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The Intercom

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The Intercom
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United States -- Army. -- Corps of Engineers. -- Walla Walla District ( issuing body )
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Walla Walla, WA
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U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District
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"Serving the military and civiliam members of the Walla Walla District".

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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Vol. 39 No. 3 June Aug. 2012 US Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District

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ContentsEEO: Fair opportunities in the workplace F r o m W h e r e I S i t From Where I Sit I NTERCOM Why is it that whenever I get into an elevator or walk past a group of employees, eyes get wide and everyone goes silent? I always have the impression that someone was telling a risqu joke and before they get to the punch line ‘the EEO’ was spotted! Regardless of the reason, from where I sit, EEO is a neutral faction that is neither pro-management nor prolabor. Many people falsely believe that the sole function of EEO is to process complaints. While your EEO Of ce is responsible for processing all alleged discrimination complaints, that only covers a small portion of EEO’s everyday responsibilities. You’ve probably heard the term Equal Employment Opportunity and Af rmative Employment (AE), but do you truly understand EEO and AE principles and why they exist? EEO prohibits discrimination against all employees. Legally mandated, it ensures that all applicants and employees—males, females and all races—have a fair opportunity in the hiring process, promotions, and share equal access to training/professional development opportunities and awards. As for Af rmative Employment, it’s a remedy to address past practices of discrimination, to enable all employees to work to their full potential unhindered by prejudice and discrimination. AE was designed to promote diversity within federal agencies by leveling the playing eld for females, individuals with disabilities and underrepresented minorities. AE is a voluntary, goal-oriented program and comparisons are made on race, gender and national origin as re ected by the U.S. Census data. There are many bene ts to having a diverse workforce, but in a nutshell diversity is: D ifferent I ndividuals V aluing E ach other R egardless of S kin color, I ntellect, T alent or Y ears. Any employee, former employee or applicant who believes that they’ve been discriminated against can le an EEO complaint or grievance, or otherwise oppose unlawful discrimination without fear of retaliation or retribution. Managers and supervisors are also reminded of their responsibility to prevent, document and promptly correct harassing conduct in the workplace. Employees are urged to report acts of harassment to the appropriate management of cial. Any employee who feels that he or she has been subjected to discrimination or retaliation should immediately contact the EEO of ce at 509-527-7081/7079. We all work for a world-class engineering organization. The bottom line is, treat others as you wish to be treated—with dignity and respect. Our doors are always open, if you’re having issues please contact us! Welder Harold Wentworth at work at Ice Harbor Lock and Dam near Burbank, Wash. I I I I I I I I N N N N T T T E E E R R R R C C C C O O O O M M M M N N N N T T T T E E E E R R R R C C C C O O O O M M M M 4 Welcome Lt. Col. KellyDistrict welcomes its new Commander Lt. Col. Andrew Kelly 6 Helping avert Boise ooding The Corps partnered with federal, state and local partners to navigate through a successful ood season 8 NAGPRA; new Section District repatriates 60 known collections; stands up Cultural Resources Section 10 Engineer supports Germany Lynn Reese shares sh passage expertise with German government 12 It’s Electric Electrical Design Section lights it up 14 Ice Harbor 50th District celebrates Ice Harbor Lock and Dam’s 50 years of service 16 Former Cadet recalls 50thLocal Business owner, Mike Dunham, looks back at Ice Harbor’s inaugural celebration 17 LoMo’s new Crane Lower Monumental installs new gantry crane 22 What’s going on See what’s happening around the District 24 I’m with the Corps Natural Resources Manager Joe Maxwell is with the Corpsis an unof cial publication authorized by the provi sions of Army Regulation 360-1. It is published bimonthly by the Public Affairs Of ce, Walla Walla District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It has a distribu tion of 1,500 copies. Contents of the INTERCOM are not necessarily the of cial views of, or endorsed by, the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, or the Walla Walla District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Commander Lt. Col. Andrew Kelly PA Chief PA Specialist Joe Saxon Bruce Henrickson Editor PA Specialist Terri A. Rorke Stephen Doherty PA Specialist Student Aide Gina Baltrusch Sandra HickethierOn the coverphoto by David LewisFor more information, contact: Public Affairs Of ce U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 201 N. Third Avenue Walla Walla, WA 99362 Phone: 509-527-7020 E-mail: cenww-pa@usace.army.mil website: www.nww.usace.army.mil Jim Richards, Equal Opportunity Manager INTERCOM 2

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Above: Dworshak Dam near Oro no, Idaho Dam SafetyCorps improves Dworshak Dam’s safety rating story by Bruce HenricksonIn May 2012, Dworshak Dam and Reservoir near Oro no, Idaho, received a safer and improved Dam Safety Action Classi cation DSAC-III “High Priority” safety rating from Corps headquarters after a rigorous study and review by national safety experts. Dworshak was initially classi ed in October 2007 as DSAC-II “Urgent” because of engineering unknowns related to structural stability and foundation seepage of concrete gravity sections. The improved “High Priority” rating for Dworshak is based on the completion of a detailed “Phase I Issue Evaluation Study,” which took a closer look at the dam. The improved safety classi cation is based on 1) a con rmation of the robustness of dam design and historical performance of the structure, and 2) that potentially signi cant failure modes are a result of rare seismic events. The objective of the Corps’ Dam Safety Program is to maintain public safety, make Corps dams safer and minimize risks. What’s new in recent years is how the Corps assesses its dams and incorporates risk management concepts into dam safety management, routine activities and programming decisions. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the resulting ood damage in the New Orleans area gave rise to a new era of public safety requirements concerning dams and levees. This changed how the Corps and other federal agencies do business. It changed how the nation invests in infrastructure challenges across the country. “Public Safety will always be our highest priority,” said Lt. Col. Andrew Kelly, Walla Walla District Commander. “While we can’t completely eliminate risk, we are able to understand it and mitigate for that risk. That’s where we’re currently placing our efforts.” Dam safety action classi cations are based on a calculation of each project’s probability of failure and the consequences of failure. Probability of dam failure is based on an analysis of potential de ciencies and potential failure modes of project components. Potential consequences of failure are impacts to downstream life, property, resources (such as hydropower generation), economies and environment. Improved understanding of risks enable the Corps to better address them through structural and procedural risk reduction measures. The dam safety classi cations also assist the U.S. Congress and the Corps in prioritizing funding for dam safety improvements.photo by Stephen DohertyJune August 2012 3

