condition can be used to advantage.
From rather deficient opportunities of observation I am convinced that the physical condition of Cuban soils is of paramount importance. (O)wing to torrential rains of summller, drouths of both summer and wintertr in which the soil is baked and the bacterial action reduced, the apparently wornout condition of much of the land makes this subject of more than usual interest.
W\lhen the water supply can be controlled as in irrigated countries vou caln grow good crops without much attention to this subject, hut in this country the money spent in fertilizing will he largely wasted unless the physical condition of the soil be attended to.
Col. Havens: Is there any difference in the effect of Phosphoric Acid from rock and from bone meal?
Prof. Crawler: There is no actual difference in the phosphoric acid as a plant food, but there may be objections to acid phosphate on land which is naturally acid. This however, need not be feared in Cuba and generally the effect of phosphoric acid from bone and from rock would be the same.
MI r. Burnett: Would there be any danger of acid phosphate being used in the iron soils in Cuba ?
Prof. Crawlev: This question has been studied in many countries and the belief is that it does not usually cause bad effects.
Mr. Mliddleton: What is the value of nitrate of Potash compared with other potash salts ? How should it be applied, as a top dressing, or should it be worked into the soil?
Prof. Crawley: Nitrate of potash is very soluble and in sandy soil there would be more danger of it washing
away than if the potash were in the form of sulphate. It can be applied as a top dressing like nitrate of soda. It is always safer to work a complete fertilizer into the soil, in the tropics where sudden heavy rains are apt to occur at any time, but this is not necessary when applying nitrates.
Report of Standing Committee on
BY. PROF. C. F. AUSTIN.
MIr. President and members of the Society:
In last year's report we went over in a general way the varieties of fruits as they seemed to impress us from what they had done so far. So far as I can see there seems to be little to ad(l in the way of varieties, to the list already published.
The most commniolv planted varieties are: Valencia, Pineapple, arsono. Brown and WVashington Navel; of p)omelos: Marsh. Walters, Triumph. Duncan, Royal or, (Renaso) and Native; Tangerines: Dancy; of Lemons Villa Franco: of Limes: Tahiti.
Mr. Tohln H. Kydd, of Ceballos, makes the following report:
There is very little to report on varieties here as it it hard to say what ones we have for nearly every other tree is a different fruit, and very different from what we were sulposed to have. However we have some very promising fruit. I have some Navels that were well colored in November* and eatable in October. If they should continue to mature fruit at this season they will he a valuable variety. This was from scatered trees that were not supposed to have any navel. I have ,another orange that colored up well about the first of December. They were sold to me for Ruby but so far I have failed to see any blood.
As to scale will say that I have so far not sprayed any and the trees that were bad with scale one year ago are now almost clean. I have so far picked nearly one half of my fruit and there was practically no scale on it.
There seems to be an enemy here destroying the scale, where there has been no spraying done.
There are groves here that have been sprayed almost to death, and a great deal of money spent with no good results.
As to cultivation will say that I have just gone the opposite to all the other growers in this section, for the past year, and believe the plan that I am adopting will be the best for this section. I have practically (lone no cultivation for over one year, only a small strip one way where I planted corn, no hoeing, on about five acres have done no ploughing, and this part shows the best trees and fruit. I have mulched all my trees this winter and am going to mulch another I5o acres of another grove as I am satisfied that this will bring the trees out in better shape in the spring than if given clean cultivation. The trees around here that were intensely cultivated last winter suffered the most from the drouth. The time that cultivation is all right is when the land is irrigated or after a shower but the continued stirring of the soil, in my opinion, only makes it all the drier, at least this is my experience.
It seems to me that more care should be taken in the matter of cleaning the fruit before it goes to market, If the fruit were sent to the markets of the world in the same condition that much of it is sent to the local Havana markets it would not bring very much, for many fruits are very dirty as to scale. They should be washed, brushed or wiped with a cloth so as to have them as clean and bright as possible.
More care should be taken in the grading as to brihts, and russets. for we find much that is all mixed up, there being very little or no effort made to grade it.
Mr. Thos. R. Towns reports: The general condition of trees from Camnagiey East is the best, while the crop is extremely late on account of the seven months drouth which ended generally the last week in May. The trees were in such a dry condition that no bloom could set until early in JTuly. In some cases bloom appeared sooner but mostly aborted. While the crop as a whole is not what the trees should
have on, the fruit is of good size and will carry well. Ilie suininer generally has been a dry one, a "prohi1)1i101()l 01C however, the trees are now blooming and will set fruit that will be on the market next suminer. Grape fruit is generally setting a full crop now after getting rid of a fair crop in later October. This bloom was set in March to ripen in September and October. 'lThe crop was sold and picked by October I 5th and now there is a heavy crop setting or is now set. They did the same thing last year, and I am getting to think they are ever bearers where budded on thrifty stocks.
All groves in this part of Cuba are being cared for in the best manner. Mi any of the small planters are spending more time than is necessary with their trees, but the newness will wear off. I have just received a report from the Nipe Bay country, The IDumois Brothers, who are shipping a crop of from 5o,ooo to 6o,ooo boxes of oranges, grape fruit and lemons report that oranges have arrived in bad condition, wasty, but grape fruit and lemons have given the best satisfaction as to carrying and prices received. My informer says that the trouble is not in the orange, but in the way that it is handled, that the land is very rich and that the coarseness is noticeable and no attempt is made to cull it out or to improve the quality by the use of potash.
