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The humble petition of Denys Rolle, esq.
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Rolle, Denys, -1797 ( author )
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The Humble Petition of Denys Rolle, Esq.


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Reissued r by LibraryPress@UF on behalf of the University of Florida fis work is licensed under aCreative Commons AttributionNoncommercial-No Derivative Worksn. Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit You are free to electronically copy, distribute, and transmit this work if you attribute authorship.Please contactthe University Press of Florida (http:// purchase printeditions of the work. You must attribute the work in the manner specibed by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of the above conditions can be waived if youreceivepermission from the UniversityPress of Florida. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors moral rights. ISBN r--nrr-n(pbk.) ISBN r--nrr-(ePub) LibraryPress@UF is an imprint of the University of Florida Press. University of Florida Press Northwest th Street Gainesville, FL -r Cover : Map of the West Indies, published in Philadelphia, From the Caribbean Maps collection in the University of Florida Digital Collections at the George A. Smathers Libraries.


The Florida and the Caribbean Open Books SeriesIn the University Press of Florida, in collaboration with the George A. Smathers Libraries of the University of Florida, received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mel lon Foundation, under the Humanities Open Books program, to repub lish books related to Florida and the Caribbean and to make them freely available through an open access platform. fe resulting list of books is the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series published by the Li braryPress@UF in collaboration with the University of Florida Press, an imprint of the University Press of Florida. A panel of distinguished schol ars has selected the series titles from the UPF list, identibed as essential reading for scholars and students. fe series is composed of titles that showcase a long, distinguished history of publishing works of Latin American and Caribbean scholar ship that connect through generations and places. fe breadth and depth of the list demonstrates Floridas commitment to transnational history and regional studies. Selected reprints include Daniel Brintons A GuideBook of Florida and the South (), Cornelis Goslingas e Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, (r), and Nelson Blakes Land into WaterWater into Land (). Also of note are titles from the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series. fe series, published in r in commemoration of Americas bicentenary, comprises twenty-bve books regarded as classics, out-of-print works that needed to be in more li braries and readers bookcases, including Sidney Laniers Florida: Its Scen ery, Climate, and History (r) and Silvia Sunshines Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes ().


Todays readers will benebt from having free and open access to these works, as they provide unique perspectives on the historical scholarship on Florida and the Caribbean and serve as a foundation upon which to days researchers can build. Visit LibraryPress@UF and the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series at Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series Project Members @ Judith C. Russell Laurie N. Taylor Brian W. Keith Chelsea Dinsmore Haven Hawley r Gary R. Mormino David Colburn Patrick J. Reakes f Meredith M. Babb Linda Bathgate Michele Fiyak-Burkley Romi Gutierrez Larry Leshan Anja Jimenez Marisol Amador Valerie Melina Jane Pollack Danny Duy Nichole Manosh Erika Stevens


fis book is reissued as part of the Humanities Open Books program, funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.


BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA. Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman Lieutenant Governor J. H. Williams, Chairman Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman William R. Adams, Executive Director Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale Jim Glisson, Tavares Mattox Hair, Jacksonville Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola Charles E. Perry, Miami W. E. Potter, Orlando F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa A'Irs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee Don Shoemaker, Miami Mary L. Singleton, Jacksonville Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee Alan Trask, Fort Meade


iv Bicentennial Commission. Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee Ralph D. Turlington, Tallahassee William S. Turnbull, Orlando Robert Williams, Tallahassee Lori Wilson, Merritt Island


GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. PEOPLING the "pine barrens or sandy desarts" became a critical need of Britain after its acquisition of the two Florida provinces at the end of the French and Indian War. Article 20 of the Peace of Paris, signed on February 10, 1763, ceded "Florida, with Fort St. Augustin, and the Bay of Pensacola, as well as all that Spain possesses on the continent of North America, to the East or to the South East of the River Mississippi." Not much was known of this empty wilderness, and the few contemporary accounts described it as "poor and mean." But whether it was another "Bagshot Heath," as one critic called it, or whether England had lost too much by exchanging Florida for the rich port of Havana was no longer the real issue. Florida was now part of the British Empire, and because of its proximity to the Caribbean and to the Mississippi Val ley, it had to be protected. Although Spain and France had lost the war, they still had powerful fleets which might, if the circumstances were right, attack Pensa cola and St. Augustine. Bringing settlers in, establishing towns and cities, developing an economy, and manning


VI Preface. fortifications achieved the needed protection and strengthened the colonies. A variety of publicists were enjoined to put Flor ida's best foot forward. The government launched a major publicity campaign to "sell" Florida to would-be settlers and colonists and to make it attractive for land development. Articles appeared in Gentleman's Maga zine and other English and Scottish periodicals, and a number of books and pamphlets were published. They described East and West Florida as a veritable New Eden whose temperate climate, rich soil, and abundant waterways could sustain a large population and a flourishing economy. The Floridas were caught up in the irrepressible American land boom after 1763, and fortunately there were enough vacant acres available for anyone willing to settle. The government instituted a generous landgrant policy, and persons with connections at Court and in the ministries petitioned for and received sizable land grants, ranging from 5,000 to 20,000 acres. Be tween 1764 and 1770, the Privy Council issued 227 Orders in Council for 2,856,000 acres of land in East Florida. During that period only 2,108,000 acres were allotted in Nova Scotia, New York, Quebec, and West Florida combined. Members of the nobility, army and navy officers, government officials, members of Par liament, physicians, and merchants were among those seeking Florida acreage. The Earl of Dartmouth and his four sons received 20,000 acres each, the Earl of Tyrone and his two sons, 20,000 acres each, and Dr. Andrew Turnbull obtained grants of 5,000 acres each for his four children, in addition to 20,000 acres for himself. Among the great baronets who received Orders in Council for land in East Florida were the Duke of Buccleuch, the Earl of Cassi, and the Earl of Thanet. Patrick Tonyn, later governor of East Florida; John Stuart of Charleston


Preface. vii who was superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern Department; Sir William Duncan; Captain Robert Bisset; Sir Edward (later Lord) Hawke; Rich ard Oswald, the peace commissioner in Paris in 1782 and a prosperous merchant and planter; and Lord Adam Gordon, the fourth son of the second Duke _,of Gordon, all petitioned for large tracts of Florida land. Lord Adam was a Scotsman and a friend of Governor James Grant who became the leader of the East Florida lobby in London. He helped organize the East Florida Society, which consisted of a group of influential Britons who met monthly at the Shakespeare Hotel, a tavern in Covent Garden. Their main order of business at these sessions was to discuss their development plans for Florida. An Order in Council was not a grant. The land had to be selected, surveyed, and then the survey had to be recorded with the governor who would issue the formal grant. Each grantee had to settle "the lands with protestant White Inhabitants within ten Years from the Date of the Grant in the proportion of one person for every hundred Acres." Various settlement schemes for East Florida were advanced, but very few reached the stage of formal grants. Dr. William Stork, a physician, botanist, and member of the Royal Society, offered to bring over a party of industrious Germans if the government would provide one of the King's sloops to transport the settlers. M. Vivegnis proposed sending over 1,000 munition workers from Liege whom the war had left unemployed. He thought they could establish an armaments plant in Florida. John Daniel Roux, a citizen of Lausanne, wanted to settle a colony of Swiss, and John Augustus Earnst, a German then living in England, proposed a community of Swiss and German Protestants. Of the many proposals, only Dr. Andrew Turnbull's at New Smyrna and Denys Rolle's at Rolle


via Preface. Town on the St. Johns River near present-day Palatka became realities. Rolle's plantation was at Mount Pleas ant on the east bank of the St. Johns River between Picolata and Spalding's middle trading house, and not far from a ferry-crossing. After much hesitation and indecision, which greatly irritated Governor Grant, Rolle established his plantation on this site in the fall of 1764. He suffered many setbacks, and blamed his difficulties on the governor's obstructive conduct and the lack of proper law and order. His plan to develop a Florida colony and his frustration over his failures were described in his Petition, which he wrote in 1765 and had privately printed. Denys Rolle set forth his case in a bombastic and heated fashion. His document is filled with half-truths and exaggerations. Yet, Rolle's Petition, which has been edited by Professor Claude Sturgill of the University of Florida for publication in the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series, presents information about life and conditions on the East Flor ida frontier which is nowhere else available. It broad ens our knowledge and understanding of those im portant years in East Florida prior to the American Revolution. Rolle Town survived fitfully for a few years, and was an abandoned property at the close of the British Period. At the time of the Revolution its buildings were moldering, and only the overseer lived in the mansion house. In 1783, Rolle petitioned for and re ceived a very generous settlement of several thousand pounds compensating him for the money and time that he claimed he had invested in his Florida properties. Charles Loch Mowat, in his seminal study, East Florida as a British Province, 1163-1184, states that by 1823 all vestiges of Rolle Town were gone, except for a few excavations and a long avenue, the beginning of a grand highway to St. Augustine.


Preface. ix The Petition is one of the twenty-five out-of-print volumes of Florida history being published under the sponsorship of the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Florida. The titles in the series repre sent the full spectrum of Florida's rich and exciting history, which stretches back nearly half a millenium. Each volume has been edited by a recognized scholar who has written an introduction and compiled an in dex. In publishing the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series, the Florida Bicentennial Commission has made a lasting contribution to the scholarship of Florida and American history. The editor of Denys Rolle's Petition is Professor Claude C. Sturgill, who has been a member of the his tory faculty at the University of Florida since 1969. A graduate of the University of Kentucky, he earlier taught at Western Kentucky University, Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh, and East Carolina Univer sity. He is the author of several books, and his many articles have appeared in scholarly and professional journals in the United States and throughout the world. He is an authority on European military history and the history of the French military system during the early eighteenth century. The cooperation of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University was essential to the production of this facsimile, and we are grateful for it. SAMUEL PROCTOR. General Editor of the BICENTENNIAL FLORIDIANA FACSIMILE STUDIES. University of Florida.


INTRODUCTION. ONE of the most fascinating aspects of the historical profession is the quality which we call perspective. In a society in which the sheer volume of information, distributive and investigative services has grown in size and procedures to the point where it is possible to know very nearly all things about a person living in the twentieth century, it is rather difficult to convince the general public, and from time to time to convince even historians whose training and interests are limited to the contemporary, rather narrow frame of their own lifetimes, that this enormous bulk of material has not survived for past cultures. This is especially true of Americans who, for one reason or another, have come to believe that certain archives and systems have come down through the generations intact. And by intact they seem to think that this means all the infor mation available on contemporary people, places, and things was available also in a bygone era and that these data have been retained. This error in the general per spective of many historians, and even more so in the American public at large, is nowhere better illustrated than in the treatment of Denvs Rolle, Esquire, by the


Xll Introduction. Public Record Office of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. All of the records for an era even as recent as the colonial history of eighteenth-century America have not survived in the Public Office. The general decay of paper, water damage, and occasional losses from war and other untoward events have reduced the supply. Furthermore, records reduction, the system by which the less important items in files are thrown away, often times without even being extracted or registered, was practiced by every public body in the eighteenthcentury English government. Members of boards and commissions such as the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations often took their correspondence with them on completing their terms of office, as did the ministers of state when stepping down as a result of the various changes in government. Also, this was not an era of tape recorders, and government officials pre ferred to carry many important decisions and conver sations in their heads. For example, the English secret service wras managed and paid by post office officials throughout the eighteenth century. This arrangement was rather an open secret in the contemporary era, but the account ledgers and files of correspondence be tween intelligence agents and their superiors are almost nonexistent. Then there is the fact that all persons, of high or low estate, usually record only what they con sider to be necessary or convenient. Governments really are not run with the judgments of future his torians in mind. A sense of political survival is the high gear of politicians in any era. Yet, it is the necessary hunt for information to fill in the gaps, the trying-to-bridge the multitude of tid bits of information, that makes the historian engaged in the study of a time earlier than the present, or per haps what is coming to be called the pre-typewriter-age, appear like a Sherlock Holmes pawing through


Introduction. xiii dusty documents and rather often using his intuition and subjective judgment when the facts are lacking. All things from birth to death are not known about Denys Rolle. Persons unknown threw a lot of material concerning this upcountry esquire away or just did not bother to record much information. But then not that much is known about Benjamin Franklin in his pre-"bread under each arm" stroll through Philadel phia, or for that matter about Lieutenant Governor James Grant of East Florida prior to his promotion to the grade of captain in the British Army during the War of the Austrian Succession. Denys Rolle has been researched again and again by historians in America and abroad. But there has been no significantly new information uncovered on him since the summer of 1918 when A. J. Mayes of 63 Lancaster Road, Stroud Green in London, sent pencil-transcribed copies of letters from the Public Record Office to Miss Carita Doggett of Jacksonville, Florida.1 All of the subsequent writings concerning Denys Rolle, including the works of the late Charles Loch Mowat and the present intro duction to Rolle's Petition, stem from this research.2 Denys Rolle remains as much a man of mystery now, insofar as the usual historical facts are concerned, as he was in 1918. The amount of known information on Rolle and his Florida ventures has not been expanded to any great extent since that date.3 Even Sherlock Holmes could not invent facts where none were re corded, but he could and did interpret what was available. Rolle has been rather harshly dealt with by previous historians, especially by Professor Mowat.4 Perhaps it was true that the settlers in Rolle Town on the St. Johns River in East Florida did spend most of their time in drinking and frivolity, but there does not ap pear to be sufficient extant source materials to docu ment a total existence of idleness and non-productivity.


xiv Introduction. Sir Lewis Bernstein and his associates used the same sources that were available to Mowat in compiling the official biography of Rolle for The House of Com mons, 1154-1190, admittedly a lackluster text.5 There is little new on the life of Denys Rolle to present to the reader except his Petition, his great outpouring of bitter frustration springing from his dismal failure in East Florida in 1764 and 1765, which has never before been reprinted. Professor Mowat knew of Rolle's Petition, although he made little reference to it. It does increase measur ably our understanding of its author. It is not a pleasant story which Rolle recounts, there is no grim undertone of humor present anywhere in it. Denys Rolle is re vealed as typical of his generation of upcountry, back bench, English gentlemen, a good example of that gen eration of the English squirearchy which destroyed the First British Empire. Denys Rolle sent his Petition to the House of Com mons because his first efforts to become a wealthy southern planter had failed. This short printed diatribe, directed mainly against the colonial administration and James Grant, governor of British East Florida, was written in 1765, and was privately printed with only enough copies for presentation to a few English minis ters and the opposition members of the House. The text is filled with bombastic, vitriolic phraseology and half-truths which the colonial administration in St. Augustine had no difficulty in countering so long as Denys Rolle's political persuasion remained that of the Parliamentary opposition. After Yorktown in 1781, when this opposition became the government, Rolle's position became that of a wronged man comforted by the politicians in power, and he sought to recover most if not all of his investments. Denys Rolle was born in 1725, the fourth son of John Rolle, member of Parliament from Stevenstone,


Introduction. XV Devonshire. John Rolle was of the gentry, a graduate of New College at Oxford, and the father of six chil dren. The family lands were inherited by Denys' eldest brother, another brother entered the army, and a third died. Denys, the fourth son, elected to run for his father's vacated seat in Parliament, and in 1761 he be came the representative from Barnstaple in Devonshire. True to his family and political heritage, he voted against the peace preliminaries at the end of the Seven Years' War, thus identifying himself with the faction opposing the king's position.6 There is nothing in the record to show definitely why or how Rolle became interested in settling in Flor ida. He was the youngest son and without a fortune of his own. He did not stand to inherit, and the members of Commons served without pay. Rolle undoubtedly cast about for a way to get rich quick, and after 1763 the new colonies, those which seemed to offer the greatest apparent opportunities, were East and West Florida. There were many others in Britain at the same time who were casting covetous eyes towards the vacant lands available in the Florida provinces. Those provinces had become English possessions in 1763 almost by accident. It was an unmapped and un chartered territory about which little was known. The Spanish had moved out wholesale, leaving little in the way of settlement behind. The climate was tropical and considered unhealthy. But at a time when the oceans had become important battlefields, Florida's proximity both to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico had to be taken into consideration. The har bors at Pensacola and St. Augustine were to be denied to the Spanish, and any attempt to strengthen the new Spanish territories in Louisiana had to be thwarted. The British government and the merchant companies mounted a major campaign to sell Florida as an ideal place for settlement. The military who occupied St.


xvi Introduction. Augustine on July 20, 1763, saw that the vast area be tween the Atlantic, the St. Johns River, and Mosquito Inlet was empty save for abundant wildlife and an occasional Indian. The rest of East Florida, from the St. Johns to Tampa Bay and St. Marks on the Gulf was virtually unknown, although it was believed to be a region of great, if undefined, wealth. Land promotion was typically extravagant, and then, as now, the printed word and even the mails were used to attract clients. One such effort, in January 1767, stated, "there is no class of men so much inter ested in getting grants of land in East Florida, as the middling gentry of England, and the younger sons of good families;"7 This was an apt description of the social and economic position of Denys Rolle. Rolle had originally intended to settle Cumberland Island off the coast of Georgia, but that property had already passed into private hands, so instead he ac cepted a grant of 20,000 acres in East Florida.8 The conditions by which he would be judged by the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations were detailed on the back of his grant: "Lay out a Parish of 100 acres in the form as usual, and reserve the [said] Township of 20,000 acres. Grant one of these to [Denys Rolle] Esq.if settled in two years according to the Conditions, entitle him to another, and so from two years to two years till he obtains the whole. Forfiture of the first Township if not settled, and so of second and for fiture invalidate all future right."9 Thus Rolle had two years, or until the spring of 1766, to settle the first par ish with white settlers, survey a township, and to cul tivate a crop of foodstuffs. It is possible to believe that Rolle was either a dupe or stupid, but neither was actually the case. The Peti tion of 1765 was written by a man who fully intended to get rich one way or the other. Rolle knew what was expected when the Privy Council approved the action


Introduction. xvn of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations and when it placed an additional stipulation on the grant: "That the Governor or Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of East Florida for the time being do cause Twenty Thousand Acres of Land to be Surveyed in one Contiguous Tract in such part of the Said Province as the said Denys Rolle or his Agent shall choose, not already Granted or Surveyed to others, and upon a Return of such Survey, Conform able to His Majesty's Directions in his general Instruc tions to pass a Grant for the same to Said Denys Rolle under the Seal of the said Province, upon the following Terms, Conditions and Reservationsviz." The terms directed that one Protestant white per 100 acres had to be living on the land within ten years, a minimum of 200 persons, and that if fewer than 134 whites were settled in the ten years, the entire grant would revert to the Crown. It further stipulated that each year at the celebration of the Feast of St. Michael on Septem ber 29, an annual rent of forty-two pounds sterling would be paid commencing with the fifth anniversary of the next Feast of St. Michael (at current exchange rates this is about 100 dollars). It was also agreed that all places thought proper for the erection of fortifica tions or port facilities and mines of profitable natural resources would be reserved to the Crown.10 Rolle sailed from England on June 10, 1764, with fourteen white colonists. The party reached Charles ton, South Carolina, after an arduous voyage of four teen weeks, on about August 10.11 The passage had been through rough seas and on short water rations much of the way. After arriving in Charleston, six of the colonists decided to stay there, having obtained better offers from local residents. Rolle gained one settler when a member of his party married a Charles ton lady. There were nine Protestants in the group which arrived at St. Augustine on September 13, 1764.12


xviii Introduction. Governor Grant welcomed Rolle, and immediately en couraged him to select the land provided under the terms of the grant.13 Rolle wanted to establish his set tlement at St. Marks, the site of the old Spanish fort, but was distressed to find out how little was known of that region. There was still no formal understanding with the Indians, especially with the Creeks living in that area, and Rolle wondered if he might find himself too far from the protective guns of the St. Augustine garrison. Rolle next decided that he would settle somewhere along the St. Johns River, close enough to St. Augus tine to secure both supplies and protection. Governor Grant objected to Rolle's peremptory decision, and threatened to "make strong representations to the Board of Trade against him for altering his intention" to locate at St. Marks. Grant was forced to admit, how ever, that Rolle's grant allowed him the flexibility "to set down in any part of the province." The governor then agreed to a colony at Fort Picolata on the St. Johns River, a few miles west of St. Augustine. Rolle then decided Picolata was not satisfactory, and started to look elsewhere. This unwillingness to act decisively became Rolle's great weakness. After more delay, he and his party 'mbved some twenty-five miles beyond Picolata, selecting finally a tract on the river near present-day Palatka and Mount Royal, not far from the head of the ferry on the east bank of the St. Johns. It was high land, and would provide the needed river artery for transporting supplies. It had all the attributes which Rolle, at least for the moment, considered suitable. Rolle Town, as the colony became known, was in the heart of Indian country. According to Rolle, "as soon as I heard of the Indians being in the Neighbour hood, I waited on some of the Chiefs, and obtained their Permission to remain in the Place I set down." He promised them a conference with Governor Grant


Introduction. xix on land settlement, and agreed to limit his own planta tion activities until that meeting took place. He also declared that if the Indians would "permit the Great King's People to settle, they would find him always friendly, and endeavouring to be of Service to them; but, if it was not consented to at that Conference . he would burn up his Hutts, and go away with all his People." Rolle invited "Warriors or Head-men" to dine with him, and for the others he provided provisions. At his request, the Indians often hunted for him and "some times brought him Presents of Venison, Honey, Bearsmeat, Buffaloes Tongues, Bear-skins, Sieves." Rolle wrote that he was anxious to encourage trade by bar ter, and that he spent much time teaching English, the methods of weights and measures, and "instilling the highest Notions of the English Power from the Con quests of the late war, of their Justice and Generosity from the late Peace." Always he found the Indians to be "his Friends when intoxicated with Liquor, as well as when sober; he found a Respect in both Situations, which must proceed from the Heart." They called him "the Squire," and admired him so much that "my own Person would have a safe Conduct throughout their Country unattended, unarmed. My Conversation by Signs alone, under that Name, would convey me every where."14 The settlers found it difficult to adjust to the lone liness and isolation of the Florida wilderness. Many of them, Rolle claimed, "were enticed away or abducted," and he received no support from Governor Grant in this matter. Perhaps these people found life more at tractive in St. Augustine than at Rolle Town. His rela tions with the governor became increasingly acrimonious. Grant, Rolle charged, obstructed "his attempts to fix the Boundaries of his Property, did nothing to ar range the necessary Conference with the Indians, whom


Introduction. he stirred up by Gifts of Rum, and refused to encour age Settlements ... at a Place where Indians were likely to come over the River on account of its Narrowness." As early as November 22, 1764, Governor Grant informed the Board of Trade and Plantations: "Mr. Rolle arrived here on the 13th September. He was then anxious to proceed by Land to Appalachi; I gave him Letters to Mr. Stuart the Superintendent and to the Commanding Officer at St. Marks, provided Guides and Hunters for him upon easy Terms, but, after every Thing was prepared as far as was in my Power for his Journey, he altered his Opinion without giving any Reason for it, and went to the River St. Johns, where he has been for several weeksDuring that time the few People he brought out with him, have left him, and he is now, as I am informed, at a Place called Mount Pleasant, almost alone.15 Later, in his Petition, Rolle blamed Grant, some East Florida colonists, soldiers of the garrison, rascal servants, highwaymen, dishonest officials, and others for his problems in getting settled.16 There is no reason why misfortune should have plagued Rolle, but the fact is that he was a failure in his first attempts to establish his Florida colony. On November 24, 1764, Grant wrote of his bewilderment at Rolle's attitude and his concern at the gentleman's lack of direction. The governor wished to help. He wrote to Rolle: "If, after receiving this Letter, which I flatter myself is sufficiently explicit, though not more so than my Words have been, you should still have any Doubt left with Regard to your Affairs in this Country, if you will take the Trouble to state them in Writing, I shall endeavour, if it is in my Power, to solve them; but I beg to be excused from talking any more upon the Subject."17 Perhaps Rolle was struck by fear of the frontier. Distances were great and travel difficult. His back-


Introduction. xxi ground and training had not prepared him to accept the realization that even on the east bank of the St. Johns River, just a few miles from St. Augustine, he was beyond the reach of customary English protection. Indians, he claimed, stole his horses.18 A hired hunter violated his contract and was rude to him.19 The magis trates in St. Augustine would not enforce the laws to suit him.20 The official surveyor, William Gerard De Brahm, was slow in coming to Rolle Town, and then he was not a man of his liking.21 All of these relatively minor problems on a raw frontier distressed Denys Rolle. He could not seem to cope with this great wil derness, although his settlement was only some thirty miles from the sally port of the fortress at St. Augustine.22 Rolle wished to change the terms of his land grant, something which Grant opposed.23 De Brahm, surveyor general for the Southern Department and sur veyor general for East Florida, arrived in St. Augustine the last week of January 1765 to begin the general survey of the colony, including Rolle Town. Rolle was notified that he only needed to select his property and be prepared to point out the proposed boundaries when De Brahm or one of his deputies arrived.24 He delayed even taking this action. Rolle, though, continued with his misfortunes. His cattle were run off.25 He could not get along with the deputy surveyor, asked for one of his own, and then argued with this second man.26 Governor Grant, whose bewilderment had begun turning to anger, wrote the Lords Commissioners on March 1, 1765: "Mr. Rolle first intended, as your Lordships know, to go to Apalache, his Plan was changed a few Days after he arrived here. He went to look at the Province, and formed a sort of Settlement at Mount Pleasant upon the River St. John's, where he has been for six Months; In the course of that Time, going further up the River, he found a Spot which pleased him better, he called it


XXII Introduction. Mount Royal27built a Logg-house by way of taking Possession, and told me that he would run out his Tract there. Upon Mr. De Brahm's arrival, in the end of January, I immediately Issued a Warrant of Survey for Twenty Thousand Acres for Mr. Rolle in Terms of the King's Order in Council, And as Mr. de Brahm was to proceed upon the General Survey, I sent a Deputy Surveyor to attend Mr. Rolle, who then de clined running out his Land, and said that he must take Time to consider it. The Deputy Surveyor returned. Mr. Rolle followed in a few Days, and told me that if the Land was not good, the Quit Rent of Forty Pounds per Year would be a Load upon his Family, that he had Children 'and must think of it before he fixed, and that he was going to England. I observed to him that he had delivered the King's Order to me, in conse quence of which a Warrant of Survey was issued, em powering him to take up his Twenty Thousand Acres wherever he or his Agent pleased, And that after being so long in the Country, if he went Home without runing out his Estate, or giving a Power to his Agent to do so, It would appear very extraordinary. . The few People he brought from England have left him, and he has gathered together Eight or Ten wandering Woodsmen with their Wives and Children, who make about Twenty in Number."28 This letter is a fair appraisal of the tale of Denys Rolle in East Florida to this point in time. Tempers flared between Rolle and Governor Grant.29 Rolle glossed over this period in his Petition by writing of his assumption of the eighteenth-century gentleman's burden, that is the care and education of the pagan red man. He added many paragraphs describing his fear of settlement on "his lands by other colonists moving down from Georgia and South Carolina with their Negroes!"30 These blandishments in his Petition must have been an attempt to cover his true position, for


Introduction. xxiii Rolle wrote to Grant on April 25, 1765: I have "acted the more prudent Part in engaging fewer in the In conveniences" and am "justified, perhaps, from the un settled Opinion of the Indians, the unprovided State of the Country on the one Hand, and the Vicinity of St. Augustine, and two already settled Colonies at the other."31 This then was Rolle's position when he began composing his Petition. He decided that he would go himself to Parliament for redress of his grievances. Grant's reply to this April 1765 letter of Rolle was direct.32 The governor once again reviewed his actions, and agreed that it was unfortunate that Rolle was hav ing trouble with other colonists wanting the same land that he did. Grant then threw down the gauntlet, or so it must have seemed to Rolle: "When you came into this Province above seven Months ago, a single Acre of Land had not been granted . you therefore have had a long Time to look at the Country, and have had it in your Power to make Choice of any Tract you pleased in the Province, without Exception, so that no future Grantee can ever come into it with the same Advantage with Regard to Locality; and, upon the Whole, you must excuse me for not complying with your Request [to reserve tracts of land until Rolle could return from England], as I should be very blameable if I presumed to postpone granting away Land when Letters offer upon a Supposition that the Condi tions of His Majesty's Order in Council, granted to you in May 1764, upon a Representation from the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, may be altered upon your Return to England." What Grant implied was that Denys Rolle had dissipated his ad vantage and should not look to the colonial administra tion for redress. Rolle must have been far more threatening than the extant source materials illustrate or Grant more cautious than his correspondence demonstrates because,


XXIV Introduction. in a letter to the Lords Commissioners on May 8, 1765, the governor enclosed Rolle's statement of April 25. Grant was indignant over Rolle's demand to keep "different Spotts ungranted 'till he [goes] to England." He explained, "I trouble your Lordships with these Circum stances because Mr. Rolle must give some Reason for his Conduct, and therefore I think it right to prevent his imputing any Part of it to me."33 And so it went for the remainder of Rolle's first stay in East Florida. He would complain about any number of things, and the governor would almost beg Rolle to take some decisive action. Rolle did return to England after a little less than one year's residence in East Florida. His Petition was rejected by Parliament. He did not bare his soul or un leash his smoldering resentment in his Petition-, he re served that for an appearance before the Privy Council on October 30, 1766. According to his complaint, "The whole Expense of Civil and Military Government as maintained in the present Form [in East Florida] is very great and without having any material or visible beneficial Effect . t'is to be feared that the apparent Shew of Opulence in St. Augustine cannot be main tained by the Salaries alone paid by the Mother Coun try. . That this expensive Fort affords no Security to a distant Planter. . Your Petitioner therefore from the just Motives he has had in View would be ex tremely concerned should any Part of his Memorial be interpreted to place an improper Liberty in the Subject to the Diminution of the Prerogatives of the Crown."34 The Privy Council, without dissent, ordered the com plaint dismissed on December 3, 1766. However, Rolle still sought success, and the home government probably preferred that he reside in East Florida, far away from London. Accordingly, Gover nor Grant received a note on December 11, 1766, which read: "I must recommend to you ... so bold


Introduction. XXV and useful a Colonist as Denys Rolle, Esq."35 There is no record of Grant's reaction to this communication. Rolle did return to Florida. Although his Petition was refused by the majority party in Parliament and he was seriously rebuffed by the Privy Council, Rolle's cause must have been at least casually taken up by the opposition party, other wise his Petition would never have reached a vote on the floor of the House of Commons nor would he have been granted a personal hearing before the Privy Council. And his cause must have been taken up rather seri ously by the opposition because by June 27, 1767, James Grant was defending his actions to the home government. The governor's explanations were specific. He noted: "Denys Rolle, Esq., who is here for the sec ond Time, is as much undetermined as when he arrived in September, 1764. At that Time there was not an Acre disposed of in the Province, and yet he could not fix. The Governor has done everything in his Power to accommodate this Gentleman, but to no Purpose; he will not run out his Tract according to the King's Order, and he has often been told that the Governor cannot deviate from his Instructions. If Mr. Rolle goes on as he has done, he says that he will undoubtedly ruin himself without being of the least Use to the Province, where he has more Disputes, Differences, Quarrels and Grievances than all the other Inhabitants."36 In his Petition Rolle suggests that he is a man of great substance who had invested large sums of money in his East Florida venture. Yet, there are only a very few instances when Rolle's business affairs are men tioned anywhere in the papers of the South Carolina merchant-factor Henry Laurens.37 Rolle's agent in East Florida was one William Penn. Four letters writ ten by Laurens between November 21, 1767, and Octo ber 1, 1768, deal mainly with Penn's shipment of rum and the sale of a few other goods, all amounting to less


XXVI Introduction. than 100 pounds sterling. Laurens shared Governor Grant's opinion of Rolle. In a letter to Penn he wrote, "but between you and I it is my Opinion that he [Rolle] gains most by those of his Servants who do run away." Again, in the same vein, Laurens noted, "This new Consignment [26 people] was certainly very unwelcome to me because I foresaw that it would produce no Benefit to our enthusiastic Friend & and occasion me a great Deal of Trouble, but for once more me thought I would humour him. . But no sooner was the Ship to Wharf & the Master gone . than the whole Body March'd on Shoar & scatter'd themselves in twenty different Parts of the Town. . With great Difficulty [the ship captain] has collected 12 out of 26." Correspondence such as this must have been very common in the story of Denys Rolle's at tempts to settle a plantation in East Florida.38 Rolle returned to England a second time, and was re-elected to Parliament during this period. Sometime after January 1768, his plantation in East Florida must have been surveyed since he returned to it in 1778 and remained in East Florida for two years. In the meantime he had been defeated for re-election to Par liament by a candidate, who according to his son, had been sent down by the Court to oppose him. When Rolle arrived in Florida in 1778, he brought 150 black field hands with him, and placed them under the control of competent, experienced overseers.39 As it turned out, his Florida plantations, for there were several of them, now became profitable ventures. After the surrender of the British forces at Yorktown and the fall of the government of Lord North, the personal political power of George III was eclipsed. The news that East Florida would be returned to Spain, brought Denys Rolle forward to reap his reward with a claim for reimbursement.


Introduction. xxvii Now, in 1783, he had become a true and loyal friend of the political party in power. He described himself as a man who had suffered under the hands of the late, unlamented tyranny. His petition to the Privy Council of September 10, 1783, was granted. "That your Majesty was graciously pleased in the year 1764 to grant to your Memoralist 20,000 Acres of Land in East Florida which with Purchases made since of other Tracts in that Province, makes your Memoralist's prop erty therein 80,140 Acres. . The value of said Lands together with Negroes, Buildings, Plantations, Stores, etc. ... is 28,488 pounds sterling."40 By way of com pensation Rolle asked that he be given either Mogane or Marguana island in the Bahamas, and this was ac corded. From the wording of the Privy Council deci sion Rolle could select the island of his choice, and his movables would then be transported there. Rolle's property, including his slaves, were taken aboard the Peace and Plenty in October 1783, and it sailed for the Island of Exuma in the Bahamas.41 By November 1, 1785, Rolle owned ninety-eight slaves.42 On his application for reimbursement for his "heavy losses," both in East Florida and in the Bahama Islands, the Privy Council granted Rolle 19,886 pounds, 17 shillings sterling.43 Denys Rolle died in June 1797, in Stevenstone, Devonshire. His eldest son John (1756-1842) had been elected to Parliament in 1780, and counted himself among the opposition to the government until that opposition became the government. While it cannot be proven, John Rolle was undoubtedly of assistance to his father's claims for compensation for his losses in Florida and the Bahamas. John Rolle remained in the Commons until 1796, when he received the title of Baron Rolle of Stevenstone. Unfortunately he did not leave issue by either of his two wives. Perhaps that is


xxviii Introduction. the reason why the Rolle family papers have been lost. Or perhaps, the collection agencies of the nineteenth century would not have considered them worthy of preservation or even have thought of them as ancient history. Thus the full story of Denys Rolle, the author of the Petition, is still lost to history. CLAUDE C. STURGILL. University of Florida. NOTES. 1. These pencil copies are deposited in the library of the Florida Historical Society, University of South Florida Library, Tampa. Typescripts are in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida, Gainesville. Carita Doggett Corse was the director of the WPA Federal Writers' Project for the state of Florida and is a noted Florida historian. 2. Especially Charles Loch Mowat, East Florida as a British Provincey 1163-1184 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1943; facsimile edition, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1964), which mentions Rolle's Petition in the bibliography, al though there is little actual textual usage, and his article, "The Tribulations of Denys Rolle," Florida Historical Quarterly 33 (July 1944): 1-14. Both Mowat and Carita Doggett Corse, "Denys Rolle and Rolletown," Florida Historical Quarterly, 7 (October 1928): 115-34, tend to view Rolle as a mixture of romantic merchant adventurer and an idealist. 3. Some additional information was located in the Henry Laurens letterbooks, South Carolina Historical Society, for which the author is grateful to Dr. David R. Chesnutt, assistant editor of the Papers of Henry Laurens which are being pub lished as a series by the University of South Carolina Press. 4. Mowat, "Tribulations of Denys Rolle," pp. 1-14. 5. Sir Lewis Bernstein, ed., The House of Commons, 1154-1190 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1964), 3:371-73. 6. Ibid. 7. Gentleman's Magazine (January 1767), pp. 21-22. See also Charles Loch Mowat, "The First Campaign of Publicity for Florida," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 3 (December 1943): 359-76. 8. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office 391/ 71, folio 26.