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story by Terri A. Rorke st or y y by b T er ri A A Rork e e e e Welcome District Commander Lt. Col. Andrew Kelly J J uly 10 marked a ceremonious hail and farewell at the Walla Walla District. As the District said goodbye to Lt. Col. David Caldwell, who served as the commander for two years, it celebrated its newest leader, Commander Lt. Col. Drew Kelly. As the commander of the Walla Walla District, Lt. Col. Kelly oversees approximately 800 employees who manage environmental, hydroelectric, navigation, engineering, construction, emergency management and recreation services within a region covering 107,000 square miles in parts of six states. His responsibilities also include the operation and maintenance of six hydroelectric power facilities and $2.5 billion worth of infrastructure. As Kelly transitions into his new position, he shared initial impressions. “Before arriving here, I was told that this is a fantastic District, so I don’t see a rush for change,” he said. “The best part about commanders who change every two years is freshness. I have no historical baggage, no preconceived notions for what to do or how to get there. So it’s really an open dialogue. We have the whole District and leadership to steer us together,” he added. MISSION “I want to hear what all District members think the challenges and solutions are, so we can decide the way ahead together,” he said. Kelly said that his prior Army leadership positions have prepared him for today. Between commanding an Army company of 200 soldiers to serving as a deputy commander of an engineering battalion, he is excited to serve with the District. In his last job, Kelly had a unique opportunity to travel and view how senior leaders synchronize their staff and stakeholder communications to clarify the bigger picture. He said that even though he is the decision-maker, he is not necessarily the “doer” or the “subject matter expert.” Kelly said District employees have “a lot of freedom of action” while he accepts the responsibility to determine how to lead organizations and staff, how to communicate internally and externally, and synchronize with stakeholders. WINNING ATTITUDE The commander said that his command philosophy is centered around attitude. “That winning attitude is greater than you—it’s a team winning attitude that goes along with being fair and direct to everybody,” he said. “If you act, speak and externally demonstrate like you are the best at what you do, pretty soon you’ll become the best.” BACKGROUND Kelly was commissioned in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in May 1994. He held numerous assignments including joint observer trainer, U.S. Joint Forces Command and operations of cer and executive of cer for the 92nd Engineer Battalion at Fort Stewart, Ga. His service has also included deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq. His military awards include two Bronze Stars, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, three Meritorious Service Medals, two Army Commendation Medals as well as many other service decorations. Academic achievements include a bachelor’s degree in life sciences from the United States Military Academy and a master’s degree in engineering management from the University of Missouri-Rolla. Kelly is also a graduate of the Engineer Basic Of cer and Advanced courses, the Combined Arms Services Staff School, Command and General Staff College, and Joint and Combined War ghting School. He is also Airborneand Air Assault-quali ed. He and his wife, Sheila, live in Walla Walla, Wash., with their two sons Andrew and Patrick. Lt. Col. Drew Kelly photo by Gina BaltruschINTERCOM 4

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(Above, upper right) Northwestern Division Commander Col. Robert A. Tipton, left, passes the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ag to the Walla Walla DistrictÂ’s new Commander, Lt. Col. Drew Kelly at the Change of Command ceremony July 10. (Above) KellyÂ’s family (sons Andrew and Patrick and wife Sheila) greet retired District Executive Secretary Rose McNulty after the ceremony. (Center) A member of the Walla Walla High School Junior Reserve Of cersÂ’ Training Corps Brigade Honor Guard carries the Corps ag during the ceremony.photo by Gina Baltrusch photo by Terri A. RorkeJune August 2012 5

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Corps helps avert flooding in Boise story by Gina Baltrusch (Top) The gauge at the Glenwood Bridge; interior of Boise’s capitol rotunda; aerial view of Boise River; a large tree and debris lay beneath the U.S. Hwy 95 bridge over the Boise River; (right, top) Walla Walla District Hydraulic Engineer Brandon Hobbs helps address ood waters overtopping a diversion dam in Idaho. The Corps and its federal, state and local ood risk management partners and stakeholders in Boise and Idaho successfully navigated through the 2012 ood season. One day of unusually heavy rainfall in the Boise River basin, April 26, combined with recordsetting temperatures earlier during April, pushed river ows above ood stage through the mostpopulated areas of Ada and Canyon counties. However, National Weather Service forecasts and regional U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Reservoir Operations analysis resulted in advanced coordination between the Walla Walla District’s Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and local entities and prepared them for what turned out to be the highest peak in ows during April on the Boise River since 1952. Idaho’s capitol city, Boise, is the most populous metropolitan area in Idaho and home to about 532,000 people. Many homes and businesses are located within the 100-year ood inundation area, de ned as 16,600 cubic feet per second (c.f.s) or 13.3 feet in depth as measured at the U.S. Geological Service’s Glenwood Bridge gauging station located just downstream of Boise. Boise is at risk because the Boise River reservoir system provides only about a 35-year level of ood-risk management bene t (7,000 c.f.s. or 10.2 feet in depth at the gauge). The Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation operate three dams on the Boise River upstream of Boise as a system to manage ood risk reduction and irrigation storage needs. Those dams are Lucky Peak Dam and Lake (Corps), Arrowrock Dam (Reclamation) and Anderson Ranch Dam (Reclamation). That April 26 rainstorm dropped more than twice the expected amount of precipitation on top of rapidly melting snow, delivering about 23,000 c.f.s. in ows on April 28 to an already 85-percent-full reservoir system. Water releases from Lucky Peak Dam were already running just below ood stage at the Glenwood gauge to help maintain in ow management space in the reservoir. Water managers knew it was critical to increase releases to help manage the reservoir system, which meant ooding some low-lying downstream areas. “Unregulated in ows during this year’s snowmelt season were the fourth-highest peak since Lucky Peak Dam began storing water in 1956, and there were more rainstorms forecasted for the following week,” said Jeremy Giovando, a hydraulic engineer in the district’s Water Management Section. “Without carefully coordinated system management between the Corps, Reclamation and the Boise Water Master, we could have run out of reservoir storage and been forced to pass whatever in ows arrived.” To help the lower Boise River-area emergency managers better understand the Corps’ emergency management operations, the district’s Readiness Branch invited them to join EOC meetings via conference call—a degree of inclusion which resulted in improved communications between the Corps, other federal agencies, the State of Idaho and local entities. Agencies collaborated throughout the ood event, sharing data, real-time ground and aerial observations, technical assistance, photography and coordinating on public communications. During the next 18 days, water and emergency management staff worked together as reservoir-managed river ows through Boise ran above ood stage, peaking at about 8,200 c.f.s. at the Glenwood gauge on May 5, according to USGS gauge record data. At about 8,000 c.f.s., larger sections of the Boise Greenbelt adjacent to the river become submerged, and erosion of river banks may become a signi cant problem. Minor ooding occurred on sections of Eagle Island and in other low-lying areas near the river. Some roads in low-lying areas were ooded. Some homes and businesses experienced water in basements due to subterranean water level increases. Floating debris collecting on bridges threatened to impact river ows. The Corps provided technical assistance staff to help local emergency managers during the ood event. Brandon Hobbs, a hydraulic engineer from the W alla Walla District’s Boise Outreach Of ce, teamed up with Ada City-County Emergency Management and Flood Control District Number 10 of cials to help plan a way to stop river water from seeping into in a gravel pit located near Eagle Island, preventing erosion along the river in that area. A few days later, Hobbs traveled downstream to help address ood waters overtopping the Little Pioneer Irrigation Company diversion dam. As in ows reduced signi cantly during the second week of May, water managers gradually dialed back on releases from the reservoir system. On May 18, the district EOC held its last conference call of the spring ood season, ows at the Glenwood gauge stabilized well below ood stage at about 5,000 c.f.s. and reservoir management shifted from ood-control p hoto b y Stephen Doh erty photo courtesy of Ada City-County Emergency Management photo courtesy of Ada City-County Emergency Management photo courtesy of Canyon County Emergency Management INTERCOM 6