It is very hard to tell very much about varieties as yet, for the reason that all the early planting was brought from Florida. This is fruiting now, but all trace of varieties are lost. Some are distinguishable, among which are the Valencias which begin to show fair color before march, but are so very sour that no one will eat them until April or May. This extreme long time on the tree with two crops on for several months causes the crops to be irregular, only each second year will they give a good crop, and this crop is affected by the usual spring drouth, causing the fruit to drop, wilt and become unsalable to a certain extent.
My own varieties, which are all in fruit in the nursery rows continue to show improvement in flavor this season, which is the third fruiting for some and the second for others. I think that my Sanford's Mediterranean Sweets is the best orange that I have seen in Cuba. On my soil it is early, colors perfectly, prolific, shape perfect, tree thornless, vigorous, fruit has a bouquet of flavor that will win anywhere. It hangs in perfect condition for four months, in fact it improves for two months after coloring. September first finds it ready for market when the bloom comes at proper season. This year it is late, only showing some color now.
PARSON BROWN.-This variety is improving to a great extent in flavor, trees are very vigorous. It takes a place until something better is found. It does not color any earlier than many other varieties.
TANGERINE.-The "DANCY" is proving itself to be one of the finest of the citrus family. The majority of my trees are with their first fruit and they are fine, very prolific, in fact they must be reduced by early fruit pruning to get them of good size, and ready for market August I5th, and still perfect to ship after four months ripe on the tree.
MAJORCAS.-I have not seen enough of this variety to give particulars. It is fruiting this season for the first time and appears to be doing all right so far.
LMONs.-The "VILLA FRANCA" is proving to be very fine, desirable in every way and will rank with the best imported or California lemons. They are very prolific, smooth and running over with delicious juices. We must plant this variety.
GRAPE FRuOrr.-Cuba is the home of the grape fruit. It is yet early to say which is the best variety, in fact I have yet to see it without merit. There are some varieties that tend to pear shape that should be cut out as they never sell to advantage. Nurserymen can by budding such kinds, find a tree with proper shaped fruit and in a few generations the proper shape will be gained.
SATSUMA.-\Vith US this variety has not proved to be worth carrying, so am not budding it any more.
WAmSIlaNTON NA t.-This variety has improved over last year, but there is still much to be desired. The sweet is too flat and rag is too perceptible. It is worthy however of further trial.
KtMotLA'TS.-I have only tried the NAGAMI or oblong, which is a perfect success.
Mlr. \.ason: I am glad to hear Prof. Austin mention the "Royal Grapefruit". With us we call it the "Pinero". We have a great deal of it on our place and it is found in other places in the Isle of Pines and we find a ready market for it although the commission merchants did not encourage the handling of it to begin with.
Prof. Austin: This grapefruit is common in Cuba and is called the "Native grapefruit". It was taken from here to Florida and brought back again. I consider it a valuable type and am glad that it is "taking" well in the States.
Col. Harvey: We should not bud to varieties here just because they have done well in Florida or California but because we know what they will do here. If nursymen would search out the best of the native varieties and bud from them it would be a good thing for the citrus industry in Cuba.
Mr. Towns: The nursymen here cannot do that because nobody will buy a variety just because the nursymian says it is good, it must first have received the official approval of some higher authority.
Col. Havens: I think also that a recommendation from the Experiment Station to the nursymen would be a good thing. If the Experiment Station could search out these good varieties and trace out their history a lot of good would be accomplished.
Prof. Austin: Many people do not realize how difficult a matter it is to make selections of native fruits for they must be searched out and brought together and fruited and from these the best one selected for distribution over the country. It is a line of work that wit)
take many years to make a success of it. In this work every planter should be on the lookout for new fruits and send bud wood to the Station where it will be budded and grown along by the side of the other varieties. We need and must have the cooperation of the people in order to succeed in this line of work.
Prof. Earle: The question of experimenting with citrus fruits and searching out promising native varieties was carefully considered in the past by the Experiment Station and everything was (lone that circunstances permitted.
Col. Harvey: I do not believe that it is possible to succeed without the aid of the Experiment Station and there is nothing that I want to see more than the proper support of the people in this great work of the Experiment Station and the opening of Sub Stations all over the Island.
Prof. Crawley: There is a movement on foot to establish Sub Stations in different parts of the Island and if the government will take this matter up the Station will be able to do that kind of experimental work which it is impossible to do at present.
Col. Havens: The question of clean cultivation, mulching and legumenous crops are very important and it would be interesting to have them discussed more thoroughly.
Mr. Towns: I have found everything in Cuba provided you hunt for it, an( I believe that in many sections of the country at least we have enough water to grow an orange tree and a crop of fruit. We do not take proper care of the moisture. We can preserve the soil moisture by cultivation, but cultivation is work and 1 do not think it is natural for a man to work here in Cuba. I would therefore rather find some other way. Soil moisture can also be preserved by keeping the ground covered and no doubt one of the best things to use is leguminous plants. Of course no fixed rules can be laid down for all soils but in Eastern Cuba the work of cultivation can be minimized by growing legumes part of the time and by mulching.