Introduction. XXIX 9. Ibid., 5/540, folio 119. 10. Ibid.; Privy Council Register, 110:459-60. 11. See this facsimile edition, pp. 2-3. 12. Ibid., pp. 5-6. 13. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, September 14, 1764, pp. 1-3. 14. See this facsimile edition, pp. 7-13. 15. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 5/ 540, folio 234. Mount Pleasant was for all practical purposes on the site of present day Palatka. 16. See this facsimile edition, pp. 7-8. 17. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, September 24, 1764, pp. 4-7. 18. See this facsimile edition, p. 14. 19. Ibid., p. 17. 20. Ibid., p. 18. 21. Ibid., p. 19. 22. Ibid., Appendix, John Gordon to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, November 5, 1764, pp. 7-8; Denys Rolle to John Gordon, The Narrows, St. John's River, November 21, 1764, p. 8; Denys Rolle to Governor Grant, January 15, 1765, pp. 9-10. 23. See this facsimile edition, p. 22. 24. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, February 3, 1765, pp. 13-14. 25. See this facsimile edition, p. 23. 26. Ibid., pp. 24-25. 27. The present-day Mount Royal. There is no reason to believe that Denys Rolle established the first ferry across the St. Johns at this point. 28. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 5/ 540, folios 357-58. 29. See this facsimile edition, Appendix, Denys Rolle to James Grant, The Narrows of the St. John's River, March 18, 1765, pp. 15-20; James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, March 21, 1765, pp. 20-22; James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, April 23, 1765, pp. 22-24. 30. See this facsimile edition, pp. 35-60. 31. Ibid., Appendix, Denys Rolle to James Grant, The Narrows, St. John's River, April 25, 1765, pp. 24-25. See the original of this letter in Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 5/540, folios 397-400, addressed to James Grant. 32. See this facsimile edition, Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, Augustine, April 26, 1765, pp. 26-29. 33. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 5/ 500, folio 393. 34. Ibid., Privy Council, 1/52, October 30, 1766, 35. Bernstein, The House of Commons, 3:372. 36. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Manuscripts of the Marquis of Lansdowne, vol. 52, folio 307.


Introduction. 37. The Henry Laurens letterbooks, South Carolina His torical Society. See also Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations (London, 1920-1938) 13:135, "Board of Trade Journal for 1768" for the identification of William Penn as Rolle's agent. 38. See also Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 5/550, folios 23-24, James Grant to the Earl of Hills borough, December 24, 1768. 39. Ibid., Manuscripts of the Marquis of Lansdowne, vol. 66, folios 685-86 and Register No. 28, February 2, 1783. 40. Ibid., Privy Council, 1/57, folio 85. 41. Ibid., Lansdowne, vol. 77, folio 15. 42. Ibid. 43. Ibid. 44. Dictionary of National Biography, 17:163-64.


( I ) T O T H E Right HONOURABLE the LORDS O F His MAJESTY'S Moft Honourable Privy Council. The Humble Petition of Deny* Rolle, Efq; fetting forth the Hardfhips, Inconveniencies, and Grievances, which have attended him in his Attempts to make a Settlement in Eajl Florida, humbly praying fuch Pvelief, as in their Lordfhips Wifdom (hall feem meet. Tour Petitioner humbly reprefents, THAT in the Year, 1764, he formed a Plan for the fettling two Plantations in the Southern Part of North America, one on fome River that might be found running into the Bay of Mexico, convenient for the Weft Indian Trade ; another on the Alatamaha in Georgia, emptying itfelf into the Atlantic Ocean for the European Commerce, as far up the faid Rivers as Navigation would permit, in order to pofiefs the fhorteft Communication of Land Portage, for Com modities, of fuch light Weight, as could bear the Expence of it, rendered fafe by preferving the Indian Friendfhip in the Eftablifliment of a Trading StoreHoufe, on the middle Spot of that Communication, with clear, exprefs, and honourable Terms of Trade. That being informed by the Lords Commiffioners of Trade, a late Indian Treaty with Georgia precluded A his


( ) his fettling fo high up the River Alatamaha> he then fixed his Intention of finding out, if poflible, a fliorter, mote probable, Communication in Eafl Fhrida\ he mentioned St, Mark's, and fome other proper Place, to be fearched for on the Eaftcrn Shore. He alfo propofed that thefe Settlements might have fome proper Judicature eftabliftied within themfelves, that might tend to preferve Peace and good Order, and prevent the Jealoufy of Neighbours from injuring the Infant Settle* ments; but this was reduced to an Order for a fingle contiguous Lot of twenty thoufand Acres, with Direc tions to fettle two hundred white Perfons in ten Years, one Third of which within three Years, Power of Re-entry on Non-performance of Conditions, Exception of all Mines whatsoever. A Frrft Experiment, for the Infurance of future Adventurers, he found the Methods of Settlements unalterable, therefore objefted no fur ther to the Terms prefcribed, but faid he would accept it under thofe Reftri&ions, and would go and make the Attempt in Perfon. That he embarqued with fourteen People the roth of June 1764, with fome Imputation of kidnapping People for his Settlement, which induced him to wait on the firft Lord of Trade, to reprefent the Neceflity, he thought, of preventing Misfortunes that might arife to Families thereby, in the Privation of their Children, by fome Enquiries and Bonds given to the CuftomHoufe Officers, at the different Pofts by Matters of Ships carrying PafTengers. Though many Cafes have appeared, and many more probably not known of fuch Lofles, yet it did not either appear of fuch Importance to his Lordihip, or the Provifion, mentioned by him againft it, feemed improper. It can be efteemed no Digreflion, from the State of his Cafe, to mention Circumftances attending his Voyage, a Reflexion on parallel or extraordinary Cafes, within his Knowledge, Humanity he diftrufts not will excufe. His Care, in the Provifion for his Voyage, extended to the putting a Board two Puncheons and one Hog(head of Water, for his Fowls, &c. but a Deficiency in the Captain's Pro vifion for the thirty-eight Perfons a Board occafioned that


( 3 ) that Stock of his to be taken for them. The Mate mentioning there were twelve hundred Gallons on Board by Computation, he found it was two Quarts a Day for each Head, which is the ufual Allowance for thirtyeight Perfons for nine Weeks, which Time they hap pened to be in the Paffage from the Buoy and Nore to Cbarles+Towni South Carolina i but by this bare Provifion, after a profperous Voyage, in the former Part of it, as far as the Latitude of our Port, or rather of the Canary IJJandsy we were put to the fhort Allowance of three Pints a Day^ for the latter Part of it, a Dedu&ion not fo much to be dreaded in the Winter, as in thofe hot Months of Summer in a warm Latitude; but this feemed to be more inexcufable in the Mate, under whofe Infpeclion probably the Stores were laid in, as he related that the very Voyage before, that he made to Charles-Town from the Canary IJlands only, where they touched at, they were no lefs than fourteeri Weeks, occafioned by Calms. Under what Diftrefs then muft your Petitioner's Settlers have been, in fo long a Voyage, when they had but enough for three Pints a Day for twelve Weeks the which Time he thinks no Ship can go to Sea properly for fuch a Voyage without laying in for the full Proportion of two Quarts a Day each Perfon, and Allowance for Leakage and bad Water, or rather at a Gallon a Day each. The above Want of Provifion being in a Ship commanded by an elderly experienced Perfon, and of good Repu tation, it is reafonable to conclude that thefe Misfor* tunes happen oftener than the Public hears of, Sufferings, not only the natural born Subjects of his Majefty, but thofe, that under the Hopes of partaking of the benign Influence of the Sunfhine of Liberty, place themfelves under his Protection more frequently are fubjecT: to. The Palatines^ of whom the King's Baker, Mr. Meet) at St. Auguftine^ was one in a Ship bound to America^ when he thinks that above half the Paflengers died by the reafon of the Non-provifion, more efpecfally of Water; which Circumftances are only to be equalled in the Diftrefs of the New York Ship Company lately publHhed. A 2 The


( 4 ) were as full and as fatisfaftory as it was in my Power to make them, in the prefent State of the Colony. That Day, in Converfation at Dinner, I advifed you to go to Appalache by Sea, you feemed defuous to go by Land j I made it my Bufinefs to inquire how tar that was practicable and fafe at this Seafon of the Year; and I was lucky enough to find a Guide for you who had been there, who has lived in the Indian Towns in that Neighbourhood, and who fpeaks their Language. Captain fPUtiams, who was formerly employed by General Oglethorpe and who is well acquainted with the Woods, likewife agreed to attend you with any Number of Hunters you ihould chufe to carry with you, upon your giving a reafonable Allowance to the Whole for their Trouble; and I was happy to think that every Obftacle, attending a very fatiguing Journey, was removed as far as the Nature of the Thing would admit of. A few Days after you told me that it Would be troublefome and expenfive to carry all your People with you to Appalache, and that you had an Inclination to fettle them upon St. John's River, near the Fort of Picolata-y I told you that you might place them wherever you pleafed, that they ihould enjoy the Fruits of their Labour for this Year, and that, upon their Application to me in Council, they ihould have an Order of Survey, and afterwards a Grant of as much Land as was confifient with the Terms of my Inflruttiom ; but that I muft confider them as Grantees of Grown Land% and by no Means as People brought in by you to the Province. The 2id Inftant, the Anniverfary of His Majefty's Coronation, you told me, a few Minutes before I went to Dinner with a pretty numerous Company, that you was afraid you ihould not be able to go to Appalache^ and that you had fome Thoughts of taking up your Grant of twenty thoufand Acres upon St. John's River. In Anfwer to this Opinion of Denys Rolle, the Governor threatens, firft of all, to make a ftrong Reprefentation to the Board of Trade againft him for fuch Alteration of his Opinion; then, after a Silence which he per ceived in Denys Rol/e9 recollecting himfelf, proceeded, I then told you that, in Confequence of His Majefty's Or der in Council, you certainly was intided to that Grant of Land,


( 5 ) modern Inftances of, and himfelf experienced, may he prefume to lay before your Lordfhips. That Augujl the i oth, he arrived at Charks^Totvn, South Carolina, when a Gentleman of Di'ftincYion Mr. Wragg, and his Lady, advifed a Family of five Perfbns, the Father whom he relieved from a Prifon here, to leave him and fettle at Charles-Town, which they accordingly did, but however paid him for their Paffage; another Servant he had hired by the Year was alfo feduced, the Juftice of Peace explaining away a Provincial Law, which, though calculated for filling the Province with Settlers, yet took Care that Juftice in repaying the Im porter for the Paffage Money might be obferved; though advifed, your Petitioner did not trouble the Lieutenant Governor on thefe Injuries, though he did him not only great Honour, but (hewed him Marks of Civility and even Kindnefs. He married one of his People, and thereby gauied two to recompenfe his Loffes by Seduction, and embarqued for St. Augujiine in Eafi Horida, when the Governor received him very politely, and was entertained daily by a particular In vitation every Morning. His intended Paffage by Land to St* Mark's, was prepared for, but, the rainy Seafon at the Equinotf commencing, all Enquiries concerning St. Mark's furnifhing no Knowledge, the Paffage which no Perfon had hitherto undertaken for 240 Miles through a Country inhabited by the Indians, with whom no Conference had been held, exhibited at length to him Difficulties and Dangers which though he might run himfelf into, yet could not anfwer to his own Confcience the engaging his poor Settlers in ; after thefe Reflexions, a Leading ^uejlion by the Governor, one Day before Dinner, drew the Intimation from him of the above Opinion, with Requeft to fet down with his Settlers on the River of St. John's, where the Governor had confented to permit two young Gentlemen who came over with him, tjo take up their Rights of a hun dred Acres each, according to the Rules of Settlement* and which he intended, as a Commencement of his Settlement on the Atlantic Ocean, to correfpond with the other at or near St. Mark's. This drew on an imA 3 mediate


C 6 ) mediate fevere Reprimand from the Governor, wjth. % Declaration of his Intention to make a ftrong Reprefentation to the Board of Trade againft him, for altering his Intention, Your Petitioner fat filent! The Governor, recolle&ing himfelf, faid if was true that the King's Qrder gave your Petitioner Liberty to fet down in any Part of the Province. He might go to Picolata Fort on St, John's River, about twenty-five Miles Weft of St. Augttfiine, where a Serjeant and eight Men were ftationed, and fet down under tbeProte&ion of the Fort. That Mr. Greenan of Augtf/iine^ Regifter and Naval Officer of the Province, who at this Time a&ed as Se cretary to the Governor, made your Petitioner an Offer of a Boat to fend bis Utenfils, Victualling, and other Neceflaries, to St. J&bn\ River; which was accepted of, but the next Day, on your Petitioners mentioning the Offer at the Governor's Table, a certain Difcountenance appeared in Mr. Greenan* and no Boat was forth-coming; on September the 27th, he commenced his Journey, and fet down then at a fmall Diftance off the Fort, but he found that the Induftrious would foon loofe their good Difpofition for Cultivation in that Neighbourhood, and making any Inclofures under the Cannon was faid to be Shelter for the Indians-9 that $he Guard mutt have a clear Sight all round the Fort: He therefore confidered, that, being out of Gun-fhot, they were as liable 0 the Injuries frqm the Indians as if further off in the Woods. Though your Petitioner pow received the News of the Lofs of his Boat which he had bought, in which your Petitioners Servants were bringing Provifions, Tools, and other Neceflaries, on the Bar of Augujiine^ and finding his Endeavours at this Place would be rendered ineffectual, he borrowed a Boat, and proceeded with all his People up the River on the 8th of Ofiober> and landed on a Spot about twenty-five Miles above, where the Bank is confiderably elevated above the Level of the River, or as termed there a high Bluff, where formerly, perhaps eighty or a hundred Years fince, a Spanijh Settlement had been. This is the Place where his Settlers ftill continue. In a few Days two of his People attempted to find out Augujline^ where


( 7 ) where they arrived after five Days laborious Search j which became abfolutely neceflary, from the fmall Provifion (through the lofs of his Veffel] he had with him and the Uncertainty of the Dependance on his Hunter for Game j by this means a Path was ftruck out from St. Auguftine to the moil valuable Lands on St. John's River. That, about eight Miles above the Place he refided at, there was a Store or Trading Houfe fettled for the Indians, kept by one Mr. Spalding% whom he reqtiefted to inform him when any of the principal Indianswere there, to defirea Conference with them. On his Infor mation the Second of November y he immediately went up thither, and met fome of the principal Men of the neareft Tribe, at Laichawayy which is about fifty Miles KVeft-Northerly from him. They objected at firft to the White People's fettling any Lands, difcovered a Jealoufy that he was going to ere& a Caftle, and that they heard that there were feveral Caftles to be built throughout the River. He told them he was certain there would be none built, or any Thing elfe, till a Conference had been held by the Governor with the beloved People of the Creek Nation. As for himfelf, he (hould not* that the Great King had permitted him to come into that Country to feek for Land to raife Rice on, which the Land on the other fide of the Great Lake would not bear; that, if they would permit him to ftay where he was till the Conference (Talk) was held, he might at prefent only raife a little Garden, and hunt for Provifion; that, if agreed to permit the Great King's People to fettle, they would find him always friendly, and endeavouring to be of Service to them ; but, if it was not confented to at that Conference, (Talk) he would burn up his Hutts, and go away with all his People, They then faid they believed what he faid was true; as to the Caftles, it was a falfe Report, and that they would confent to his ftaying there ; he then returned to his little Colony in Confidence of Safety. That your Petitioner received a Letter from Mr. Gordon^ of Charles^Town, South-Carolina, then in St. A 4 Augujline^


C 8 ) JuguJIine, dated Nov. the 5th, 1764. informing him that he had heard, finee he arrived at that Place of his Settlement, that he had, in the Year 1763, purchafed all the Lands on the Eaft-fide of St. John's River (except a Tract three Leagues in Front next telow Picolata) from the Mouth thereof to about the Latitude of 29, and alfo on the other Side from the faid Latitude as far North as the Rio Blanco, about four Leagues below De Popo ; prefumed he had un knowingly fet down on fome of thofe Lands, and defned an Anfwer of his Refolution. His Anfwer of the 21ft of November iignified that the Board of Trade had told him the prior Sales would not ftand good, and that the Governor had allb'told him his Orders were to difregard them, and alfo referred him to the Governor, by fending this Anfwer open to Mr* Bullemore, his Agent at Augufiine, to fhew it to the Gover nor, who, being highly affronted, would not fee the Letter nor receive any Meffages, but told your Peti tioner afterwards that Bullernore was an exceptionable PerfonThat, fome time in this Month, fome Soldiers from Picolata came up to his Settlement, and, on their Return in the Night, carried off a Smith and his Wife, whom he was at the Expence of marrying and bring ing with him from Charles-Toivn; they afterwards went to Augufline^ where they were provided for by being placed on the Ifland of Anajlafiay to tend Perfons in the Small-Pox, perhaps in order to render his Enaeavours to procure their Return ineffectual. Major Ogilvie, the Commanding Officer, to whom he had complained by Letter of this Behaviour of the Garrifon of Picolata, anfwered it in the politeft Manner, and intimated an Intention to inflict: a fevere Punifhment on the Delinquents ; but which he requeued to reduce to a fevere Reprimand only, which when he was at Augujline foon after, and that Officer made him an obliging Vifit, he again repeated. t hat two young Gentlemen, one who had been in the Army and the other in the Navy, who came over with him, with Intention of fettling, enticed with the Diffipation


( 9 ) Diflipation at Augujlhe, and difliking the Inconveniencies attendant on the firft Settlement of a Colony, unhappily averfe to the Confinement within the Bounds of fober Regulations, had retired to Augufline^ where too much Encouragement was given them by thofe who wifhed ill to his Settlement, to procure it's Dis paragement ; which turned to the Ruin in the Sequel of the two Youths, when every Provifion neceflary for a comfortable Life would have attended them, had they (laid. The one found his Way back to a Prifon in this Metropolis, the other fupplied through his Hands, by the Generofity of Mr. Onflow^ with neceflary Provifion, C5V. at a Place ninety Miles lower down the River, by the Converfion of which into Rum, he imagines from Experience at laft has died a Martyr. His Recommendation to the Governor, to prevent it, had not it's defired Effec~r, though the leaft Word fuggefted by him at his Table, where the whole Corps of Officers were entertained in the Courfe of every Week, would have had it's due Influence, In this Month of November^ the laft Week, Lieutenant Sweetenbam, of the Garrifon of Augujline^ came to his Settlement, when he entertained him agreeable to his Rank, and his own Abilities, and obferved a very particular Enquiry he made of your Petitioner, after his Surveyor, a Perfon he had taken to infpeft and meafure Land, and was then in his Service, he anfwered he was gone from Home; about an Hour after wards the fame Enquiry being made again, he gave the fame Anfwer, and added, he thinks, to a Queftion where ? that he was gone on his Bufinefs ; an Hour or two afterwards the fame Queftion was repeated, and the fame general Anfwer given. Mr. Sweetenbam then went up to the above-mentioned Shore, and next day No-> vember :8 ; your Petitioner fet out for Augujline, where he arrived on the 29th, and waited on the Governor1 to relate his Situation, and the good Agreement with the Indians \ he likewife fhewed a Draught of the River St. Jphnsy as furveyed by his Surveyor ; difcovered his Inclination to a Spot of Land on the other Side of the River, oppofite to where he lived; but he did not know


( I ) knov? whether that might be within the Power of h& Excellency till after the Indian Treaty, left the River might be the fixed Boundary, or if the Grant of the Governor of Carolina had difpofed of it. Iffo, whether be might chufe a Spot twenty-five Miles above on the fame Eaft-fide of the River he refided on. He had ieen it, defcribed the Scite ; that the Length of his Tracl:, according to the prefcribed Rule of running Land, would be nearly about nine Miles three-quar ters in length, by three Miles one-ninth in Breadth ; the Length he imagined would reach beyond a confiderable navigable Creek, which he met with in his Traverfe, and, as he had heard, not permitted by the Rules in Georgia and South Carolina to be pafled, and that in that Cafe, where he might be fupplied with his Quantity, whether fwell in his Breadth, or take in any Corner or Slip of Land adjoining to make up his full Quantity of 20C00 Acres. The Governor did not feem to refolve any thing then faid that was improper ; aflced him what fort of Land it was beyond the Creek ; he told him it did not look like good Land, but he had not been over to examine it; he feemed then to reafon that he muft pafs the Creek, to obtain any fuir Length, if he made Choice of that Land. That a Perfon who had fourteen Head of Cattle, made your Petitioner a voluntary Offer to fell them to him, and a Bargain was made by his Servant for nineteen Pounds, every thing fettled as to the Delivery, Payment, and the Seller's Affiftance to drive them to your Petitioner's Plantation ; which Bargain was not concluded at any improper Time, of the Party in Liquor, or fuch-like Situation ; it was confirmed on a fecond and third Day. He fet out for his Plantation, and left Money to pay for them, and his Servant to bring the Cattle; but the Seller firft declined Afliftance to drive them out, on Account of fome Bufinefs, and at length refufed to deliver them. That he returned to his Settlement the following Noon, December the 2d ; on the Road met feveral Indian Warriors going to wait on the Governor ; he found they


( II ) they had been at his Settlement, and were accommo dated by his People in his Abfence. On their Return from Augujiine, they came again to his Settlement, and were fet down to repofe themfelves for the Night, at the Place where his Boats ufually land, and where he has fince built a Hut or Houfe for their Reception, which was but a few Yards from his Tent, wherein he at that Time lived ; he went to them, and fat and converfed with them, and afterwards fent them Pro visions for their Supper. He perceived they had been regaling themfelves on the Road with fome Rum the Governor had prefented them with, and which they drank deeply of during the whole Night, when the Fa mily by their Singing, Dancing, and Hallowing, were, kept chiefly awake. This is what he is obliged to be careful over his own People, in ufing every Caution to prevent Intemperance therein \ yet, to Indians, he is obliged to prohibit it, as it might endanger his whole Settlement; however the Indians did not come to him till the Time of Riling, when one of the Warriors [Pbiloki) came to his Tent, when he was ftill in Bed ; and fpoke to him, though in a freer Manner than at any Time fin.ce, being much heated by Liquor, but all in good Temper, defiring his Boat to convey them over j on which he got up, and gave Orders for it. The Indians^ fcarce able to Hand, ftraggled through his Tent, where all his Utenfils, Goods, ste. lay open, of which he afked them, whether they wanted any Thing ; but, in the greateft good Humour and Sincerity, faid no, acknowledging they had had too much of the Rum, it was too good and affecled their Heads; he got all of them over the River, except one, the long Warrior, (a Warrior at the Time that General Oglethorpe was in Georgia) who was too much intoxicated to go, and whom, after Sleeping, he entertained in his Tent, and gave him fome Coffee to relieve him of his Head-ach ; and he ftaid the whole Day, and he put him over the River the Day after. At different Times he faw fome of thefe fame Indians, and feveral otheto who came to his Plantation as he might call it then, having fome Thoughts one Day or other it might arrive to fuch in Reality;


( 12 ) Reality; and had made a little Garden, and was pro ceeding for a Crop, on fuch good Agreement with the Natives. The Warriors or Head-men dined at your Petitioner's Table, the others he fent Provifions to. They often hunted for him at his Requeft, fometimes brought him Prefents of Venifon, Honey, Bears-meat, Buffeloes Tongues, Bear-fkins, Sieves. His Refufal of Rum to them was founded on a Treaty he had read of, wherein the Creeks had defired the Pro hibition of this Commodity, to prevent Quarrels amongft their young Men and the Whites, that might end in War; and, though feveral faw twoCafks of Rum, of above one-hundred Gallons each, landed at his Settlement, for his own Ufe, at one Time, yet if the Queftion was for Barter with Skins, &c. for it, yet his Reafon that, while fober, they were Men, and the Creeks and white Men were friendly, and knew one another, yet when Rum came we knew not each other ; but it made us Women, and we quarrelled and fought with one another, and therefore, though your Petitioner had it for the Ufe of his People in their hard Labour, to drink with Water, yet they muft not have any. This did not difoblige them : Thofe that dmed at firs Table, after Dinner, he ufed to open a Bottle of Port Wine, perhaps for them* when two or three Glafles were the nooft he helped them to, and it fuffi-ced. One or two of thofe who brought their Women or Squaws with them, permitted them to fet at his Table, a Favour their natural Jealoufy did not ufually encourage as he has heard, and two of the Women belonging to one of the Warriors who is come to fettle near him, fince he fettled there, have come down by themfefves in a Canoe, bringing fome Prefents, and have ftaid the whole Day, with your Petitioner with out raifing any Jealoufy in the Men. That he acquainted the Indians that Rum was an unnecefTarv and dangerous Merchandize, yet a Trade of fuch Things, as they fhould want in Barter, for fuch Commodities, as they had, he would encourage on the moft honourable Terms. This was alfo founded on an old Treaty at the fame Time with them,


( *3 ) them, when fealed Weights and Meafures were to be fent ur>to their Towns. Every Dealing of his fhouid be as open as poffible, with the Underftanding clear, and and Heads free from Liquor. That their young Men fhould be inftruted in our Language to prevent Frauds, For this Purpofe he fpent much Time, with them, to convince them of the Utility of his Propofals, and, as far as poffible and permiffible, to put the fame in Practice, having taught them the Method of weighing with the Stilliards, and meafuring by the Yard, not with out inftilling the higheft Notions of the Englijh Power from the Conquefts of the late War, of their Juftice and Generofity from the late Peace which he could convey the Idea of, from the Exhibition of the Views and Sections of Men of War and Maps. He fell not far Ihort of his Hopes and Ends in this Undertaking. He found them his Friends when intoxiccated with Liquor* as well as when fober; he found a Refpet in both Si tuations, which muft proceed from the Heart; an attempt however vain it might be thought, yet fmall Obftacles appeared to prevent it's Progrefs tow ards the Civilizing them, which an Inftance, or two, of what fell out, fome Months after this, may help to elucidate. Several Indians of the meaneft Rank, fomc of which had been perhaps, or had heard others re late, having been, on a Saturday Night, at your Peti tioners Plantation, and have been going away on a, Sunday Morning on their hunt j where he has fignified to them, that it was the Day the Whites addreffed the Being above, who thundered, to fend us what was neceflary for us, whereby they faw we never wanted ; they have anfwered, muft we ftay ? to which he faid, yes, he would have them, when they have ftaid the whole Service, with the utmoft Decency and Gravity. This probably had the following Effect on fome of thefe Indians who had been to Juguftiney and though he had but juft before heard of the Governor's Praife of your Petitioners Order, in refpe& of Rum, towards them, yet thefecamc full freighted with the Governors unhappy prefent of that Liquor to this Settlement on their Return, Of which they regaled, as alfo the others before* mentioned,


c n ) mentioned, the whole Night; beifig in a very gaf Mood, they went to the other End of his Town, and affaulted the Houfe of one his Settlers, where tw young Lads were that were his Interpreters; on finding the Door fliut, broke it open; but it was only to get the two Lads to come and drink with them, which they did for a fmall Time. That Night about Ten o'Clock, as he ufed to fay Prayers to his private Family, before he went to Bed> in the Middle of the Prayers, as bis Face was towards the Door of the Houfe which was open, he faw the Indians* and knew bow much intoxicated they were with Liquor \ but they did not offer to come tip the Steps into the Room, feeing, as he fuppofed, the Family on their Knees, ahd knowing, from what he mentioned above, the Meaning of it, till he had done, and rofe up, which might be five or fix Minutes after he firft faw them; when they came in with their Bowl of Punch, but all in a merry chearful Temper, and offering him to drink, which he did in two Rounds of their Bowl; be expreffed his Friendfhip for them, and gave them to understand by Signs, having no In terpreter, that they muft ftay in the Morning for him, to fee them, before they fet out on their Hunt, till the Sun came to the South-Eaft, and wiflied them a good Night 5 and they went away, and did not come to him any more the whole Night, which they fpent entirely in drinking. The next Day they feemed ra ther afliamed of their having behaved fo in their Cups* Some of them are Horfe dealers, pafs his Settlement, and go to Augujline and fteal Horfes, bring them to his Settlement, and go over the River, in his Boats,; but, though your Petitioner has loft his Horfes for two Months together, yet they never touched his, but have relied on his finding theirs when loft, as happened to four of them; and, if there was any thing intended ill againft the white Men, he had their ftrlt Promife they would inform him of it, which rendered him quite eafy, at a Time when the Governor was in fome Fear, on the Suppofition that one of the Indians was loft or murdered at Augujline* That


( 15 ) That neai Chrijl#ias9 your Petitioner^ Hunter, whom he had hired and kept at the Expence of three Pounds per Month, hirafelf having the Profit of the Skins, and alfo his Provifion and Drink, when at Home retired to Augujiine for a Week* and he found out very acci dentally by his own Confeffion, that he fupplied that Place with Venifon at your Petitioner's Expence, and, which the Governor himfelf could not but allow, he had furntfhed his Table with fome. The Hunter keeping a Man who could not flioot about two Miles off from his Settlement, with two Horfes to carry off from Time to Time the Vertifon he killed to Augujiine^ after this, your Petitioner determined to fupply his Colony with out fuch Affiftance, only requefting the Indians^ when with him, to hunt for him, or have the Chance of any Venifon procured the neareft at hand by any of his Settlers^ whom he did not chufe to encourage in a hunting Life, as he efteemed it a very idle one. But he fupported them by much Labour and Expence, fometimes by his Horfes bringing Neceflaries from Augujiine^ and at others by his Canoe, at one hundred and fifty Miles Diftance,and at length from Georgia by Schooners, hired on Purpofe at the Value of twenty-five Pounds a Trip* That on the Chrj/lmas Eve, his Hunter returned, and brought the Produce of his Venifon, fold at the Metropolis in Rum, the effects of which difcovered itfelf the next Day in the Settlers very apparently. He employed him now no longer, but however the Hunter kept his Horfes ftill at your Petitioner's Settlement, Killing and driving off the Deer in its Neighbourhood, and carrying the Skins and fome of the Venifon (for it muft be underftood of ihefe kind of Hunrers, that they deftroy* for the Sake of the Skins, ten Times as much Deer as they make ufe of the Venifon of) to St. Augujiine^ turning it into Rum, with which he fupplied a Family at your Petitioner's Settlement every now and then, (o as to enable, thefm to keep a Public Houfe, to the Ruin of the Induftrious, particularly that Family, though confifting of a Man, his Wife, and fix Children, either of which did not do the leaft Work towards raifing


( 16 ) railing Corn, Garden Stuff, or any Thing for their Subfmance. This he related afterwards to the Go vernor, as he thought it required fome Authority to reftrain, as it was fo injurious to his Settlement; his Anfwer was, if any Thing was done contrary to the Law of England? that was open, there was his Remedy. That was not adapted he thought, your Petitioner anfwered him, to the prefent Cafe; a Remedy could only be found in himfelf, his own Power ; he afked your Petitioner what he would have him do? He replied, he could not prefume to direct his Excellency in that Matter. The Confequence appeared fome Months af terwards. The Horfes were ftill kept there, fometimes breaking into his Corn Inclofures, and doing Damage to him likewife in that Way; fome of the Settlers he thinks ufed thefe Horfes, but paid the Hunter for the Ufe; during his Abfence in May? his Agent had likewife ufed one to fetch Provifion from Augujline? and propofed paying for the fame, as the others had, and did not refufe ; but what was the particular Reafon he cannot affign, except the Irritation of Rum ; one Even ing the Hunter, being much in Liquor, was going up in a Boat to hunt on the Lakes above his Settlement but, juft before he fet out, faid to his Companion, he would go out in the Pine Barren? and kill a Deer firft, he went out there, when two Negroes were fawing for your Petitioner ; he afked them whether they were all alone ? They faid yes. Soon after they heard a Gun go off, and they faw your Petitioners Cow's running in a confufed Manner, and the Hunter came to them, and told them, in thefe Words : I have (hot one of Mr. Rollers Cows, and you may go and tell him fo, and I will fhoot all his Cows, and Horfes, and Hogs, and himfelf; you are no Witnefles. The Negroes went in immediately, and came and informed hfm of it, and, when he fent to the other End of his Town, where the Hunter frequented, found he was fet off in a Boat up the River, but, as he could not tell where, his Com panion who ufed to carry the Venifon to Augujline was examined, and it appeared he was to take the Horfes up to a Lake about fix Miles from his Settlement the next