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People living along the Boise River have a new tool to help them understand their risk during oods. A large section of the river is now depicted on ood maps that show people where the water will ow and what it will look like in their community when the river crests beyond its banks. The new ood inundation maps—a joint effort by the National Weather Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers— also will help local of cials reduce ood impacts to communities by giving them more advanced information for planning. “The Boise River ood inundation map project demonstrates the National Weather Service’s commitment to identify speci c ood impacts and help communities become more weather ready,” said Vickie Nadolski, director of the National Weather Service’s Western Region. “Now when the National Weather Service issues forecasts for the river at different measurements and stages, people will be able to Flood inundation maps enhance Boise River ood forecastsopen the map and see what those stages mean to them.” Boise is the rst western U.S. city to get the maps, which are available in 68 other locations. The maps were produced in partnership between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Ada City-County Emergency Management, Idaho, City of Boise and Garden City, Idaho. “Public safety is the Corps’ highest priority, and the Boise River is the highest ood-risk priority in the Walla Walla District,” said Lt. Col. Andrew Kelly, Walla Walla District commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. “We’ve appreciated the opportunity to partner with the National Weather Service to provide technical information that will help the community and its leaders better understand and prepare for ood risk. These maps already assisted all of us in the recent ood response, and they’ll continue to serve us well.” priority to system-re ll for irrigation priority. Without the Corps and Reclamation reservoir system upstream of Boise, area residents would have experienced far more than temporarily closed roads near the river, basement seepage, a diversion dam repair, some pit-capture-prevention work and a soggy Greenbelt, according to Corps water managers. If the dams on the Boise River mainstem provided no reduction in peak ow, the in ows would have exceeded Boise’s current 35-year level of regulated ood protection for more than 40 days—four of those above the 100-year level and one day above the 200year level, said Giovando. “Anything greater than 11,000 c.f.s. would cause major ood damages,” said Giovando. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers photoJune August 2012 7

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story and photos by Terri A. Rorke Reaching common ground “I feel my life has been greatly enriched by the opportunity to get to know local Tribe members and to witness how they work together and how they think about their ancestors and homeland” Mary Collins, WSU Museum of Anthropology Director Palouse Falls State Park INTERCOM 8

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Partnered repatriation effort leads to new milestone for Tribes, District During the last six years, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Walla Walla District successfully returned 60 collections of Native American remains and cultural objects protected under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of 1990. As of July 2012, the District has repatriated all known NAGPRA collections under its jurisdiction—a milestone in the District’s partnered effort with regional Tribes to repatriate objects excavated as long ago as the 1940s when the Smithsonian River Basin Survey was conducted in advance of dam construction along the Columbia and Snake rivers. Since then, many Native American human remains have been removed from burial sites and sent to regional universities: Washington State University (WSU), University of Oregon, and the University of Idaho. Forty-seven of those collections were stored at the WSU Museum of Anthropology in Pullman, Wash. “The work was often challenging and dif cult because it required addressing past short falls like old record-keeping problems that sometimes resulted in scattered collections within WSU and other universities without any information on where to nd them,” Director Mary Collins said. She was responsible for all the District’s archaeological collections held at WSU. The NAGPRA process has also been a challenge for the District because of its funding and resources limitations and legal requirements. But as part of the District’s longterm commitment to protecting and preserving cultural resources, the District created a Tribal Relations and Cultural Resources (TRCR) Section to comply with both NAGPRA and Sections 106 and 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), which direct historical preservation requirements. Alice Roberts, chief of the District’s new Section, also directs the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) cultural resources working group that evaluates and assesses effects on cultural resources found in the District’s six federally registered multi-purpose hydroelectric facilities and reservoirs. Roberts believes the TRCR Section will help her team of four archaeologists and one tribal liaison streamline these sometimes complex processes. For Native American Tribe members, the Snake and Columbia rivers represent a sacred landscape that is part of themselves. “The tribes are very engaged in cultural resources compliance in the District,” Roberts said. “The mid-Columbia and Snake River shorelines were the sites for large villages and signi cant shing sites—many of which are now inundated.” Collins remarked that NAGPRA requirements have signi cantly improved how the Tribes, agencies and members of the archaeological community work together. “We learned to respect what the collections mean to these communities not only with regard to their history but also in their relation to contemporary community practices and identities,” she said. “I feel my life has been greatly enriched by the opportunity to get to know local Tribal members and to witness how they work together and how they think about their ancestors and homeland,” she added.District stands up new Cultural Resources Section Palouse Cemetery Reburial 2006 Marmes I Reburial 2009 Marmes II Repatriation Reburial June 2010 Reburial of Associated Funerary Objects May 2011 2009 Inadvertent Discovery Reburial June 2010 2010 Inadvertent Discovery Reburial Oct. 2010 WSU Intertribal NAGPRA Claim Transfer/Reburial (19 site collections) Aug. 2010 NAGPRA 2012 Collections Consultation of Joint Claim July 2011 WSU Repatriation (26 sites) Feb. 2012 University of Oregon-MNCH (4 sites) April 2012 University of Idaho – Nez Perce (7 sites) May 2012 Little Goose Site Remains Reburial July 2012NAGPRA ActionsJune August 2012 9