Prof. Austin: I am very much in favor of mulching on certain soils.
Mr. Newsom: In Florida we never dared to leave a mulch very long for the reason that it draws the roots to the surface which roots are destroyed by the cultivator and therefore nothing is gained. To mulch successfully the mulch should he renewed and the ground kept covered constantly.
Prof. Earle: One reason why cultivation does not always serve the purpose is that it is not started early enough. It is of no use to try to preserve the moisture after it has evaporated.
Col. Harvey: There is this much about mulching, vou bring the feeding roots to the surface and next time you cultivate you rip them all up. Therefore you must either mulch all the time or not mulch at all. Personally I believe the system of growing legumes and plowing them in at the right season is a method that is well adopted to all soils.
Report of Committee on Pineapples
BY COL. S. S. HARVEY
Mr. President members of the Society.
During the past year the pineaple crop of Cuba held its own as the leader commercially of Cuban fruits. It also demonstrated once more that the plants would make a crop in an adverse season. The crop was a million crates, or more, and they sold for good prices throughout the season. In fact, the Cuban Pineapple crop of 1907 sold for more money than any one that had gone before.
The field average was small as to size, owing to the remarkable long drouth that the island suffered from. But, as noted above, the crop, which was a good paying one, was produced and the fruit shipped in fine condition. It is certain that the fruit arrived in northern markets in better average condition than usual, on account of maturing without an excessive amount of water. It seems sure that, no matter how bad the seasons, the grower of pineapples can safely count on a paying crop of fruit.
I am often asked as to the cost of raising pineapples in Cuba. After several years of careful watch of extensive fields and small ones I conclude than the cost is about io cents per dozen for the field average. The cost of plants cuts quite a figure, as some years they are very high and others very low. The range is from $i to $8 per thousand plants. They are bulky and troublesome to transport, so the distance they may have to be moved is important. An ordinary car will not carry more than 2.oo dozen suckers or 3.ooo dozen slips and it is verv much cheaper if they can be handled in bulk, loose, tian if they have to be packed in sacks or crates.
In estimating the cost of pine fields one must divide the first year's cost, breaking and bedding ground, setting plants, extra cultivation of first year and cost of plants by three or four, its one expects to get three or four crops from one planting.
The number of paying crops that could be taken from a field of pines is probleniatical. They will propagate themselves indefinitely. I have cut good fruit from a field that had been planted eighteen years. There was nothing like a full croop of fruit on the field, but only an occasional fine pine. \Vhat the result would have been if the field bad been properly cultivated, the new plants trimined out and cared for, we have no way of knowing. I have never heard of a case in Cuba where an effort has been made to keel) a field in condition for more than four or five years I have always believed it possible to make a field give more crops than they do under the present cultivation, or rather want of cultivation. TIhe Cuban planter only sets pines on the best of red land. Some of our American planters are raising fine fields of fruit on the lighter sandy lands. I hope to see some of them demonstrate the feastbility of raising more pines to the acre and continuing the field for several years longer than the Cubans do.
The Cuban grower has succeeded in making good money by raising pines. Will the American do as well, or better? There are splendid farmers among the pineapple growers of Cuba, men of a bility, who are prosperous in the money crop (pines) that they have undertaken. After years of experience they will only plant pines on the best of red land. They plant on high beds that are five and a half feet between centers. They put in the plants so as to average one foot apart. That is about 8.ooo plants on an acre.
The native planter has never learned that there is much of his land that can be made to produce better fruit by fertilizer and cultivation. The American knows better-at least some of them do know-and others think they do, or they can learn.
Under a different system of setting pines ten to twelve thousand are set to the acre. It may be proven
by experience that on light lands where commercial fertilizer is largely d1epended upon for plant food, a larger number of plants can lbe successfully raised, and~ further, that more years may be added to the life of the field.
There is one thing sure about the difference between rich, heavy lands andl lighter sandyl lands-the sandy lands are very much pleasanter to live on. Those who live on the red land are known anywhere by the color
--their persons, their horses, their dogs all animals and fowls are red in color. After a rain they must stop every few moments to relieve the feet from a masF of sticky red mud, while those on sandy lands can go out and walk about their places comfortably at any time. The lighter lands are much easier worked and a trend of compensation runs in favor and against until all should be satisfied.
Pineapple Culture On Sandy Land
BY G. W. MACE
Mr. President and MIembers of the Society:
Pineapple culture in Cuba during the past has been done mostly on the heavy red lands as the lighter sandy lands were not considered profitable to plant on, but in the past three years there has been some very good fruit harvested from the lighter lands and from present indications there will be a large acreage planted on the lighter lands.
The cost of tillage on this class of land is much less than on the heavier lands and it can be worked during the rainy season.
We have tried the 1)ines in three different methods of planting and in each case they have done well, which shows that the pine thrives on this class of soil. \Ve first planted among orange trees and then we found them in beds of eight rows to the bed, but we found that the center rows did not give as good fruit as the outside rows. We then planted some of them in single rows and this also proved to do well. WVe then took out the center rows of the beds that had eight rows to the bed and found that the fruit did better and gave larger apples.