( 17 ) next Week, but a Perfon, that went with the Hanier in the Boat, intending to return the next Night, on which your Petitioner waited bis Return, and, though he cculd not depend on him, yet his Agent, being ap pointed a Juftice of Peace, fwore him, and three ftrong Perfons more, and fent them up in Search of the Hunter, with a Warrant to apprehend him ; they luckily hit ou the Place, in the Middle of the Night, and feized hirrj in his Sleep, and brought him down and fent him to Auguftlne^ where there was no Jailer to be found, and the Sheriff or Provoft Marfhal, who was one of the Governors menial Servants, feemed at a Lofs how to aL None feemed expeditious in fecuring him, more feemed defirous of having him freed ; however he was at laft admitted into Jail, but the Attorney General wrote a Letter to your Petitioner's Agent; though he could be the only Profecutor of" the Caufe, yet appeared more in the Pefence of the Delinquent, alledging the Warrant and Commitment was irregular, &c. as by the faid Letter would more particularly appear. That your Petitioner having been at a confiderable Expence, and having faved feveral Things out of his Boat, which was loft as before-mentioned, on his Agent on the 2d of January. 1765, hired another Boat to bring the fame round over the Bars to his Settlement, another Boat coming round at the fame Time, with Goods belong ing to a Store, whofe Mafter being better acquainted with the Bar of Augufline^ than the Perfon who had the Direction of your Petitioner's, fet out firft, in order to direct the other; the firft Boat paft the Fort without Obftruftion, when the other, freighted entirely with his Goods, was flopped by the Officer then on Duty; who was Lieutenant SweeUnham abovementioned, as he afterwards heard ; and delayed fo long, that the Tide was fo far gone out, that, when they arrived at the Bar, the Boat ftruck on it and overfet; whereby he loft every Thing, except a Barrel of Tar, the only Thing which came a Shore; the Mafter was drowned^ and a free Mulatto faved himfelf by fwimmjng a pro digious Lenirth of Time. This Mulatto Ibou, after V de Letter, page. B went


( I* ) went away to another Province,which prevented his Hear ing of the Particulars from him; and his Agent, menttxroed before as an exceptionable Perjon by the Governor, declined interfering in the Examination into the Reafort of the Stopping of the Boat, but heard, that both of the Boats were alike open Boats; the firft, not a Con cern of your Petitioner's was not flopped, as the other, freighted with his Goods was; that theMafter went 4 Shore at the Fort, and afterwards went to the principal Offi cer, Major Ogilvie, to relate the Circumftance; who difapproved of the Officer on Duty at the Fort's Hop ping the Boat, as both were equally to be efteemed open Boats going provincial Voyages, and never were to be flopped to be examined at the Fort. This Officer, Mr. Sujeetenham, is the Perfori that was con cerned iq a Riot in Qeorgia; by which Mr. Grower, then Chief Juftice, was fuperfeded, but fihee reftored to Honour. This Officer your Petitioner has heard the Governor mention more than once, as a Perfon he had a great Regard for, and knew not another yrhofe Intcreft he fhould be more inclined to promote. Mr. Lloyd, your Petitioner's intended Overfter for his Plan tation, arrived from England, and brought him Account, that probably a Ship with Settler?, &c. might be on their Voyage to America, on his Account; and, left they fhoutd go round to St. Mark's, where it was fuppofea that he was fettled, he had difpatched Letters to Jfrowidmce and Jamaica, and other Iflands, to flop her if poffitye, and order her to St. Jobn*s River, but which afterwards proved without Efieft. When Mr. Lhydf bis Overfeer, had waited on the Governor at Augujiine, the Governor had intimated that feveral Petitions had been prefer* ted from his Plantation, with fome Irregularity. Thefe were dated the 15th of December, and had been fent at that Time, under Cover, direfled b) your Petitioner to Mr. Dunnet, the Secretary of the Province. As for the Irregularity in the fending of them, and the Non-ap plication in Perfon, it was occasioned by your Petitioner's fending bis Surveyor to the Secretary's Office, to know the particular Method or Form of Petitioning, and how it might be with the leaft Trouble and Expence to the Petitioner;


( If ) Petitioner, where he had a written prescribed Form deli vered him* and was acquainted, that there wouldbe a Day appointed to take them under Consideration by the Go* vernor in Council i at which Time only, there would be a Ncceflity of the perfonal Attendance of the Petitioner; and the Governor had mentioned to him before, that the Dates of the Pe it ons would be a Rule to him in granting when two happened to be presented for the fame Spot, according to their Priority of Preferment. A$ this was the Information frornthe Office, and jecmed to be reafonabte, it wai followed in the five Petitions fent in That the Secretary had proraifed your Petitioner's Surveyor, who was one of the Petitioners* that he {hould have Notice of the Day of confidering Petitions. This was represented in a Letter of the 15th of Janu~ ary, and anfwered by the Governor on the 16th, where in the perianal Application with the Petitions in the firft Place was infifted on $ alfo an Intimation that no Addition whatfoever could be made to your Petitioner's Land, as haying the Kings9 Order for a Grant of twenty thoufand Acres, and that his Proclamation extended only to induce other refponfible Perfons, who might be inclined to Settle; and that he (hould be very careful of thePerfons, whom he (hould grant any Land to fettle on. Your. Petitioner heard afterwards that thefe Petitions were jhrown under the Table, and with Declaration, that no Perfons from your Petitioner's Settlements or concerned with him, (hould haveany Grants of Land. That, about the latter End of January, Mr. Granatin Regiftcr and Naval Officer, made your Petitioner a Vint from Auguftint, at his Plantation 5 he was much cfteemed by the Governor, and often did Buiinefs for him, of the Secretaryship, when the Secretary Mr. Dunntt was ill; as he entertained him as well bis Situation per mitted, and (hewed him his Intentions in his Settle* went, and diverted him with a View of the neighbouring Parts of the Province; he is forry to mention now a Circumftance which might reflect Dishonour on any body, but especially on fuch Gentlemen, who might be fuppofed to well difcern the Laws of Hofpitahty. An old Man, his Wife, and Son, who came up to him B 2 early


( *0 ) early in his Settlement, the latter unhealthy and the twa former rather aged; however the Father and Son were fometimesufefulin fopplyinghis Table with Venifon; the Wife aififted in his Kitchen Buiinefs, where feveral Attendants were neceffary, having a great Number to fupply. They had unhappily a Daughter in Auguftin^ which had long before been a Ptfoftitute, he may farely fay fo, as a Child of fome Age, was the Fruit of it by a Sea, Captain; but now was too far adva/Ked in Prostitution, to afford ah Augmentation to a Colony, by the Unfor tunate Situation in a Town, where the fmall Number of Females occafioned much Divifions and Irregularity, The Child of this Proftitiite inherited an ill State of Health from it's unhappy Parents, and was there fore efteemed a Burden to the Town in which it lived with it's Mother, Mr. Greenan endeavoured to enter into a Treaty with "it's Grandmother abovementioned ; who wasan Afiiftantin providing daily fuch Entertainment as your Petitioner could give that Gen tleman at his Table, and whom, with her Hufband and Son, he might be faid to maintain already, as their Labour could not recompenfe him for their Living; treated with her, to take the Child to your Petiti oner's Settlement, that he might have that additional Burden, as the Town thought it fuch, and, might relieve the Mother alfo from the Trouble of it, who might then be more at Leifure to follow her Occupa*-tion. Mr. Greenan alfo was defirous that a Boatbuilder, who had retired from the Extravagance and Drinking at Augujiine\ and came to his Settlement for a more quiet and induftrious Life, fhould go back to refide at that Place, which it was his own free Will, not your Petitioner's Decoying, that led him to quit; he alfo acquainted him, that he had fome Timber belong ing to him in his Poffeflion, but the Boat-builder re plied, that he fhould not return, and he did not regard the Timber at all. He alfo left a Wife there, which he could not much regard, having chofe other People's Company, and who your Petitioner heard was in Mr. Greenan % Service. There feemed to be a Defire alfo for a young Woman, who. had come up from tha lowe*


{ *I ) lower Past of the River, to refide at his Settlement, to quit it again, and go to Jugu/iine-, but {he was then indifferent in choice, and your Petitioner, foon after advifed her to a Match, which fhe immediately com plied with; under which Security, fhe ftill refides at his Settlement. However as it was fuppofed by Mr* Lloyd his Agent, and himfelf, that Mr* Greenarfs Vifit was not idle Curiofity and Compliment, your Petitioner did not {hew him only what he had done, but defcribed to him his Plan of Settlement, and informed him, if he could have the major Part of his Land runout on the other Side of the River, and Part on this Side* he didnot care if the River was reckoned and meafured as Part of his twenty thoufand Acres, or if the whole was granted on the other Side; that he might have the Liberty of purchafing a few hundred Acres of Land, on that Side of the River he then refided on, to preferve the Plan of his Town, which, asa healthy Situation* was eligible* but could not be fo to any Perfon, to take up accord ing to the Form of three Perch Back for one in Front; and alfo about two hundred Acres below, and two above the Town \ fome for the Appropriation for a Minifter, and fome for the Endowment of a School* All within the Offer as he thought, made* by the Pro clamation of the Liberty of purchafing to the Quantity of one thoufand Acres, above the Rights or Grants, according to his Majefty's Order. Or he propofed, that, if the Mode of Settlement did not permit that, yet if the Perfons refiding with him, took up their Family Rights of one hundred Acres per Head for themfelves, and fifty for each of their Family, on the Eaft Side of the River, which they would not do on the Spot where his Town ftands, unlefs any other pecu liar Advantage to them was in View ; this might ferve the Purpofe of preferving the Plan of his Town, by their keeping Part of their Land in Poffeffion in Lots, in and adjoining to the Town ; and the Refidue might be fupplied to them by Exchange of better Land, from his Grant of twenty thoufand Acres, when laid out, on the other Side of the River. Vide Governor Grant's Proclamation* B 3 That,


( 21 ) That, in a Letter dated the 3d of February^ the Governor takes Notice of the Receipt of your Petiti oner's to him, of the 19th of Jariuary^ fent by Mr. Greenan, on his Return, and of a Plan of your Peti tioner's Settlement or Town, and other projed^ed De pendencies thereon: This Letter intimated that there was no Power in him of making Additions to his Tra& of Land, which was to be furveyed out to him in Terms of hte Majefty's Order. An Extra Settlement Wat impra&kabie, becaufe therein it was termed a contiguous Tra<9: ; that no Grants were to be given to other People, who Would transfer their Rights to yottr Petitioner. That there were Orders from the Lords of Trade to guard againft Perfons EngroHirtg of Land. Thaj: he could not fee any Utility a Settlement could be of at the Narrows of the River* where his Town was projected, if his twenty thoufand Acres wete to be run out elfewhere. That no Advantage could accrue to the Province from a Town, where there would be no Inhabitants, as no-body would flay With him any longer than he fed them. That he would Wat encourage Settlements of any of thofe People, at a Place where the Indians were likely to come over the River* on Account of it's Narrowneft. That he was mot at Liberty to judge of the plaufible Realbns your petitioner fa*d he had to alledge for the Meafure* That Ito Application of others fliall preclude hitn front having the Grant of the Indian Store he had projected at this Place. That the Surveyor General was arrived, had iflued the Warrant of Survey, for his'jtwenty thoufand Acres, and fent a Deputy he brought from Georgia ; and alfo oneFaircbiHd^ who had been hired before by your Petitioner, as a Surveyor, and had now a Deputation, as one for the Province 5 which the Governor thought would be agreeable to him. That Surveyor, late hi* (for-it proved, in the Sequel, he was not to be hit any longer) only came, the other being ill. Another Letter, dated the next Day (the 4th of February) inclofed a PoWer to him, to adminifter the Oaths to his Agent Mr. Lloyd, to qualify him to aft as a Jujiice of the Peaa. That


( n ) That, about the latter End of January, there was an Agreement made for yoUr Petitioner, with one Jobnf(m% for fixteen Head of Cattle, and which were brought to his Settlement the 9th of February; with thefe fixteen there were a Bull and a Steer, that were ftray Cattle, that did not belong to thofe he bought, but which having been with them, and, as a common Thing, would not be feparated from them, all the Drivers could do did not prevent them from continuing with them, as they were drove near Augujiine his Servant went into Town, and fpoke to the feveral Owners of Cattle, and acquainting them of thefe two ftray Cattle, and that his Mailer muft pay for the two Cattle, or, if they would come out and fee them, they might have them-* no Perfon came, and they were drove to his Settlement with the others, under Neceffity only, not Choice. As his Settlers had not had any frefh Meat lately, and the Steer was the better Meat, rather than the others, and it would not have been worth any Owners While to have drove the two only back to Augujiine, the Marks, Che Colour, and the Value, were afcertained while alive. His Agent thought it would be no Injury, but a Benefit to whatever Owner appeared, to kill it, and allow fpr it. It was therefore killed, and the Weight of it then taken, and, when he went to Augujiine after wards, he carried the Certificate of the fame, and lodged it with the Money in a Merchant's Hands, (Mr. ffiUhtts) for the Value, after the Augujiine Price per Pound. That, if any Perfon alledged the Marks of their loft Cattle, and they proved the fame as the Certificate mentioned, which he was to keep private, that, in that Cafe, he was to deliver the Money for the fame, and would pay for tke Bull, or they might have it at his Plantation. There was immediately raifed an Uproar about this Theft 3 one Mr. Piles, who had the largeft Stock of Cattle, ient a threatening Letter to his Servant, that they were bis Cattle. Captain Skinner, an Officer at Augujiine7 fent to know what were the Marks of thofe two Cattle: Your, Petitioner therefore informed the Juftices of Peace of what he had done, a$ to lodging the Certificates and Money in Mr. Wilfaf% Hands* Mr. Wilfon fent for B4 Mr.


( 24 ) Mr. Piles, and mentioned the fame 5 he deCrcd him to 11 a me the Marks of his Cattle, when it proved quite different from the Marks in the Certificate. The latter your Petitioner waited on, and acquainted him of the fame. The Certificates and Money were in Mr. Wilfon's Hands, and the Bull ftiil in being at his Plantation, when he came away in September, 1765. That, on Febtuary the 19th, arrived at his Settlement, One Amnion and others, who had before called there in therr Way up to find out a PaiTage through to the Gulph of Mexico, from the River St. Jonh^s^ as it had been re ported there was, but which they did not find} the Journal they gave him a Copy of contained to one hun dred and twenty-fix Miles, abcve his Settlement, and (hey faid there was between twenty and thirty Miles more they had not entered. That, on. February th 26th, he fet out for St. Auguftine, .and intended to have camped without-fide the Town, and went in by Day to tranfaci his Bufinefs, and wait on the Governor, but, over-perfuaded by his Agent, went to Mr, Gfeenan*s to return his Vifit, agreeable to Invitation. At this Gentleman's Houfe he lay, and, as ufual when in Town before, was invited to dine at the Governor's, except the three laft Days, when the Governor imagined your Petitioner had been fet out for his Plantation, and was then entertained by the Attorney General, Major Ogihie* Commander of the Troops, and another Officer. The Surveyor Fairchild, whom your Petitioner efteemed a hired Servant, one of his own Houfhold, and had accepted one of the Deputy Suiveyorlhips of the Province, by Confent of your Petitioner, waited on him at Mr. Greennans, to know his Pleafure about returning to his Plantation as a Sur veyor for the Province, but feemed too high for his Service, and inquired what Wages he would give. This Alteration induced him to mention it to the Go vernor, that forhe Methods had been taken he believed to induce him to leave his Service, contrary to his Contract. The Governor told him to fpeak to Mr. Greenan, to fpeak to Fair child (the Surveyor) that he might attend his Service, as well as the Province JBufinefs.


() But afterwards, an Opportunity ferving* the Governor fpoke to him himfelf, and told him, that the two Offi ces were not incompatible, and he might ferve him fttll on his Plantation. The next Day at Mr. Greenan's Friirchittt came and offered to adjuft the Accounts of Wages due, and-Monies received ; and, fuppoling the Balance againft him, offered to fetch the Money to pay it, as loon as it was fettled. He diQw it out, and proved twelve Pounds received in Gafh, about twenty Shillings due for Store Goods, in all thirteen Pounds, of which alx)ut eight Pounds ten Shillings was the Proportion of twenty Pounds a Year for twenty-two Weeks he had ferved him, and this Balance of four Pound ten Shillings appeared due to your Petitioner. The Propofal of Payment, dropped on the Queftion, how much was he to give ? For Mr. Greenan pleaded for him, that your Petitioner could not give lefs to him thin a Crown a Day; your Petitioner anfwered not till he was compelled by ForceHe continued to fay bis Bargain was juft, and therefore fhould be ob served ; thus, with fo good an Advocate, he had neither Service nor Balance of Account paid him. The Confequence of this plain Seduction was the utter Ruin of the young Mam At your Petitioner's homely Plan tation he fayed Money, was freeing himfelf from Debt even out of twenty Pounds a Year, and preferved his Health by Temperance and an induftrious Life. For, without Vanity, there might be faid to be Regulations tending to tkis End, amidft a moderate Plenty, not found in a garrifoned Town, where Luxury and De bauchery reigned amidft Scarcity. And Surveying va lued by it's Hundreds per Annum, your Petitioner fuppofes, did not fuffice, the Youth was ruined, a fifty Pound Debt appeared in one Shop Book againft him, and he took up the Money for his Surveys, and carried off the Plans with him, or deftroyed them, and fled to Wtji-Fhrida. Two other Perfons who were tired of this fatal Place, one having been caught in a Law-fuit about Driving of Cattle, who had propo sed to come to your Petitioner's Town to fettle, but by no Seduction of his; only their own Choice, and, as


( *6 ) as one had Cattle, Would have been beneficial to hi* Colony; ret were at firft powerfully retained by the Service or---- at length obliged to part with the Cattle, being nineteen Head, which feld /of only twenty Guineas, he thinks a full Proof your Petitioners 'Bargain was no Imposition, of fourteen Hfcad, for nineteen Pounds. But this Purchafe feemed only contrived to prevent his having them ; and though purchafed by Mr. Juftice Greenan^ who was juft then beginning a Plantation, arid they would foon have been a pretty initial Stock ; but they paffed quietly into the Juftice's Servants Hands, or through them into the above Shop, where the Deputy-Surveyor funk his fifty Pounds. At this Time came on the final Conclufion f the Affair of the Cattle your Petitioner bought as before-Mentioned ; Mr. Gttenan when at his Settlement, paffed his Judgment in Appearance, that the Seller frroufd make good his Bargain, which was fourteen Head of Cattle for nineteen Pounds, and hewouldadvife hhn aird fettle that Matter at his Return. At firft when yow Petitioner came to Town, he was informed that the Seller would deliver the Cattle ; he came to Mr. Grf

C *7 ) to drive them out, that he fliould have left Powers to annul it; he had been ready, and your Petitioner fent him to make an Affidavit to contradid the other; but the Juftice would not permit it. Thus the EngRJb Law was open, as the Governor had told him it was. But he found it open only on one Side of a Queftton, He now happily concluded an Account with his Agent, a Perfon (Mr. Ballamore) who accidentally under took it, he fays happily, as this unfortunate Gen tleman, in trailing to a Promife of the Place of the Colle&orfhip of this Port, was ruined, and made a dreadful Exk> not long after. This Account amount ed to the Value of one hundred and fourteen Pounds, which by Exchange of eight and a quarter, for his Bills on Charles-Town^ made above one hundred and twenty-three Pounds, which, with three hundred and forty-two Pounds and the Exchange twenty-eight, making in all four hundred and ninety-three rounds, nearly all expended in St. Auguftim% proves a confiderable Sum \ your Petitioner begs Leave to mention, after the Public Money is noticed for that Metropolis, and he does it to diftmguifh himfelf, as laying oat Money in Augufthte^ a Circumftance that merits Fa vour, as his Neighbour Mr. Spalding^ who keeps th? Store for Machey and Co. in G$orgiay had Threats that his Licence fliould be taken from him, not only as he had not conformed to it, which was only juft intimated, as to the Power over him, but in more expreft Terms, becaufe he did not lay out his Money for Goods at Augufiine; for his Partners fent it all by Water from Georgia ; whereas he muft have kept Horfes, and had expenfive Land Carriage from Jm+ gxftine. So impolitic a Demand by the Secretary, Mr. Dmmtt in a Letter, occasioned Mr. SpoUag to go to Am-gujiinfj to know whether it was only Mr. Dunxtft Inti mation in Favour of Mr. IVilfmC* Store,whtch was hinted as the Place to buy at, who was in Partnerfliip with one Bacivp, whom the Governor had given the Command of the Province Schooner to $ Mr. 2)***** replied it was Che Gmxrmitt WtU% that he fliould have the Intimation before-mentioned. The Governor himfelf, when Mr. Spalding waited on him, was filent on this Topic. This


( *8 ) This Letter having been tranfmitted to Georgia, he need not recite it, as it was foreftalled in the Relation* by an uninterefted Perfon, mentioning his Knowledge of the Fad. For Want of this kind of Recommendation of expending his Money at Mr. Jffilfcm's Store, issi Augufline, he could not be blameabie, he muft proceed further to find the Caufe of Blame. That he had, in the Courfe of fome Converfation, during this Week, an Intimation that, in the moreregular Manner, the Governor fhould have directed the At torney General to have profecuted him for fettling on the King's Land, without Leave. He now endeavour ed to find out in what Manner he might be permitted to run his Land, for he could without much Forefight perceive, that whatever feemed more particularly his Defire, would fall further without the Line of his Majefty's Dire&ions and Orders. That having an Inclination to fome Iflands, fome Way above where he is now fettled; but which Iflands, if he had fpecified, would fome how or other be conftrued improper for him to have; but which he in tended to have taken, with fome Land adjoining, or not far off, could he have aflured a Will to grant them* He a(ked therefore a.Queftion about the Ifland of Amelia* which lies on the Confines of Georgia, which the Lords of Trade had once confented to recommend to his Majefty to grant to your Petitioner, whether if he altered his Mind again for that Ifland, which he fupj>ofed about fifteen thoufand Acres of Land, whether he might have the remaining five thoufand Acres on the Continent, neareft to the Ifland The Governor anfwered, your Petitioner's Grant was to be of a con tiguous Lot of twenty thoufand Acres. This how ever he had obviated before in his Plan, Ihewn to Mr. Greenariy by which the Water intervening, amounting to thceeor four thoufand Acres, was to have been meafured, and fome Land on each Side, which would certainly have been contiguous, though Part of it might be covered with Water. He was furprized now however, with a particular Care in his Excellency for the poor Settler hitnfelf at laft, though, in the Cafe of his Hunter,


( 29 ) Hunter, the Governor would not interfere, as is before mentionedThe SatisfadHon made fry Major Ogthie^ fdr the Injury done him by the Soldiers at Picolata, in carrying off his Smith and his Wife, was reduced to a Reprimand at his Requeft, and pardoned, as is related before. That in fome of his Letters, among many of the Grievances that h had full Reafon to Complain of hav ing barely recited, this of the Soldiers, the Governor took up this fingle Fact alone, and exerted his Au thority as Governor in affifting and protecting him as a Settler, by removing of this Garrifen at Picolata* who had injured him in the Manner before related, but it happened to be thus untimely, after the Satisfaction and Pardon given through Major Ogilvte. That, one Day this Week, the Governor mentioned to him this Order of Removal \ he told him it happened to be extremely unfortunate, as he had addreffed his Complaints to the Major, being the Commanding Officer, and he had anfwered him in the politeft Man ner, and rendered him all the Satisfaction of Punifhment poffible, which he had declined,, and intreated for a Relaxation and had pardoned the Delinquents. The Governor faid,he was not to afk the Major any Queftion tibout it, that your Petitionet ought to have addreffed tiimfelf to him; he replied, he thought in applying to the Commanding Officer of the Regiment, refpefiiog fuch Matters, he had afted properly; the Governor faid no, in refpecl: of the Care of the Settlements ^ he himfelf was the only Director. But, as various Circumftances, which fall out at different Times, are not eafily connected and ambiguous, meanings difin-velop, your Petitioner is obliged to make his Rela tion with the utmoft Plainnefs of Style, for Perfpicuity's Sake, and reafon from Facts to Caufes, in the Courfe as they happened. In three Governments in America^ htebeck, Weji and Eafl Florida^ a Difpute arofe between the refpective Governors and the Commanding Officers of the Forces at each Place, as to the Power of giving the Word of Command. In Eajl-Florida^ the Governor claimed it; Major Ogihiey the Commanding Officer at Augujlinii


( SO ) d*gnjt\ne, pjftriidxht Right, and hid that tfiefe Points muft not be given up, but that* the Governor and him-felf, had been in Friendship in the Expedition to the Hauama% he did not defire to quarrel with him. Jf he liked the Feather, be might have it, till a Deter* mination of the Queftion might be had from the Gene ral Commanding Officer (General Gap) to whom he would fend. The Anfwer from General Gag4 gave it in Favour of Major Ogitui*. He cannot affign any other Reafon, but a kind of Reverfal of this Order, uolefs, as Protector of Settlers, it might be that of throwing the Blaine on your Petitioner, for Pardoning and re versing his Pardon, and to raife an Odium and Hatred in the common Soldiery againft him, which appeared in a Refufal, for feme Time* to let htm in at the Gate of the Fortification, called M*rfoy one Evening juft after the Gate was fliut, but which is ufual to all People at any Time of the Night; for without Leave the Palmetto Fortification on that Side of the Town admits in many Places a Horfe to pafe through it, at a Diftance from this Guard at the Gate, That, on Mar A the iSth, Piikti* one of the Indians, made your Petitioner a Vifit of Compliment, with his Squaw, or Wile, and two Sons wdl drefled ; on feme Converfetiott he expeefleri feme Anger at a Trading Hou& being eftablUbing at a Place a great Way above by one Mr. Wtlfo*y*xA {aid tfee h&ans would not fuffier it, which your Petitioner knew was rather out of Jealoufy, for the other Store, which waskept by Mr. Spotting, whofit Friend this Indian was, however year Petitioner thought fit, to acquaint the Governor of it by Letter, but this Indian brought Mr. Wtlfm away by Force, and obliged him fo depart, after letting htm fell the few Things he had then with him. In this Letter he alio informed the Governor of his explaining the Plan of Trade, he purpofed with the Indians, to this Indian Pbikki) which proved fo agreeable as mentioned before. But he alio was obliged to mention one CircUmftance, that t\m Vifit drew Jealoufy of the Trading Houfe of Mr. Spalding, who was himfelf then abfent in Georgia) but his Interpreter came down to his Settlement, in Parfuit


( 3i ) of Philoii, as a Debtor to his Stair, and had dilute! it in order to apply to him. That your Petitioner &ppofed, by an Application for a Licence to keep a Store, he fhould obtain a Quantity of Land, in Proportion to the Perfons fettled therein, agreeable to the Praglaiaation; and that one of the Petitions before mentionad had Reference to the Settlement of fucb Stose, on the oppofite Side of the River. That the Perfbn intended to be fettled thereon would give a perianal Attendance, when his Excellency was known to have appointed a Day for Examination. But that he then took the Liberty of mentioning, that the Report of two Perfons juft returned from Augufiint* who had waited on his jfcxcellency to petition for Land. MeiTrs. D4visy and JohnfoHy that no Perfcn refiding with your Petitioner fhould ever have any Gcants of Lands in this Pcovins, and that the Petitions lent in, under his Direction to the Secretary were thrown under the Table; that he re lated this as a Report only without any real Foundation, or more than a Non-correfpondence with the Governor?* Sentiments and Will to eftablifh a thorough Settlement of the Province in fame Perfons wbafe Station of Life fhould direct to a different Deportment, and whieh, however it would anfwer their Ends he knows not, hut might render his Settlement more difficult; Angular, and trifling as it is; if continued to a Second or third Adventurer, might di(courage a greater Number of more important undertakings; after which followed a Recapitulation of the Sedudiion of his Surveyor Fairchildy recited more at large before, but more particularly mentioning Mr. Juftice Grtenaris Affertion at laft, that Fairchild the Surveyor's ferving of him wag incompatible with the Office of Surveying for the Province, though his Excelleucy had faid otherwife. That he thought the Advice, Weight, and Authority of fome already eftablilhed in Office, might make Equity flow eafily to private Individuals, and that Contrad* would be preferved in Fa&, though wanting fome ncceffary Forms; refle&ing on the Chara&er of a Juftice of Peace, as holding a Balance between Equity and the Rigour of the Law. That Colonies have been much difturbed


C ?2 ) dlfturhed by the finifter Arts of Neighbours, or private Connections within it's own. That your Petitioner ex pected it; that he foiind it at Charles-Town, as to the Former ; as to the Latter in the Point of the Cattle. His Boat loft perhaps through Difappointfnent io Affi davits feared to be made, and fome others, already troubling his Excellency too much about, yet muft ferve for Reflexion and future Advice to himfelf. The above Omrffion of the Name of the Perfon, through whom the Lofs of the Boat was occafioned, afforded ample Reafon to the Governor to take the Matter up. The moft minute Affairs in AuguJKne, or the Province, were known to him, and this more worthy of his Regard, than the affair of the Soldiers of Picotata already mentioned. But it is not to be doubted he knew that this Bfank would be properly filled with the Name of Mr. Sweetenbam9 the young Man hewifhed well well to* and knew not any one he fhould be more ready to promote. The Go vernor wrote him an Anfiver dated the <2ift of March* in Anfwer to what he wrote about the Indian Pbiloki* and the Traders Mr. Wilfin and Mr. Spalding* Inter preter, wherein he obferved as to the Latter, that he had not followed his Inftru&ions, which forbids Traders giving Credit to any Indian, and his following Philoki to your Petitioner's Settlement was an Irregularity he fliould inquire into. The Letter mentioned above from the Secretary to Mr. Spalding the Store-keeper Mr. )net now feemed to be grounded on this Advice of your Petitioner as a Reafon for withdrawing the Licence; but the Terms for keeping the Storey?//;7, by purchafinghis Goods at Mr. Wilfon*^ of Augujline, had no Reference to your Petitioner's Settlement. The Governor mentions, in this Letter, a Will and Defire to grant a Licence for an Indian Store to your Petitioner; but defires him not to talk to Indians about Trade, left he (hould coun teract what the Superintendant had agreed to, on which muft beg Leave to obferve, what your Petitioner had propofed to the Indians would be, he believes in every Perfon's Opinion juft, and could not counteract any Regulations productive of beneficial Trade, unlefs the Intereft of the Rum Colonies flioald be considered, in Preference


( 33 ) Preference to the Security of Eqft-Fhrid&9 which the Sale of that Commodity to the Indians might effecl:, whatever Injuftice there might be in the Introduction of it, to the Deftru&ion of their Race. The Gover nor mentions alfo, that a Licence to a Trader does not preclude him from being a Settler, but does not intitle him to a TracT: of Land near the Store; the Licence is annual; permanent Property upon that Ac count would be inconfiftent. This refers to his afking fojc Land, with the Store; but which he mentioned as the Proportion afligned in the Proclamation of fifty Acres per Head, to thofe Perfons fettled at the Store. This feemed to be only as a kind of Denial of the Necef-faries of Life to fuch Perfons as your Petitioner (hould fettle there, and which, as Corn and Rice, are Articles of Sale, or Gift to the Indians at all Stores it feems as if Land was a neceffary Appendage. In Anfwer to the Report mentioned, in his laft Letter, of the Petiti ons from Perfons at his Settlement having been thrown under the Table, and none would be regarded, the Governor anfwen, I do not confult a Mr. Jobnfon^ or a Mr. Davis* about the Plan of Settlement of this Province ; pray do not give Attention to fuch idle Re ports ; in which his Excellency does not deny the Fa&. The People at Mount Pleafant% he continues, as I hav told you, I can only confider as Settlers upon your Eftate, when you fix upon it; otherwife you may believe I (hould iiot permit them to fettle upon Crown Lands, without making Application to me; for you know well, if that was not the Cafe, that I (hould be obliged to direft the Attorney General to profecute them for a Trefpafs againft the Crown, as they have taken Poffeilion of Crown Lands, without afking my Confent; that, in Refpe& oyour Petitioner's Surveyor Fdirchild, he wifhed him to fettle with me; it was not decent for him to go greater Lengths. If your Petitioner ha4 been ill ufed in any Bargain, the Law of England was opert. That he fliuft leave it to the Juftices of Peace to ufe their Power to affift young Colonifts; for pe culiar Circumffances, where Points of Law are con cerned, it was not in his Power to fubftitute, to excufe C him


( 34 ) him from entering further into thofe Particulars* unlef your Petitioner entered a regular Complaint againft any particular Perfon, for not executing his Office, then the ^ffair would come properly before him. Here on your Petitioner muft beg leave to remark, that his mentioning the Report of his Petitions being throwfi under the Table came from the two Perfons named, who were returned at that Inftant, from the Secre tary's Office, if not the Council-Board ; but your Pe titioner mentioned it as a Report that could come from Underlings in Office only, who wifhed ill to his Co lony ; but fuch Givings-out might be prejudicial. If there were People came to his Settlement for Security, and, in Hopes of Conveniencies for Education of their Children, and other Benefits, might be induced to refide at his Town, Village, or whatever Name it may be called by ; yet, as for Land for Cultivation, fuch as he might be inclined to grant, they might not chufe, or could meet with fome as convenient and ^nearer on the other Side of the River, and without the Limits of his Grant. Your Petitioner could not think that their Poffeffion of a Plot of Land, three Perch in Breadth, and twelve in Depth, the Size of the Town Lots, as at prefent taken up, or if they fhould alfo cultivate the five Acres Lots laid out without the Town* with any Manner of Reafon, could preclude them from his Majefty's Offer of one hundred Acres for themfelves, and fifty for each of their Family. If they had accepted of the King's Grant of the fame, firft of all, your Petitioner is pretty well perfuaded there could be nothing contained in his Majefty's Inftructions to prevent their pofleffing other Lands of private Perfons, either by Purchafe or otherwife ; he is certain that fuch Conftruction muft militate with the Plan of fettling the Colony with Whites, the exprefe Condition of the Royal Orders for Grants; for, as the Governor faid, no Perfon would ftay at your Petition er's Town* any longer than he fed him; and the Offers to Settlers, in his Proclamation, muft contend with The Petitioner's feafon for not making fuch Complaint, See above.