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R e e s e s u p p o r t s G e r m a n y ’ s s h p a s s a g e e f f o r t s Reese supports Germa n story by Terri A. Rorke German sh passage prospects just got a major boost. Lynn Reese wasn’t planning on going to Germany in June, but when he was invited to share his sh passage improvement knowledge, he quickly prepared. With 30 years of experience working on sh passage with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Walla Walla District, the hydraulic engineer was rst invited to meet with hydrology, hydraulic and environmental experts from Germany at an April 2011 Turner Falls, Mass., workshop, which was sponsored by Germany’s Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG). At the workshop, representatives from BFG and the Federal Waterway Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) learned new approaches on hydraulic and biological issues. So when the BAW was preparing to hold a sh passage symposium in June 2012, they wanted Reese there. “He was chosen for this presentation because of his helpful advice concerning these issues during the 2011 workshop,” BAW’s Stefanie Wasserman said. At the symposium in June, Reese presented a paper, in which he wrote about the District’s approach to designing and operating adult shway systems at dams including improving lamprey passage at its dams. “The paper was great to write because it required our organization to reevaluate more closely what we have done and what we are doing now. This can lead to improving our current operations as well as helping with future designs,” he said. Wasserman said that Reese’s informative presentation offered recommendations on preferable solutions, possible improvements and other considerations. In addition to presenting lessons learned on adult sh passage improvement at the symposium, Reese also attended another workshop where, along with Engineer and Research Development Center’s (ERDC) Research Engineer David L. Smith, the experts discussed sh issues more speci cally. Then Reese visited a hydraulic lab and three recently built shways to continue technical discussions. Many of their barrages are in need of adult sh passage improvements, Reese said. A barrage is a type of dam consisting of gates that can be opened or closed to control water ow. Historically, Germany focused primarily on navigation systems and lowhead power. In recent years, there has been a growing focus on sh passage improvement. Today, they are challenged to improve sh passage requirements, but have ow limit restrictions and are still learning about migratory species in their waterways. Wasserman said, “We hope that the site visits gave Lynn an idea of our current situation here with our barrages and hydropower plants, as well as modern German approaches.” Reese said he was happy to offer the Germans what he calls “common sense solutions and practical tips using cutting-edge technology.” But Reese cautioned that there is not a one-size ts-all approach to sh issues. “We are always going to be con ned by challenges, such as limited biological data or funding issues. But we do the best we can. Sometimes tighter budgets cause us to think outside the box a little more,” he added. “I like this organization because it pushes cutting-edge technology and it pushes people to be smarter,” Reese said about the Corps.INTERCOM 10

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R e e s e s u p p o r t s G e r m a n y ’ s s h p a s s a g e e f f o r t s n y’s sh passage efforts Scenes from District Hydraulic Engineer Lynn Reese’s June visit to Germany. (Above, center) “Badisches Landesmuseum,” or Baden Stat Museum, Karlsruhe, Germany. (Left page, center) Reese takes a moment to catch the view of the Rhine River and the town of Braubach below Marksburg Castle. While dating back to the 12th century, the Marksburg Castle is said to be the only hill castle on the Rhine that was never destroyed. (Right page) Nassau Dam on the Lahn River. (Below, far left) A German worker goes over information at the Kostheim Dam on the Main River. (Below, center) Koblenz Dam on the Mosel River. (Below, far right) Reese also had a chance to tour one of Germany’s hydraulic physical model labs. p hotos courtes y of L y nn Rees e June August 2012 11

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Chad Rhynard’s Electrical Design team walks a tightrope. The team not only requires the skills and knowledge to do its job, but it also must balance safety, reliability, customer needs and design requirements—all within budget. “There is a perception that we are expensive,” Rhynard said. “And there’s some truth to that.” While engineers are typically risk-averse by nature, they are challenged to provide solutions that last longer than industrial standards because they don’t always know when they’ll receive additional funding. “We aim to provide low-cost engineered solutions without sacri cing quality,” Rhynard said. The Electrical Design Section is responsible for all electrical designs in the District, while sharing expertise of current codes and standards both internally and externally. They work closely with project personnel from start to nish on projects, assisting with everything from design, contracts, consultation and more. The team’s biggest responsibility is building safe systems and equipment. “If a system fails, we want it to fail safely,” Rhynard said. “We can’t prevent mishap, but we can control mishap.” The team’s second highest priority is reliability, which demands equipment and systems that are economical to maintain, while maximizing length of use. To achieve safety and reliability, the team carefully reviews contract scopes to eliminate any potential misinterpretation of the text. Rhynard stressed that the team’s “goal is to make contract requirements and speci cations impossible to misunderstand and not simply possible to understand.” “I can’t write a contract that has multiple interpretations because it’s not about just making something work; it’s got to work the same way every time we let that contract,” he added. Also, engineers must learn how their designs could fail and then make sure they don’t. “It’s not about installing a switch and making sure the light turns on. It’s about making sure that where and how the light is installed won’t fail,” Rhynard said. “Engineering is about mitigating risk. To engineer something properly it costs more up front, but we are buying down risk of future costs or injury. That’s where that tightrope is.” Arc Flash Awareness One main focus is performing arc ash analyses around the District, which are important to prevent worker injuries. The electrical engineers identify equipment that is particularly vulnerable and label them to help personnel to appropriately protect themselves when approaching hazardous equipment. In the past, labels were generally labeled, “Warning. High voltage. Keep out.” Now the labels provide more speci c information, like including potential fault energy. Other Work The section’s work is heavily focused on a variety of plant power systems and mechanical/electrical related-projects. These include re protection and security systems, data acquisition and control, pumping, cranes and hoists, lighting, HVAC, any energy-related issues (such as green energy), and power distribution at the plants. Team work “Ever since I began working here two years ago, I’ve been really proud to be a part of the Electrical Design team,” said Electrical Engineer Carolina Andes, a recent graduate of the District’s Engineer In Training program. “But I quickly learned that it takes more than education; it takes dedication and especially a team effort to get the project running and then see it in operation,” she said. “Our section is challenged by the industry’s constant learning curve, so we are always a part of new and innovative products that must meet safety regulations and electrical codes. In fact, they must meet and exceed expectations so we can produce new and better products for our customers!” she added.Electrical Design lights it upstory by Terri A. RorkeINTERCOM 12

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Current ProjectsMill Creek Project of ce b ack g round photo b y Kurt Dewit t Rehabilitation work on pumping stations for the Pasco/McNary Levee Systems Lower Monumental Lock and Dam downstream gateÂ’s new electrical systemDistrict Electrical Design Section electrical engineers perform inspections at project sites. Clockwise from right: Electrical Engineer Nic Ivy at Mill Creek Dam and Bennington Lake, near Walla Walla, Wash.; Electrical Engineer Nic Ivy at Ice Harbor Lock and Dam near Burbank, Wash.; Electrical Enginer Stuart Gregory and Maintenance Worker Monte Crawford at Lucky Peak Dam near Boise, Idaho. p hoto b y Simeon Fran cis p hoto b y Nic Iv y p hoto b y David T rach h h tenb tenb tenb arg rg rg a June August 2012 13