We have about ninety acres planted to pines among orange trees that will be bearing this coming season and sixty-five acres that we have outside of trees. The method that we used in the last named plot is different from the first plantings. We have the pines in beds of four rows each. The plants are set 24 inches by i6 inches in the beds and we leave an alley betwen each bed. One alley is six feet wide and the other four feet
wide and each alternate alley six feet and between will be the fourth alley. In this method we have room to work the beds from both the fourth alley and the sixth alley with the scuffle hoe and when picking time comes we will be able to use the larger alley for gathering of the pines with wheelbarrows and thie smaller will be used only for the picking of the fruit. As it is, larger space can be used both for the gathering and picking of the apples. We prefer to use the wheelbarrow as by having the packinghouse in the field and by padding the sides and bottom of the barrow we avoid an extra handling of the fruit and also the carting which is quite an item. One man will wheel i M cases at one load and often two cases which makes it very chea) and the work not so hard as when carried on the head.
Preparation of the Soil
The preparation of the soil for planting if taken in time can be done mostly with the plow and harrow. The first plowing should be done shallow and then worked down with a disk harrow and allowed to lay till the soil rots sufficient by to shake apart, then cross-plow with a disk plow, work the top well and keep it thoroughly pulverized and free from weeds and grass till time of planting, then stake off the center of the beds the distance you wish and plow the beds in the form of a back furrow and with a harrow and float the beds can be put in a condition which will need very little hoe work. When the land has been thoroughly prepared a good share of the battle has been done as the hoe work after the plants are set is very expensive and is hard on the plants if done soon after planting. The scuffle hoe in this method gives very good results if followed up closely and the grass not allowed to get too much of a start. With the ordinary hoe too many of the rows are exposed and the earth piled ur in plowing the ground is left very uneven, whereas with the ordinary scuffle hoe the grass is cut off and the ground left as smooth as when first set. Four or five hoeings are generally sufficient for planted in this way they will then be large enough to cover the ground and after that the work is very little. The working of the spaces between the beds can be done with a miule or a yoke of oxen and if done often the weeds can be kept down very easily.
Eleven acres planted between the orange trees have given the following results: First year, 1,747 cases; second year, 2,200 cases; third year, I,oo cases. The cost of the third year's care of the pines was less than $O0 per acre. With the slips gathered and at the price that they have been for the last few years they have given a very good profit.
This experiment has been without fertilizer and now we are going to experiment with the fertilizing of the pines in the buds and also on the ground with different quantities so that we will be able to know what will be the most profitable both in quantity and the best method.
BY PROF. C. F. AUSTIN
l\lr. President and Members of the Society:
I wish to call your attention for just a few minutes to this question of Cover Crops or soil improving crops, catch crops or whatever you may call them. To me it is one of the most important problems before the orchardist of this country. It is one that many growers cannot neglect longer if some of the groves that are planted are ever going to he worth anything. You cannot neglect the improvement of the soil and expect to grow a profitable orchard. It is an old topic in many fruit sections and there has been a great deal written about the relation of humus to the soil. I believe that every one must agree with me that nearly every kind of soil in this country is deficient in veo-etable matter, humnus, especially the light lands and those that have been under cultivation for any length of time. I think every one is familiar with the action of humus or vegetable matter on the soil; how it lightens, loosens, helps to increase the water holding capacity, helps to liberate the plant food and to make it more available, so that I shall enter upon a discussion of these matters, only in a very limited way for time will not permit a lengthy discussion. I just wish to give a few quotations from Bulletin No. of our station.
"Much has been said of the fertility of Cuba and other Central American Countries, but this original fertility is rapidly disappearing and already in Cuba and( other American countries there are lands as poor and exhausted as the poorest of the Old World.
Unfortunately for us the happy time has passed in which we could say that Cuba was the land of promise, in which to scatter the seed over the ground was enough
to insure a prompt, exquisite, and abundant harvest. You may scatter your seed over the greater part of the cultivated lands of the Provinces of Pinar del Rio, 11avana and Matanzas and you will wait in vain for it to bring you abundant harvest. To all of these lands we apply the well known epithet of exhausted soils. Nevertheless if we were to take samples of these soils and send them to a chemical laboratory we should obtain a report of the analyses which would show ius that they hold a respectable reserve of the chemical elements useful for plant food." Without going further into this matter we see there is cause to consider the plants that will help to change these conditions of our soil.
There are two classes of plants that may be used for cover crops, one that does not gather nitrogen from the soil and one that does, it is with this latter class that we are interested. The past summer we took up the study of the leguminous plants that seemed suitable for cover crops. We have only made a start and have by no means tried them all or made any definite progress with those that we have tried.
We tried some i9 different ones this sumnmner. The legumninous plants in this country naturally divide them selves into two classes, the annual ones or those that live only a few months, such as Cowpeas, Velvet Bean, Beggar Weed, etc., and the perennial ones or those that live for one or more years.
The seed of all plants mentioned was sown the I 3th and 16th of June. Four varieties of cow peas were sown, black, clay, unknown and California halckeved. They all made a good growth but the unknown gave the heaviest vine growth, followed by the clay and black. They were practically ripe the first of September. There is probably no crop that will make the amount of growth, and have the amount of vegetable matter to give to the soil that cow peas will in the same length of time. They have always given us the best results when sown in drills about 22 feet apart, and given a few cultivations to get them started. It takes about one peck of
seed in drills and about one bushel broad cast. They should be sown in May or after the spring rains begin.