( u ) with his fettllrig ih that Part of the Province. His forming a Town without any Inhabitants was ufelefs> for he could not grant Land with greater Conv.eniencies and Privileges than his Proclamation offered. Thus far, or in fuch Lights, it is true ; for twenty thoufand Acres are granted to a Perfon bringing four hundred Negroes, and, perhaps at feverai different Times, he pofleffes him felf of as many feverai Tracts of Land ; by their being run out in (mailer Portions* contain, altogether good Land, with little or no Addition of bad Land, and, in three Year's Time, may fell the Stock of Negroes, pofleffed irrevocably of the Land, and may, or may not, cultivate the leaft Part of it, and leave what he did clear worfe than he found it* as the Weeds and Quick-wood immediately fucceeding would foon render it more difficult to clear, than old frefh Land ; the other receiving a Grant in one contiguous Plot of twenty thoufand Acres, perhaps, a twelfth, or a tenth Part good, the Refidue, what is called Pine-Barren, or the mod indifferent Land, he muft equally, with the Negro Settler, pay forty-one Pounds thirteen Shillings and four Pence, a Year, Quit Rent, or one Half-penny an Acre; he muft convey his two-hundred white Settlers, and fet them down to Cultivation, at a far greater Expence than the other ; and muft lofe his imire Property in thefe Settlers at the End of the Term agreed for, which is ufually four Years. If they ftay, he lets them his Land, at What Quit Rent the Governor tells him, not at fo low a Rent as he will, agreeable to his Proclamation, an Half-penny an Acre ; therefore, no Perfons will fettle with him. This appears to be almoft unanswerable ; but the Contrary did appear, in a fmall Degree, at your Petitioner's Settlement, maugre all Oppofition and Obftru&ions ; in a greater it would have appeared, had not peculiar Contrivances^ which his Excellency feems to think him tooprefuming to expert, might be formed for the Prote&ion and Encouragement of the Settler, feem to be fet in Battle Array againft your Petitioner. That his Excellency, not contradicting ttee Report mentioned, but defiringhim not to mind fuch idle ReC 2 ports*


( 3* ) ports, your Petitioner was extremely obliged to him for the Intimation. He did obferve this Refolution, he fet out. with it from England* not to let the Spirit fink, by permitting the Con tradition of others to grate on the Mind ; it will, if given Way to, in a hot Climate, your Petitioner knows, enervate the Man in a fhort fpace of Time, and (hake the Frame to Pieces; Labour of the Body will prevent this Labour of the Mind, and preferve both for the Ufc of the State. Your Petiti oner can plead Excufe for this fecming Digreffion, only by alledging it, as an Offer for Information to thofe who may undertake Expeditions of this Kind in warm Climates, how much depends on the prefervtng in all, under their Care, the Chearfulnefs of Temper, and Equality of Mind. He docs not doubt, if he the Adven turer, on his Majefty's Permiffion to fettle, had chofe to have difputed the feveral Points of Obftru&ions to his Settlement, he might eafily have embroiled himfelf with half the People eftablifhed by his Majefty, for the Pro tection and Defence of the Colony j but, as the Gen tlemen of fome Part of York/hire* who were greatly difturbed in the peaceable Poffeflion of their Lands and Game by a certain Major, who provided Dainties at his Table for two Ladies of Luxury in different Parts of England^ wherein he pleafed to place them, were mitigated by one another to challenge this Gentleman of the Sword, at whofe Point they were to be kept from even viewing their Demefnes, like Pri(oners in their own Houfes, when one Gentleman, more pru dent and of juft Reafoningf at fome Genera] Public Meeting faid, that, as that Gentleman was intended by his Majefty to defend and fight, not with his Subjects, but for them, it was no Difhonour in any Perton to omit the Challenge, and to join in the Propofal he then made of an humble Reprefentation to the Secretary of State, ro intereft himfelf in obtaining ^n Order of Removal for that Gentleman from thofe Quarters, as a PuMic Nufance; which they all rea dily joined in, and he was ordered, he believes, to join his Regiment in Ireland. Your Petitioner has the feme kind of Reafoning with himfelf, as to the Point of Honour $


is?) Honour; and doubts not of his Majefty's Protection of thofe he pleafes to grant Lands to, and who fupport a Settlement at a great Expence, on the Plan he di rects in his Order of Grants to be followed. As to what the Governor refers him to, the Law and the Juftices, and a regular Complaint againft the Execu tors of it; he faw fo little good Effect from the humble Remonftrances, fo little Obedience to his Excellency'* Opinion, as communicated to him, and having the fame Complaints from other Parts, and for the Reafons before mentioned, he thought it more prudent to make ail pof&ble Provifion againft thefe Misfortunes within his own Settlement, as far as the Nature of his own Pow er permitted ; and to defer his Reprefentations of thofe Matters till his Return to England, which he medita ted on daily ; but was {till defirous of fraying to locate the Grant of Land. The Governor on one Side pref-fing him to a hafty Determination, though he did not to others already fet down on Lands, equally with your Petitioner, on Sufferance only ; and as yet no Agree ment had been made with the Indians, or likely to be foon for the Permiffionof fettling any Land ; he imagi ned, if he could have any Aflurance, not extraordina ry Indulgence of the Time* to procure Opinion of Government at Home on his Reprefentations, he might fet out and return again, before the Treaty with the Indians. But he could neither venture to go, and his Stay proved not long enough at laft to locate the Land with Propriety, being continually obftru&ed on every Propofal. That, on April the 20th, he Tent a Letter to the Governor, which he mentions in his Anfwer of the 23d, wherein he inclofed a Lift of the Grants of Land, made by Mr. Boone, Governor of South-Carolina, of eighty-three thoufand one hundred and fifty Acres, Part of which was on the Alatamaha% the former South Boundary of Georgia ; Part on St. Marfs River ; the prefent Boundary of Georgia ; Part on what was agreed between General Oglethorpe and the Governor of C 3 St. See the Indulgence to Col. Middleton, ( ) of three Months Confideration.


( 38 ) St. Auguftine to be efteemed Neutral on the Hands of Amelia and Talbot. But alfo three thoufand Acres, one hundred Miles up from the Mouth of St. John's River. Suppofe twenty Miles more South than St. Auguftine^ in the very Heart of the Province of EaJl-Florida9 ceded by the Spaniards^ on a Prefumption that King Charles the lid's Charter of South Carolina could extend to the Deprivation of all Inhabitants, as far as the Latitude of 29 Degrees, which included St. Auguftine, Penfacola9 Mobile, New Orleans, &c. That your Petitioner had this Plot furveyed by his Sur veyor, and which Draught he had fhewed to the Governor, and related that as an eligible Spot for him, if the Indians would permit a Settlement on that Side of the River; that, if not, he muft chufe another Spot, as mentioned before. In the Governor's Anfwer concerning this Grant to Colonel Middleton^ hefaid he had not underftood that any of the Grants in Eaft-florida Province had been com pleted, in Confequence of Governor Boone's Grants, till lately Mr. Middleion's*, to whom thofe three thoufand Acres oppofite to your Petitioner's Settlement had been granted by Governor Boone^ fent to their Correfpondents, to requeft the Governor to have the Grants recorded in the Regifter^Office, in Ea/i-Florida ; they are very refponfible People, and would make good Sett lers ; his Anfwer to this Requeft was pretty nearly as follows, that this Province had been formed out of a Part of the Country ceded to his Majefty by the late Definitive Treaty; that he was the firft Governor his Majefty had appointed, and that he could admit of no Giants, but fuch as had pafled under the General Seal of this Province ; that the Validity of a Deed under the General Seal of South-Carolina muft be confidered before it could be recorded in the Offices here; but that, upon perfonal Application to him in Council, if thofe Gentlemen complied with the Terms of his Pro clamation, as the Lands had not already been granted by him, all Difficulties might be removed, as they fhould get a Grant of the Land they claimed 5 and, that they might have Time to confider of it, he would not give


( 39 ) give away thofe Lands to any body for three Months. If Mr. Eiliat applied to him before the Lands of Amelia Mand are granted away, he lhall give him the fame Anfwer $ but it is the Bufinefs of Gentlemen who have obtained fuch Grants to inform him of it, for he is fuppofed to know nothing of them till Application is made to him ; he then mentioned an Inftruclion of a Survey of St. Johns River foon, but has not hap pened unlefs very lately ; preffes your Petitioner again to locate his Land, for fear he mould grant away Land he might like. Your Petitioner's Letter of the 25th of Aprils takes Notice that this Letter of the Go vernor's, as well as the former Reafonings on the Lo cating of his Grant all together in a connected View, rendered a greater Difficulty in his declaring his Sen timents, alledging there feemed to be full Time, before there was a Likelihood of an Indian Congrefs, for him to have the Opinion of Government at Home. The Land on the oppofite Side of the River had not now at this Time the Objection of the Indians; indeed your Petitioner believed he could have had it ofjhem, if no Land had been granted by any Congrefs; his Friendfhip with them made him quite eafy, though the two Indians Traders were at that very Time drove from their Stores, the fatal Effeds of felling Rum! and which obliges his Neighbour Mr. Spalding, to lie aboard his Boat in the River every Night, while the Rum lafts, for fear of being murdered ; and alfo now the Indian, whofe Name was Chuckle, mentioned before, was fup pofed to be murdered at Auguftine, which made the Governor fear Mifchief would enfue, who fent to the Indians at Latchawayr to exprefs his Inclination to ufe his beft Endeavours to find out the Murderer, though the Indian appeared again afterwards ; it being a Con trivance he had to occafion a Sufpicion of a Quarrel and Murder it was fuppofed. But your Petitioner thought himfelf nevertheless quite fecure in their Goodwill, and Promife of Information on any the leaft Danger or Intention of Harm. He herein expreffed his utmoft Defire to make a Settlement, agreeable to the C 4 Interefts See above


( 4 ) Interefts of the Mother Kingdom; recapitulated, in a fhort Manner, the different Sentiments expreffed thereon, and the Oppofition he received from unexpected Hands, though Difficulties and Oppositions in Interefts he in fome Meafure had expected. That on the Eaft Side of the River he refided onf would be eligible only on Account of Health, the other Side for better Land ; and the Indian Friendfhip would now permit it, requefted the Governor's explicit Opini on as to Right of Pre-ele&ion, in himfelf, of fuch Spot on the Weft Side, (hould the Grant of Governor Boone be invalid; or, if valid, of Admiffion to the fole Pro perty of a Ferriage, the Indians paffing free with Con venience and a Store for the Indians on that Side, cfteemed before by the Governor improper on this inhabited Side $ and whether two other eligible Spots he had in View might remain ungranted, till he might, by Reprefentation at Home to the Lords of Trade, obtain a different Arrangement the Governor had intimated it not to be within the Limits of the Commiffion, may be yet thought proper by their Lord(hips to recommend to his Majefty, to facilitate the expenfive Attempts though he hoped not illaudable, of your Petitioner. That the two eligible Spots, two Iflands, and fome main Land, are not efteemed by the Governor a contw guous Plot. That, on April 26th, the Governor's Let ter exprefles a Difbelief of any Perfon's wifhing your Petitioner ill, and (hould have a bad Opinion of fuch, if any. It was his Duty to facilitate his Settlement, but he faid your Petitioner had given him no Reafon, why he did not go and fettle at St. Mari's* according to his firft Intention, hinting rather a Diflatisfa&ion at bis not running out his Land, as he had a Surveyor fent over in February* and was in no Apprehenfion of giving Offence to the Indians in running out his Land, though above the Fort Picolatay as he was already fettled there. If he had propofed fixing on that Spot of Land which had been granted by Governor Boone to Mr. Middleton* your Petitioner, (hould have told him fo, he faid it was mentioned as an extra Settlement, which he could not


( 4i ) not grant* If he had propofed a Survey of that Land, before the Carolina Grant had been laid before him, his Anfwer to Mr. Middkton's Agent would have been different, but that he could not recall what he had (aid. As to the Grant of the Governor of South* Carolina, difpofing of the Trab of Land mentioned above, it was upon a ftrange Suppofition, that the Right of the Governor feems to be founded. That King Charles the lid's Charter of Carolina extended to the Latitude of 29 Degrees, by which St. Augujline, St. Mart's, Penfacola, and New Orleans were included : Any grant cf Land, at this Place, muft be of Land ceded by the Spa niards, if any Thing was in their Poffeffion, whatever might be faid of the Lands, eighty-three thoufand one hundred and fifty Acres, the Governor of Carolina, had granted on or near St Mary's River, and the River Alatamaha, which your Petitioner thinks were agreed to be neutral, between General Oglethorpe, and the Govern Hor of St. Augujline, at that Time. The Governor con tinues to fay, that a Place would be referved for a Fort, at the Narrows, that is, at his Settlement5 a Leafe of the Ferry he might have the Refufal of; a Licence for an Indian Store he might have at any Time, but, the Mo ment Inhabitants were fixed upon it, the Store would of Courfe be removed to another Place, none being permitted in an inhabited Country As to the two Plots of Land defired to be referved, he knew the Terms in the King's Order for a Grant, before he left London ; then was the Time to objed, he had had a long Time to fearch for Land, and no fuch Spots could be referved on a Suppofition of an Alteration; he added, no Perfon could come with a greater Advantage of locating his Grant, than your Petitioner did ; as to Obftrudions to his Settlement a Perfon of his Excellency's good Intelli gence, could not want Information from your Petitioner. Every minute trifling Circumftance he found on feveral Occafions the Governor knew. When he had a Surveyor he had a Plan, and {hewed it to the Governor in Deumber ^ of that Plot of Land oppofite to the Place of his Refidence, and mentioned the Carolina Grant, which he had heard of, and (hewed an Inclination to that Plot of Land all along; but the Misfortune was, that every Propofal


( 42 ) Propofal for any Plot, no Matter what or where, was certain to receive fome Objection. This certainly dal lied Time away, not through his Fault, till others might come to take any good Land away from him, as it happened afterward. At this Time a different Anfwer would have been given to Colonel MiddleUn, had it been known before-hand*. Surely, the little Knowledge of the Country near St. Mark's, the Conference not yet held with the Indians, through which Country, for two hundred and forty Miles, he was to pafs, and no Perfon had pafled it as yet, were fufficient Motives to a humane Governor to have prevented his attempting to go, with ten People, to be fcalped, had it not en tered into your Petitioner's unexperienced Head. The Fort is held out as a Bugbear* to prevent his Continu ance even at the Narrows, where little good Land adjoins. As to the two Plots, it had been plainer propo sed by him as an Ifland, and a Part of the Main; which was anfwered could not be a Contiguous Plot, accordr ing to the King's Inftru&ions ; and your Petitioner has lately been told by a Lawyer, this is one of the more nice Species of Refinement. He could not conceive of Weight, but, with a previoufly ftiff determined Mind. Your Petitioner did not prefume to make Comments on his Majefty's Order, he accepted it without Inter pretation, and would try the Experiment in Perfon If Conftruclions are foreign to the Meaning of his Majefty's Order, or any Thing, by Experiment, is found injurious to the more beneficial Settler with Whites, he doubted not of Relief, could he have had Time to xeprefent it, and no Injury done to his Settlement in the mean Time. The Leafe of the Ferry he defired, to oblige the Indians, which he feared others might not, was the fole Motive of his Requeft ; but for a valuable Confideration he might purchafe other Things more valuable in Income he fuppofed. The Store v/as to be granted and foon revoked. He fees no Objection, if proper Diredlions are given, and obferved, the more intimate the Indians and Whites are, the better. That This was known before, as appears, juft above, by the Petitioner's fhewing to the Governor a Survey of this Land made by his own Surveyor.


( 43 ) That your Petitioner wrote a Letter to the Go vernor previoufly to his going to England^ as intended in the firft Week in May; wherein he recites again the prior Petition of Colonel Middleton^ by an Agent or Proxy, not permitted to your Petitioner, or any Perfon in any wife belonging to him; but, bis Application had been perfonal^ he had Ihewn a Map run out by his own Surveyor, before he was deprived of him, by being feduced away, of this fame Tract of Land. That his Excellency had declared his Intention of not receiving of Petitions, for any Land above Picolata^ till after the Indian Treaty; therefore, his Delay fruftrated no At tempts of others to fettle: The Petition for Part of that Land, by a Perfon he had intended Settling at an Indian Store, was prior alfo to Colonel Middleton; and, if it wanted the Form of a perfonal Attendance, it was owing to the wrong Information at the Secretary's Office, where his Surveyor inquired for the Form and Method, and was intended only to fave Expence in Attendance; for he could not think, that his Excel lency created an Obligation on the Settlers, byenhanceing their Expence of Attendance, to fupport the Taverns at Augujline. He, on this Account, intended going im mediately for England^ but, left that fome Land (hould be granted to Colonel Middleton^ in Preference to him-felf, or any other Perfon, hearing your Petitioner bad viewed fuch or fuch a Spot of Land, may make Ap plication for 2ifmall Slip of Land in the Middle, to the Depriving him of Land agreeable in Contiguity^ as re quired by his Majefty's Permit. If he can have no other Election but a fecond after Colonel MiddUton^ then that he muft fix on a Piece of Land, difpofed in a Neck on this Side of the River, as Colonel Middleton's is fo termed on the other, (which is altogether Swamp) by a prudent Line of Direction ; though, if your Petitioner included it in his, he fhould have mixed much Pine-Bar* jen, and, according to one Plan, fhould have paid for near two thoufand Acres of Water in his Quit Rent; he thought it not quite a dishonourable Propofal to make to his Excellency, not an Injury to other Settlers, or the Intereft of the Province. He objected to the fending the


C 44 ) the Perfon, who had been Surveyor in his own Service, as a Surveyor for the Province, for Reafons too obvious to mention to a Perfon of Honour ; but, if another was fent, Mr. Lloyd, his Agent, would fhew him his rough Draughts, done by himfelf, through Necefiity, fince he was deprived of his own Surveyor, for eafier Comprehenfion how to run the Land. That your Petitioner was forry, that he had related to the Cowkeeper, one of the Indian Chiefs, as he men tioned before, that he believed no Caftles would be built on the River, a$ he found now it was different from the Intention of his Excellency's Meaning, the Refervation of a Spot to build a Caftle on his Settle ment; which, whenever executed, he fliould certainly fow no Corn, &c. within the baleful Influence of fuch a Fort, left he might hide the Enemy from the Sight of the Garrifon; but, as for Colonel Middleton's Rice Plantation, on the other Side, though within Gun-Shot, it would not be of fuch Prejudice, as Rice would fcarce hide an Enemy. As for the Place where his Village was, being the narroweft and beft adapted Place for the Fort, it was equally as well a Mile below, where it was one Chain narrower; and, above nine Miles above, there is a Place, that feemed to him not above a Stone's Throw over. That, on May the gth, two Gentlemen of Carolina, Mr. Kinlaugh and Mr. Moultrie, both confiderable Plan ters in that Province, arrived at his Settlement, and brought him a Letter from the Governor, dated May the 7th, to inform him, that thefe Gentlemen came to petition for Land, and fix upon the Locality of the fame; that he could not grant them any, till after the Limits might be fettled by an Indian Treaty; but that fuch Land as they fbould chufe fliould not be granted away to any other Perfon, till they, or their Friends, came into the Province to eftablifli their Settlement in the Autumn after the Congrefs is over*; prefles him to fix on his Lot, as their Choice would become prior to his otherwife, and irreverfibly fo, and that thefe Gen tlemen would fix on feveral Spots before they returned ; which It appears the Governor gives Indulgence to all others.


( 45 ) which they accordingly did, on two Spots only* very near your Petitioner's Houfe and Village, one of which was within the Survey fhewed to the Governor. He always, he fays, exprefled aDefire to accommodate your Petitioner to his Satisfaction, as far as lay in his Power; and thought it expedient to put him on his Guard. The Poftfcript informs him, that he had received an Exprefs from St. Mark's, and fent him an Extract of a Letter from the Commander there ; Mr. Pompillione^ wherein was an Account of a Veflel, aBrigantine, with Settlers for his Plantation, which had attempted to come into St. Mark's, but had failed, and had put into Penfa-cola, from whence an Exprefs had been fent to Mr. Pomfillione, at St. Mark's, with the Letter from the Captain to him. That your Petitioner was now to be hurried into the Fixing of his Plot of Land ; he entertained thefe Gen tlemen with all Refpect, as well as his Situation per mitted ; and acquainted them, that he had not reallydetermined about the Running out of his Land, as he had had many Propofals rejected by the Governor, and Difficulties ftill occured ; but {hewing them the Plans, as drawn by that indifferent Surveyor, himfelf, be ing obliged to do fo as he was deprived of him he had hired into his Service, by the Seduction of others ; and intimated he mould ftill ftick to the Spot they faw him on; which he fuppofed would not interfere with their* Choice, as they were going far up the River; and men tioned, that the Proportion of his Lot, would be nearly three Miles and a Quarter in Breadth, and nine Miles and three Quarters in Length, which he would get run as foon as he could procure a Surveyor to come to him. This he then thought fatisfadtory to them, and, for himfelf, confulted with his Agent, and made out Directions to him, for Information to the Surveyor in his Abfence, as he now was obliged to put off his going to England^ and determine to haften to the Afliftance of his Settlers from England at Penfacola, left his Letters of Advice where he was had not reached them. This was a Journey of Neceffity, though dangerous, being the firft undertaken by the prefent White Inhabitants of Eajl* Florida,


( 46 ) Florida, not of late Years ventured on by the late Poffeffors of St. Augufline, the Spaniards. It was not a Cafe of Neceffity, when the Governor would have had him undertaken it on his firft Arrival, and before he became acquainted with the Indians or the Governor himfelf had had a Congrefs with them, but which latter Security he ftill had not. That he prepared however immediately to go to St. MarICs acrofs Land ; one of his Servants would go with him, though your Petitioner had determined to run the Rifk alone, without engaging any other of his People. He fet out juft as it was dark in the Evening of Mayy the ioth, and went up in his Canoe to the Indian Trading-Houfe about eight Miles up the River, where he repofed himfelf on the Bank of the River tiH the Morning, when he found the two Carolina Gen tlemen juft fetting out for a further Search higher up the River, and propofed to go over the Great Lake which is about thirty Miles further up from your Petitioner's Settlement, and is twenty Miles in Length, and ten in Breadth ; nothing tranfpired from them of any Choice near him at that Time, neither did they mention it to his Agent, on their Return to his Settlement, when they were entertained by him in his Abfence, but on his proceeding as herein aftermentioned down the River for Georgia and England, he met one Mr. Grey, who was a Perfon in Company with thofe two Gentlemen when they went up the River; and he acquainted him that they proceeded no further than the Great Lake, did not go over it, but returned back, and had made Choice (Mr. Moultrie) of three thoufand Acres on the SouthWeft fide of Dunn's Creeh the Mouth of which difcharges a Lake, formed about fix Miles above, to the South-Eaft into St. John's River, nearly about four Miles higher up the fame from your Petitioner's Town or Village ; and that Mr. Kinlaugh had chofe the fame Quantity of Land on the North-Eaft Side of the fame Creek, and that the Governor had promifed them Grants of the fame. As a Plot of three thoufand Acres tnuft be, according to the Rules of running out Land, three Miles and three Quarters in Length, and one Miles


( 47 ) Mile and a Quarter in Breadth, the Breadth muft reach within three Miles of the Middle of your Petitioner's Town, which, as the Breadth of his Land was known to be three Miles and a Quarter in Breadth, and nine Miles and three Quarters in Length, might, in either Method of running the fame, interfere. It feemed to be a Breach of Hofpitality he thought in thofe Gen tlemen in the Silence upon fuch a Choice fo near him, if it did not approach to what the Gentlemen Racers call Jockeyjbip. It was then too late to make a perfonai Appeal to the Governor ; he could only fend a written Remonftrance, which he did by the Return of his Boat from Georgia) and ordered his Agent to do ASts of Ownerfliip on that Land, to diftingui(h his Choice. He muft in this Place remark, that both of the Gentlemens' Lots will have Side Lines run on a Creek as called fo, but is really a deep River navigable for large Schooners, as well as their End Lines on the River, and perhaps the other End on the Lake above ; that the faid Plot of Mr. Kinlaugh\ will contain about fix hundred and fifty Acres of good fwamp and marfh Land out of three thoufand, when even your Petitioner's twenty thoufand run in the moft beneficial Manner, though not admitt ed by the Governor, will contain but one thoufand eight hundred and thirty Acres of good Land, of which the fix hundred and fifty Acres in Mr. Kinlaugh's Lot is a Part and the Refidue eighteen thoufand one hundred and feventy is Pine-Barren, or indifferent Land. Mr. Grey alfo informed him that his Family had pitched on a Piece of Land below him, on the other Side of the River. This was a Place he once had Hopes that he might have had Liberty of placing a Mill at, there being a Stream of Water with forne Fall, to grind the Corn for his Villagers, and it appeared fince not an inadmiffibie Petition, as to one Mr. Davis, who had fettled on a Spot of good Land about feventy Miles below himf whereon much fine Bay-wood, &c. grew, which he had prefented the Governor with a confiderable Spe cimen of, where the Governor had permitted him to run both his Side-line and the Front-line en the great River, and he thinks about one thoufand Acres as for himfelf,


( 48 ) himfelf, and perhaps eighteen Negroes ; and about eight Miles difl-ant as he thinks, he told him, promifed him a Lot for perhaps the Refidue of his Family and Negroes* whereon he intended a Mill. This Lot alfo, made Choice of by the Grey Family, has the chief Part of it's Side-line on the River, as well as the End-line. That your Petitioner now took the Interpreter at the Store of Mr. Spalding, to proceed to the firft Town of the Indiansi about fifty Miles Diftance, which lay in his Way thither ; and by the Afliftance of two Horfes, walking the chief Part of the Way himfelf, they arrived there, the fecond Day at Noon, at a Store-Houfe kept by a Dutchman one Mr. Bamet. Your Petitioner, being well known himfelf to many of the Indians here, and the Chiefs being out on the Hunt, had no Obftruction to his Paffage ; he here engaged the Dutchman, Barnet) to conduct him to St. Mark's, and the other Interpre ter returned to his Store; he here faw, at this Town, the unhappy Effects of the Rum Trade, which he fore* boded, and ufed all Precautions againftj one of the Indians, called Neatohowki, who alfo kept a Shop here, had procured from Mr. Spalding's Store feveral Calks, which had intoxicated the Indians $ and this Man who is a Nephew of the Indian Chief of the Village, the Cow-keeper had, on an Apprehenfion of being bewitched, in the Heat of Liquor devifed the Death of an old Woman and two Men, one of whom being prefent he knocked out his Brains with a Glafs Bottle, and after wards dragged him by the Tail of a Horfe, a Stone's Throw off from the Huts, into the Woods, where your Petitioner faw him in his Walks out, and would have buried him, could he have procured a proper Tool; which he might have effected with Safety* as the Indi ans avoid the Sight of fuch Spectacles, and are much afraid of the Spirits of thefe Victims faerificed to their Paflions 5 and had immediately removed their Hut9 a Quarter of a Mile off, and lighted feveral Fires every Night for fome Time, This is the unhappy Effect of our Trade with them. Though, in theif Licences, Traders are reftrained frcm felling Rum, agreeable to the Treaty General Oglethorpe he believes made


( 49 ) made with them, when the old Men of the Crtei Nation requesting the Prohibition of this Commodity, afligned a rery fubftantial Reafon, left their young Men intoxicate themftlves and breed Quarrels with the Great King's People, and occafion War and Bloodfhed, There was another Article in that Treaty, That of their having fealed Weights and Meafures fent up to each of their Towns ; which, he believes, are not made Ufe of in any Store ; and almoft all the Condi tions the Traders are bound to in their Licences which he has feen, are not obferved by them. By this Com mo-modity of Rum alone, we may be faid to conquer large Provinces, but, as Lord Bacon fays, not fettle them ; we difpeople them at the fame Time we are, in Apnearance, flocking the Land with Inhabitants. That the Natives, by their Methods of Life, have, especially in Florida* kept the wild Beads from encreaf*ing ; and, by burning the Woods every Year, have occafioned even a Scarcity of venomous Creatures. This is a Reafon delivered of old by the Jewijh Lawgiver for the Non-deftru&ion of the Canaanites ; and your Petitioner withes it may be urged for the Prefervation of the Creehy and other Indian Nations bordering on oar own Settlements 5 and, as he has alfo had full Proof of the beneficial Trade now carried on, and which may be mcreafed by the civilifing of them it is to be hoped that Self-Intexeft may conduce to the fame End, Their Senfe of the Utility of the Propofals arifing from fuch Sentiments appeared in this fame Murderer Jsfiatokowkii whb was with him juft after the Commit ment of the Muuder, and fat very friendljr with him at this Indian Town* and came twice to his Settlement with his Skins for Trade ; and, at the latter Time, pleflad him much to take them, and keep them till he had Goods agreeable to his Wants. That haying engaged Andrew Barnet, who keeps a Sto*c at this Plaoe* to go with your Petitioner to St. MaxPs* who alfo topk an Indian^ as an Affiftant, to kill feme Game, and as a Ma,rk of being friendly with d)& Cruh>> Ihouljd he meet with any on the Road he proceeded on W Jsorfifty* being five in Company, his P own


( 50 ) own Servant, and a Carpenter, bound to Venfacola* who defired Liberty to join him for fafe Condu&, being the other two; the fecond Day he arrived on the Banks of a River, which runs from the North Southward into the Bay of Mixta* called there Little Savannah, but, in fome Maps, be believes, the Carolinian River. Your Pe titioner paffcd i| in a Canoe kept by the Indians, whofe Town he came to ma Quarter of a Mile off by Land on the Banks of the fame River, but about a Mile further up by Water. He alighted at one of the firft Huts; but was foon after fent for by the head Man of that Tribe* who bears the Name of the White King: he went immediate ly to his Hut, and found him, with fix or feven other ftout Indians* fitting on their Couches of Repofe, The Chief enquired of the Reafon of our Journey, and at firft feemed to objefl: to our proceeding farther ; but, after fome Time, on alledging the Intention was only to go to St. Mark's and Penfacola* to order a Ship, late ly arrived there, to fail round to Savannah* in Georgia^ he feemed to fay nothing further. Soon after there was ferved up fome Venifon dreffed with Bear's Oil, and a Bowl of China-Briar-Root Soop j with which your Petitioner and his Attendants having refrefhed themfelves, he re tired, to find out a Place for encamping that Night ; which he did at a fmall Space off from the Indians* Hutts, when your Petitioner difengaged his Horfes of the few Neceffaries, and placed them on the Ground near the Fire. Barnet* the Indian Trader, who, be ing jealous of your Petitioner's Intereft with the Indians in general, would not inform them, though requefted by him, of his Name, and Place of Refidence, and fome other Reprefentation he thought neceffary, retired from him, to drive fome Bargains with the Indians for his own Benefit, having brought fome little Trifles for that Purpofe ; but that your Petitioner had propofed paying for them, and to prefent them as a Compliment, but was difappoimed therein by the Jealoufy of the ln Han Trader, who was his only Interpreter. In the mean Time, while the Trader was abfent, the young Indians of the Village came do** to hit Camp, where only himfelf and one Servant ft|Md they began to be rather rudely inclined, and wanted toqpen aisTittle Parcels of Cloaths,


( 5i ) Cloaths, and forae few Neceflaries that he had there lying on the Ground, on which your Petitioner was obliged to exert himfelf in the following Manner : He defired them, by fignificaht Motions, to fit down, and, with a Stick, defcribed on the Sand the River St. Jofm\ pointed out the Road to St. Augufiine^ and the Spot of your Petitioner's Settlement, where the Creek Indians he hinted pafled in their Way to that Place, and, were entertained, which he did by pointing to the Mouth, by the Squire a Name affixed to General Oglethorpe formerly, and which was now given to your Petitioner That fome Way above your Petitioner's Settlement there lived one Seki&i, an Indian* with two Squaws, who came to fee him, and were his Friends ; as alfo one Pbiloki, and his Squaw, and two Sons, the Long Warrior*, the Cowkeeper^ &c. all the Names of the Indians he knew, and had been entertained by him at his Settlement, were all in ftrift Friendfhip with him, which he defcribed by joining his two Hands together, pointing to his Lips, and then to his Heart ; by which, your Petitioner foon found they underftood him, for they afterwards fat down very quietly, only expreffing rather Pleafure, and, on the Return of his Interpreter, found they invited him up to a Dance, which they ufe on the Arrival of Strangers, and the whole Village joined in it till about Eleven o'Clock : the Chiefs came down likewife, and they feemed to be alfo in a very agreeable Humour, and fet and difcourfed with the In terpreter, but who ftill perfifted in not communicating any Thing your Petitioner fliould fay to them ; how* ever, he converfed by Signs, in the fame Manner as abovementioned, with one of the old Indians^ whom your Petitioner could find underftood him pretty well, and did not doubt informed the Chiefs thereof. Your Pe titioner, the next Day, fet out on his Journey to St. MartfSi where he arrived in four Days, and was received very politely by the Command ant, Mr. Lieutenant Pom-pillione>v/ho he found had been fo obliging as to forward a Letter to-a Merchant at Ptnfacola> at his Requeft, which your Petitioner had, Itme Time before, fent to him ; which was for t& Cs*e of the Settlers expeQed from#JM,{hould they put in therej and ordering them D 2 to


( 52 ) to come round the Cape to the Settlement on St. Joints River, by the Way of Savannah. On almoft a Cer tainty of his Letters fafe Arrival at Penfacvlay alledged by Mr. Pompiilione, it was not incumbent on your Pe titioner to proceed thither, but to haften his Return, to prepare Houfes for the new Inhabitants ; he there fore, after refting a few Days, and having been kindly entertained by the Commandant and Mr. Enfign Haw kins, proceeded to a Return. He muft here remark* that* all what he had feared to rifk his Settlers in would have happened, Indians to whom he, at that Time, Would have been unknown, would certainly have obftruted his Paflagc St. Mark\ the Piace of Settlement a fmall three-cornered Spot of Ground, con fined between two Rivers a Fort unfinifhed, of iio Strength, though fixty Men in Garrifon one Baffion only of, he fuppofes, three intended, being partly built the Indians jealous of the leaft Garden outfide this piirpofed triangular Fortrefs and the Gar rifon Itfelf, at that Time, in Diftrefs for Provifion, having five Days* Allowance for feven the little Prbfpe there was in this Situation, after feven Months' Refidence, will, is prefumed, alleviate the heavy Charge that was to have been tranfmitted againft him to the honourable Board of Trade, for an Alteration of Mind on a preemptive Prudence now evinced to have been really well founded. On your Petitioner's "Return tb the fecorid Indian Town mentioned above, on the Banks of the Little Savannah^ he found the Town nearlv de ferred by the Men, only one or two old Men, witn the Women, being left therein ; they were gone to meet the Indians of the flrft Town, called Latchaway, to play at fome Diverfion ot the Ball ; but learnt alfo on the Road another Reafon had detained them longer abroad, which was the unfortunate Commerce of Rum. Dur ing the twelve Days' Abfenee from that Place, in his Way forwards, the two Parties had emptied eighteen Cafks of that Liquor at Latchaway. He met feveral of the See Page ( ) the Petitioner's Objections to proceed ing to St. Mark's, mentioned to the Governor on nis Arri* val, before he could have, or the Governor himfelf had, fti Opportunity of Council with the Indians.