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Ice Harbor DamSecond in a two-part seriesstory by Joe Saxon Ice Harbor Lock and Dam celebrated 50 years of service with a June 16 ceremony commemorating the dam’s construction and bene ts derived from it. An open house and guided tours followed the ceremony. About 550 people attended the day’s activities. Col. Robert A. Tipton, commander of the Northwestern Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the keynote speaker said bene ts from Ice Harbor Dam include “a decided economic boost to this region in the form of clean and inexpensive energy to power thousands of homes and businesses; a navigable waterway to fuel and expand commerce in this region that has thrust this river system to the forefront for the amount of export tonnage it passes every year; and reservoirs and campgrounds to meet increased demands for recreation in some of the most wild and scenic country in the nation.” The day’s festivities marked U.S. Army Corps of Engineers efforts to build the rst Corps dam on the Snake River, which initiated commercial traf c in the lower 40 miles of the Snake River while also allowing for sh passage and migration. When the Corps subsequently constructed three more dams on the Snake by 1984, Columbia-Snake Rivers commercial traf c could reach the new inland seaport of Lewiston, Idaho. The Ice Harbor navigation lock was opened for normal traf c in October 1962, initiating commercial traf c in the lower 40 miles of the Snake River. Traf c through the (Above) A young sherman takes in the majestic sights of Ice Harbor Dam; (right) a temporary coffer dam surrounds the dam, powerhouse and south sh ladder during construction in 1959; Vice-President Lyndon Johnson dedicated the project May 9, 1962; welder Harold Wentworth at work; then Northwestern Division Commander Col. Robert A. Tipton was the day’s keynote speaker; a young child and parent view the powerhouse during the day’s festivities; (Above, right) attendees at the commemoration ceremony. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers photoU.S. Army Corps of Engineers photo photo by David G. Rigg INTERCOM 14

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celebrates 50 years of service lock during calendar year 2011 consisted of grains, petroleum products, fertilizer, wood products and miscellaneous cargo that amounted to 2,631,100 tons. Col. Tipton elaborated on system improvements over the years saying “we have modi ed powerhouses and built new spillway structures and sh by-pass systems to improve the survival of sh passing our projects. Working with our partners and other groups in the region, we’ve implemented numerous ecosystem restoration projects to create and improve salmon habitat. “In the not-too-distant future, the turbine units here at Ice Harbor will be made more sh friendly,” he said. “Where such units have been installed elsewhere in the system, we’ve seen even more encouraging sh passage numbers.” He added the District “will install one or more of these special turbine units in 2015 and begin testing in 2016” as part of a scheduled rehab plan funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. The project includes 32 miles of the 367mile Northwest Discovery Water Trail that runs from Canoe Camp on the Clearwater River in Idaho to Bonneville Lock and Dam. Total visitation on Lake Sacajawea during scal year 2010 was 479,553. The nation’s initial investment in Ice Harbor Lock and Dam was signi cant. Construction costs for the dam, navigation lock, two sh ladders, powerhouse and six hydropower generating units totaled about $217 million. p phot phot phot phot phot h phot phot ph o pho phot phot t h h h phot ph hot p ph h pho h h ho pho h ph h p p t o by ob ob o o o b by o b o by o by o by o by oby y by y by b o by o by o b o o o b o o b o by y o b o o by o by o b by Gin Gin Gin Gin Gi Gin Gi Gin n Gin Gin Gin Gin Gi G Gin Gin Gin Gin n n G G aBa aBa a Ba a a Ba a Ba a Ba a B aB a B B a B a B B B B B Ba B B Ba a a Ba a Ba a Ba Ba a a B B B B Ba a B aBa a Ba a a a a B a a B a l ltru ltru ltru ltru ltru lt ru ru r ru ltru u u u ru ru u u ltr l lt ltr ltru ltru ltru u u u ltru lt u u ltr ltru ru ru ltru u l ltru ru u u u u u u u u ru u u u u u u u u u u u s s s sc s s sc sc c c c c ch ch ch ch h sc s s ch h h s sc c c c ch s s sc sc c c h s c s c c c s s s s c s c c h s s c c c c c c c s s s sc ch sc c c c c s s c c phot ht p phot ph h phot phot phot phot p p p p p p p p phot phot hot phot p p hot p p phot p ho o hot hot ot p ho hot o hot p p p p b b b oby oby oby oby b oby oby b oby oby by oby oby b y o by o by b o by ob by b o b o by o by o o b by y y G Gi Gin Gin Gin Gin Gin Gin Gin Gin Gin Gin B a aBa a aBa a aBa Ba Ba a a a Ba Ba a a a a lt t ltru t tru tru l ltru tr ltru ltru tr ltru ltru t t lt tr t ltru u u sch h h h h h h h h sc sc sc ch sch sch h sch ch h h c ch ch ch s s sc c c c ch sch sch h c c ch s c ch h s c c c c c h ph p ht h h p h phot pho p h phot pho p p h hot h phot p p p h ot pho p phot ph p h phot p p h phot h phot p p ph h phot phot p h ph p h h p p p p b b b b by by y oby by oby oby oby o oby by y oby by y oby by oby oby oby o by y y G G Gi Gi G Gin Gin G Gi Gi Gin Gi Gin Gi G Gi n Gin n Gi Gin Gin G Gin Gi i i Gi Gin i Gin i n aBa a a Ba a aBa aBa a aBa a aBa a Ba Ba a Ba aBa B a a aBa a Ba a a a Ba l t tru l tru l l l l l tru l l l l l l tru l l l sc sc sch sch sch ch ch h p y sch h h h h h photo by David Lewis June August 2012 15