Velvet beans made a fine growth, it takes them longer to get started, but they make a much heavier growth to plow under. When sown June t15th they were ripe about the middle of November. Sow in drills as for cow peas and 12 to I5 inches in the row. We d(lid not find them very troublesome to keep off the trees. They are one of the best for grassy lands. Neither cow peas nor velvet )eans do any thing when sown in the fall.
Of .the erect growing legumes Beggar \Veed gave the best results and made an excellent growth. I do not consider it near eonal to cow peas or velvet beans as a plant to keep down weeds.
Soja beans made a very poor growth and have little value, White, blue and yellow lupins were of no value. \Ve have grown some fine crops of white lupin during the winter with water but, it gave no results the past stiummier.
Several foreig-n plants were tried but none came up to the cow peas or velvet beans.
Of the perennial or long time plants the following have been tried for one season only. Some of them seem to have some promise for certain places.
Phaseolus Itunatus is a small weak growing plant. It does not seem to have nuch value.
Clitoria Ternatea gives somrne promise. It is a strong, hardy climbing plant and has made good growth, during the dry weather it shed nearly all the leaves but Just as soon as it had a little rain it came out again.
Calopogoniul Coeruleum.-This is a native vine of this country and while it \was rather slow in getting started it has made a remarkable growth. It trails closely to the ground and covers the surface with a fine coating of vines.
Canavalias.-There are three species of this plant. C. Gladiata is a very rank, Ftrong growing type with large red seeds. It is a climbing variety and makes a wonderful amount of growth. The vines are rather coarse. It gives promise of being very valuable for land that cannot be worked, or where the grass is bad. It is
a long season, for seeds are just ripening. The seed is hard to shell. C. 3167 is a trailing variety with brown seed. The vines are long and keepl) close to the ground It is making abundance of seed.
C. Ensiformus is the bush form and has white seed. It is not very promising.
Dolichos Lablab-white, brown and black.-This is another of the native heans. There was very little difference in the growth of these plants; all make a strong, hardy growth. The vine is rather coarse and heavy. It is probable that the white one is going to be the best.
Cajanus Cajan (Pigeon Pea) (Gandula). We have not tested this plant only in a very small way, but it gives great promise both as a cover crop and for the amount of grain that it makes. It is valuable as a wind brake for when sown thinly it reaches a height of six to ten feet.
Just what is going to be the value of these long time plants it is hard to tell, but they give promise of having a place in the list. There is no doubt that some are going to be useful for land that is too hilly and rough to cultivate, if such land be planted to oranges, or for tree rows that are to be cultivated only one way. It may be that on some of the lands the orchard can be sown down to some of these plants and left for a period of years. Although to my iind it is very doubtful if we can do away with ploughing and ctiltivation for any length of time. I am rather more impressed with the fact that we have got to give more attention to the question of cultivation than many are giving. But this is another topic and I will close.
Prof. Earle: I can testify to the great value of the plants mentioned by Prof. Austin: the pidgeon pea or gandula, the canavalia and the white form of lablab all of which promise to be very valuable,
Orchard Planting On Timber Land
COST AND BEST METHOD OF CARING FOR
SAME TO A BEARING PERIOD
BY THOS. R. TOWNS
Mr. President and Members of the Cuban National tHorticultural Society:
Eastern Cuba has in the past few years planted several thousand acres to Citrus Fruits on timber lands. In doing this, many ideas have been employed. Some have left wind brakes of forest timber, but the great majority have not. Some have stumped their lands that they may plough; generally they have not. Among all the plans, two are generally followed. Of the two, one has the preference. It is as follows:
The land is cut of all timber, the tops well cut down to lie close for good burning. This being done, the work is left for 6o to 90 days or longer, to dry out thoroughly, when the whole is fired and burned. This being done, it is seen that many logs are left as well as some small pickup stuff that must be gotten rid of. The forces are again called together for piling the unburned stuff. This work is lightened a great deal by the use of oxen and chains, doing the work much cheaper than by hand, care being used to put free burning woods around those that are very sappy and hard to burn. This work is done most thoroughly during the dry spring months of the year, rainy weather causes poor burns, and everything must be rehandled again. Many kinds of timber, if cut in the dry spring will not sprout from the root or stump, whereas, if cut during the summer or fall it quickly sends up numerous sprouts that cost money to remove. This I
believe clears the land ready to plant. We will take up the other plan of preparing the land for planting, which differs little from the first in cost, but offers some advantages of value. Instead of burning all the logs the second burning, burn only the small trashy stuff, decide which way you will run your rows and put stakes on each side of your grove at the Roperr distance for planting. This being done it is easy to sight and set a third stake which will show the log pilers where a row is to come. Pile your logs and plant your trees, the logs act as a mulch as well as decaying and giving plant food at a time when the trees are in need of it. Vhen burned as in the first plan, the food is left in the ash, but before the newly planted trees can take it up, the sun and wind have freed it all, and it is lost to the orange tree, but corn or pineapples can be planted which will use i'i portion of the food matter. Either plan will have its followers. The small holder needs his land to live from until his grove will care for him, while the large planter will find it hard to employ labor and grow crops at a profit between his trees, if he is not careful he will drain not only his purse but his land also. However, two crops of corn can be grown yearly between the trees, and should be done at a profit, provided the planter is able to store his crop and protect against weevils until prices are right. My neighbors sell corn at $i.oo per hunderd pounds, from the field to the merchant. I store and protect against weevil and sell three months later at $2..%0 per hundred pounds. Cost of protecting against weevil (toes not exceed ten cents per hundred pounds. Let us now get our land planted in grove and corn between the rows. The pineapple I know "in theory only".