( 53 ) the Savannah Indians on their Return at different Times* when he always firft accofted them, though in that overheated Condition, and met with the kindeft Re~ turn the JVhite King efpecially feemed much pleafed. At Latchaway he found the Chiefs, which he did not fee when he went forward, but were now returned from their grand Hunt at the Cape they came up to Bar-net's Hut, where your Petitioner was fet to repofe, to fee him, and were very fond of difcourfing with him ; but Barnefs Jealoufy would not permit a free Converfation. Your Petitioner treated them on Coffee, which they are fond of, and then feigned a Wearifomenefs, and Defire of fleeping ; but they preffed him much to fit up and cohverfe, but, finding it to no Purpofe, at length lay down to fleep. They afked him to come and drink Black Drink with them the next Day, which is a Liquor they make of the Plant Caffeua it is faid, when they have a Mind to have a Talk, as they call it, on any Affairs; but being acquainted the next Day, whether true or not it is doubtful, by Barney that the Place where they met was a Mile or more-back on the Road your Petitioner came from St. Mark's, he then chofe to haften back to his Settlement, where he arrived the next Day, quite unexpected, after an Abfence of about nineteen Days, wherein he had traverfed about four hundred Miles ; but much to the Satif-fa&ion of your Petitioner, in the Confirmation of his own Prudence and Forefight, objected to by the Gover nor a thorough Convidion of the Indian Friendfhip and in the Enjoyment of the Sight of a moft fertile and agreeable Country, Part of it the moft perfect na tural Garden in his Majefty's Territories, and which will hereafter, probably, produce the moft beneficial Return to the Mother Country. On his Return he found a Deputy Surveyor, whofe Name was Funky who had been fent over by the Gover nor and Surveyor General, and had, the whole Time of his Abfence, been infpecftng the Plot of Land he was upon, and it's Neighbourhood, and, after the Continu ance of a few Days more, fet out with a Plan of the fame to St. Augujline^ to wait on the Governor and Sur veyor General with it. D3 The


( 54 *) The Governor's Letter of the 15th of June notices the Receipt of two Letters from your Petitioner of the 6th and 13th. Date : The former relating his Expe dition to St. Mark's* a Queftion about a River called Calafahtche* and Bay of Tampa, and alfo another about the Indian Trading-houfes already fettled, and Privilege for one your Petitioner might encourage, concerning the pernicious EffeQs of Rum your Petitioner had feen; and the latter Letter, fent by Mr. Funky relating to the locating his Grant. The Governor, in this his Anfwer to the foregoing Points, fent him a Note in Mr. De Brabeirts^ the Surveyor General's, own HandWriting, but did not clear up the Point your Petitio ner wiftied to have had, which might have been ufeful to the Government in fome future Time ; but which Suppofition, he muft fay, was not difclofed in his Queftion : But the indeterminate Anfwer, as to the Indian Stores already licenfed, and of that particularly requefted by your Petitioner, (hewed a Caution in the Governor, and there was feared a Claufe de Referve againft any pojitive Requeft on your Petitioner's Part ; for the very Thing fought after in your Petitio ner's Queftion is rather avoided. As to the Point of Rum, the Governor reafons in thefe Words ; I am much of your Opinion, that Rum is hurtful. It 44 is to be hoped Means will be fallen upon to put a 44 Stop to that very detrimental, I may fay, iniquitous 44 Branch of the Indian Trade. Thefe have been always 44 my Sentiments ; and, when Mr. Stewart arrives, new 44 Regulations fhall be made about it; but, till he 44 comes, I do not chufe to make any Innovations, for 44 fear of counteracting what he may have fettled ; but 44 be aflured I have what you point out, with Regard to 44 Rum, very ftrongly at Heart." That the Plan fent of Part of St. John's River, where he refided, had been examined, and your Petitioner's Propofal of running out his Grant efteemed not agreeable to the King's Inftruc-tions. This Opinion of the Governor's was forgot in a fmall Time afterwards, when feveral of the lower Oafs of Indians (if they might be called fo) had the fatal Prefentof Rum, and brought it to his Settlement, as men tioned before, and were as likely as any to break it up under


( 55 ) under fuch Circumftances of Liquor* The Govern did not mention in his Letters concerning this Delivery of Rum* though your Petitioner mentioned it in his to the Governor ; but he heard the Indian Interpreter, called Elfenor, fay, that the Governor had at that Time aflced him whether any Rum had been given to the Indians at that Time; ne told him that there was, and by his, the Governor's Order* The Governor alfo mentions, that the Line of Di rection in Mr. Middletons Tra&, granted by Mr. Boone% Governor of South-Carolina,was (hewn by Mr. Fu??k% and that it appeared to, Governor Grant, mojl exceedingly irregular. -Mr. Funk, the Surveyor, returned with the above Letter the 16th, or 17th, made further Obfervations on the Quality of the Land, and endeavour ed to point out the Method how to run it out with Pro priety to the Governor's Opinion, and a competent Share of good Land for the Grantee* June 22d, your Petitioner went down the River with Mr. Spalding*, to look for his Boat corning from Savannah, freighted with Provifion and Store Neceflaries, entirely for your Peti tioner. They met it about feventy Miles below, when, Wr. Spalding finding no Rum freighted for himfelf, only two Cades of one hundred and ten Gallons each, being entirely for your Petitioner, knowing your Petitioner would not part with any to him, for Trade with the Indians he took the Boat they came in, and went dowri to purchafe a Cafk of Rum of a Perfon who kept a Store forae Miles below* Your Petitioner,, in proceeding back in a fmall Canoe after the large Boat freighted for his Settlement, which was failed fome Way before, having two fmall Lads with him, he was (hot at by two different Perfons, he believes. He called, on the firft Shot, to the Perfon that fired, thinking it might be a Signal for Want of fomething ; but on Recollection, left it might be fome Perfon fled from Augujline for fortie Mifdemeanour, and wanted a Boat to pafs the River, and go off to IVeJl-Florida, he thought it pru dent to keep on, as he had only two (mall Lads with him to defend the Boat if there (hould be an D 4 Affault Keeper of the Indian Store.


( 56 ) AlTault on their going afhore ; but on the (econd Shot one of the Lads heard the Ball in the Air, artd faw the Bullet fall in the Water about ten Yards beyond the Boat, but which had paffed but five Yards fliort of it's Stern,The Remark worthy on this Point is the Dan-5;er of rifled-barrel Guns falling into the Hands of the ndiansy this being about a Furlong Diftailce, as was fuppofed ; and a white Hunter, who was at his Settle ment, told your Petitioner he could make fure of a large Objedt at Reft at that Diftance with fuch a Gun. -~ Indians are fo very expert with the common Wrmittg-ham Guns ; and Whites may kill their Game with the better common Sort. That your Petitioner, as beforementioned, left it as a Queftion to the Governor, whether a Prohibition of thofe rifled-barrel Guns in Whites' Hands might not be a prudent Caution, to pre vent their getting into Indian Poffeffion. Thefe Shot came, asbeforementioned, from fomeof a Party wliereof your Petitioner's former Hunter Was one ; but were in tended only as Signals to a Boat they expected with Rum for their life in the Hunt, and not defigned at your Pe titioner, as he was not known to have been in that Part of the River. On the Arrival of this Boat at your Petitioner's Set* tlement, and alfo Mr. Spalding, who overtook, and ar rived with your Petitioner, many Indians appeared in waiting, expecting his Return for Rum, and alfo your Petitioner's Ship from England, which they fuppofed ^ould produce Rarities for their Trade. On this was (hewn a great Inftance of their good Inclination to wards your Petitioner. They faw the two Cafks of one hundred and ten Gallons of Rum landed, and knew it to be fuch, of which they were to have none they alfo knew by the Rules he had prefcribed. The Trader had but a fmall Cafk with him, too little for the Wants of fo many. The Indians, though difappointed in your Pe titioner's Veffel not being arrived from England, yet re ceived his fmall Entertainment, and a little Recruit of Corn, with Satisfadioto.The Trader, angry at a View of the Temper of the Indians towards your Petitioner, faid, he muft remove his Store from this Neighbour hood^


( 57 ) hood, and imprudently, if not by Defon, thaiged ffcfc Indians with having ftofen one of their TforfesFr&m Amgujline, which they might then here taken For on Infor mation from your ^Petitioner* and after he wertt Up With them to his Store, to diftribute his Ham, there trawe a Report of thehr Intention to attack your Petitioner** Settlement for his Rum. Left the Power of ike Store keeper's Rum, Jsmd a little tnftrgafcion from the Jtfalonljr of the Storekeeper of a Preference to your Petitioner, might engage the poor Indians under ftich Influence ih fo unhappy an Expedition, your Petitioner, coriftamly watchful over his Settlers agtfinft Machinations on aft Sides, on this Account he buried hh Rum-Calks, fr. after his Settlers were retired to Sleep, kept two or three Fires lighted theRefitfue of the Night, and attend ed them himfelf, to convince the Indians, ff any came with bad Intentions, that the Settlement was h 1ft Guard, which continued for a Week, till the Fife of the Storekeeper's Rum was fpent, he feared no longer* and, indeed, ufed it only as a neceflary GantSon, not as in Fear of an Attack. The other Circuudhmces mentioned before, fhewed it leaft to be feared from the poor Indians, if the Whites were not the Irrigators. On the 5th of July your Petitionees 5Mp4oad 6t Settlers arrived ftorn England, after along Fafiage found to St. Atari's, imagining he bad fettled on that Ooaft, were obliged, on not being able to get in mere, to pat into Penfaco!a,ViheTe Letters directed them to SbvanAab* from which Place they came in a hired Schooner to the Settlement on St. John** River, Eti/l-Fbrida, where they arrived in good Health. The Mafter of the Schooner having Buunefs at St. Juguftbte, your Petitioner fent a Letter by him to the Governor* requefting PermiffiOft for his being adrriitted to make Oath of his receiving thefe Settlers from the Hands of the Mafter of the Veifel, who had brought them from England. His Infor mation that they were on your Petitioner's Account, and that, purfuant to his Letter, he had conduced them to your Petitioner's Settlement, and had delivered them to him in Perfon, that filch Certificate might Be regiftefed at Auguflint, agreeable to the Spirit of the Proclamation, Jeft any might die after the Charge of Im portation,


( 58 ) Mrtation bad been borne by your Petitioner, and the Expence of fulfilling the Terms of the Grant enhanced to him for Want of the proper Regiftry in Time. The Ciaufe referred to In the Proclamation is this : u That when any Perfon, who (hall hereafter take up, ** and patent any Land, {ball have feated* planted, and ** cultivated, or improved the faid Land* or any Part of it, according to the Directions and Conditions *' abovementioned, fuch Patentee may make Proof of cc fuch featkig, planting* and Cultivation, or Improve** ment, in any Court of Record in the faid Province, or *c in the Court of the County, Diftrift, or Precinct ** where fuch Land ihall be, and have fuch Proof certified ** to theRegifter and Secretary's Office, and there enter** cd, with the Record of the faid Patent; a Copy of 44 which (hall be admitted, on any Trial to prove the feating and planting of fuch Land." Jufy 8, 1765. The Governor's Letter of the Sfth. *J*fy anfwers this Requeft, thus: No Court of Ju** dicature has any Thing to do with the Arrival of your Settlers: The Mafler of the Schooner, at any Rate, * is not the proper Perfon to give an Affidavit about ** them. If you wilh to be provided with proper Ma* ** terials to afcertain the Arrival of your Settlers in this 44 Province, in Cafe your Compliance with the Terms ** of the Grant to be made out in Obedience to his ** Majefty's Order in Council fhould hereafter be dif44 putcd^ the Attorney General fays, that either you, ** or your Agent, hould make Oath before a Juftice of ** the Peace, that fuch a Number oi People arrived at * fach a Time in the Province of Eaji-Fhridat and *< were brought into the Province at your Expence, in order to fettle upon your Eftate, and that you, or * youar Agent, fhould jet a Certificate to that Purpofe ** from the Juftfce of Peace ; but thofe are Points of Law, with which I have reaUy nothing to do,v Your Petitioner begs Leave to fubmit his Semi* ments of the Captain of the Schooner's being more independent, confequently, more probably, true Affertor of this Circumftance than either your Petitioner or his Agent who were interefted in the Colony. The Delay of a Day* after the Expence of Importation, might


( 59 ) might occafion a double Expence of fupptyingthe Place of any dead, or any feduced away. The former hap pened foon after this Refufal, as your Petitioner ac quainted the Governor $ the latter wasalfo foretold, and your Petitioner had Reafon, when a Juftice of the Peace* naval Officer, and Regifter, who was fufpc&ed to have made a Vifit, not entirely of Compliment to him, but as Infpetor of his Tranfactions in the Province, when fuch had made Attempts to injure his Settlement, as feeforementioned *, the entertained at it in the beft Manner your Petitioner could.To this the Go vernor anfwers in this fame Letter, that nothing but Indentures on the Settlers could prevent Seduction, the Governor himfelf paying Dollars a Day, and to a Car penter a Dollar and an Half. Such Things, when known, would incline Settlers to leaye his Settlement. This, doubtlefs, appeared a good Argument your Peti tioner could not controvert, though, in fome In (lances, Perfons were defirous. and fome did learn thefe high Wages at St. Augujllne^ and came and worked for mode rate Hire at this parfimonious Settlement on St. fMs River, and the former, who wifhed to come, were de tained by the moft powerful and fpecious Invitations* Your Petitioner did not attempt to feduce, but requefted only the Countenance of a powerful Protection to his Settlement, which would have prevented any Breach of Hofpitality by Juftices of Peace, and Perfons of higher Rank, in feducing thofe People that were to be termed actual Settlers of your Petitioner's. The Go vernor's Intimation at his own Table, when he faw, perhaps, the whole Corps of Officers, and the Gentry of the Town, once a Week, would, your Petitioner is well fatisfied, have had it's due Influence to prevent fuch Injuftice ; but it feemed too impertinent in him to propofe fuch a Remedy, but could not but think it muft occur tc Perfons of fuperior Penetration. The Governor alfo adds, in the above Letter, if the Sur veyor had finiflied his Survey according to his Inflections, either your Petitioner, or his Agent, with proper Powers3 (hould come to Town to take out his Grant; and See Page ( )


( 60 ) 2&S dtfo lays, ymtr Petitioner, fhoulJ not mind the Re* porta of the tudi&ns in his Neighbourhood, they were not of Weight in their Nation, and that your Petittoner f&ottld not talk to them about Settlements. The Report was, that the white Perfon who wenx from St. JMmtfi t< Jfoxfecafa, had been murdered by the Indians \ whicb gave forae Uneafinefr to the Indiwa. &cbi&9 who live* juft above your Petitioner's Settlement and was nearly quitting his little SettJemea-t on this Repotf, for BOAT of the Retaliation of the Whites an him ; and that Urn* lotHTUtions of JQifpJeafure had been fbewn againft ymr Petitioner's naw Settlement, but which he ima gines pFdtteeded from the Jealosy of the Storekeepers. if our PefcHfiqaer would have peitfuaded Sehiki to come tp him with hia Family, -and he would defend them from Injury, but be foon after was better fatisfied. However, your Petitioner thought it advifeable, in his $*ta*U*Q* to fecure his SettUment from Harm* w,hich be know prior Acis of Kindnefs will nearly at all Times effect, even on the moft favage Difpofttion ; he dtfpatched two of his People to Latcbaway with a fattll Pfefent, about eleven or twelve Shillings worth perhaps to the Chief cal&d the Ctw&eeper, and his Sq&iiw, having never feen them at his Settlement to dttemin * the favage Barbarian, fuflicieiat, go civHiac them ; and wrought a Beneficence m fuch Hearts above the Power of Rum, denied them by your Petitioner* but given by the Governor ; for they have complained to your Petitioner at the feme Time, though they had Rum given to them, that their


( 6t ) *helr Entertainment* as to Prvifi&n*> wv v*tf i&4if-ferent at St* Auprfimt; by relator^ which fW? Petitioner would prefume to infer, that the ttliftHgg the Mec*f-fities of Nature would more bfintftty 4o%f the A-^H, than all the Prcfeoft of Luxury* and make more taftmg laiprcffioa. This was evident in himel& who gave ao Rum, their greateft De light in Deb^wch | and, perhaps, a CoupL* of Qut* of India* Corp, Value feven Farthings ; the fame of Rfce* V4ue three Pence Halfpenny ; half a Pound of Mwfca^ado Sugatv Value two Pence ; is a Pr eferrt fuficietjt tor a King *&d his Train to proceed on their Hunt; in all feven Pew* Farthing, or, perhaps* at a common Value* i/L way not exceed the Value of fix Peace Hereby ehe Meatus of Civilization is procured at an eafy Expence, their Strength not impaired, hot renewed, to the Prefonrattoji of the Britijb Inhabitant, by dioiutffcing the Num ber of wild Beafts and venomous Infe&s, tbe^procuring the beneficial Skin-Trade, without the white Settler'* entering into that idle Way of Life. This cftaWtfhes* that overthrows, Settlements* That Mr* Funky the Surveyor, went an m hi* Obfervations an the Land; he drew out an Gfcaft J?l of the Land, between two large Creeks wfarh come from the Eaft, and fcll mto the River St. jW^'s, the one four Miles shove yow Petitionees Plan tattoo, the other eight or faen Miles below itj and a Line draw* fromYixf Mcks up the latter, where your Petitioner paflefi it to go to St. Auguftmz, about eight Miles from hi? Settlement to the Lower End of a great Lake, to which the former Creek is an Outlet; about fix Miles from it's aforefaid Motttb, a?nd about^he fame Di{b*8*e from his Settlement, cofttaining forty-feven thoufimd one htttidflat and forty Acres, fyectryfng parritirfcrTiy the feveittl Sorts of Ground, as per Schedule annexed; arntmnthrg to two thoufand feven hundred and ten Acres of good Swamp, two hundred and forty of clear Marfh, five hundred and twenty good dry Land, in all three thou fand four hundred andfeventy 5 the Refidue, of the forty feven thoufand one hundred and forty, is called PineBarren, or Pine Land, and bitter Bay Gauls, bearing the Loblolly

PAGE 100

( 2 ) loblolly Bay* By the Plan laid before the Right Ho nourable Bond) it will appear that your Petitioner can not make one his twenty thoufand Acres in any Manner whatfbever, fri one contiguous Lot, fo as to include more good Land than in the faid Plan, which Plan, though* if the Whole Number of Acres of good Land in the forty-feven thoufand otne hundred and forty were included ft* the twenty thoufand, h would be ftill difproportionable in the bad Acres to the Planter ; but which Kan is, neverthelefs, efteemed inadmjffiable* The De puty Surveyor feeroed to think his Orders were much ftrifier th&n in Georgia; he was not to permit the Side* lines of the Grants to pafs near navigable Streamsy or {o as to include any of the good Land bordering on fuch Streams, nor to pafs the further Ends of fuch Tra jrave all the Lands taken up and none omitted, would be to plot the Whole in different Quantities* according as the good and bad Land might be internixed, and the Whole granted in fuch certain Lots* whatever they may amount to, as by the Plan fol ding : See Page ( ) the Governor fays, and alfo Page ( ; the Surveyor General fays, your Petitioner may pafs cer tain Creeks, where it was previoufiy known there was no food Land.

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C 3 )

PAGE 102

C *) Or* as the River St* John's^ in it's general Courfe* flows from the South to the North, the Grants of the Lands fljall have their Front-lines on the faid River, and directed back into the Land dire&ly Eaft or Weft $ and each Plot the Surveyor (hall form either larger or fmaller, fo as to include a proportionable Mixture of the good and bad Land. Your Petitioner remarks this, as the only Method he knows, for an intire Grant of the Banks of navigable Streams or Rivers; it cannot be intire according to the prefent Terms, if precifely fol lowed, and the Grantees ftill chufing their Land, bjr which large Spots on the Banks of the navigable Ri ver will be left unpoffeffed in the King's Hands, for which no Quit-Rent will be paid as on St. John's River* within the Plan propofed by your Petitioner to run his Grant, there is a Pine-Barren, continued for fome Miles on the Bank of the River, which no Settler whatever will take any Gj*ant on. In the faid Plan, fent by the Deputy Surveyor to the Governor and Surveyor General, the Front-line is upon the Rt* ver, where it lies Eaft and Weft; if any fmaller Plots* fuch a$ five hundred to two or three thoufand Acres, havrng ttafe* Front-line* oa one Part or other of that feme Fart* A*e they would have been permitted to be run in th faime Direction ; and fhatever Plot was fo taken up, next to where the Point is foroied by the Rivtr, muft bear it's Sitte-Line on the River : For it 4toint of the River, and many there are where the River makes a right Angle in it's Courfe, no Trar. can be taken up without it's having both it's Side-line, as well as Back-line, on the River. There are two Cafes mentioned on the Plan laid now before your Lordfliips, wherein Mr. Moultrie and Mr. Ktnlaugh^ two Gentle men of Carolina^ were promifed by the Governor two Tra&s of Land ; the Sides of which would have been on that navigable Creek, or father large River \ it may be called big enough for conlkterable Schooners to fail on, and perhaps both their Bafe and End-lines on the great River or Lake, when a more precife Meafure might be taken ; and alfo at another Place below, at a Turn of the River, where it forms a deep Bay, the Side-

PAGE 103

( 65 ) Side-line of fifteen hundred Acres, promifedto a Family called Greyy was intended to be run about feventy Miles below your Petitioner's Settlement. Mr. Davis, who had a confiderable Number of Negroes, had the Grant, as beforementioned, paffed, for, I think, one thoufand Acres of Land ; which muft be for himfelf and eighteen Negroes, and about eight Miles diftant, as I think he told me, the Governor had promifed him a Lot, perhaps for the Refidue of his Family and Negroes, whereon he intended to erc<5t a Mill. Mr* Davis's Home Settlement is run thus: By

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( 66 ) By this it appears, that your Petitioner, who engages to be at theExpence of ftrengthening the Colony, with the Importation of two hundred Whites, of whofe Labour he can have the Profit himfelf only for a very few Years, has not the fame Privilege that thefe Perfons mentioned have, in bringing Negroes into the Country, at a SmaJl Expence, whofe Labour is for Life, or faleable after the Term of three Years is expired; in which Time the Land is fettled Secure from Forfeit, and by bringing them at different Times, takes up al together good Land, in feparate Parcels, without an Intermixture of the poorer and more barnen Soils ; and to thefe are (hewn a different Inclination to accom modate the Settlers, from what has been exhibited throughout to your Petitioner, who, chiefly from the Opposition met with, w& nearly at two thoufand Pounds Expence, in eftablifhing his Settlement in Peace and Plenty, but which he did effect neverthelefs maugre all the Obftacles to it, Thefe may have feparate Plots of Land. Though your Petitioner had (hewn the greateft Defire of fettling, with the moft beneficial Views to the Province, the eftablifhing a Town of Artificers in the Heart of the Province, Provifion for the Education of Children, and the Cultivation of Chriftianity, free from Enthufiafm; the Civilization of Indians^ the Fidelity of Slaves, preserved on Principle ; a Library of Agriculture, Botany, Gardening, Mechanics, and of fuch Learning as appears more peculiarly adapted to the American Planter; and, above all, the ftrengthen ing this Frontier Province of Edft-Florida againft any Enemy at a future Time, by well flocking it with white Inhabitants. To fuch a Settler who vainly imagines thefe Things, form fuch Projects, but who was certainly at the Expence of this Undertaking, not difagreeable, perhaps, to the Views of Government at Home, the Face of the executive Part of Government on the Colony was fet againft. He could not obtain Leave to purchafe a few hundred Acres of indifferent Land, to the Prejudice of no other Settlers, as a healthy high Spot, to place his Town on, the Endowment of a School, and the Appropriation for a Church-Minifter. Though

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( 6; ) Though the Governor's Proclamation fays, And in Cafe any Perfon, applying as aforefaid, (hall be defirous to take up a larger Quantity of Land than c< the Family Right intitles fuch Perfon to, upon (hewing a Probability of Cultivation an additional Number of Acres, not exceeding one Thoufand, may be obtained, upon paying to the Receiver of the Quit" Rents the Sum of Five Shillings, Sterling, for every fifty Acres of fuch additional Grant, on the Day of the Date of fuch Grant." To Mr. Davies was a Grant of a feparate Trat of Land promifed. To him, Mr. Moultrje, Wlx*Kinlaugb, and Mr. Grey, were Traces of Land allowed ; and whofe Sides were on the greater River of St. John's, or a Creek equally navigable with that River; and though your Petitioner had been at the Expence of furveying the Weft Side of the River, and (hewed an Inclination to the Governor of having his Trar. of twenty thou fand Acres on that Side, provided it was free from any former Grant to Colonel Middleton, as fuppofed, or IndmnC\?L\m ; yet when it became neceflary, for your Petitioner was obliged to fpeak, as Promifes were making of Land, previous to the Power of granting had been allowed of fry the Indians, there appeared a Promife to Colonel Middleton, if he would folicit agreeable to the Proclamation, he (hould have that Land granted to him, by the Governor of EaJl^Florida, and he was allowed three Months9 Time to confider on it; at the fame Time intimating to your Petitioner^ that another Anfwer would have been given to Colonel Middleton by him, the Governor, if he had known your Petitioner's Inclination to that Traft. In the whole Tract of forty-feven thoufand one hun dred and forty Acres, furveyed by the fworn Deputy* Surveyor, there are but twenty-three Peices of good Land, meafuring together three thoufand four hundred and feventy Acres, of which, except one long Piece of Swamp of between four and five Miles in Length, con taining one thoufand Acres, four other Pieces of five hundred and fixty, two hundred and fifty, two hundred and

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(68) and forty and two hundred, the remaining Pieces of good Land are but fmall in any one Place, and thefc larger Pieces cannot be run out without taking larger Plots of Pine-Barren, or poor Land, with them in ge neral. Your Petitioner believes the larger Plot of one thoufand Acres may be run out, according to the precife Rules of taking the Bafe Line on the navigable Stream, and running the Line diredUy on a Square, three back to one in Front, a Plot of five thoufand Acres might include the Whole of that thoufand Acres of good Land It is to be obferved, that no Part of this Piece of one thoufand Acres is included in the Plan propofed to the Governor by your Petitioner for his twenty thoufand Acres; yet, this is not efteemed admiffable. If your Petitioner had not feated himfelf on/this Land, he much doubts whether any other Perfon would have fet down where his Town or Village is. ~ The Swamp adjoining above it woujd have tempted a Petrfon to have foliated a Grant, he fuppofes, of Land, from five hundred to one thoufand Acres. On a (hort Turn of the River, below the Town, there is a narrow Neck of Land, which may be inclofed by a Fence of about half a Mile in Length, which would induce ano ther to folicit for a Grant of three hundred Acres, in cluding, as }>ythe Schedule appears, about eighty Acres of good high Land, and thirty Acres of Swamp Lower down* at the greater Bend of the River, if the Side Lines were permitted to run on the .River, there are large Tra&s of good Land might be run out ; as alfo where Mr. Kinlaugb has chofe his three thoufand Acres aboveion Dunn's Greeks where the Pieces, as by tke Schedule, of x 24O O 360 M 70 N 20, in all fix hundred and ninety j or, if the Piece L is added of fifty, perhaps feven hundred and forty, nearly a quar ter Part of good Land would be included; but where the Side Line is run on a deep navigable Stream, call it Rivej or Creek, ir cannot alter it's Property of being navigable. Except in thefe three Cafes, no other Land could be run out on your Petitioner's Survey, fo at to be eligible but to fingle Perfons, or fmall Families, whofe Claims may be one, two, or three hundred Acres; and even then muft include more Pine-Barren Land in general

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( 69 ) general than they would chufe j for there are very few Places where the good Swamp reaches farther from the River than Half a Mile; and even fifty Acres, run agreeable to the Rules prescribed, will reach back to that Diftance. That your Petitioner fent a Letter to the Governor on July 26, 1766, wherein he firft fakes off the Impu tation, in a Report of the Indians (hooting at him, by informing him, that fome white Perfon, then at his Set tlement, had owned the Fat, he efteemed it as a pro per Circumftance to be cleared up, for the Prefervation of the Indians9 Character, and for the future Peace and Security of Travellers. It contained a Complaint that feveral rerfons arrived at his Settlement together at that Time, with no good Defign, * endeavouring to make that a Place to feduce the Indian Trader at Latchaway* Barnetj down hither, in order to feize him, and place him in the Prifon of Auguftine at the Suit of one Piles* who was one of the Parties, and had, heretofore, under fuch Confinement, prefled Barnet to give hirrt a Bond for a very large Sum (about two thoufand Pounds is ima gined) when it was fuppofed, by moft People, that there was nearly a Ballance of Account between them. That Piles had endeavoured to inveigle away one of your Petitioner's Settlers, juft imported, at a great Expence, though he had but barely turned his Back on your Peti tioner's Table* where he had been entertained as a Mer chant, with one Davis, the Son of a Planter, who had entertained your Petitioner once at his Settlement about fifty Miles lower down the River, and was a Deputy Surveyor to the Province. That this Davis alfo, took on him the Office of a Lawyer, by writing a threate ning Letter in Behalf of Upton, your Petitioner's late Hunter, recommending, he fuppofes, a Profecution, refpefting the Ufe of one of his Horfes, kept at your Pe titioner's Settlement, to your Petitioner's great Detri ment, by breaking his Fences, and otherwife, as men tioned. That fome of thefe Perfons' Arrival a fecond Time occafioned alfo an Introduction of a Quantity of Rum by the Hunter Upton, the Effects of which had appeared in his proceeding to the (hooting of one of E 3 your

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( 7o ) your Petitioner's Cows, glorying in the Far, by fending two Negroes, who were fawing for him, and had feen him fhoot it, but who, he told them, could not be Witnefles againft him, to inform your Petitio ner that he would (hoot all his Stock of Cattle, Horfes, Hogs, &c. and, as he heard afterwards, he added alfo, he would (hoot your Petitioner himfelf. That an Attempt to feize his Perfon would be hazardous at prefent, while he would be on his Guard with a rifled barreled Gun, that would kill at a Furlong Diftance. He therein mentions the ftrong prefumptive Evidence, befides that of the Negroes', by one Langley Briant% who was near the Place where he (hot at the Cows, and faw him juft after, and leaves it to the Gover nor's Difcretion, as to what might be done. * Your Petitioner muff remark, that this Reference to the Go vernor was agreeable to the Governor's Affertion of Ws Right over the Garrifon of Picolata^ in Prefervation of the Peace, and Quiet of the Settlers in the Province, as aforementioned. He concludes, that the Plan of the Land, with the Obfervations thereon, tranfmitted by the Deputy Sur veyor, Mr. Funky would convince the Governor of the difficulties he was under, of running the Boundaries of bis Grant confiftent with the Rules tire Governor jprefcribed, and that in the fettling two hundred Perlons, at a great Expence, he muft confider their Conveniency, and an Equivalent for them with fingle Settlers, to be the juft Due defigned them by Government at Home, in which was meant, that Grantees of twenty thou sand Acres might have Land equally as good as fingle Settlers to fettle the two hundred rerfons upon, they were obligated to at a great ExJ>ence, and that Go vernment at Home would, on Reprefe^ntation, confider it, he thought, and fhould immediately proceed Home to make it. Your Petitioner receives a Letter from the Gover nor, dated July 30, 1766, wherein he firft complains, that the Deputy Surveyor fent him, in the Beginning of May, at your Petitioner's Requeft, returned a few Days before, and had done nothing in the Bufinefs fent upon \

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( 7* ) upon ; but mentions, neverthelefs, that he received the Sketch of Part of the River St. Jokn\ and of that Part of the Country your Petitioner had tilought proper to fix binafelf for a Time That Mr. D* Brahm^ the Surveyor General, and himfelf, had coniktered it, and had tranfmitted Plans for running out Land; and no other Method could be followed without deviating from bis Maje%* Inftru&ions. If any of the Plans were agreeable, your Petitioner, or his Agent, muft come to Town, and apply to him in Council for a new War rant of Survey, the old one being out of Date. The Surveyor, Mr. Fun9 fends alfo a Letter, dated the 29th of July, with thefe two following Plans : E4 In

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' A ' v > ; /.. y

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( 73 ) Mr. Funk fays, as to your Petitioner's Plan fent in, with Propofals of running it out, that the Governor and Surveyor can do nothing with it, that the two Plans are the only Ways the Plot can be run out, fo as to include your Petitioner's Town, Mr. De Brahm had told him that he might crofs the Great Creek. This feemed to be a Boon, for Mr. Funk had told your Pe titioner, when he was furveying his Settlement, no Creeks were to be paffed ; but here happened to be no good Land beyond this Creek, which might proba bly have been enquired into, as before in the Cafe of the Propofal of running out of the Land at Mount-Royal: He proceeds, That your Petitioner might have the Plot laid on Dunn's Creek* or the Great Creek, either of which the Side Lines might be run upon, having the Bafe or Front Line on the River. This might be in tended to break the Defign of a Town, to draw your Petitioner from the Narrows, the beft adapted Place for it, as fuch a Difpofition of two Sides on navigable Streams had been denied him in another Way, he alfo adds, the Governor and Mr. De Brahm mention, that the Warrant of Survey muft be renewed. The Governor proceeds in his Letter abovemention-ed, to fignify, that Woodfmen, in general, are ex tremely irregular in America^ which relates to Upton, the Hunter, (hooting your Petitioners Cow, and threatning, in a moft atrocious Manner, not only to kill all his Cattle, but, as mentioned, himfelf alfo. As to your Petitioner's Reafonings thereon, he refers him, in the latter Part of the Letter, to the executive Branches of the Law, to fettle and compofe this Outrage on Settlers and Settlements, in the very Infancy of a Colony, he was but lately arrived at, it was prefumed, to protet, defend, and nurfe. The Law, a Guardian ill fuited, with it's expenfive Train, is to be fought for by the Cries of the infant Settler ; but there feems to be held out a Scourge for the Miftakes, not wilful, of the ig norant inexperienced Colonifts. The Power, on the one Hand, is fufpended from Affiftance, but there is Influence feems to diredt it's Courfe with accumulated Weight, by Defcent, on the other. The Governor, alfo fays, in the faid Letter, that Piles the Merchant declares