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As Ice Harbor Lock and Dam celebrates 50 years of successful service to the region and nation with a Corps of Engineers celebration June 16, a Walla Walla winery owner has special memories of the dam’s dedication events on May 9, 1962. And he has an autographed photo signed by the Vice President of the United States to show for it. Dunham Cellars owner Mike Dunham remembers meeting thenVice President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1962 and escorting him down 2nd Avenue in Walla Walla as Johnson was greeted by the Honor Guard of the Walla Walla High School Junior Reserve Of cers’ Training Corps Brigade. Dunham was a young Cadet Colonel in command of the brigade at the time. Dunham later received four copies of a photograph of himself escorting the Vice President, autographed by Lyndon B. Johnson and Lt. Col. Clark E. Johnson, an Army ROTC representative who headed the Walla Walla High School Junior ROTC program (no relation to the Vice President). Vice President Johnson kept a fth autographed copy of the photo for his personal photo library. The Vice President’s May 29, 1962, letter to Dunham accompanying the autographed photos said “It was a privilege and pleasure to be in Walla Walla, to meet new friends and see old ones. My best regards to you and the members of your ne brigade.” “Being given the chance to greet and escort Vice President Johnson was a very special honor,” Dunham said. U.S. Senator Warren G. Magnuson and Washington Governor Albert D. Rosellini also accompanied the Vice President in Walla Walla. Dunham was the top-ranked of cer of the high school’s ROTC Brigade that year. He previously received the Army’s highest ROTC award, the Legion of Valor Bronze Cross for Achievement. The Honor Guard he commanded that day was a small group of selected cadets from the entire ROTC program. Lt. Col. Clark E. Johnson, who also autographed Dunham’s photograph, was a decorated war veteran before he became the head of the Wa-Hi Junior ROTC program, though his ROTC students weren’t aware of his World War II heroism. He earned the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) for “extraordinary heroism” and leadership in the battle at Hindenberg Bridge at Remagen, Germany, in March 1945. The DSC is America’s second highest award for heroism, ranking just below the Medal of Honor. He also earned a Silver Star on D-Day at Omaha Beach in Normandy; a second Silver Star in France; and a Bronze Star in Sicily. “This was a pretty impressive guy that we knew very little about,” said Dunham. “He left an unforgettable memory with me.” Prior to Vice President Johnson’s visit, Dunham also recalls when President Dwight D. Eisenhower passed through Walla Walla in a motorcade during his Sept. 23, 1954, visit to dedicate McNary Lock and Dam. (Left) Mike Dunham answers interview questions in front of Ice Harbor Lock and Dam near Burbank, Wash., on June 16 during the dam’s 50th anniversary celebration. Dunham, who owns Dunham Winery in Walla Walla, Wash., recalls Ice Harbor’s dedication events on May 9, 1962 when he escorted thenVice President Lyndon B. Johnson down 2nd Avenue in Walla Walla, Wash., as a young Cadet Colonel of the Walla Walla High School Junior Reserve Of cers’ Training Corps Brigade Honor Guard. story and photo by Bruce Henrickson Former cadet, now local businessman, recalls dedication pho phot ph h h pho phot phot ot phot phot pho pho o phot phot phot phot p p p phot phot phot p p phot phot o phot phot o ph h ob b b o by ob y Bru Br Bru ce H ce H enri en c ck kso n INTERCOM 16

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Lower Monumental Dam gets new gantry crane story and photos by Stephen DohertyWorkers from COH, Inc. assembled the new 130-toncapacity gantry crane at Lower Monumental Lock and Dam during April 2012. The Corps awarded an approximately $7.5-million contract to COH, Inc. to design, manufacture, deliver and install two new 130-ton-capacity gantry cranes at Lower Monumental Lock and Dam and Lower Granite Lock and Dam. The original 100-ton capacity intake and spillway gantry cranes were replaced “because they had performed beyond their intended service life, and they were insuf cient to lift the intake gates with cylinders attached,” said Project Manager Kathy Spillane. The new cranes are out tted with the latest lifting and electronic technology, safety enhancements, drivability and maneuverability, and overall ergonomic improvements to allow more ef cient and effective operation of each crane.June August 2012 17

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Mill Creek Bridge installed Construction workers use a crane to hoist a new 17,000-pound footbridge into position across Yellowhawk Creek near the Mill Creek Of ce parking lot. The bridge, which is about 6 feet wide and 70 feet long, will allow visitors easy access from the parking lot to the new of ce currently under construction on the east side of the creek. The new of ce is scheduled for completion in October. p hotos b y Rick Beauc hesn n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n e INTERCOM 18

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During a routine patrol, District Natural Resources Specialist Keith Hyde spotted a nesting Common Nighthawk at Lydle Gulch near Lucky Peak Lake, near Boise, Idaho, in midJuly. He visited the nest periodically to document the incubation period, which typically takes 18 to 20 days. To check out more Nighthawk photos, visit Lucky PeakÂ’s Facebook page. Nighthawks are nocturnal birds that typically nest two eggs on bare ground and live about four to ve years. A Generator Step-up Unit (GSU) transformer completed its journey to Ice Harbor Lock and Dam, near Burbank, Wash., from Ramat HaÂ’Sharon, Israel, in April. The District granted the $1.8 million design-build contract to VonRoll Transformers Ltd. to replace Ice HarborÂ’s T6 transformer. The transformer weighs 105 tons when lled with oil. The transformer is 21 feet high by 13 feet wide by 19 feet deep. phot phot phot phot t phot phot phot phot o hot ho ho phot ho ho ho pho phot h o t ot ot phot ph t phot o phot t ho h h o h o by o by o o by o by o o by o by o by o by o by o o o by o b o o by o by o by b o by oby o by y b b o by y by by b b ei Ke Ke Ke K Ke K K Ke K Kei Ke Ke K K ei Ke ei K Ke K ei th H th H th h H th H t h h H h th H th H th H th H th H th H t th h yd yde yde yde yde de yde yde yde de yde yde d d de de d de yde yde de de y d yd yd d yde d y d yde yd yd y yd d yd y y y y y y phot phot phot phot h hot os b os b os b osb y To y To y To y To ny A ny A ny A ny A mes me m Nighthawk peak Transforming Ice June August 2012 19

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C o r p s D a y p l a y Corp INTERCOM 20

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C o r p s D a y p l a y s Day play photos by Stephen Doherty District employees and their families had a day to relax with their co-workers and families during the annual Corps Day picnic July 13. (Top, left page) Meriel Baker displays a butter y tattoo. Michael Schaffer launches a water rocket as Robert Wall and an assistant duck. ACE member LaRhonda McCauley and her husband Daryl enjoying the day. Craig Newcomb and Jeff Lyons have some fun on the volleyball court. Meanwhile, Patrick Kelly engages the rings. (Above, right) Brian Schnick enjoys the Corps Day Bike Ride.June August 2012 21