To grow corn between the rows of orange trees without detriment, the tree rows should run East and West, taking care not to plant nearer than seven feet on the South side of the row, and as close as two and a half feet on the North side, planting in this manner your trees never suffer for right, which is life to them. They are also protected from the strong winds that are severe on newly planted trees. Corn can be planted on strong land with rows 30 to 36 inches in the drill, two stalks to
the hill, and should be planted on the first good season after Mlarch 23rd. I have planted as late as June first, and made a good crop. The fall crop as soon after Septemher 8th as the season will permit. These dates were given me by Cuban planters who succeed and have never failed to produce for me a profitable crop. I always use the Cuban yellow corn for seed. Pumpkins can be planted the same time as the corn. Trees can be planted before or after the corn is planted, and at the end of two years or four crops of corn. The third -year should be given to soil building. Plant velvet beans with first spring rains. They should be planted six feet by six feet two beans in the hill, and when they begin to grow it will be a daily task to keepl) them from the tree, which should have its maiden fruit. Care should be used in not allowing the tree to overload itself. No rule can apply as to how mniany fruit to leave, but remember that you should be tree making, and yon will leave only a few.
\We will now take up the care of the grove where the logs have been piled into the rows and left to decay, and feed the trees as well as mulch the ground. I would suggest that velvet beans be planted as late as October and get a fair vine crop. The bean is very valuable as a stock food, being richer than corn, but must be crushed to get the best results. They will greatly increase the butter yield. They are very fine for hogs as they come from the vines. Considering its feeding as well as its soil building qualities, the velvet bean is indispensable on the farm.
\We will now take up cost of clearing, planting and caring for a period of profitable production-say four years. Cost of clearing land as mentioned with or without logs-$18.oo to $25.00oo per acre. Cost of planting to best buded citrus trees-any varieties--35 cents to 6o cents per tree as to size. This price allows replanting at no cost to owner. Care for First year-$3o per acre.
Second year, while there is no more grass than the first year, the trees need more pruning, spraying and care generally. Cost is $42.00oo per acre.
Third year.--More pruning and spraying, and this
year there will be more or less fruit, some varieties of grape fruit and oranges will load up with more than is good, and when it is, say two months old it can be easily determined how much to cut off. Cut it off with fruit shears. On well grown fruit trees, a few fruits may be left, care being used to see that it is on strong limbs. The less fruit the better, as the grove is tree making and not fruit making. Make your tree strong, distributing the limbs to balance the load they are to carry the coming year. Cost of this year $54.00.
Fourth year.-This year the trees can carry some fruit, on well grown trees, 200 oranges. 50 to 8o grape fruit will not hurt them, but this must be distributed carefully to keep from breaking the limbs. Again props can be used to advantage.
Cost of this year is $6o.oo and a yield of one box to the tree which will more than pay its keep for the year.
Fifth vear.-This year the crop will at least double and running expenses are not increased to exceed $50o per acre. Estimates of the fourth and fifth years production are very conservative and if properly sold, will repay the entire cost of the grove, leaving its owner the grove as profit.
Prices placed on all the mentioned work will depend on the class of labor employed the best labor, must be selected carefully, and employed by the year. A good grove cannot be made with green careless labor.
Summing up the cost to find a total, we find it about as follows:
Clearing land .............. ...$25.00
Planting IOO trees to acre ....... ...50.00
First year's care .... ......... 30.00
Second ..... ............... 42.00
Third ............ ...... 54.00
Fourth .... .............. 6o.oo
Fencing ..... ............... 5.00
Cost of one acre to 48 months of age is for lots of
Io to 2- acres. Figures given allow a fair profit to the one doing the work. 5o to 1oo acres can be discounted 10 percent.
XWe yet have our corn crop, which is a profit, provided the weevils are kept out.Tlhe lxperiinent Station at Santiago de las Vegas will tell you how to kill them. It cannot be sold at profit at gathering time, but three months after you can sell it at $2.00oo to $2.50 per hundred pounds or feed it to your stock. At this price it is protfitable to sell.
Practical Notes On
Citrus Culture In Western Cuba
BY HERMAN A. VAN HERMAN
First S action, General Observations
To the Members of the Cuban National Horticultural Society.
Acting under request to bring my notes on Orange Culture, I now take pleasure in presenting them to you in a rather dsconnected and abbreviated form.
It was my intention to bring before you at this time, a paper dealing somewhat in detail wit the Genesis of Cuban Citrus Culture, but as time and space will not permit in would be better to hold it until our notes are more complete.
Papers of this kind usually consist of facts, theories, and opinions, each of which may be of pratical interest; but I suspect that the request means Facts as observed in Citrus Culture.