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( 74 ) declares to him> that he had rfo Intention to inveigle away your Petitioner's Settlers ; but this happened to be almoft in Sight of your Petitioner, in the Inftant he went from his Table of Entertainment; your Peti tioner called him, rekted his Breach of Hofpitality, threatened hrm with Complaint to the Governor, and, if unnoticed to Government at Home, which Words were occafioned by fuch repeated Oppreffions, not only permitted, but, rather, countenanced on your Petiiiotier's Settlement. Inftead of Piles, his Non-intention, he, Piles, employs, while he ftill ftaid at the Settlement, ene Elfenor, his Friend, to write for him to folicite your Petitioner's Forgivenefs, which Elfenor does in thefe Words in a Letter : Mr. Piles defires me to acquaint cc your Honour he is very forry for the Difference that ** has happened betwixt you, and delares he did not mean to give you Offence, but raid what he did inad-
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C is ) Here, in this Cafe, was no fuch Refufal; but Mr, Piles, it is prefumed, cleared himfelf from his Charge, by the fmall Weight of your Petitioner's Aflertion, and the Prevalency of the preemptive Truth of any Aflertions againft him. The Governor repeat* the Attorney General's Opinion refpe&ing the binding of Settlers by Indentures, as the better Security, than trufting to the good Intentions of Neighbours. Thefe were fent to your Petitioner, it is true, and it was not proper, under your Petitioner's Gircurnftances, to difoblige them by fuch Abridgement of their Liberty, without Indentures $ and this Attempt to feduce them, was immediately after their Arrival, before there could be that Security ; but if a general Difapprobation had been given to the Mifbehaviour of People to your Pe titioner, and thofe Irregularities toward him were not certain to have met with the good Wiflles of fome in Authority ; your Petitioner might have expe&ed, with fome Certainty, to have enjoyed the Fruits of his Labours, under his own Vine and Fig-Tree, with Serenity and Quietnefs. The Governor adds, as to one Goodbye your Peti tioner had faid was killed by a Relation, under the Sanction of the New Hanover Law, by which waa intimated, the lawlefs Set of People, Hunters, and who committed Outrages againft all Law, fome of which had chiefly paiTed their Life in the Province of New Hanover, formerly neutral Land between Georgia and Florida; that this Goodby was alive and well at his own Houfe, and that Davis, whom your Petitioner called a Deputy Surveyor was not a De^ puty Surveyor, in which the Governor feems happy in Conviction of; your Petitioner, in a falfe Report in Refpet of the former, was conveyed to your Peti tioner through this Davis, who was Brother-inLaw to Goodby, a better Channel could not have been, he believed, to convey fuch Intelligence. As to the other not being a Deputy Surveyor, the Governor relieves your Petitioner from that Imputation, by faying, though he has been employed by Mr. De Brabm in the general Survey. He continues, he had fent for him, and charged

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( 76 ) him, as he fuppofed, with afting as a Lawyer for Upton, and writing a law threatening Letter for him, refpe&ing the Hire of his Horfes j that Davis had aflerted it was a fubmiflivq Requeft to your Petitioner's Agent, becauf Upton was not permitted to fpeak, and could not write himfelf. Your Petitioner, whether he found the Sur veyor, Deputy or not, it matters not was the Writer and fuppofed Inftigator of this intended Suit; he returned the Letter, with this Meffuage, that he fhould com plain of the Difturbances or this Settlement to the Governor ; the Letter cannot therefore be copied, and being in the Writer's Hands, or deftroyed, might have been eafily imifreprefented, fo as to place his Tranfa
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( 77 ) and in Defiance of all Authority, fo far from expe
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( *8 ..) 10 Goal; it could not have been deemed prudent to lend a Tingle Perfon to convey a very defperace Felon thither, at the..Pittance of thirty-five Miles\ he repreftnts the Commitment itfelf to be irregular in Circumftances, he calls, aggravating, inferted in his Warrant; this refers not only to what has been before reprefented, but to a Consultation of the Hunter with others, which was overheard j Intelligence whereof was given to Mr. Lloyd, for the forming a Plan to bring down the Indians to deftroy your Petitioner's Settlement; he calls this foreign to the Purpofe ; he charges an Omiflion in this Commitment, which may be faid to be an Infor mation to the Delinquent, to evade the Force of Evi dence; viz. that he fhould be apprifed herein of every Sort of Evidence againft him. The laft Article of the Attorney-,General's Letter, was certainly obferved. Your Petitioner's Agent, Mr. Llaydy who committed Upton, and would, if he had Jived and been capable, have fuppbrted his Warrant perfonally in Augujline; and though, if Negroes could not be admitted as Evidences, yet Circumftances, by which, aloiie rrioft Murderers are convi&ed, would have been connected in fo ftrong a Light, as to prove fufficknt Rsafpn for his Convi<9:ion ; but the Delinquent had Time, as the Attorney General advifes, who was the onjy Profecutor after the Death of Mr. Lloyd, to colleft any Evidence he might have, and prepare for his Trial. As the Account from thence, was the ftrongeft Proof by LangUy Briant, was wanting by his Refufal to attend the Trial, whether for Want of Sub poenas, whether any Irregularity in the Proceedings made it neceflary to fupprefs fuch Evidence, feerns doubtful. Your Petitioner has had no certain Account what has been done with this atrocious Perfon, whether let loofe, to be the conftant Terror of his Settlers, to drive the Deer from it's Neighbourhood, to deprive them of that natural Supply, ?nd to deftroy the Stock that is provided for them at a great Expence, but hopes for the Recommen dation of your Lordfliips, to his Majefty, for the Affiftantfe of Government, to protect and defend his Colony Sgsainft fuch Proceedings. Your Petitioner now feeing

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C 79 ) lire Colony well fupplied with every Neceflary, he in tended an A-ugmemotion of it, and alfo a Dcfire to lay thefe Fa&s fcefore your Lord&ips, proceeded on hts Joarney to Savannah) to embank for England* In his Way thither he vifited Mr. Davis, aforementioned, wfoere he faw his Plantation laid out, with the Front Line on the Eafl: Side of the River of St. John's, as alfo his wthote Side Line on a Bend of the fame River $ aiid heard Mr. Davis fay, that the Governor had given him Hopes of having a .feparate TiracT; of Land, about eight Miles off, whereon, by Means of a quiet flow ing Stream, he could ereiSr. a Mill. Further on he met with Mr. Grey, who informed him of the Promifes of the Governor to himfelf Mr. Kinlaugb, and Mr. Moultrie, of Grants of Land, all run contrary to the general Rules prefcribed to your Peti tioner, and other Inconveniencies to your Petitioner's Settlement as afoue-mentioned, Page ( ) which in duced him immediately to difpatch the following Letter to the Governor. Georgia^ Ottober o, 1765. SIR, *Tp H E two Plans of Mr. Dt Brabm, the only ones admirable for my Grant, fliew the utmoft Nicety, saay I fay, almoft a mathematical Exa&nefs before the human Errors of the beft Surveyor can be corrected, and a Plan ftilt more perfect can be eftablMhed. In the drawing a Bafe Line for the Front Line, which the two Sides are raifed perpendicularly on, and carrying the Tra<9: a vaft Way above the Place marked as a Landing Place, in Mr. Funk's Plan; a Conveniency he thought proper to note as fuch, and which I fee avoided, as far as the Perfection of Compafs and Rule, or Square, can carry it, -the Difficulty of pafling a Creek into the Pine-Barren beyond of little value. the fame Liberty was granted me, if I had chofen Mount' Royal for my Lot, though in that it was a great Navi gable Cregk; but Mr, Funk's Orders were,peremptory ho d'etacfl *e on the further Side of the Creeks, and even

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( So ) even not to pafs within the leaft Influence of* godd Grounds that might border on Rivers or Creeks, with my Side, or End Lines.Under thefe Difficulties, which has paffed on the Backs of others, too well known to need a Recapitulation, for now twelve Months paft, fince I arrived in EaJl-Florida> I could not but with draw, and haften to England^ when your Excellency has faid there could be Alterations alone made, relying on the Generofity of the Public, of whom fome have faid, my attempt to fettle a Colony at a great Expence, is not undeferving their Regardto forbear foliciting you, Sir, for any Trar, within the two Creeks, till a Determination from England can be, on the faireft Reprefentation of the Difficulties laboured under, as you acquainted me, long fince, with your Inability to refufe Petitions, and to grant any Traits whatfoever within thofe Limits, though near, very near, the Place I fet down on; for which, as it was without particular Leave, your Orders in a regular Manner, fhould have been to the Attorney General, to profecute me, and turn me off from; and that my Settlement on the Eaflern or Middle Part of the Province, you was pleafed to exprefs a Difapprobation of, in the firft Place but from which Profecution, I found, as I forgot to mention, Upton now in Goal, though an irrregular Perfon (no Planter) I venture to call fuch, was exempt and fafe \ and, as to the latter AS of Commitment to Goal by Mr. Lloyd, can get no attefted Copy of, which is faid to have been irregular, and I wanted to carry with me to compare, with the old Britijh Cuftoms and Forms. Whatever may be the Confequences, I leave the Settlers and Plan tation I made with white People, at a great Expence, an unexpected good Crop of Rice, Corn, Pulfe and Cotton, fit for gathering in, and all Neceffaries of Life in the Increafe, the Earneft of a future Profperity, the Indian Friendfhip cemented, from which nothing but the finifter Motives of others, and the withdrawing your Excellency's Protection, can now incline to recede. I learned, on the Road hither, a Piece of News that Mr. Kinlaugb, who honoured me with a Vifit, has folicited for, and is bringing a vail Number of Negroes on

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( 81 ) on three thoufatid Acres on the River, and Dunn's Greei^ or rather fchooner-navigable River, whofe North Side will be about three Miles from me, and one thoufand five hundred Acres are fo fettled on the other Side of the River below me, where I thought to have folicited a Trait, fuch as permitted of any Size for the Conveniency of fixing a Mill for my Village, as no fall of Water is yet found out on my Side, (as I think others have done with Succefs) till I can bring it from Dunn's Lake or River ^ but both are too airy and flighty Thoughts for any fucb diftinguifhed Settler, therefore dropped them. As Mr. Ofwald drops the Thoughts of fettling Colo nies I hear, (and I know not of any other befides that of the Bermudian Scheme) and the Hanoverian Gen tlemen are gone back to fettle in Carolina^ perhaps, no other Perfon contends with me, in the weighty Expences of fettling Whites in the Province, I have not only engaged to fettle two hundred, but have be gan the flrft Year, though at Liberty to wait till the third Year, to fettle fixty-feven, or to import them, one of which is dead unregiftered, though her Expence was, in the Whole, defrayed, as to the Import. A Queftioii arifes from me, whether any DifFerance of Expence happens between importing eight hundred or a thoufand Negroes from Georgia^ or even Carolina^ to EaJl-Floriday or my two hundred white People from England* with proper Neceflaries to the fame Province, and whether any Difference arifes in Point of Conveviency in my fettling an inconvenient contiguous long Tract, moft Part, and a great deal more run in a PineBarren, or Tracts ran agreeable to any fmaller Part of a Body of Negroes then poffefled, or Number in Fa^ mily, in a divided fmaller Manner, where chiefly good Swamps, and very little Pine-Barren is included, and to whom will the Government give the Preference, and further in eftablifhing, and the Public give their Ap probation. I muft now again requeft and rely on your Ex cellency's Protection of fuch Settlers left behind me, and if any peremptory Orders are to iflue refpecling F them,

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(82 ) Aefn, that you would inform, feme Days previous to ihe Congrefs at Pkdata* (as cpy Abfence renders my own Knowledge impoffible) Mr. Lloyd, whom I leave to overk>dk ray Affairs in my Ahlence. With great Deference, J am^ SIR, Your Excellency's rrufjl Obedient humble Servant. DENYS ROLLS, Your Petitioner little thought to have met with fo much Ohitrudtion, as muft appear to your Lordfhips, during the whole Courfe of this Memorial, to the lo cating of his Land, when the Encouragement ap peared fo great in other Colonies, efpecially in Penfyl-toaniar whereon the following Obfervation was made in a Letter to John Pownall, Efq; the prefent Secretary to the Lords of Trade and Plantation, in anfwer to a Requeft of his to Mr. Evans of Philadelphia, for a De scription of the Manner of fettling Plantations; he there fays; Let us fuppofe, that a Man, with his *c Wife, who are worth little befides Induflry and Pa" tience, to find a Spot of Ground, not yet appro** priated and improved, and Permiffion is given him
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< 3 ) Province of Nnu^Yori, as related by Mr. Smithy in his Hiftory of that Province, where that perfon bad ib good Grounds to affure hiinielfof fettling within that Province, by Promifes of the Governor, that he pro ceeded Home to Scotland, difpofed of his Eftate there, and embarked with a Number of Settlers, and all Neceflaries to make the intended Plantation. On Appli cation for the Grant, he was refufed by the Governor, and ruined thereby, and his Family now refides in low Circumftances at New-York. This your Petitioner's Letter intimated at firft to his Agent, met an Exprefsof his Death:Thelnftruc-tions, however, were received by two People, whom he ordered to z8t conjointly in regulating his Plantation, and Accommodation of the Indians, whofe Friendfhip he ordered to be preferved by every Method of an oblig ing Behaviour; for which Purpofe, he fent one hundred Pounds' Worth of fuch Things as they mightbe in Want of. The Death of one of thefe Agents alfo has prevented the neceflary Information to him, of the feveral Parti culars of Circumftances attending his Settlement. He iuppofes, from fome Intimations, that the Suit againft his Hunter was very improperly fupported,-that fome Irregularities in his Settlement may have been encou raged by Perfons in Power, and that an Inability in ibme of the Settlers, introduced at the great Expence of your Petitioner, feem to intimate, fome Methods of Subdu&ion have been ufed. * Thefe are only Fa&s iufpe&ed, and thought far from improbable in their Na ture, from the fatal Experience of the Influence of Per fons in Power* during your Petitioner's Refidence. He hopes, from the State of thofe Fads, to open a Scene worthy your Lordftiips' Infpecftion, not to fatisfy any Rancour or Spleen of his own, for his Reafon teaches him to avoid fuch a Difpofition. His Endea vour has been to fupprefs any Inclination to cherifh it* -He wi&es the Advancement of this valuable Co lony, and, if his Endeavours, as he hopes, appear hon ourable, he doubts not of your Lordfhips' Recommen dation to his Majefty for the juft Accommodation pf himfelf, in fettling a Plantation therein. F 2 That

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( 84 ) That your Petitioner fat down on this Spot, with a Defign to, eret a Town, becaufe the Situation was high and healthy, and the Narrownefs of the River made it a Place of frequent Pafiage ; and it feemed nearly in ihe Center of that Land that would probably be given up by the Indians^ that your Petitio ner has explained the Nature of the Land in the differ ent Plans, which the Governor, in his Letter dated February 13, 1765, acknowledges to have been deliver ed to him by Mr. Greenan^ wherein one Propofal was, to grant him one thoufand Acres, or fomewhat lefs, upon the Terms of the Governor's Proclamation, for the For mation of a Town, and the Appropriation of a Minif* ter, and the Endowment of a School, your Petiti oner intending to take his Allotment of twenty thou fand on the other Side the River, oppofite to fuch Town. The Variety of Propofals might feem light in your Petitioner, but had a reafonable Foundation in the conftant Objections to each Propofal, and made it appear neceffary to form different Plans, that one might be accepted. To exhibit it in one connected View, your Petitioner doubts not but your Lordfhips will col lect:, from the foregoing Reprefentation, that the different Plots of Land that have been, at various Times, in Contemplation by your Petitioner, or in Altercation between the Governor and himfelf, confifts of fortyfeven thoufand one hundred and forty Acres Eaft of the River, out of which he intended to take up his twenty thoufand Acres, or twenty thoufand Acres Weft of the River, with which he hoped to have purchafed one thoufand Acres for a Town abovementioned \ a very little of which Land was likely to be taken up by any other Perfons, or to have two thoufand fix hundred Acres, in two Iflands at the Entrance of the Great Lake9 and theRefidue of the twenty thoufand Acres upon the main Land, at a Place called Mount-Pleafant; ftill preferving the Liberty of purchasing the abovementioned one thoufand for a Town, at the fame Place where your Petitioner firft fat down, and his Colony ftill con tinues : but the twenty thoufand Acres, on the Eaft

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( 85 ) Side of the River, as propofed by your Petitioner, but refufed by the Governor, contains only one thoufand eight hundred and thirty Acres of good Land, as appears by the fWorn Deputy Surveyor's Plan and Schedule, herewith laid before your Lordfhips, without the Limits of which twenty thoufand Acres, but within the Tradr, of the forty-feven thoufand one hundred and forty viewed and furveyed by the faid Deputy Surveyor, there is a Trafc of Land, as appears by the fame Plan before your Lordfhips, of five thoufand Acres, may be run out b as to include one thoufand Acres of good fwamp Land, which, with the prefent Mode of obtaining Grants, your Petitioner's Family might have poflefTed itfelf of, the like of which he might have done in refpeir, of the fifteen hundred, either promifed or granted to Mr. Grey's Family, whereon he, as beforementioned, wifhed to have a Mill ere&ed for the Benefit of his Town. Your Petitioner would not have prefumed to infert any Digreffions or Remarks, but as they much influenced his Mind at the Times the different Occurrences happened, he hopes fome may ferve to elucidate Fafls, and others may afford ufeful Hints to the fettling the Province of Eqft-Florida^ that a great Expence, through which the younger Branches of his Family may fuffer, and the Lofs of time, in the Progrefs of his Colony, was occafioned by the Difcountenance and ObftruUon beforementioned. All which your Petitioner humbly fubmits to your Lordfhips* Confederation, and hopes for fuch Redrefs as (hall feem met to your Lordfhips to recom mend to his Majefty. FINIS.

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GRANTS by the GOVERNOR of SOUTH-CAROLINA, Lieutenant Coventor Bull 2060 on Great Sitilla River, Weft of Thomas Shubrick, other Side vacant, iohn Drayton 2000 on ditto, Eaft, by Thomas Shubrick, other Side vacant, fatthew Premer 550 on ditto, South-Weft, by William Brand ford, other Side vacant. James Parfons 3350 on ditto, Eaft, other Side vacant, an impaflable Swamp. n TT C inland Swamp, called Phemerfon, White Oak, North-Eaft, by Proback Howarth 700j wilHam Mftdlcton. ^ William Middlcton 2000 on ditto, North-Eaft on Henry Middleton's. Arthur Middle ton 1000 North-Weft Alatamaha River, other Sides vacant. Thomas Middleton 1500 ditto, on Alatamaha, Eaftward on Arthur Middleton's. Henry Middleton 3000 Plumer's Swamp, oh White Oak, all Sides vacant. Henry Howarth 1650 on Great Sitilla, South-Eaft, on Mr. Bull's Land, other Side vacant, William Brentford 3000 on Great Sitilla, Eaft on Mr. Bremer, ofJier Side vacant. David Oliphant 2000 on Crooked Creek of Crooked River, all Sides vacant. David Plnmej 500 on Great Sitilla, Weft on Jane Sinclair, other Side vacant. Jonathan Belton -. 400 on ditto, Eaft and Weft, impaflable Swamp. -y T r on Hermitage Swamp, and Buffalo Swamp at the Head of Turtle Egerton Leigh 1000 j River> North.Wqft on jarnes Poftcal, other Sides vacant. William Hopton 2000 on South Side of Alatamaha, all Sides vacant. Henry Lawrence 3000 on ditto, Eaft, by Broughton's Ifland, reft vacant. John Deas ~ aooo on ditto, Weft on 6. Deas's, SouthWeft on H.Lawrence, reft vacant Theodore Gowrdine ~ 650 on Great Sitilla, Weft on David Plumer, reft vacant. George Inglis 2000 on the Head of White Oak Creek, all Sides vacant. Thomas Shubrick 0 on Great Sitilla, Eaft on Governor Bull's, Weft on John Drayton. John Burn 1000 on Southward of Alatamaha River, all Sides vacant. Jane Sinclair 650 at Mexton*s Bluff, on Great Sitilla, all Sides, vacant. Samuel Bradford 1700 Near the Head of Crooked Creek, Weft on Oliphant's, reft yacantf -4,.,. rr r on South Side of Alatamaha River, Eaft on Richard Stephens, Weft William Harvey 3000$ on william Hei^ ^, r North Side of Great Sitilla, Eaft on B. Karon, Weft H. Howarth, SecphsnBull,jun 7500 3 wftvacaat. tr/*tT-~ u.MMi-~~~ C on the Head of Little Sitilla, inland Swamp, about; three Mile* William Hazard 3000 J Weft 0f Spring Bluff. Benjamin Singleton 1000 on North Side of Great Sitilla, all Sides vacant. John Singleton 2000 Weft, on Great, Sitilla, on all Sides vacant. Darby Pendergrafs 'M*^^ WeftD.Deas's, South H.Lawrence, North David Deas 2000 ^ Weft, William Hopton's, North Alatgjnaha, TflmA. p.^ii -,_C in New Hanover on Buftalo Swamp, near the Head of Turtle River* james roiteu iooo| South-EaftonEgerton Leigh, Weft Ph. Smith, other Sides vacant William Jefferys 450 on Buffalo Swamp, North on Ph. Smith, reft vacant. Kaac Hayne ' 1000 on ditto, on the Head of Green's Creek, all Sides vacant. William Middleton, Jun. 1000 an Ifland called Great Talbot, North on Alatamaha Sound, &c. Thomas Middleton 3000 on a Neck on the North Side of St. Juan's River. T* Qv>;-;rt~ T., *^t on the Head of Buffalo Swamp, South-Weft on Mrs. Bee's, and James Shirring, Jun. 1000 j North-Weft on Samuel Porches, North-Eaft on James Nowarth. John Joor 1000 on Buffalo Swamp, Eaft on Ph. Smith* Weft on David Jeffreys. Willie Maine ,ooo{ <*g "53* & ^Po^'.. No^aft on Danid {ofeph Elliot 600 on Amelia Ifland, all Sides vacant and S*a. >hiL Smith 1000 on Buffalo Swamp, Weft, John Joor, North on James Shirving. Ann Rogers AOO5 on I*0^ Bluff* North-Eaft on Southampton Creek, South-Weft, i G. Noding. TV^*C Qmi-fK ^^ f on Buffalo Swamp, South, John Glover's, South-Weft and Northinomas bmitn 1050 j Weft on William Main. SufannahBee IOoo { ^^Z^^^"^***"George Noddings 400 on Dover Bluff, Norm-Weft: on Ann Rogers. James Shirving 1000 on Buffalo Swamp South on Ph. Smith's, Weft on John Glover, 'hil. Glaft 1000 on the Head of the main Branch of Turtle River. John Joyner - icoc* J on a Brancil of kittle Sitilla, South on WiUiam Hazard and John Richard Stevens 2000 on ditto, Weft, John Joyner, South, John Grafon, John Grafon 'aooo on ditto, Eaft on William Hazard's, reft vacant. rtWVrw K\n\*iA trrrvl on Buffalo Swamp, North-Weft oh Suf. Bee, North-Eaft on John ueorge rvimaia 1150 J Nowarth's, South on William Main, South-Eaft on Corn.DupontPaul Porcher tooo $ on ditt0, South'kEaft on William Main, North-Eaft on Suf. Bee, reft ( vacant. JoTeph Glover jooo on ditto, Eaft on James Sharving, others vacant. David Jefferys 650 ditto, Eaft on John Joor, reft vacant. Cornelius Dupont 1000 North-Eaft and South-Eaft on Jofhua Dupont, reft vacant. 86150 Note, The Carolina-Grants on Rivers are one Perch inFronti fotir Bfccfev The Lotts, then, of three thoufand Acres will be Chains Links Acres LinK& 86 61 in Front) ^ r no 346 44 Back |^afures3ooo 51684 That is, one Mile, twenty-fix Perches in Front, four Miles, two Furlongs, twenty-four Perches back. Colonel Middleton's Grant cannot have, it is believed, the three Back for one in Front, as the Georgian and Floridan Rules prefcribe. The Latitude, perhaps, of this Spot has not been clearly afcertained, though it may be within the Charter of Charles II.

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( ) Copies of his Excellency Governor Grant's Letters, and alfo Copies of the rough Drafts from which Mr. Rolled Letters to the Governor were wrote, containing the full Import of the fame. SIR, St. Auguft\n
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( ) Fort of St. MarVs at Appalachi; you may lodge the new Settlers in Safety in the Neighbourhood of the Fort, under the Protection of the Garrifon, where they may raife as much Indian Corn, and fuch other Things, as will be neceflary for their ptefent Advantage and im mediate Subfiftence ; but they mult not, upon any Account, attempt to form any Plantation at a Diftance from the Fort, till you receive Information from me, that the Limits of the Indian hunting Country have been fettled at a general Meeting of the Head-Men of the Creek Nation, which (hall be called together as foon as poffible ; indeed fome Steps have already been taken to bring that Meafure about. From all the Accounts which I have received, the Indians feem to be well difpofed to His Majefty's Subjects; thofe at Appalachi have never had much Communication with Europeans, they are extremely ignorant of our Manners and Cuftoms, and therefore muft be treated at firft with great Delicacy, You will have an Opportu nity of inquiring particularly into their Difpofition after your Arrival at Appalache ; and if it appears fafe to you, before the Limits are fettled with thofe Indians, you may, with fuch Attendants, asfliall appear toyou to be neceflary, take a Look of the Country, and fix upon the Tra& of Land, where you {hall chufe to have the Survey made J and, in Obedience to His Majefty's Order, a Land-Surveyor ftiall be fent (as foon as poflible after the Indian Congrefs is over) to furvey out the very Trak you fix upon, as far as is confident with His Majefty's general Inftrtxftions, and the Terms, Conditions, and Kefen* vations contained in His Majefty's Order, given with Che Advice and in Prefence of His Majefty's moll Honourable Privy Council. As I was under fome Apprehenfion that you would proceed to Appalache, without calling here, as that feemed to be ypur Intention at London, I wrote to Mr. Stuart (the Superintendant of Indian Affairs for the Southern Department) to inform the Indians near Appalache, that fome White People might probably come there to look at the Country, and to defire them not to be alarmed upon their Arrival, as they would not fettle there with* out

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( 3 ) out their Confent; and I fogged of him to affure them, that they would find thofe White People good Neigh bours, if they obtained their Confent to cultivate a Part of the Country. In Cafe Mr. Stuart (hould not have received that Letter, you have one enclofed for him to the fame Purpofe, which you will pleafe to deliver upon your Arrival at Appalache; and in Cafe he (hould not be there, you will be fo good as to ferid him the enclofed Duplicate of that Letter, by the firlr Opportunity to Penfacola. Lieutenant PompiUone^ the commanding Officer at Appalachiy was at Providence when I arrived there j Un formed him that you had an Order from His Majefty for a considerable Grant of Land near Appalache; that you would probably get there foon, with a Number of new Settlers j and I defired him to accommodate you with every Thing in his Power near the Fort; enclofed I take the Liberty to trouble you with a Letter for him to that Purpofe. I wifh you much Succefs in fo laudable an Under taking, and (hall think myfelf extremely happy, if I can be of any Ufe to you from this Place, during your Refidtnce at AppalachL 1 am, SIR, Tour moft obedient bumble Servant, JAMES GRANT, St. Auguftine, September 24,1764* SIR, I FLATTERED myfelf that my Letter of the x 14th Inftant, accompanied with thofe to Mr. Stuart* the Superincendant of Indian Affairs, and Lieutenant Pompillone^ or Officer commanding at Appalache, which I gave you to read the Day after your Arrival here, a 2 were

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( 4 ) were as full and as fatisfaftory as it was in my Power to make them, in the prefent State of the Colony. That Day, in Converfation at Dinner, I advifed you to go to Appalachi by Sea, you feerned defuous to go by Land ; I made it my Bufinefs to inquire how tar that was practicable and fafe at this Seafon of the Year; and I was lucky enough to find a Guide for you who had been there, who has lived in the Indian Towns in that Neighbourhood, and who /peaks their Language. Captain Williams^ who was formerly employed by General Oglethorpe and who is well acquainted with the Woods, likewife agreed to attend you with any Number of Hunters you ihould chufe to carry with you, upon your giving a reafonable Allowance to the Whole for their Trouble; and I was happy to think that every Obftacle, attending a very fatiguing Journey, was removed as far as the Nature of the Thing would admit of. A few Days after you told me that it Would be troublefome and expenfive to carry all your People with you to Appalachi, and that you had an Inclination to fettle them upon St. John's River, near the Fort of Picolai^ I told you that you might place them wherever you pleajidj that they ihould enjoy the Fruits of their Labour for this Year, and that, upon their Application to me in Council, they ihould have an Order of Survey, and afterwards a Grant of as much Land as was confiflent with the Terms of my Inflruftions ; but that I muft confider them as Grantees cA Grown Land% and by no Means as People brought in by you to the Province, The 22d Inftant, the Anniverfary of His Majefty's Coronation, you told me, a few Minutes before I went to Dinner with a pretty numerous Company, that you was afraid you ihould not be able to go to Appalachi^ and that you had fome Thoughts of taking up your Grant of twenty thoufand Acres upon St. John's River. In Anfwer to this Opinion of Denys Rolle, the Governor threatens, firft of all, to make a ftrong Reprefentation to the Board of Trade againft him for fuch Alteration of his Opinion; then, after a Silence which he per ceived in Denys Rolle, recollecting himfelf, proceeded, I then told you that, in Confequeace of His Majefty's Or der in Council, you certainly was intitted to that Grant of Land,

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( 5 ) Land, in any Part of the Province you pleafed; but that Axch Application muft appear extraordinary to Govern ment, if it was made before you fa'w Appalachey as your orrginal Application had been made for a Grant of Land at that Place, and as you had informed the Lords Commii&oners for Trade and Plantations, that you was to go there, and had told me vx-Londm that you would probably not have it in your Power to come to this Place in your Way to Appalache* on Account of the Expence which any Delay would put you to, (which 1 commu nicated to their Lord {hips, as the Apprehenfion of an Alarm being given to the Indians by fo expeditious a Meafure gave me fome Uneafinefs) and I further obferved to you that fuch a Change of Opinion was very Contrary to the Anxiety which you expreffed to get to Appalache, when you arrived here, upon Account of the Inhabitants which you expe&ed to arrive there, in a Veflel freighted by you from England. When I afked you what you intended to do with thofe People, if you fixed upon St. yobn's River j your Anfwer was, that you hoped that 1 would give them Land at Appalache^ in the fame Way as was to be done to other People who came into the Province. I then ex plained to you that, if thofe People did not fettle upon the Land which was to be granted to you, in Obedience to the King's Order in Council, they could not be confidered as a Part of the People which you, accor ding to the Terms of that Order, was to fettle in the Province; and that I could not give them a Grant of any Land, but upon a perfonal Application to me in Council; for which Reafon there would be an abfolute Neceflity for their coming to this Place, if they did not fix upon the Land that was to be granted to you. This fhould not appear extraordinary to you, as I have in formed you, that, if a refponfible Planter in any of the neighbouring Provinces was to engage to fend a hundred Slaves to Ea/l-Florida9 I could not give an Acre to any Agent fent for that Purpofe, if the Planter himfelf did not appear in Perfon, to apply to me in Council for the Warrant of Survey* See a Promife of the Governor's to Colonel MiddUton** Agent, Page ( ) a 3 I trouble

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( 6 ) I trouble you with this Letter, as you fccmed by jrour Converfation this Day at Dinner, in a public Company at my Table, not to have underftood what I thought had been fully explained ; therefore, Sir, that there may be no Miftake, Irepeat to you again, that you, or your Agents, have a Right to apply, in Confe* quente of His Majefty's Order in Council, dated at the Court of St. James's, the 23d of May, 1764, for a Sur vey of twenty thoufand Acres of Land in one conti guous Trad in any Part of the Province of Eqfl-Florida ; and that, upon the Return of fuch Survey, a Grant fliall be pafled for that Trad of Land* conformable to His Majefty's Directions in His general Inftrudions, and the Terms, Conditions, and Refervations contained in His Majefty's faid Order in Council ; but that fuch People as you bring into the Province, and that you do not chafe to fettle upon that Trad of Land which is to be granted to you, can only be confidered upon the footing of other Inhabitants who find their Way into the Province to look foi a Settlement. The Breadth of k Trad of Land to be granted is to be one Third of the Length of fuch a Trad, and the Length of fuch a Trad is not to extend along the Banks of any River, but into the main Lahl; thofe are the Words of His Majefty's Inftruc-tions, which are very clear and expreffive, though you warpleafed to fay, when I endeavoured \o explain them to you to the beft of my Power, that you bad feen the fame Thmg more clearly expreffed in an old Warrant of Survey granted in South Carolina. rhe Governor's Defcription of this Point of running out of Land in the Converfation mentioned, was one if* Front an J two back:. The Wijhof Denys Rol/et as a Settler, for a double Proportion asfty in Length to the Breadth, was prevented from occ&ftonmg his Affent, eafy to fuch a Mifreprefentation ; as he knew, with fome Certainty, the fame to be a Miftake, *iie there fore prefumed fo far as to ex pre fa, he believes, mathe matically, the Meafure .of this Kjttd of Superficies, as ond one in Breadth and three In Length* agreeable to Cloth Meafnre by the Yard ; but which Expref-

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( 7 ) Hon appeared to be taken as an Affront, though exact ly agreeable to the written Inftru&ions mentioned now, of His Majefty in this Letter. If, after receiving this Letter, which, I flatter myfelf is fufficiently explicit, though not more fo than my Words have been, you fhould ftill have any Doubt left with Regard to your Affairs in this Country, if you will take the Trouble to ftate them in Writing, I (hall endeavour, if it; is in my Power, to folve them ; but I beg to be excufed from talking any more upon the Sub ject. I am, SIR, Tour mo/1 humble Servant, JAMES GRANT St. AuguJlineyNov. 5, 1764. SIR, OlNCE my Arrival in this Place I have been acquaint* ^ ed, that you are making a Settlement on the River St. Juan's, about forty Miles above Picolata 5 and, as I am confident, from the Character I have heard of you, that it is not your Intention to benefit yourfelf at the Expence, or to the Prejudice of others, I take this Opportunity to acquaint you, that I did, in the latter End of the Year 1763, purchafe, from the Subje&s of Spain, for myfelf and others, all the Lands on this Side bordering on the River St. Juan's (except one Traft of about three Leagues in Front, next below Picolata) from the Mouth thereof to about the Latitude of Twentynine, and alfb the Lands on the other Side, from the fame South Latitude as far North as the Rio Blanco, about four Leagues below ie Pupo, a Plan and Conveyances pf which Purchafes may b* teen at Mr. Fijbe\ or in the Rtgi/l*r*i Office 5 therefore I prefume you have un~ a 4 knowingly

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( 9 ) knowingly fat down on fome of thofe Lands, but, I flatter myfelf, you will not perftft in occupying them after this Notice ; however, a few Lines, fignifying your Refolution> will oblige me. I am, SIR, Tour mo/1 obedient humble Servant, JOHN GORDON. Copy of a Letter from Denys Rolle to John Gordon, Efq. The Narrows, St. John's River, Nov. 21, 1764. SIR, YOUR's I received, and fhould have duly anfwered by the Return of Mr. Wilfon, by whom I received it; but intended at that Time to have come to Auguf-tins as foon as his Return probably would be. Being delayed, I would no longer omit informing you, that my Intentions in proceeding to fettle had the moft equita ble Foundation, as you, Sir, are pleafed to fuppofc. The Declaration at the Board of Trade, concerning the prior Sales of Land in the Florida's, encouraged me to let out from England to fettle a Colony in this Pro vince* The Declaration of his Excellency the Gover nor, at Auguftine, that he had DireUo$s to have no Refipefl: to fuch prior Sales, permitted me to proceed at large to my Choice, agreeable to the King's Order. In this I have a*d agreeable to ftri& Honour and Juftice y and, being under his Excellency's Dire&ion and PrOteftion, hope it will not be imputed ungenteel in my referring you to him, in clearing up any Doubts on this Point. J amy With dm Rjfpecty Tour obedient humble Servant, DENYS ROLLE. Copy