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round the istrict Welcome NWD C ommanderCol. Anthony C. Funkhouser assumed command of the Northwestern Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, on July 27, 2012. In this position, he oversees an annual program of more than $3 billion in civil works, environmental restoration, and military construction in more than a dozen states, primarily within the Columbia and Missouri river basins. As Division Commander, he is responsible for providing guidance and direction to ve operating district commands located in Portland, Ore., Seattle and Walla Walla, Wash., Kansas City, Mo., and Omaha, Neb., with a combined professional workforce of nearly 4,800. Key missions include support to military installations and civilian communities throughout the region, managing the nationÂ’s water resources infrastructure for economic growth and environmental sustainability, timely response to natural disasters, and strengthening national security. Prior to his arrival at Northwestern Division, Col. Funkhouser served as Chief, Joint Capabilities Division (J8) at Joint Staff Headquarters, Washington D.C. Earlier assignments include serving as Commander, Afghanistan Engineer District-South; Commander of Southwestern Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Dallas, Texas; Commander of the CorpsÂ’ Tulsa District of ce; and Chief of Staff at the U.S. Army Engineer School, Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. He has also held numerous command and staff positions of leadership including serving as Commander, 5th Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Operation Iraqi Freedom I); Battalion Executive Of cer, 91st Engineer Battalion, Fort Hood; Executive Assistant to the Commanding General, III Corps and Fort Hood; and Regimental Engineer, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Irwin, among others. Col. Funkhouser earned a bachelorÂ’s degree in civil engineering from the U.S. Military Academy and holds a masterÂ’s degree in engineering management from the University of Missouri-Rolla, and a masterÂ’s of Strategic Studies from the U.S. Army War College. He is a licensed professional engineer in the state of Virginia. Col. Anthony C. Funkhouser etiree d ay U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Walla Walla District celebrated its retirees at the annual Retiree Day June 28. Retirees were updated on various District projects including the three-year concrete repair project at Lower Monumental Lock and Dam near Kahlotus, Wash., a turbine repair and gate cable replacement projects at Ice Harbor Lock and Dam near Burbank, Wash., McNary and Lower Monumental Dam Juvenile Fish Facility Bypass Outfall Pipeline replacements and Dam Safety Action Classi cation changes. U .S. Arm y Co rps of En g ineers pho t o phot h h phot phot h phot phot b b osb os osb os b b os b os b o os os os ySa S ySa ySa S S y Sa y Sa d nd nd nd nd nd dra dra dra ra d dra d dra dra a n H H H Hi i ic ic H Hic H ic k keth keth keth keth keth h t ie ie ie i er er ie er ie i er r er INTERCOM 22

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Safety c heck n ew f riends ucky Walla Walla District Natural Resources Specialist Michael Swenson shows Qurin Choi, 5, how to put on a life vest at Water Safety Fun Days at Ice Harbor Lock and DamÂ’s Hood Park near Burbank, Wash., in June. About 70 parents and children learned about water safety through activities including a boating safety scavenger hunt, a fatal vision goggles demonstration and a ring buoys toss. Corps Natural Resources Specialist Mike Carilli and Natural Resources Specialist Keith Hyde welcome a hippopotamus and two gators to Lucky Peak Dam near Boise, Idaho in April. u Natural Resources Specialist Chris Alford, Mill Creek Dam and Bennington Lake, Walla Walla, Wash. Environmental Scientist Alex Colter, District Headquarters Power Plant Mechanic Jacob Davis, McNary Lock and Dam, Umatilla, Ore. Civil Engineer Kurt Friederich, District Headquarters Administrative Of cer Katie Goodwin, District Headquarters Attorney Theresa Hampson, District Headquarters Real Estate Division Chief Rodney Huffman, District Headquarters Environmental Resource Specialist James Joyner, Idaho Falls, Idaho Power Plant Electrical Planner Deanne Lingo, McNary Lock and Dam, Umatilla, Ore. Electrical Engineer Jeffrey Lyon, District Headquarters Structural Engineer Marvin Parks, District HeadquartersEvery Corps Day, the Walla Walla District recognizes employee excellence at the annual Corps Day town hall. Pictured starting clockwise: New Employee of the Year Awardee Civil Engineer Supervisor Mark Hanson, Outstanding Achievement Awardee Power Plant Mechanic Robert Meyer, Engineering Excellence Awardee Structural Engineer Eric Walton, Support Employee of the Year (GS10GS14) Administrative Of cer Gerald Minster, Support Employee of the Year Management Service Specialist (GS9/ below) Stephenie Renshaw. Not pictured: Outstanding Achievement Awardee Floyd Hunt, Distinguished Retiree Everett Wright.graduatesrogram eadership evelopment2012L D P Corps Day a ward w inners phot phot ho phot phot pho phot phot phot t os b os b osb os b os b os os b os b os b b s y Ri y Ri y R y R R y Ri y Ri y R y Ri ta G ta G tG ta G ta G ta G G G t ta t reen reen reen reen en een e e e e e e e e p hoto courte s y o f f D Da iwon won on n n wo wo Cho Cho Cho ho ho ho h C C i i i i h p phot hot phot hot hot pho hot hot ot o pho hot t pho ot t t t ot p hot pho hot t t t t phot ph ot ot ot t t ot p p p p hot ot o ot ot ot t t t p p ph phot h ot o p ph p ph phot ph h h ho h o ot t p ph ph p p p ph h h t p ph h h p p p pho ph o o o ot p ph o o ot ph pho ot o o p pho hot pho h ph h ph o ho t p h h pho p h t p p p p p p p o o o o o o by o by o by b b by o by by by o by by o by oby o by by o by o o o o o by o by y by o by o o by o by y by o by o o o by o by o o by y y by o o o o by b by y y y oby o by o by o o o b o o o o by o by o y y y y J Jo o Joy Jo Joy Joy Jo Joy Joy Joy Jo Jo Jo o Jo oy y y oy Joy y Joy Jo Jo o Joy oy Joy Jo Joy J o o o oy Jo J J o Jo y Joy Joy Jo Jo o Jo Jo o oy y y y o o o o y Joy J y Joy Jo J y y Jo o Joy Jo oy y oy J y o y Jo Jo o y Jo Jo Jo y y ce D ceD ce D ce D ce D ce D ceD ceD ceD ce D ce D ce D ce D ceD ce ceD ce D ceD ce D ce D ceD ce D D ceD eD D ceD ce ceD ceD e ce e e ceD ceD ce D D D D ce e ce D D D D ce c e e unn un unn unn unni unni unni unni unn unni unn unn unn nni i ni i ni ni unn unni nn ni n ni un unni u unni n ni ni unn unn unni unni n unn i unni nni nn unn n n un u unni n n ni i i u u u u n n n n i ni un nni n n nn i n n n n nn n n n n un nn n n u u n n n un u u n n u u n n n n n n n ng ng n ng n ng ng g ng ng n n n ng ng g g g g g g ng ng ng n n g g g g g ng g g n n g g g g ng n n n ng g g n n n g n n n n n n n n n ng n n ng n n n n ng g June August 2012 23