There are so many questions to ask and so many facts to be proved that one does not always know how to answer, and most questions must be answered in a general way. It is very common to hear the following questions asked by prospective growers, and in many instances by men who are already in the business, Viz:
What are the prospects in the orange business, would you consider it a profitable investment? What section of Cuba do you think the best adapted to the growing of Oranges and Grapefruit? \Vhat kind of soil and subsoil do you consider best for orchard purposes. What should be the cost of land, planting, and the cost
per year for cultivating? When will the trees bear, and what should be the income after the trees are five years old ? etc.
All these are pointed questions and call for honest allS WerS.
In answering, aly o/C nla venture and opinion, but facts are rather elusive alnd hard to obtain. The men w\ho are in the business alnd know the truth from experience have their own interests, or pride to protect, and will seldom elucidate on the most important points. On the other hand the inquisitive and credulous prospector has been receiving more than his share of information from another class of his country-men, who do not always find it business policy to tell all the truth.
Laboring under false impressions, many good people have paid hard earned money for land, and have planted trees in situations, that promise to be anything but a paying proposition under the best management. The cost of grove management has been minimized to a fraction of the real expense, and quick returns greatly exagerated by the same source of information.
The history of Citrus Culture in Florida and California is repeating itself in this Island. The forces behind the business are very much of the same nature, We have with us many of the same good nature(d, wide-awake, Land Agents, ever ready to help us get rich by selling us a farm of any size we wish to have, on easy terms, cheap at a high price.
The individual growers are also very much of the same type, it is true some have had the experience of growers in the States, but most of us are pioneers in the business, in a Pioneer Country. Some of us are not even of the farming sections, but have come from large cities, from professions, business-houses and offices, etc. The Citrus business still being in its infancy, with the same forces, under new and strange conditions, it is only natural that some costly mistakes would be made at the beginning.
It may be of comfort to the Cuban grower to know that seventy five percent of the trees planted in the Orange section of the United States have proved to be
a financial failure, but it is very important that the grower should be awake, read the signs and manage accordingly.
The erroneous idea that one could plant an Orange archard, go to the States, and leave the trees to the tender care of Mother Nature for the space or fiv-e or six years andl then return to reap) a golden harvest for the following fifty years, without special care or expense, has caused some bitter disappointment among many small growers.
The general impression among people in the United States is that Cuba is an extremely wet country, and even the native Cuban seems to forget that about every third or fifth year there is a more or less extended dry season, and that about every six or ten years there is a liability of an extremely long and dry season, in which many of the streams entirely disappear.
When the wet season starts and the ground becomes very wet, the roads are impassable, the vegatation runs the farms into a jungle, it is then that men forget that it was ever dry in this Island. Nature makes no mistakes; she does not forget; every one of her children are properly clothed, the fiber of their bodies are made up, by, and for the environment in which they naturally live and grow. More than three fourths of our native trees andl plants have the habits and functions charcateristic of the vegetation found in setni arid districts, where wind, sun and drought are the dominating influences, Viz :-Hard, rigid, stiff stems, or trunks; bark hard, thick, corky, and often covered with spines; leaves thick and leathery; roots often enlarged or tuberous. These are the habits of plants influenced more by extreme drought than by an excess of water.
Using these evidences as a guide to, the climatic influences for the past fifty years, we have no reason to
expect that the weather would change materially within the next half century.
I give it as my opinion that, generally speaking, the Citrus business in Vestern Cuba would be a doubtful proposition without first making adequate preparations for artificial watering of the trees in the dry winter seasons.
These things I have stated as general truths known to many observing persons, and we ask you to accept them for what they are worth.
To any one who may be inclined to think that the writer is too pessimistic, and( inclined to be "Knockling"', would say:-I believe there is a successful future for the Orange business in Western Cuba; but it will not come until we have bumped off our little horn of blind enthusiasm, and start in on a cold calculating basis. Then I believe we will have less trees, less exl pense, more and better fruit, and above all, be able to make and hold our own in the markets of the world.
LOCAL OSERVATIONS AND FIELD NOTES
Bringing the subject nearer home where the observations have been more intense and accurate, we find that the extended drouth of the last year has left its mark on the orchards. At the beginning of the wet season the trees were in a poor state of vitality, unable to make a strong healthy growth during the short wet season. Consequenth the leaves on most of the trees were only about half size and of a sickly vellow color, instead of the natural dark green. Trees in this condition usually set more fruit than they normally should, and as a consequence the fruit is small and thick skinned.
WVe find ourselves in the midst of another dry winter that bids to be even worse than last year, and if the season should extend as before into the middle of May, it will considerably reduce next year's crop, and set many of our trees back two or three years. Fruit this
year averages smaller than other years, although some of the orchards in this section have very nice fruit.
By ploughing a cover-crop under in August while the ground was still wet, it was found that the trees held up much longer than those ploughed later in the season when the ground was drier.
Heavy clay soil with frequent surface cultivation retains the moisture better this year than the lighter soils containing the iron gravel. Last year the results were just reversed.
Tangerines and other Oranges budded on Sweet Oranges, Citron and Smooth Lemon, seemed to suffer more than those budded on Rough Lemon or Sour stock.
Scale insects we have always w ith us in a more or less degree, but with their natural enemies, and occasional spraying at the proper time, will keel) them in check.