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( 9 ) Copy of a Letter fromDcnys Rolle to Governor Grant. January 15, 1765. SIR, \|R. Lloyd^ my Agent, on his Arrival here, having *^*> informed me that there was fomething in the Tranfrtiiffion of Petitions for Land to your Secretary's Office had been efteemed improper by your Excellency; left there might be any Thing tranfa&ed contrary to my Intention without my Knowledge* or, through any Inadvertence in myfelf, I might have given aftual Caufe, or lain my Condut open to yourjuft Reprehenfion, I take the Liberty now of acquainting you with my real At, and exprefs my Apology for the fame. When my Surveyor, Faifcbild^ was at Augujiine^ he* at two different Times, enquired at your Secretary's OiEce as to the Methods of Application for Grants of Land and Forms of Petition, and, at a third Time* I think, the Obligation of the perfonal Attendance of the Petitioner, whether it was to be at the Time of lodging the Petition, and a fecond Attendance at the Time of your Excellency's confidering of the fame, as the Petitioner's Diftance from Augujline would render an Expence in the Attendance. The two former were anfwered by a written prescribed Form being delivered ; and as to the latter your Secrerary's Clerk alledged, that the Petition might be fent up, that there would be a Day appointed for the Confideration of the Petition for the Grant, and he fhould have Notice of it, that the Pe titioners might perfonally attend. This feemed to be agreeable to your Proclamation, and the Terms were followed in each of the five Petitions fent from Perfons at this Place, and were put under a Cover dire&ed to your Secretary, agreeable, as I thought, to the Inti mations from the Office, and what, I apprehended, was the general common Method to be purfued by all Peti tioners, and fent by an Opportunity then offering of a Perfon here, one Knowkndsy going to Augufline\ which, as there was no Notice to be taken of the fame till an appointed

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( to ) appointed Time, wherein, if I have miftook, or, if pre vious fending the Petitions to the Offce, which, from what your Excellency mentioned, that if two were lodged for the kme Land, the firft only, as appeared by the Date of the Reception, would be noticed, I thought proper to difpatch it, if in either. My Surveyor had enquired at your Secretary's Office a? to the Method of petitioning for Land, and as to the Time of the perfonal Attendance of the Petitioners on jour Excellency. A written Form was delivered him for the Petitions, and the Attendance was diftinguiihed to be on fome future Day not yet fixed on, but of which Notice would be given to Mr. Fairchild, and that the Petitions might be fent into the Office at any previous Time. Your Excellency's Intimation, that the prior Applications would have the Preference, occafioned the Difpatch of the five Petitions fent from hence by an Opportunity then offering, by one Kwvlands going to Auguflini* and Were inclofed in a Cover, dire&ed to Mr. Dumsty to whom I did not think it neceffary to fay any Thine, as he was apprifed of the Defign by the former Enquiries. This, I hope, Sir, will take off the Im-Jutation of any defigned Omiffion of Refped to you, eing ever willing to follow your prefcribed general Rules. fam, With great Deference, Your Excetiincfs mofl obedient humble Servant, DENYS ROLLE. Augujline^

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( ) Augujlint) Jan. 16, 1765. SIR, VTOUR Letter of the 15th Inftant I have juft receiv* ed, concerning Petitions for Lands, fent fome Time ago to Mr. Dumtet, under your Cover. 1 have informed the People, who were fettled upon St. John's River before my Arrival in this Province, that they fhould profit of the Fruits of their Labour for one Year, that Warrants of Survey fliould be iffued as foon as poutble, and that Grants fliould be made out to them for the Lands which they had taken Pofleffion of, as far as was confident with His Majefty's Inftru&ions. Since I came into the Province, I receive Petitions, upon perfonalApplication onfy and though it is not in my Power to iffue Warrants of Survey (as the Land Sur veyor appointed by His Majefty is not arrived) yet* up on fuch perfonal Application, I dire& Petitions to be received and numbered, and I permit the Petitioners, if they chufe it, to fettle upon the Lands, when I am convinced of the Probability of Cultivation. The firft Aft of the Land Surveyor, after his Arrival, (hall be to furvey out to you twenty thoufand Acres of Land, in Obedience to His Majefty^ Order, which you have delivered to me, but it is not in my Power to make any Addition to that Tra& of Land, in Confequence of His Majefty's Permiffion for an additional thoufand Acres of Land to the Family Right* Accord ing to the Terms of my Proclamation, that Permiffion only extends to refponfible Planters, who make Appli cation to the Governor, and does not comprehend Gen tlemen who have received Orders from His Majefty for TracTj of Land in this Province; to fuch Trafts the King only cah make Additions. From the Steps which I have taken, and from the Let ters which I have received from the Superintendant of/-dian Affairs for the Southern Department,! flattermyfelf, that I {hall be able to have a Meeting with the head Men ofthe Greek Nation, and fettle the Limits of theirhunting Ground, before the Settlement of your Eftate can give them

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( 12 ) them any Offence; and therefore I am willing and anxi ous to have it furveyed, to avoid putting you to atey unneceflary Expence by a Delay. But^ tilt thofe Limits are,fettled, no Warrant of Sur rey will be iflued for any Land above Picolate, except for your twenty thoufand Acres ; and even after our Limits with the hdians have been afcertained, I (hall be very cautious in the Choice of the People to be fixed in their Neighbourhood, as the Differences which His Majefty's Subjects have had with thofe Savages have alalways been occafioned by the Irregularities of the j/merum'Wood-men9 I muft, therefore, be very care ful to guard againff any Inconvenience of that Kind, as the leaft Appearance of a Difpute with our Indian Neighbours would put a total Stop to the Scttfcmcrit of this infant Colony, and, of Confequeuce, deprive Great Britain of the Advantages which muft arife from fo va-r luable an Acquifition to his Majefty's Dominions. If any Miftake happened betwixt the deputy Clerk of the Council and your Surveyor, I cannot help it; but Inconveniencies of that Kind may eafily be avoided, if you will take the Trouble to write to me when you have any Bufinefs. An Apology was not neceffary for the Want of Form in the Tranfmiflion of the Petitions, I was only forry that I could not pay Attention to them upon that Account, / tf/TZ, SIR, Tour mofl humble Servant^ JAMES GRAKT. St* Augujline* February $) 1765. SIR, IHAVE been favoured with your Letter of the 29th ultimo by Mr. Greenan, who, at the fame Time, delivered

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( *3 J delivered the Plan of a Town, and ether Settlements projected by you, atthe Narrows of St. John's River above the Fort of Picolata. If you wifb to extend your Plan, that, as I have al ready told you, can only be done by applying at Home, for it is not in my Power to make any Addition to the Trad of Land which is to be furveyed out to you ia Terms of His Majefty's Order. I cannot deviate from the Words contained in the King's Order ; your Traflb muft therefore be contiguous, and, of Courfe, your extra Settlement becomes impra&icable ; for I cannot give Grants of Land to People who petition for them* in order to transfer their Rights to you, as the very iaft Orders I received at the Board of Trade were to prevent, difcourage, and guard, as much as poffible, againft Tranfa&ions of that Kind, as that Method had been followed by People in different Provinces, to get large Tra&s of Land into their Pofleffion; of which Meafures their Lordfhips ex* preffed the ftrongeft Difapprobation. It does not appear to me, at this Diftance, of what Utility a Settlement at the Narrows can be of to you, as you intend to have your Trafc of Land furveyed out at a Place which is thirty-five Miles further up the Ri ver ; and it does not juft occur to me, that marking out a Town can be of any great Advantage to the Pro vince, as there are no Inhabitants to live in it } for you will give me Leave to obferve, that the' People who have gone up the River to you, will onlyftay there a$ long as you chufe to feed them ; for they have never been confidered as a permanent People any where. I can have no Objection to your fettling any body you pleafe upon your own Eftate, but I would not, upon any Account, give Land to thofe People irk that Part of the Province, ftill Jefs at the very Place where the Indians are likely to pafs frequently, on Account of the Narrownefs of the River. As it is not in my Power to agree to your extra Set tlement, I thought it right to tell you fo, without wait* ing for your Arrival in Town $ for you will fee, from what

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( 14 > what I have faki, that I am not at Liberty to judge of the plaufible Reafons which you fay you have to alledge for the Meafure. You may be aflured that no Applications from others (hall preclude you from making Propofals about an /*-iron Store. Mr. Dibrahm arrived here a few Days ago. I have iffued the Warrant of Survey for your twenty thoufand Acres. He goes himfelf upon the general Survey of the Southern DiftriS, but he fends the Deputy he brought from Giorgia to you, who, he fays, is a good Surveyor, and has much Praftice; at my Defire, he likewife fends Mr. Fairchild, which I thought would be agreeable to you. lam, SIR, Tour moft bumble Servant, JAMES G*ANT. St. Augufline> Feb. 4, 1765. SIR, VOUR Agent Mr. Lloyd*s Name has been inferted in the Commiffion of the Peace for this Province, but, as I am willing to fave him the Trouble of a Jour ney to this Place, I take the Liberty of (ending you inciofed Copies of the State Oaths and Declaration, and of the Oath of a Juftice of Peace for this Province. Which you are hereby impowered to adminifter to him, to qualify him to act as a Tuftice of the Peace* You will pleafe to make him figft the Declaration, Which he is likewife to do at the Secretary's Office the firft Time he comes to St. AugujUm. Mr.

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Mr. JPaf, the deputy Surveyor has been taken ill, and, I am afraid, will not be able to attend you; but Mr. FaircMid will probably fet
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( t6 ) Latthawfty, being all out on the Hunt; and that hevna certain they would not agree to his fettling above Mr. Spdding's Store, but that below he might fettle, and feetned defirous of my letting him know of it, to pre* vent Damage that might accrue. Though he fpoke of that from other Indians, yet, his Earneftnefs feeiged to indicate his own Mind. Afterwards, before he left me, he faid he would wait on your Excellency in a few Days, to acquaint youhimfelf of it. As 1 had propofed to you, Sir, the fettling of a Store oppofite this Place, I thought it advifeable to mention the intention to him, if it ihould be agreeable to the Headmen of the Nation and your Excellency at the future Congrefs. He faid it was quite agreeable tp them all for my fettling thete, and eftablifhing a Store For fumifhing them with Neceflaries they ihould want. I thought fit to relate the Whole of this Converfarion, on a Point that might draw fome Imputation of Mifcondufi or Partiality in mjfelf} and herein muft aver, that I have not let Pafiion or Prejudice fway me, in the leaft; Partiality in Favour of Mr. SpaMing* or Mr. tVilfon, preferring either's Intereft* or of my own Propofal, lofing Sight of that Point of View I had in my Plan, the Intefeft of t&e Mother Kingdom ; I can only obferve, that feme Jealoufies mav arife to create Dlfguft of my Propofal, as, in the Ablence of Mr* Spalding, who i$ gone to &*vannab, his Interpreter came hither, two Days after Pbiloki left me, in Purfuit of him, agreeable, as he faid, to general Orders teft with him, when any Indian in Debt at their Store prefumed to go t6 another. P&iBfo's Vifit was intended as a Compliment, bur, having three Skins belonging to himfelf and Son$, and wanting fome Powder and Uullets, he propofed to barter the fame. I told him I had no Store as yet, only juft a Supply far the People with me ; but, to oblige nim, and fhewtbe Nature of my intended future Dealing? with them, I Would let him have them, and I took rains to explain every Thing to him ; which gave great Satisfaction, and, I hope, will prove of general Advantage. When your Excellency mentioned you had no Objection to a Store

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( 17 ) Store being fettled through my Encouragment, I did tiot aik what Quantity of Land would be granted whh this Store, fuppofing it agreeable to the Terms of Pro clamation, according to the Number of his Family, which (hould refrde and fettle at fuch Store. Ohe of the Petitions, fent under my Direftion to the Secretary's Office, had in Confideration fuch Allotment of Land $ and would have been followed by a perfonal Application, as imagined from Mr. FairchihTs Information from the Office, had been the proper one required ; which leads me to the Intimation of a Report fprfead on this River, at the Return of one yohnfony who had been to wait on your Excellency to petition for Land, and Mr* Davtl, That no Pecfon refiding here with me (hould '* ever have any Grants of Land in this Province, and < that the Petitions fent in under my Direction, were < thrown under the Table." I take the Liberty of re lating this as a Report only, without any real Foundation, ttt more than a Non correfpondence with yoiit Sentiments and Will, to eftablifh a thorough Settlement of the Province in fome Perfons, whofe Station in Life (hould dired to a different Comportment, and which, however, it will anfwer their Ends I know not, but may render my Settlement more difficult, fingqlar and trifling as it is, if continued to a (econd and third Ad venturer, may difcourage a greater Number of mote important Undertakings. I am forry to mention FairthihFs Name again to you ; but fince you troubled yourfelf with fpeaking to him, and he came to Mr. Greemti* the next Day pUrfuant to it, and Mr. Gret-nan\ Converfation the very Morning preceding my feeing him, might lfead him to an Offer to adjuft tbfc Account of Monies received, and Wages due ; the Ballance of which he, fuppofing it againft him, offered, before Mr. Greman, to repay me, and fetch tbft Money dire&ly* As I found a Difinclination to his (landing nrm to ferve me the Year, as agreed, for twenty Pounds, and could not depend on a willing Mind, I difengaged him from fuch Bargain, on his paying me the Ballance* He went away, and returned afterwards, to fay he would not pay any* and Mr. b Grttnan*

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( 18 ) GtHmtt) tht ntxt Morftlng, m his irrtrttded Plantar**, told me, it was cjAite inconfifont with bis Office to at tend any Service of mine , the Contrary of which* I told him* I had heard from your Excellency That be might go with me, attend my Orders when on my pri vate Employment, when, as permitted by toy Bargain, to enjoy the Station of Surveyor, to adhere ftri&ly to his Oath and Directions. I took him, Sir, on Trial ft rTht, with Intention of encouraging him further, as I found he deferred ; if capable oH being an Overfeer I might enlarge that Stipend of twenty rounds a Year Accordingly, which Sum I fpecificd he might depend on ; he arifwcred* be wa3 fatisried* I took him when he was uncertain of that Place he now enjoysHe fcrved me with the expected Permiffion to ftirvey Lands ff he could get the Foft, fuch as were on this JUver pardcularifcd, as not darting him fo much out of my Service. I took htm from a Place he knew he fpent more than he earned* and, being in Debt, had the Sqm of twenty Dollars of mine at one Time, foreftaUrng any Wages due, in order to pay fame. Mr. Gretnan informed met with fome cxpreffive mpha(i&, that their was Money due at Rogtf* for Neceffaries bought when be was at Augmftito on my Bnfmefc. He Was a very few Days there on my Account all Times {nit together; and when I left him to bring Cattle jufty bought, there was a dark Affair I am not at Liberty to clear up, though I fent different Times about it, and Mr. Ortenan^ when here* faW, could be done to my fatisfa&ion, be prevented my Application one Day for Redrefi by Law, the next Morning I was abufed in his own Parlour, and refufed the Cattle at laft. The* Bill at Rogers I here is large, but not chargeable by Mr. Fdrthild on me : He knows himfelf where the Inconvenience arifes, but I need not inform any in Town, I believe. I wiih his Diligence, &fa. may meet with Approbation \ but when I confider myfejf abftrarftedly as an Infant Settler, the Colony unformed, Law, though open, peculiar Contrivances adopted to the Cafe, Convenience, and Indigence, even of jtntng Colonifts, not as yet fubftituted, the Advice, the

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( 1$ ) tfee Wtsigbt tutd Authority *f fome afeeady *ftablt&e4 m Offite, I thought might make Equity few eafily ta private Individuals, and that Contra&s would be pre served in Fad, though wanting fome neeeflary Forms. In this Light I have confidered a Juftice of the Peace in England, as a fine Succedaneum to Law, or an Umpire between Equity and Rigour of the Law > and when that Office has been executed with, or rather held only by a Perfon of a peaceable, virtuous Difpofition, the Bleffingand Praife of bis Neighbourhood out-lived him. I beg vour Pardon for this Digreffion (if it is fo) but Ameruan infant Colonies kavc ever been dift rafted, ei ther by the firtifter Arts of neighbouring Colonies, or private Connexions within it's own. I was forewarned of it, fend did expeft fome Interruptions ; the for* mer I experienced firft at Charles Toumy the latter in the Cattle tfbevemcttrioned ; for, though Uncharitablencis in myfelf to porchafe at Moidore a Head, another might purchase with Juftice,my Boat loft, perhaps, through I was difappointed in Affidavits feared to be made, and fome others already troubling your Excellency too much about, yet, muft ierve for Re flexion and Advice to myfelf. I am now going to view Tome other Lands before I leave this Province, and re* turn to England, fend ftiall acquaint you with any Thing material arifmg therefrom. I art9 Tour EwlUncysmoJlibtdient humble Servant? DENV$ ROLLE. P. & I omitted mentioning to his Excellency, That Mr. Gwryin ftood by when Faiuhild came and pleaded liar Mm pgainft ny Bargain of twenty Pounds a Year, and laid, that I could not allow him lefs than a Grown a Day, or be alfo pleaded for Rouncly on the Sale of the Cattle, though be offered and faid, he could tranfad it> and fettle it when with me at my Settlement, *d now he pa died wilh me to have eleven or twelve b 2 Head

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( *o ) Head of Cattle iriftead of the fourteen for the Price Si mulated of aineteen Pounds, two or three being kilted cr loft. St. Juguftiney March 21, 1764-SIR, T WAS favoured this Morning with your Letter of "* the 18th Inftarit, and am obliged to you for the Copy of the Courfes, obferved by Arnuton, upon St. John's River, and for the Extract Upon Coffee from the Natural Hiftory of Jamaica \ I wilh that Shrub may fucceed in this Province. Wilfon and Spalding have both obtained Licences from me to trade with the In* diansy but in different Places, fo that they cannot inter fere with one another: Each of them will have a Party amongft the Indians, as all Indian Traders have* and that Sort of party Work has fometimee occafioned Difturbances: I endeavour to guard againft that Incon venience by keeping the Traders at a Diftance; but Governors of different Provinces fend Traders to the fame Town, which has been the Cafe with regard to South-Carolina and Georgia for fome Years. Both Wilfon and Spalding have given Secufity to obferve their Inftru&ions. 1 (hould imagine, from your Account, that Spalding has not obferved his Inftrudlions j for no Trader is permitted to give Credit to Indians j and Spaldingfs Interpreter following Philoii was an Irre gularity into which I (hall enquire. Indians may have favourite Traders, but they never pretended to fix the Number of them. Philoh, I fuppofe, is a Friend of Spalding's ; he has been with me fince he left you; I have given him ProviffoA ; he is in very Good-humour, but did not pretend to mention to me any Thing about the Trade of the Nation, he has not Authority to talk upon that Subject. Your having an Indian Store at Mount-Pleafant will be quite agreeable to me whenever you chufe to apply for the Licence.

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(21 ) licence, I wife it was in Power to put the whole In* dian Trade of the Creek Nation imp fo ^ood Hands ; but be fo good as not to fay any Thing about Trade or Settlement to Indians, for I am yery cautious about talking upon tbofe Subjects to them till the Arrival of the Superintendant, left I {hould counteract any Thing which he has fettled; befidesr there is a Plan for fettling Indian AffaiFs under the Confideration of the Lords Commiffioners for Trade and Plantations, which has npt yet been determined upon by their Lordfliips, bu$ I expect foon to receive their final Orders upon it j the Heads of the Plan have already been tranfmitted tome. A Licence to an Indian Trader does not preclude him from being a Planter, but it does not jntitle him to a Tracl: of Land near the Store ; the Licence is annual, permanent Property upon that Account would be incpnfiftent, I do not talk to a Mr. Jobnjim or a Mr. Davis about tlje Plan of Settlement of this Province : Pray do not give Attention to fuch idle Reports. The People at Mount-Plea/ant, as I have told you, 1 can only confider as Settlers upon your Eftate when you fix upon it, otherwife you may believe I fhould not permit them to fettle upon Crown Lands without making Application to me ; for you know well, if that was not the Cafe, that I (hould oe obliged to direcl the Attorney General to profecute them for a Trefpafs againft the Crown, as they have taken PofTeflion of Crown Lands without afking my Confent. With Regard to Petitions for Land, I beg Leave to refer you to my Letter of the 16th otyanuary. I have never thought of that Tranfaclion fince I explained it to you. Faircbild I really wifhed to attend you, as you feemed defirous to have him. 1 faid as much tp him as I could, but it would not have been decent for me to go greater Lengths. I cannot enter into private Ac counts, but I am forry that Fairchild^ or any other Per son's Conduct has given you Uneafinefs. If you have been ill ufed in any Bargain, the Law of England \s in Force, the Courts of Judicature have long been formed, the Chief Juftke is upon tbe Spot, b 3 in

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( M ) sn his Abfence an afliftant Judge wa$ appointed, the Courts were regularly formed and adjourned evert Pay of which the Attorney General could have informed you. Mr. Forbes, the Clergyman, Mr. Gatbervmd, the Hofpital Surgeon, and Mr. Greenan,thfe Regifter and Naval Officer, who are all known to youf are the act ing Juftices of the Peace in Town, and I muft truft to thofe Gentlemen to do every Thing In their Power for the Convenience of young Colonifts ; for, peculiar Contrivances, where Points of Law are concerned, is not ilt my Power tofubftitute, and fo you will be good enough to excufe me from entering more particularly into thofe Matters, unlefs you enter a regular Complaint againft a particular Perfon, for not executing his Office, then the Affair will properly come before me. I wifli you much Succefs in your intended Journey. Tt is to be hoped you will find fuch a Tra# of Land as you wifli for : You know the Warrant of Survey is in r orde, and the Surveyor ready to attend you. I (hall be glad to hear of the Difcoveries you make. And I am j SIR, Tour moft bumble Servant, JAMES GRANT. Su Augujlim, April %$, 1765. SIR, IHAVEheen favoured with your Letter of the 20th Irtftant, with a Lift of Grants made by th*p Gover nor of Carolina, to the Southward of the Altamaha* I obferve, that moft of thofe Trails are fituated in that Part of the ceded Country which has been annex ed to ttoe Province of Georgia, and that three only of the whole

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c n ) whefc Number are comprehended within the Limits of lhi Province; and, till very lately, I apprehended jhatno Grant had been completed within this Province, in Confequence of the Warrants of Survey iiTued by Governor Boone. But, fome Time ago, about a Month or fo, the two Mr. Middletons fent their Grants to their Correfpondent here, to be laid before mc, with a Requeft to have thofe Grants recorded in the Regifter's Office* They are very refponfible People, and would make good Settlers. My Anfwer to their Requeft was pretty nearly as follows : That this Province had been formed out of a Part of the Country ceded to His Majefly by the late definitive Treaty; that I u was the firft Governor His Majefty had appointed, and that I could admit of no Grants but fuch as had pafled under the great Seal of this Province, and *c that the Validity of a Deed under the great Seal of 4< SouthCarolina mull be confidered, before it could be recorded in the Offices here, but that, upon perianal Application tome in Council, if thofe Gentlemen 4< complied with the Terms of my Proclamation, as the Lands had not atreacjy been granted by me, all *' Difficulties might be removed, as they fhould get a Grant of the Lands they claimed; and that they might have Time toconfider of it, I would not give away thofe Lands to any body elfe for three Months." If Mr. Elliot applies to me before the Lands of Amelia Ifland are granted away, I (hall give him the fame An fwer ; but it is the Bufinefs of Gentlemen who have obtained fuch Grants to inform me of it, for I am fuppofed to know nothing of them till Application is made to me. I am obliged to you for your Information about the Creek, Lake, and the low Ifland you met with. I (hall endeavour to get an exact Survey of St. John's River, And it's Environs, taken as fbon aspoffible. I wi/h you a good Journey and Voyage when you fet out for England. If you do not fix upon your Tra
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( 24 ) prefented to me for the Lands which you have in View, and I (hall be under a Neceffity of giving them away, I fend you inclofed the Botanift's Opinion upon the Spice Plant. Jn4am9 SIS, Tour mojl humble Servantl, JAMES GRANT. Copy of a Letter from Denys Rolle to John Gordon, Efj. The Narrows, St. John's River > April25, 1765, S I Ry I^HE Honour of your's I received ; and, refpeHng ^ your Remarks relative to the Carolina Grants, and proceeding thereon, and alfo the Accommodation of myfclf in my awn Undertaking, I beg Leave to trouble you again, Sir, though would have endeavoured to avoid it, if the different Circumftances attending the fame had not rendered my Settlement precarious, made with fome View of a future Reimbursement at a long pay to my Succeflbrs in Family. I made Application to the Government at Home, of fering to make an Effort to fettle a Lot in the new cedr ed Colony of Eq/l-Florida9 in a Manner fuitable to my own Circumftances, but entirely confonant with thelriterefts of the Mother Kingdom, at a certain great prefent Expence ; and this, I believe, your Excellency knows to be previous to any other Applications. My Attempt, at whatever Expence others may term it, and, however pleafed, through their various connected Interefts. at any Misfortune happening to it, yet have this Satisfaction in my own Mind, that 1 acted the more pru dent Part, in engaging fewer in the Inconveniences coniequantly attending fuch Attempts in fo early Times, but more

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( 25 ) more particularly thofe Accretions from unexpected Hands. The Alteration from my fettingdown firft near St. Mark's, to the minor Settlement on St. John's River, was juftified, perhaps, from the unfettled Opinion of the Indians, the unprovided State of the Country on the one Hand, and the Vicinity of St. Auguftine, and two already fettled Colonies on the other. Whatever Interruptions or Obftru&ions have hitherto happened, my Sentiments are ftill the fame, as to a ftrong Attach ment to my Mother Country; and my Endeavours in a Settlement here, if poffible to he efFe&ed, will coin* cide with the fame. Your Sentiments of fettling Part of the People I brought into the Colony on this River, your Declaration on the Delivery of his Majefty's Permiffion of Settlement, your Opinion of the Propofal of the Indian Store near this Place, your late obliging In formations as to the Carolina Grants, took the Liberty of drawing into a conne&ed View, which obliges me now to apply to your Excellency for future, or, rather, certain Grounds to form my Judgment of Election of a Plot, which you exprefs you are defirous of knowing before my going to England, or on my Arrival there ; for my Application for a different Arrangement of the the Tradt for Cultivation, the prefent Terms might not admit of, perhaps, ftill poffible before the Congrefs with the Indians may happen, and the Power of grant ing above Picohta anfwered with fecurity. The Precarioufnefs of a Settlement on the Weft Side of the River might have rendered Mount Royal, thirty Miles above this, eligible rather than a Weft Plot oppofite to this Place, furveyed by me laft Year, but the prefent good Underfianding I have with the Indians^ which fecured me from any Apprehenfions on the Lofs of Chuckle the other Day, and Mr. Wilfon and Mr. Spalding being both difcomfited fince their ftrong Incli^ nation to my being fettled at this Part of the River, which makes the oppofite Side eligible, as this Side can only be a Refidence for Health, not a profitable one in Futurity, to anfwer prefent Expences, I may prefume to take the Liberty to requeft your explicite Opi~ niort, as to Right of Pretenfxon in myfelf of fuch Spot, (faould

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( ftfi ) fcouM Ac Qcrilma Grant he invalid at fhould it ht valid ol Admtffion to the fole Property of a Ferryago, die JMww paffing free, and a Slots far th$ Jtu&tos on that Side, as nropofed to you, Sir, and s*pf>roved o, and, I think, efteemed improper on thi inhabited Sid$, *nd whether two othef eligible Spc^ I hava in Vieiw, may he permitted to wak ungranted till a different Arrangment you have intimated not within the limits ef theXTpmmiffion, *y he yet thought proper by their Lordftips of Trade to recommend to fci? Majofty, to facilitate the expenfive Attempt, though, I hopg9 not ittaudable, of, SIR, Tour Ev&lkncfs majl obtdient humble Servants JJENYS ROUE. fan 111 .,' ' Augy/lin*) April i6f 1765. SIR, yOUR Letter of *he asth Inftant I have juft receiy* ed. Wherever you fix your Settlement it is to be hoped it will he attended with Advantage to you and your Succeffors in Family. It certainly is my Duty aad Inclination to facilitate and contribute, as much as is in my Power, to the guccefsof fuch an Undertakings and I fhould have a very bad Opinion indeed of any body who was pleafed at a Difappointment or Misfortunes happening to you in the Execution of a Plan for fettling twenty thoufand Acres in this infant Colony, I wpuid willingly flatter myfelf that there are no fuch Inhabi tants in it. You are beft Judge what Reafons you had to alter your firft Intention of Settling at St. ifyrk% you never gave me any, and therefore I cannot pretend to form an Opinion upon the Subjed. You have a Right, ac cording

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( *7 ) cording to the Terms of Ms fclajefty'fc Order In Coun cil, tp take up twenty thoufend Acres in any Part of the Province you pleafe; and, in Obedience to thai Order, which you delivered to me in Stpumber laft, a Warrant of Survey was iffued, a Deputy Surveyor wa$ fent $o attend you in the Beginning of February, a few Days after the Surveyor General arrived in the Province. I had no Objection to your talcing longer Time to look at the Country, when I found that you chofe to defer having your Traft furveyed, and, if I exprefs a Defire that you ihould fix upon the locality of your Eftate before you go to England* or that you ihould leave a. Power to your Agent to do it in your Abfence, it i? only to prevent my being under the difagreeable Necef. fity of granting away upon Petitions from others the very Land, which you may have in View. l am glad you was under no Apprehensions upon the fuppofed Lofs of Chuckle. I endeavoured to prevent any bad Confluences from our Neighbours, by fending a Talk to the Headmen at tathaumy; but my Fears about Chuckle were luckily ill fpunded, for that drunken Indian is alive and well. I expe& the Superintendant every Day,
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( *8 ) I ccM not poflibly comply with ; but if you had ap plied to me to order thofe Lands to he furveyed out to you* in Terms of His Majefty's Order in Council, prior to die Carolina Grant being laid before me, my Anfwer to; }Ax* Middleton's Agent would have been different ; but I cannot recall what I have faid. A PJace will be referved for a Fort upon the Nar rows of the River St. John, in order to Command that Pafs, and, if the Ferry was to be granted to any body, I (hould give it to you with Pleaftire, but all Ferries will be rererved to His Majefty : No Revenue will arife from them for feme Years, but in Tirrie they will he an Ad dition to the Quit Rents. A Leafe will be given of the Ferry at the Narrows, for which you fhall have the Preference. Propofals have already been made to me for the Low Ford by different People : The Property of that Ferry I have always refufed to give. As to keep ing an Indian Store, I have already faid that I could wifh all the Trade with the Creek Nation was in fo good Hands, and that you rn^y have aXicence whenever you chufe to apply for it ; but, if the Land oppofite to the Place where you are at prefent fixed for a Time, be comes the Property of another Perfon, it furely will be impoffible for me to impower you to eftablifh a Store upon another Man's Eftate; but, fuppofmg the Land was your's* the Moment Inhabitants were fixed upon it, the Store, of Courfe, would be removed to another Place ; for no Indian Store is ever permitted in an inha bited Country. Now* Sir, in Anfwer to your Requeft, to keep two ether eligible Spots ungranted, I muft beg Leave to obferve to you, that you brought the King's Order in Council in your Pocket from England^ you therefore was fufficiently informed with the Terms upon which the Land was to be granted to you before you left London ; and, if ypu had any Objection to make to any of the Conditions contained in the King's Order, that was the proper Time to apply for an Alteration being made in thofe Conditions. When ypu came into this Province above feven Months ago, a fingle Acre of Land had not been granted (the three Carolina Grants of four thou-

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( *9 ) fond fix hundred Acres were not known) you therefore have had a long Time to look at the Country* and have had it in your Power to make Choice of any Tra& you pleafed in the Province, without Exception, fo that no future Grantee can ever come into it with the fame Ad vantage with Regard to Locality ; and, upon the Whole* you muft excufe me for not complying with your Requeft, as I fiiould be very blameable if I prefumed to poftponje granting aWay Land when Letters offer upon a Suppofition that the Conditions of His Majefty's Or der in Council, granted to you in May 1764, upon a Reprefentation from the Lords Commiffioners for Trad* and Plantations, may be altered upon your Return to England. I am, SIR, Ybur mofi humbk Servant, JAMES GRANT. St. Augujiine, May 7, 1765. SIR, T THINK it right to inform you, that Mr. Kinhugb ** and Captain Moultrie, two very confiderable Planters in Carolina, have come into this Province, to petition for Land, and to fix upon the Locality of fuch Plantations, as they intend to fettle and cultivate immediately after Limits are fettled with the Indians ; for till then I have told them, that I will not iflue Warrants of Survey for any Lands above Picolata\ but I have agreed to their carrying one *f the Deputy Surveyors with them, and have aflured them, that fuch Tra&s as they {hall fix upon for themfefves, and for the other Carolina Gen tlemen, who have impowered them ,to aft for them, (hall be refcrved, and not granted away to any other Perfon, till they and their Friends come into the Pro vince,

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(&) tine*, to fcftabfifti fSvetr fetfert! Settlements, ttfcfefe tfegf me to 4b tn Autumn, a* (ton asI inform ttoem 4ttt bfe ftft* Cbrigrefs h wer. Nfcw* Sfr, it tfccoaies neeeflary, for yo*i? +*k Salte, t& fix upon yon* TratS of Land, becaufe I ciraiot ketp itre Province open upon yoar Account; in Confequence ef Hfe Majefty's Order fai Council, you are kttitted to Preference, if you ehuft to foe and apply for ywr T**t of twenty *oufead Acres, to he feweyed out to yw 5 but now is xht Time s for if thofe Ca^>Um Gten* tfcmeti #x apon their Spots, and if their Application to are in Councfl is prior fc any Application ^f your**, then thry trill hwe the preferable kigtot, and I cannot afterwards receive any Application from you for Lands which they may have a Promife for, When itfliall appear to me to be fafe to grant them away; and you may be aflured that thofe Gentlemen wHl fix upon feveral Spots before they .return to this Place from St. Joint* River. As 1 have always expreffed a Defire to accommodate you to your Satisfaction, as far as in my Power, I thought it expedient to put you upon your Guard. SIR, Tfourm&Jl humble Strvartt, JfMXS Git ANT. P. 6. Since writing my Letter, I have received an txprefefrom St. mari\ I fend you inclofed a Letter which eame under my Cover, with an Extraft from 'Lieutenant PompilloHeys Letter to me. I am forry your Veflel has been fo unlucky, but it is hoped the poor People have not fuffesed, as the Brig has got into Ptnfacok. C*&