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CORPS J o e M a x w e l l Joe Maxwell Name: Joe MaxwellPosition:Natural Resources Manager, Lower Granite Natural Resources Office, Clarkston, Wash.Describe your job. I manage the Lower Granite Natural Resources Office, which provides recreation, natural resources, and wildlife services to Lower Granite, Little Goose and Lower Monumental projects. My area includes 25,413 acres, multiple visitor centers, ranger offices, 45 Habitat Management Units, seven miles of levees, and 61 recreation areas in five counties and 100+ miles of river footprint. I am privileged to supervise and work with park rangers, natural resources specialists, wildlife biologists, administrative staff, maintenance workers, contract performance specialists, and even volunteers. What is the biggest challenge youÂ’ve faced in your current position? I think the biggest challenges may be yet to come. Declining budgets, increased requirements, and limited resources make it especially challenging to provide quality recreation opportunities and wildlife areas for the public. Recreation and wildlife tend to take a back seat in most federal agencies. They are usually the first to get cut when budgets run short; however, I think those who work in this field are very creative and passionate about providing these services to the public. Most often, they will find a way to make it happen. I am glad to work in a field with so many great people. Facing challenges as a team makes it worth it in the end.Please share a notable milestone or memory with the Corps. When I started working in my current position with the Corps, I was fortunate to have seasoned and senior members of the Natural Resources team working for me. I learned the ropes of my new position with their support. I will always be grateful for their advice (and patience). I was not looking forward to the day when they would retire. A lot of them did (three of them on the same day!). I then had the exciting challenge of creating a new team. It has been a great learning experience and I am beginning to see that a good balance of sage wisdom and youthful enthusiasm makes for a great team. IÂ’m neither youthful nor sage, so I feel pretty comfortable in the middle. What is the most rewarding part about your job? When I see the public enjoying the lands and facilities we manage, it makes me proud to be a part of this organization. One great aspect about my job is the diversity. IÂ’ll never get bored between time spent working on recreation projects, interacting with the public, restoring wildlife habitat, working on levee maintenance, or construction projects. Mix all that up with supervision, budget, and administration, and IÂ’m pretty busy. However, the most rewarding aspect of my job is taking my family out on the river or to the wildlife areas and watching my children learn and experience the outdoors and natural resources available here. IÂ’m glad that they have a connection to the land and that IÂ’ve had a part in it. I Â’ m w i t h t h e IÂ’m with the phot p ph ph pho phot phot phot hot h h hot ho phot pho hot ho phot pho pho o ho hot phot phot ot ot ot ot phot phot phot phot phot phot pho p phot phot phot phot ph pho ph h h h h hot hot ot phot pho ot phot phot hot hot t t ot ot phot phot phot pho pho phot phot h ho phot ot phot o pho ho t hot pho phot pho h h ho phot h hot o pho pho pho o ot phot p ph phot phot ph h ph h o pho t t ot phot p pho phot ph ph pho h ho o o pho t t phot phot p p hot h h o ot hot phot p p h o o o o t phot t ot p p p h ho h o o o ot t t t ot p p p hot h h h pho o o o ho pho ot hot hot t t ot ot pho ph p p p p h h h h o o pho o hot t t ot ot h h h h o o hot ho ot t t t p p p p h o o ot ot t t p h hot h hot o o o o o o ho t t h h o o ot t p p h h h o o ot ot t p p p o co oco o co oc o oc oc o co o co oco co oc co co o c co c o c co o co oco oco oco o co oco o co o co oc co oc oco co co o co co co o co o oco oco c co oco oc oc oco oco oco co o o o oco oc oc o o o o oco c c c oc c c c c oc o oco o co o o o oco o o o oco o oc oco oc o co o c o o co c c c c o o o o oco o o co o o o o o o oco c c oco oco o c co o co o o o o o c c oc c o o co o o co co c co c c c c c o co o o o o o o o co o o o co o co c c c c co o o oco o o o c o c c c c o o o o o o o co c co c o c co o o o co co o o o o o c c co c c o o o o co o c o co oc c c co c o o o o c c c o o o c o urt urt urte ur u urte urte ur rte rte rte urte urte t t rte rte t urte rte urte e urte t urte urte u u u u ur urte urt t te t urte urte te urte urte rte u u rt r te te urte urte urte urte te te te urte rte urte urte u u u r rte t te urte te e rte e rte e urte ur u u r r rte t urt rt urte rte urte urte te urte te u u ur r rte urt urte e urte e e e te rte rte u urte urte u ur r r urt t e e e u u u urte urt u u urte urte ur t te rte urte e urte u u u u ur t e urte rte urte u u u u rt t urt urte e urte u u u u u r urt t u u u u t rte urte te u t e rte u u u r r r t t t e u u r ur t t t e e e e e s sy o s sy s sy sy s syo sy sy sy sy sy y syo y sy y y sy o o sy o sy o sy o sy o o o o y o syo syo s sy sy sy syo sy sy y sy sy y sy sy sy o o o syo sy o y o sy o sy o o y o syo sy sy s y yo yo o sy o o o o o o sy o s s s s y o sy y o y yo o o o o o o o o o s sy s sy sy sy y o y sy o o o o y o o s s s s y o y y sy sy o o o o o syo yo yo s sy sy sy o o o o o s s s s sy sy y y y o y o o o o o sy s s s s s s sy y y sy o o o o syo s s s s sy sy sy o o o s s sy sy sy y o o o o o o o s s sy y y y y y o o o o o o sy sy o y y o o o s s y o o o s sy y y y o o y y y y y f f f f f fJo fJ fJ fJo f fJ J J J fJ J fJ J Jo Jo fJo J fJ o f Jo f f f f f f f J J J J J fJo Jo o Jo f f f f f fJ J J J fJ J J fJo fJo fJo fJo o f f f f f fJ J J J J J J f Jo Jo o o o f f f fJ fJ f fJ f Jo J Jo o o f f f J J J Jo o Jo o o o f f f f f J f Jo fJo fJ J f Jo o fJ o f f f J Jo f f f f f e e e e M e Ma eM e Ma e Ma e Ma Ma Ma Ma Ma a Ma a a e e e Ma a a e Ma e Ma M a a a Ma a a a M M a e a e M a eMa e Ma a a a e e a Ma a a a e a x x x xw xw w w wel we we we wel x x x x we e x xw w e el x we we x x x x xw w x x xw w w e el x xw xw w e el wel x x x w e xw xw l l l l l l l l l l