GRUBS ON ORANGE ROOTS
Beyond all doubt, the worst plague the orange grower has to contend with in this section of the Island is the larva of a class of beetles, known to us as Blue-Green Beetles and orange beetles, but properly known as (Pachnaeus Litus). The mature beetles make their appearence soon after the first heavy rains of Spring, and set to work eating the tender growth and depositing their eggs in the folds of the leaves which they prepare by pasting the leaves together, or folding-in one side of a leaf. The nits soon hatch, the minute grub drops
and presently enters the ground, beginning at once to feed on the fine hair like roots under the trees. As the grub eats and grows his apetite increases accordingly, until along toward the end of their growing period they become voracious eaters, it is at this time when the trees usually begin to show the damage done, which time is usually in late Fall and early Winter. Their beginning is mostly on the fine roots or near the surface, but as they feed and become stronger they follow the roots into the hardest kind of clay or gravell soil. We have found some at the depth of two feet, having eaten the bark off the roots as they went, in a strip aboun the wi(lth of their bodies. One or two hundred of these grubs working on a six year old tree at one time will take all the bark off the roots and l f course kill the tree. Ten percent of this number working under a tree from year to year will cause its ultimate ruin unless the tree is well cared for in the winter season. The amount of harm (done to the orchards is beyond estimate. They seem to b)e everywhere 1)resent in the soil, in the orchards, fields and native bush. We have as yet no effective remedy for reducing or exterminating the pest, it being about impossible to destroy the insects while in the ground without killing the tree. Various devices and methods are employed to catch the mature beetles before they have time to lay their eggs. This no doubt helps to reduce the number of grubs in the orchards, but is is doubtful whether with careful work, with the most improved devices now in use, wve would be able to head off the rate of increase from year to year. Birds and domestic fowls are very fond of the mature beetles. I have seen a half grown chick eat forty six beetles at one feeding and was still chirping for more. By having a large number of chickens in the orchard, and each morning having four or five men with long sticks shake the branches of the trees on which the beetles have been passing the night a great many can be caught. During the early hours of the morning the beetles are very inactive and are easily disloged and if the hens are fed for a few mornings in the orchards they will soon find the bugs and with a little call-
ing they will follow the men as long as they can cat. This is the most economic method I know off and have
-found it very satisfactory in reducing the number of insects.
It is hoped that our Experiment Station, which is doing so much good work along other lines, will soonl find some way of poisoning the mature beetles.
Abundance of water in the dry weather is a good remedy for curing the harmful effects caused by the grubs. We observe that nearly all the trees badly troubled with the grubs are existing on thin, poor or dry soil. The poorer and drier the soil the greater seems to be the damage done. WVe have proved to our own satisfaction that plenty of water will save ninety, percent of the trees, which would otherwise die or be ruined to the extent of not being profitable. Since we cannot eradicate the pests we will turn our attention to the tree. As long as the season continues wet the trees do not show the presence of the insects, but when diry weather comes on the leaves begin to wilt, the fruit shrivels and unless the trees are rigorously pruned and watered they will soon be lost. By severe pruning somec trees may be saved without watering.
These footless grubs seem to have but one aim in their short existence: that is to eat and grow fat. Whether the jplant is in full flush of growth or in the decline, seems to make little difference to them, as long as there is any green bark left. On the other hand it makes all the (lifference in the world to the tree, whether it is growing vigorously or is in a dormant state. In the first case the plant being in a growing state is strong enough to heal over the scars make new roots and go on to perform its normal functions. In the second instance, one can realize how the grubs would have all the advantage, when the sap of the plant is not in action to close up the wounds caused by their enemies, the roots left bare of the tender bark will die and the tree soon follows.
It has been noticed for some time that in certain parts of the orchard the trees grow very well in Summer and die back in WVinter. There may be different causes for this, but we find that these trees when taken up have only one third as many roots as top, the other two thirds having lCreviously been destroyed vl)v insects. In SOne such instances trees sevcrelv cut back and w atered xxell make good trees, although it might be better to take them tiup and plant youting ones in their place.
The remedy seems to be a simple one, when the means are at hand Viz: to kee) the trees stimulated and growing constantly if possible, in order that they may keep ahead of these and many other insects.
BY H. A. VAN HERMAN.
Native And Imported, Their Uses, etc.
Flowers though not a necessity of life, may well he considered a complement to civilization. From time immemorial men in all degrees of life have regarded flowering plants with sacred superstitions. Many have their merits, all have their friends-from the hovel in the wilds to the garden by the king's palace. Being the common property of mankind they have entered, at some time or other, into every phase of human existence. For their aromatic and healing properties they are idolized by the Pagans; as tokens of affection and symbols of purity, they are laid on the alters of men's most sacred devotions.
THEIR PLACE IN HORTICULTURE:
The term Horticulture, is usually applied to the growing of garden plants, whether for utilitarien or decorative purposes: Plants coming, within the province of Horticulture are often divided into three classes viz: Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers. The word "Flower" being rather restricted in its literal sense, we will here use a more general term, Ornamentals, so freely used in American Horticulture, and which may be applied to all plants, shrubs or trees used for decorative gardening, irrespective of size, color of flowers, fruits or their place in the landscape, as long as they are used in ornamentation.
Florists and nurserymen of the United States commonly classifiy plants under the following names:
1.-GREEN-HIOUSE STOCK, including nearly all tender