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( 3 ) Copy of a tetter frm Denys Rolle io Governor Grant, W Denys Rollfc's going U England in May* [ // means of the 2jbtb of April. ] S I R,
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( 32 ) Petition, but on a future Day appointed for Considera tion of Grants, would alone be required. A Queftion ordered to be afked by fnyfelf, in hopes it correfpended with your general View of fettling this Province, the enhancing the Expence of petitioning, by Attendance from a great Diftance to all in general 5 (Tome of which mufl be poor and incapacitated) as little as poflible* In this cafe, and the Neceifity of a Return to England, deprives me of the Power of waiting perfonally on your {SxceTlency, which you have been (o good as to ettcufe, &fit that fame Land may be granted to Colonel Mid* dUtvx<> in Preference to myfelf; and any other Perfon hearing I viewed fuch and fuch Land, may make Ap plication for a ffnall Slip of it, in the middle Part, perhaps, of it. It fhall be efteerned prior^ to the utter depriving me of Land agreeable in Contiguity* as requir ed by his Majefty's permit If I am to have no other Ele&ion but a fecond after Colonel Middleton^ then, Sir, I muft make Choice of a Piece of Land difpofed in a N*ck on this Side of the River, as Colonel Middiet on's is fo formed on the other, which is altogether Swamp, by a pradent Line of Direction ; though, if had included it in mine, fhould have mixed much PinerBarren ; and, according to one Plan, fhould have paid for near two thoufand Acres of Water in my Quit-Rent. I thought it not quite a diflionourable Propoial to make to you, Sir, not an Injury to other Settlers, or the Intereft of the Province, when your Excellency has dcterrnineci how to difpofe of me in that Point of Choiqe, if you pleafe to permit a Survey or to come hither, any except Fttirchild^ whom* if he had continued partially in my Service, I had propofed ob jecting to for Reafons too obvious to mention to a Perfon of Honour. In my Abfence,Mr. Lhydy my Agent, will {hew the rough imperfect Plans, run bv myfejf, through the Neceflity fofne compelled me fl, for his more eafy comprehenfion how to run out the Plot agreeable to the Irrftju&ions he has, or may have given him. In my Conversion with the Cowkeeperf on cay firft coming here, he had exprefied his Fears 09

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( 23 ) on Reports of Caftles being built throughout thisRiverf and particularly that I was going to build one at this Place; to which I anfwered, that I had no fuch Defign, and only, with their Liberty (meaning the Indians) to plant the Land; and that I believed it was not the Intention of Government, and that it was a falfe Report \ he then faid he believed it was, and that I told him Truth, which I am forry to have expreffed different from your Excellency's Intention. Whenever it is executed, if my Plantations interfere, fhall readily retire without the Diftance of the Sight of a white Horfe at the Morning Gun, that a clear Gun-Shot View of the Enemy may be had Without Interruption, and pitch on a Spot more agreeable, where the River Pafiage is equally or lefs Narrow than here, and the baleful Influence may lefs Prejudice the different Pro ducts of the Plantation. Where the old Fort was, here the River is a Furlong over only; fo that Part of the Colonel's Rice Swamp will be within that Jurif-diftion; but Rice will fcarce cover an Enemy. In my Pafiage of the River lately, I obferved a Place, nine Miles diftance from this Place, a little above Mr. Spalding's Store, feemed to be but a Stone's Throw over, low Land on both Sides; befides thefe there are none on this Side the Great Lake. The Indians have Reports among them of the Mortar King being lately killed by ttvo white Slaves he had from the Cberokees. 1 (hall fet out immediately for Georgia in Mr. Spalding's Boat, arid leave Mr. Lloyd in Dire&ion of my Affairs here, in my Abfence, who will receive your Orders at all Times and aft agreeable. / am, Tour Excellency's mojl obedient humble Servant', DENYS ROLLE. P%. The great Stream I mentioned to come from t&e North, and falls into Dunn's Lake, at the South End of it, the Indians tell me, makes a narrow Neck of Land with the Mujkatoe River. c SU Augujline,

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( 34 ; St. Augujiine^ June 15, 1765 SIR, yOUR Letter of the 6th Inftant, I have been fa* voured with, but I do not know at this Hour by whom it was brought, and whoever that Perfon was, he never called for an Anfwer, which is the Reafon of your not receiving the inclofed Note fooner, which was made out by Mr. De Brabm the very Day your Letter came to my Hands. Your Letter of the 13th, I received laft Night, by Mr. Funk, who propofes to fet out for your Settlement, this Evening. It is impoffible that your Requeft for a Licence to Trade with Indians, can interfere with the other Traders, they are but five in Number, and it is eafy to avoid the Spots, where their Store-Houfes are fixed, Burgefs the Exprefs has a Licence for the Town of Puckanawbitla, he was defirous to have another Town included in his Licence, which 1 refufed, becaufe it was at a greater Diftance from Puckanawbitla^ and by no Means becaufe it interfered with Mr. Wilfon9 who had nothing to do with it, M'AUey, who came with Burgefs the laft Time, likewife wifhed to have two Towns included in his Licences, which I alfo re fufed, as I (hall never give the fame Trader Permiffion, to Trade with two Towns, I am much of your Opinion, that Rum is hurtful, it is to be hoped Means will be fallen upon to put a Stop to that very detri mental, and, 1 may fay, iniquitous Branch of the Indian Trade 5 thofe have always been my Sentiments, and when Mr. Stuart arrives, new Regulations fhall be made about it, but, till he comes, I do not chufe to make any Innovations, for Fear of counteracting what he may have fettled ; but be aflured I have what you point out With regard to Rum, very ftrongly at heart, I am concerned and fhocked at the Murder, which has been committed by a Neatabowky, but A&s of Cruelty will now and then happen in an Indian Country, and when the King's Subjects are not concerned, no No tice

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( 35 ) ttce is taken of it: they are their own Matters an will fettle their Differences in their own Way : You have had a fatiguing Journey, but I am glad to fin that in every other Refpefl: it has been amufing an<* agreeable to yoti; and am much obliged to you for your Defcription of the Country. Mr. Funk has (hewn me a Sketch of a Part of St. Johifs River, and has pointed out to me, the Way you wifli to have your Tradfc run out. I mould be glad to accommodate you, but it is not in my Power to deviate from the King's Orders, and the Deputy Surveyor can only run out Land, according to his Inftru&ions from the Surveyor-General, which are formed from my Inftru&ions to him, which are made out from my Ihftru&ions from Home. You took Notice, in a former Letter, of the Line of Direftion obferved in Mr. Middleton's Tra&, from a Sketch which I have feen with Mr. Funk, it appears to me to be moft ex ceedingly irregular* I am, SIR, Tour moft bumble Servant* JAMES GRANT* St. Auguftlnei Julf 8,1764* SIR, *TpHE People who bring your Letter* either do not A return, or they negleft calling at my Houfe, which is the Reafort of your not receiving Anfwers to your two laft Letters. That of the 6th Inftant I was fa voured with laft Night, and the Matter of your Schooner tells me he returns To-morrow. c 2 I have

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( 3* ) I have been fo long acquainted with Indiansand their Traders, that I do not eafily give Credit to Reports, which are often induftrioufly fpread by them, from pri vate Views of Intereft. The Murder of Simp/on^ which you mention, may be true ; Spalding likewife writes me what he has heard of it, but I have yet received no certain Information about it, and, till theFa# is afcertained, if the Murder was fuppofed to have been com mitted in the Government, I could not take Noticje of it 5 but as the Cafe ftands, if the Report of the Mur der is founded, it will fall under the Confideration of the Governor of Weft-Florida and the Superintendant. My fending to Latcbawa could have anfwered no End, but to make them believe, that I confidered them as Parties in a Thing with which they have not the moft diftant Connexion. Pray do not pay the leaft Atten tion to the Reports from Latcbawa about your Settle ment ; thofe Indians% as I have already told you, have no Yotej, and are not even allowed to affift at the Councils of their Nation : I fhall not thank the Indians for the Country to the Eaftward of St. John's ; I do not give Grantsabove Picolata, becaufe I chufe to bring our Neighbours together in good Humour; be as civil to them as you pleafe, but fay nothing about Settle ments. I am glad to find that your expected Settlers are ar rived in good Health, after fo long and tedious a Voyage. I fhould have a bad Opinion of any Planter who endeavoured to feduce them from you, but if they are nor indented, be affured that they will only fray with you as long as they find it their Intereft to dofo ; I told you fo when you fir$ came into this Province, upon your complaining of what had happened at Cbarles-Town, with Regard to the Cabinet-Maker, and his Fa mily ; and the Attorney General, who I lent for upon receiving your Letter, tells me that he has already given you his opinion upon it, and that you can have no Security for yqux Settlers, but by an Agreement made with themfeives* and, if it has been omitted in England, you fhould endeavour to get, it done without Lofs

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( 37 ) Lofs of Time ; for they will foon find out, that a Man, with but a little Induftry, can contrive to make a Dol lar a Day, at this Hour I pay a Dollar and a Half to a Carpenter; t.hofe Settlers, though brought out at your Expence, if they are not indented, are free People upon their landing ; and the Attorney General fays, there is no Law in England^* or in any one Colony in Jfnerka, by which they can be obliged to live with you, or fettle upon your Eft ate. No Court of Judicature has any Thing to do with the Arrival of your Settlers: The Matter of the Schoo ner, at any Rate, is not the proper Perfon to give an Affidavit about them. If you wifli to be provided with proper Materials to afcertain the Arrival of your Settlers ia this Province, in cafe your Compliance with the Terms of the Grant to be made out, in Obedience to His Majefty Order in Council, fhould hereafter be difputed, the Attorney General fays, that either you, or your Agent, fhould make Oath before a Juftice of the Peace, that fuch a Number of People arrived, at fuch a Time, in the Province of Eajl-Florida, and were brought into the Province at your Expence, in order to fettle upon your Eftate, and that you, or your Agent, fhould fet a Certificate to that Purpofe from the Juftice of the eace; but thofe are Points of Law with which I have really nothing to do. If Mr. Funk has finifhed his Survey according to his Inftru&ions* either you or Mr. Ltoyd with proper Powers from you, fhould come into Town, and take out your Grant. I amj SIR, Xiur mojl obedient and moft humhle Servant, JAMES GRANT. *3 Copf

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( 3 ) Copy ofar Letter from Denys Rolle to Governor Grant, The Narrows of St. John's River, July 26, 1765. SIR, ^pHE Defign of my troubling your Excellency at * this Time, had been entirely relating to the Plan of this Plot of Land, now laid before you, by Mr. Funk, the Deputy Surveyor, but am interrupted in it by further Occafion for complaint of a Difturbance given me in my Settlement, which I muft firft give you a Detail of, though I am afraid, this may be find to be harping on old Strings, fuch Detail to be expe&ed as tedious as frivolous. The Circumftances however, now before my Eyes, are fo ftrong and glaring, if not vifionary, will not lofe all their Force, I truft in my weak Relation of them to you Sir, and may convey fome imperfedt Idea of the Inconveniencies attending infant Settlements. In a former Letter, I endeavoured to remove any bad Opinion which might be formed of the Indians, from Reports of my being (hot twice at in a Boat lately below Picolata, by relating the Surmifes of others, that it proceeded rom a rifled barreled Gun, very impro bably in Indians9 Hands, but belonging to certain white People, which may now, perhaps, fhould be cleared up, for the future Security of Peaceable Travellers or Settlers. The new Accretion to this Settlement, gave Occa fion probably to the Migration of certain Perfons of Leifure lately to vifit this Spot, among which was Mr. Piles of St. Augujiine^ Mr. John Davis, Deputy Sur veyor, and their Attendants, Jofeph Upton formerly Hunter to me, at three Pounds per Month, and then, at fhe fame Time, fupplier of Augufline Market with Venifon, at my Expence, with his Accomitants, many others of equal Bufinefs in Life. Mr. Davis I enter tained in Return for my Reception, I believe, (hould have met with from his Father if he had been at Home when lately down the River, at his Plantation, Mr, Piks, I alfo received, though a Letter heretofore to my Servant

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( 39 ) Servant on my Account (as a Reprefentation I now make to His Majefty's Juftices of Peace, fhews the purport of, required no fuch Civility on my Part, he came to offer me the Sale of his Cattle, converfed with him on that Subject, but without Effect, as the Price was raifed too high, but fcarce was this Civility re ceived, but he went out from me, and immediately endeavoured to feduce and inveigle away my new Settlers, imported at no fmall Expence, for the Benefit, I may fay, of the Province; I immediately called Mr. Piles, and explained to him his inhofpitable Behaviour, which he feemed to deny, but was afterwards acquainted he owned, and infifted on his leaving this Place immedi ately. Previous to this, Mr. Davis, as intimated by himfelf and another Perfon told me, had received a Denial of a generous Reception, by another Family refiding here, which he would otherwife have met with, had he not come accompanied fo improperly, and which, he then told me, he would not have done, as he faw it had done him a Diflervice; and though he came inten ding to go to Latchawa to Andrew Barnet on Bufinefs, yet, as a Report prevailed that he was concerned with Piles to feize on Barnefs Perfon, would prevent his go ing, and he fent one Tyrrel, that came with him to Latchawa) to buy a Horfe, or to exchance a Gun for one. This Circumftance, and Captain Hopkins, who brought up my Settlers from Savannah, and was to have carried fome Skins for me back thither, but made fome Scruple of as touching his Frielndmip in Augujline, fen ding a Letter thither, on his going away, not with the beft Grace. My fending a Meflage to the Cowheper lately, at Latehatua, and expecting Barnet with the Return of the Meflenger, which might have tranfpired j thefe, with what followed after, leaves fome Sufpicion of this being pitched on for a kidnapping Place. But this Surmife did not efcape me, and nothing but Civi lities pafled, unlefs except a Refufal of a Bottle of Rum to the Deputy Surveyor, who wanted it, in order to proceed up the River to Mr, Spaldi?ig's Store, with Mr. Funk, in order to complete the Plan of the River, for the Government's Ufe, which fhall always refpect, and c 4 fhould

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C 40 ) fhould not have been obftru&ed here, by the Want of Gallons of recruiting Spirits, had I been as certain it would not have been drank out before Departure, with it's accommitant Bottle of other's Store, to the Difturbance of the Peace of the Place, as Experience teaches me. Unluckily, by this Refufal undefigned, the Go vernment's Bufmefs entirely dropped, as Mr. Funk can teftify, and a Party of Pleafure with the Hunter, Upton* took Place down the River, for a Day or two, and, on Return, fpent a Day or two here with him on his Rum, as he had fome Gallons juft arrived from Auguftine : A Friendfhip thus founded, equally as dangerous andillufive to the Deputy Surveyor, as he found and experi enced before, as mentioned \ he undertook to write a Letter for Upton9 he not being able to write to Mr. Lloyd, my Agent, demanding ample Satisfaction, as the higheft Injury could deferves, for the Ufe of his Horfes, which, I Delieve, I mentioned to you, Sir, as being left here with no good View, ever fince he was in my Service. This Demand, couched in Law-threatening Terms, without any, the left previous Charge or Application for any Thing, though he had made an Offer for hunt ing forme, excited me to return the Letter by the Bear er (who faid it was writ by Mr. Davisy the Deputy Surveyor) with a MefTage that I have a Chargeagainft the faid Horfes, for a conftant Trefpafe on the Land I was permitted to make choice of by his Majefty's Or der; the breaking into my Inclofures for Corn, and that the Inditer of the Letter I fliould take for the Ad~ v.fer, and I did not admit of any Lawyers, at this Set tlement, to the Ruin andDifcouragement of the Settlers, and fliould inform your Excellency of this Deviation from the Commiffion he bore. Next comes the Coup D'Clat of the Nevj Hannover Law, by the Afliftance of eight Gallons of Ruin, for even that law requires fome Fuel for Execution; two Negroes, fawing for me at a very fmall Diftance off, came in, and informed me, that Upton had Shot one of rrjy Cows in their Sight, ami that Upton told them or one of them, that he might tell me, that he would flioot all my Cows, Horfes, &c\ wherever he found them,

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( 4* ) them, and that I might fend Wolves or Indians after him, he cared not for any. > On immeditate Enquiry was informed, that he fet out in a Boat, with one Mr. Briant, who lives here for a Hunt on Dmn*s Creek and Lake. Mr. Lloyd examined one Jacob, a Man who attends Upton when here, and brought the Rum this Week for him, and finds his Orders to him was to drive his Horfers up to a Bay Gall, as driving them from my Range, which Ba.y Gall or Swamp, in Mr. Funs Plan, lies near Dunns Lake, appointed him to eome thither, that Day fe'ennight, to meet hrim, when he fhould reftore from his Hunt, he faid, alio, he was bound to Mr. Roget, for Upton, for thirty-feven Dollars* On anfwering fair and direct,, and appearing no Way concerned, and others' faying he was a harmlefs Perfon, he was not detained in Cuftody, but ordered to let the Horfes alone, and proceed back to Auguftine on his own Bufinefs, and not come hither again ; thus far appears what further is intended, left his Gun might deprive any one, I might fend after him laft Night, of hia Life* when he would be on his Guard; for Mr. Davis tells me he himfelf will engage not to mifs the Mark of a Man acrofs the River at this Place, which is a Furlong wide. Such Danger attends theUfe of thefe rifle-barrel Guns, not permitted to the Indians, and as they are fa good Hunters with the common Trading Pieces, perhaps to be efteemed ufelefs* as well as dangerous to the Com munity, for even the white Inhabitants to have them. Such an Opinion againft the Ufe of more deftru&ive Weapons, feemed to be general on the Attempt on Dieppe, in King WillliawLS Time, by the Contrivance of the infernal Machine, though the Law of Retaliation, for the burning of the Palatinate, allowed or pleaded a Prefcription. I muft now reflect on this Occafion, on the Lofs of a Life, in this Province, if one Goodby, Brother-inLaw to Davis, fuppofed to be killed a Week or two fince, by Virtue of the NJ-W Hannover Law, aforemen tioned, and likewife that Lewis, one of the Company with Upton, at the Time I was fliot at on the River, fgid it was not him that Ihot, he having then no Gun, but

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( 42 ) but it was another Perfon in Company with Upton; but there were two Shot fired at us, at two different Places, fome Diftance a Part; I told Davis, the Sur veyor, of this, that it was fuppofed to have been fired at him, and did not take it as to myfelf, whom they did not know of being in that Part of the River. As Davis is in Attgufiine^ a clofe Examination of him, as alfo, the young Men James Briant and William Sennet, alfo in Town. The latter, as to the Fad, he being with me, and all as to what came out in Con versation at this Place, relative to the Confeffion of it, may prove, fo far as to convict of a high Crime* If this Negroe Evidence, as to the Cow, will not be accepted, as a Proof of fuch Fat, fuch Threatening ; he was feen alfo, juft after the Gun went off, by Langley Briant, to be looking at a Tree, as if he had fliot at a Mark, and grazed the Tree ; and fuppofe it was behind a Tree, when he fliot, as Briant did not then fee him, the Cattle he faw juft after, and they looked frightened, and the Cow came after to the Pen, and proved fliot in the Shoulder, but not dead. I fliall proceed no father to requeft on this Head, but muft leave the Whole to your better Judgment. The Plan, with the Obfervations laid before your Excellency, by Mr. Funk, I doubt not, will convince you of Difficulties I am under, of running the Boun daries of my twenty thoufand Acres, confiftant with what your Excellency has mentioned, are the Rules prefcribed at the fame Time, confidering the Orders I have to fettle two hundred Perfons on my Grant, at a great Expence ; whofe Conveniency I muft confult and efteem an Equivalent for them, with fingle Settlers, to be the juft Due defigned them by Government at Home, though, in this Situation, could not be obtained further, without a proper Reprefentation at Home, which I will beg Leave to do, with all Difpatch, at the Return of the Ship my Settlers came in, which will be immediately; the Shortnefs of which Time, I hope, will plead excufe for my not taking Leave of your Excellency in Perfon, as, I believe alfo, the Conveniencey

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( 43 ) veniency of Horfes is alfo precluded me by the Hunter, as I cannot hear of them after a long Search for two Pays, which obliges me to difpatch this on Foot. St. Augufline, July 29, 1765* SIR, T WAS this Day with his Excellency theGover-* nor, and alfo with Mr. De Brabm, and ihewed them the Plan, but they told me they can do nothing* Mr. De Brabm told me I may crofs the Great Creek* of which I have fent you a Plan, No. 1, alfo were that runs back, marked No. 2, which are the only two Ways that can be laid out to have your Town in your Survey. The tells me you may have alfo your Land laid out on the Great Creek, or Dunn's Creek, and make the River your Front, and the Creek your SideLine, and run the other Side-line parallel with the Creek, but either of them will exclude your Town : His Exellency the Governor, and Mr. De Brahm, told me alfo, that you muft have your Warrant renewed, before you can have your Land furveyed, which his Excellency will do as foon as you, or your Agents, apply to him for it. SIR, I am, Tour moji humble Servant^ JAMES FUNK. Augujlint,

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(44) St. Auguflinty July 33, 1765. SIR, TkM R. Funky the Deputy Surveyor, was fent, at your -*^-*> Defire in the Beginning of May to furvey your Tra<9: of Land, he returned a fe\y Days ago, and I find nothing has been done in the Bufinefs which he was fent upon ; he has laid before me a Sketch of a Part of the the River St, John's* and Mr, De Brahm* the Sur veyor General, and I, have confidered the Situation of that Part of the Country, where you have thought proper to &c yourfelf for a Time; Mr. De Brahm has pointed out in what Manner your Tra& may be run out, Plans of which Mr. Funk has Directions to tranmtt to you, no other Method can be followed without deviating from His Majefty's Inftruftions, if any of the Plans fent to you (hould be agreeable, you m-ttfteither come jrourfelf, or impower feme Perfon in Town, to apply to me in Council, for a new Warrant of Survey, that of February 2d being no longer in Force. The Woodfmen, all over America^ are extremely irregular, that is the Cafe even in the beft efUblilhed Provinces, it is to be hoped Time, and good Example, will bring them into better Order. Mr. Piles declares he had no Inteittiton to inveigle away your Settlers, but you had better truft to proper Agreements, than the good Intentions of your Neighbours, but furely I can add nothing to the Attorney General's Opinion, which I have already fent you, upon the Subject. You have been mifinformed about Mr. Goodly^ he is alive and well at his own Houfe. Mr. Davis is not a Deputy Surveyor of this Province, though he has been employed by Mr. De Brahm in the general Survey; as he was in Town when I received your Letter, I fent for him, he fays he did not mean to give you Offence, by writing the Note for Upton* declares

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( 45 ) declares he only did it, becaufe Upton could not write himfelf, and becaufe he was not permitted to fpeak either to you or Mr. Lloyd, and infifts that the Note was a fubmiflive Requeft. As to the Reft of your Letter, I muft beg Leave to refer you to the Chief Juftice, affiftant Judges, or Juftices of the Peace, for it is quite inconfiftent for me to enter into any Gentleman's private Tranfadlions, and furely I need not tell you, that if any Man kills my Cattle, or if his Horfes break into my Inclofures I have no Remedy but a Profecution, according to the Law of England* by which His Majefty has been pleafed to dire& this Province to be governed, I am, S I R, Tour mbft bumble Servant9 JAMES GRANT. St. Augujline, July 31, 1765* SIR, 'T1 HIS Morning Mr. Skinner* the Sheriff of this *Province, applied to me, in Confequence of your Note to him, concerning the Payment of certain Perfons employed by you, in apprehending and fending to Goal one Upton* charged, as it is faid, with killing a Cow, the property of Denys Rolle Efq; what I faid to him upon this Occafion I (hall now repeat to you, as it may ferve for your future goverment in Cafes of the like Nature* In

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C 4 ) In the firft Place, then, I muft obfefve t6 y6ti, Sir, ftat I apprehend it is the indifpenfible Duty of every Conftabkr, not only to be active and vigilant in the Execution of any Warrant wherewith he may be charged, but, upon Caption of the Offender, him fafely to Convey to the Common Goal, if the Nature of the Cafe require it. This Duty they are obliged to take upon themfelvcs in Rotation, and it is equally for their own Benefit and Security, as of others of the Community, but there isno Fund in this Province, nor did I ever hear there was in any of the Colonies, or clfe where for fuch Services j It is true that in Georgia it has happened that where a notorious Offender has long infefted the Country, and become a public Nuifance, and a ConftabJe has ufed extraordinary Endeavours, and had been himfelf at a confiderabl* Expence in taking him, in that Cafe, upon laying his Accounts before the General Aflembly, they have thought proper forae Times to make him an Allow ance, but this was never looked upon, or did it ever eftablifh a Right in any Conftable to demand or infill on it. In the prefent Cafe, I can by no Means fee the Neceffity there was in^mploying four or five People to bring one Man to Goal, where any one of them, whofe Duty it a&ually was, would have been fufficient. Therefore, Sir, I conceive no Pay or Allow ance can, or ought, in this Cafe, to be made from the Public. With Refpeft to the Commitment itfelf, it appears to me extremely improper* as you have therein made life of fome aggravating Circumftances or Expreflions, made ufe of by the Party in Converfation, very foreign to the Matter in Hand, and which fhould, by no Means, have been introduced in your Commitment, at the fame Time, you have omitted mentioning upon what Proof, Evidence, or Information, you did com mit him, or whether any, which is equally irregular. I muft now, Sir, defire you will, without delay, fend me down the Affidavits taken upon this Occafion, to* gether with the Recognizance, as well of the Party profecuting,

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( 47 ) pcofecuting, as of thofe you have bound over to Ap pear and give Evidence, at the next General Seffions, that I may proceed thereon accordingly, and the De linquent have Time to colled any Evidence he may have, and prepare for his Trial* / am9 SIR, Tour moft humblt Servant, JAMES BOX* FINIS.

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INDEX. (Roman numerals in italics refer to the Sturgill introduction; arabic numerals in roman type refer to the Petition; arabic numerals in italics refer to the letters printed as an appendix to the Petition.) Alatamaha River, Georgia, 1, 2, 37, 41, 22 Amelia Island, 28, 38, 39, 23 Anastasia Island, 8 Apalache (Appalachi), xx, xxi, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Arunton, Mr., 24, 20 Backop, Mr., 27 Bahama Islands, xxvii Ballamore (Bullemore), Mr., agent, 27 Barnet, Andrew, trader, 48, 49, 50, 53, 69, IS, 39 Barnstaple, xv Bennett, William, 42 Bermudian scheme, 81 Berstein, Sir Lewis, xiv Birmingham guns, 56 Black Drink (cassena), 53 Boone, Mr., governor of South Carolina, 37, 38, 40, 55, 23 Bouncly, Mr., trader, 74 Box, James, letter of, 45-41 Briant, James, 42 Briant, Langley, 70, 78, 41, 42 Buoy and Nore, 3 Burgess, Mr., trader, 34

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2 Index. Calasahtche River, 54 Cambel family in New York, 82-83 Canary Islands, 3 Carolinian River, 50 Catherwood, Mr., hospital surgeon, 22 Charleston (Charles-Town), S.C., xvit, 3, 5, 7, 8, 27, 32, 19, 36 Cherokee Indians, 33 China-Briar-Root soup, 50 Chuckle, Indian warrior, 39, 25, 21 Clement's Bluff, IS Corse, Carita Doggett, xiii Cowkeeper, Indian chief, 44, 48, 51, 60, 32, 39 Creek Indians, xviii, 12-13, 49, 51, 2, 11, 20, 28 Cumberland Island, xvi Davis, John, deputy surveyor, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44 Davis, Mr., South Carolina planter, 31, 33, 47, 65, 67, 69, 75, 76, 79, 11, 21, 40, 41, 42, 44 De Brahm, William Gerard, surveyor, xxi, xxii, 54, 71, 73, 75, 79, 14, 34, 43, 44 De Popo (Pupo), settlement, 8, 7 Devonshire, xv Doggett, Carita, xiii Dunnet, Mr., secretary of East Florida, 18, 19, 27, 32, 10, 11 Dunn's Creek or Lake, 46, 68, 73, 77, 81, 33, 41, 43 Elliot, Joseph, 39, 23 Elsenor, Indian interpreter, 55, 74 Evans, Mr., of Philadelphia, 82 Exuma Island, xxvii Fairchild, Mr., Rolle's surveyor, 22, 24, 25, 31, 33, 74, 9-10, 14, IS, 11, 18, 19, 21, 31, 32 Fishe, Mr., 7 Forbes, John, clergyman, 22 Franklin, Benjamin, xiii Funk, Mr., deputy surveyor, 53, 54, 55, 61, 70, 71, 72, 73, 79, 34, 35, 31, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 Gage, Major General Sir Thomas, 30, 77 Georgia, xvi, xxii, 1, 10, 11, 15, 18, 27, 28, 30, 37, 46, 47, 50, 62, 75, 81, 14, 20, 22, 33, 46 Goodby, Mr., 75, 41, 44 Gordon, John, of Charleston, 7, 1-8, 24-26 Great Creek, 73, 43 Great Lake, 46, 84, 33 Greenan, Mr., register and naval officer, 6, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 31, 74, 84, 12-13, 11-18, 19, 22 Grover, Mr., chief justice of Georgia, 18 Grey, Mr., 46, 47, 48, 65, 61, 79, 85

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Index. 3 Hanoverian gentlemen, 81 Hawkins, Ensign, 52 Hopkins, Captain, 39 Hopkins, Thomas, 74 House of Commons, The, xiv Indians, Rolle's relations with, xviii-xix, 7, 11-15, 22, 30-31, 36-37, 40-41, 48-49, 50-53, 60-61, 83 Indian store, Rolle's plan to establish, 22, 30-37, 41-42, 14, 16-11, 20-21, 28, 31, 34 Jacob, 41 Jamaica, 18, 20 Johnson, Mr., rival land claimant, 31, 33, 11, 21 Kinlaugh, Mr., South Carolina planter, 44, 46, 47, 64, 67, 68, 79, 80, 29 Knowlands, Mr., 9, 10 Latchaway, 7, 39, 52, 53, 60, 69, 15-16, 21, 36, 39 Laurens, Henry, Rolle's agent in South Carolina, xxv-xxvi Little Savannah River, 50, 52 Lloyd, Mr., Rolle's overseer, 18, 21, 22, 44, 77, 78, 80, 82, 9, 14, 23-24, 32, 33, 31, 40, 41, 45 Long Warrior, Indian, 11, 51 Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, xii, xvi, xvii, xx, xxi, xxiii, xxiv, 1, 6, 8, 22, 28, 40, 52, 62, 82, 4, 5, 8, 20, 29 Louisiana, xv Low Ford, 28 M'Alley, trader, 34 Machey and Company in Georgia, 27 Marguana Island, xxvii Mayes, A. J., xiii Meek, Mr., king's baker, 3 Mexico, Bay of, 1, 24, 50 Middleton, Colonel, rival land claimant, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 55, 61, 5, 21-28, 31-32, 35 Mobile, 38 Mogane Island, xxvii Mortar King, Indian, 33 Moultrie, Mr., South Carolina planter, 44, 46, 64, 67, 79, 29 Mount Pleasant, xx, xxi, 33, 84, 20, 21 Mount Royal, xviii, xxi-xxii, 73, 79, 25 Mowat, Charles Loch, xiii, xiv Muskatoe River, 33 Neatahowki, Indian storekeeper, 48, 49, 34 New College, Oxford, xv New Hannover Law, 75, 40, 41

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4 Index. New Orleans, 38, 41 New York, 83 New York Ship Company, 3 North, Lord, xxiv Ocklewaw River, IS Ogilvie, Major, commanding officer at St. Augustine, 8, 18, 24, 29, 30 Oglethorpe, James, governor of Georgia, 11, 41, 48, 51, 77, 4 Onslow, Mr., 9 Oswald, Richard, 81 Palatka, xviii Palatines, 3 Peace and Plenty, ship, xxvii Penn, William, Laurens' employee and Rolle's agent, xxv-xxvi Pensacola, xv, 38, 41, 45, 50, 51, 52, 57, 60, 3, 30 Philadelphia, 82 Philoki, Indian warrior, 11, 30, 31, 32, 51, 15-16, 20 Picolata, xviii, 6, 8, 29, 32, 40, 41, 60, 70, 77, 82, 4, 7, 12, 13, IS, 2S, 21, 29, 31, 36, 38 Piles, Mr., cattle owner, 23, 24, 69, 73-74, IS, 38, 39, 44 Pompillione, Lieutenant, commandant at St. Mark's, 45, 51, 52, 3, 30 Pownall, John, secretary to the Lords Commissioners, 82 Privy Council, xv, xxiv, xxv, xxvii, 1, 2 Prostitute at St. Augustine, 20 Providence, 18, 3 Puckanawhitla, Indian town, 31 Quebeck, 29 Rio Blanco, 8, 7 Roget's,, merchant at St. Augustine, 18, 41 Rolle, John, father of Denys, xiv, xv Rolle, John, son of Denys, xxvii Rolle Town, xviii, xix, xxi St. Mark's, xvi, xviii, xx, 2, 5, 18, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57, 60, 2, 2S, 26, 30 St. Mary's River, 41 Savannah, 50, 52, 55, 57, 79, IS, 16, 39 Savannah Indians, 53 Scitilla River, IS Sekiki, Indian, 51, 60 Simpson, reported killed, 36 Skinner, Captain, 23 Skinner, Mr., sheriff, 45 Smith, Mr., and wife, 8, 29

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Index. 5 Smith, Mr., historian of New York, 83 Spalding, James, storekeeper, 7, 27, 30, 32, 39, 48, 55, 56, IS, 16, 20, 2S, 33, 36, 39 Stevenstone, xiv, xxvii Stewart, Mr., 54 Stuart, Mr., superintendent of Indian affairs, xx, 3, 2, 3, 11, 34 Sweetenham, Lieutenant, at St. Augustine, 9, 17, 18, 32 Talbot Island, 38 Tampa, Bay of, xvi, 54 Tyrrel, Mr., 39 Upton, Joseph, hunter, 69, 73, 76, 77, 78, 80, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45 Way, Mr., deputy surveyor, 15 West Indian trade, 1 White King, Indian chief, 50, 53 Williams, Captain, 4 Wilson, Mr., merchant at St. Augustine, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 32, 8, 15,16, 20, 25, 34 Women, attempts to recruit for settlement, 19-21 Wragg, Mr., of Charles-Town, 5 Yorkshire, gentlemen of, 36 Yorktown, xiv