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Amerindian Trinidad and Tobago
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Peter Harris ( Author, Primary )
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St. Petersburg, Fla.
Cultural Resource Solutions
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Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Conference papers and proceedings


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Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
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Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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University of Florida
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AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Pete r Harri s Thi s i s a n attemp t t o marr y anthropolog y an d archeology an d t o se e it s effec t o n th e prehistor y o f Trinida d an d Tobago I t i s fortunat e tha t a se t o f relevan t Amerindia n lifeway s an d value-system s surviv e i n present da y Amazonia Thei r genera l parameter s hel p t o pu t ou r archeologica l remain s int o a n Amerindia n perspective I n additio n severa l specifi c activitie s an d belief s ca n reasonabl y b e associate d wit h archeologica l artifacts AMAZONIA N ANTHROPOLOG Y S o fa r I hav e onl y looke d a t th e ethnograph y o f th e WARAO PANARE YECUANA YANOMAMO GOAJIRO th e Tucanoa n grou p an d th e tribe s o f Guyan a (Fig 1) Ther e see m t o b e si x majo r parameters : Spirit-world Village Foo d an d othe r resources Men Women an d Institution s wide r tha n th e village Spirit-Worl d Peopl e liv e simultaneousl y i n thre e worlds al l equall y real Sky worl d i s populate d b y positiv e Spirits symbolize d b y th e sun brigh t colour s an d certai n birds etc Under-worl d i s people d b y destructiv e Spirits represente d b y th e moon dar k murk y water s an d reptilians etc I n th e middl e i s This-world populate d b y Indians an d manifestation s o f Sky an d Under-worl d Spirits Al l activitie s ar e governe d b y Spirit-world Succes s i n hunting fo r instance i s du e t o correc t ritua l satisfactio n o f th e "Maste r o f Animals" no t t o persona l skill Spirit-associate d resources artifact s an d activ i tie s ar e restricte d t o men an d ar e forbidde n t o women : e.g. fis h an d arro w poisons ritua l drugs ritua l dress musica l instruments chanting etc Festival s maintai n th e approva l o f th e "Firs t Spirits" Thes e re-enac t importan t aspect s o f triba l mythology : e.g. majo r foods death initia tion fertility etc Al l Spirit s ar e dangerous goo d o r bad ; an d media tio n i s th e provinc e o f th e SHAMAN Shamani c artifact s include : specia l stool rattle sacre d quart z crystals cigar-holder club jaguar an d harpy-eagl e manifestations etc Differen t tribe s us e differen t material s t o communicat e wit h th e Spirits : tobacc o wate r (Guyan a tribes) cigar s an d tobacc o smok e (WARAO) EPEN A snuf f (YANOMAMO) coca-snuf f an d YAJ E drin k (Tucanoa n group) etc Ther e ma y b e a west-eas t differenc e i n communicatio n media : e.g. coca YOPO-typ e snuf f tobacco Present-da y snuf f artifact s ar e al l mad e fro m "wild items : e.g. hardwood bone reed-tube etc Th e YANOMAM O grin d snuf f wit h a n ol d ston e axe 25 9


26 0 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Th e mai n drin k artifac t i s a "wild calabas h cup However th e Tucanoa n tribe s als o hav e a specia l pot : wit h a tal l (1 3 cm ) cylindrica l base painte d design s i n wil d swirlin g colour s (red yellow white ) representin g th e YAJ E vision ofte n wit h mal e an d femal e symbol s indicatin g spiritua l rebirth an d suspensio n hole s fo r hangin g outsid e th e hous e unde r th e northeas t eav e (Schultes pers.comm.) Th e po t i s freshl y repainte d fo r eac h festival b y th e men Buria l custom s ofte n includ e th e intermen t o f "personal artifacts : e.g. blowpipe bo w an d arrows coc a pouch etc WARA O burial s ar e usuall y two-stage : primar y i n a canoe the n secondar y i n a hollowed-lo g box Althoug h bee r i s mad e speciall y fo r festivals i t doe s not appea r t o b e Spirit-related I t i s mad e variousl y fro m manioc sugarcane maize ; an d i s alway s mad e b y women Th e bee r canoe however i s alway s mad e b y th e men an d i s ofte n painted Th e PANAR E mak e a fres h on e fo r eac h festival Villag e an d Famil y Famil y an d villag e ar e th e majo r socia l institutions an d ar e almos t synonymous Villag e layout s vary : on e multi-famil y hous e wit h centra l spac e fo r ritua l activity ; a plaz a surrounde d b y adjoinin g houses ; centra l men' s hu t i n a plaz a wit h surroundin g houses Communit y member s var y fro m 3 0 t o 300 Hous e layou t i s ofte n highl y regulated an d wit h th e Tucanoa n tribe s an d th e YECUAN A i t reproduce s th e structur e o f th e universe Ther e ar e alway s wel l define d entrance s an d approac h paths Garden s ar e usuall y clos e by The y las t 23 year s fo r roo t crop s an d 5-10 0 year s fo r tre e crops Village s mov e ever y 5-1 0 years Usuall y th e settlemen t i s aban done d o n th e deat h o f it s Headman Mos t communit y member s ar e kin Th e Headma n i s th e senio r famil y male Possibl y 30 0 i s th e maximu m communit y membershi p tha t ca n b e hel d togethe r b y kinshi p authorit y alone Th e Tucanoa n BARASAN A see m t o hav e a marriag e scal e : fo r a n eldes t son kinshi p (i.e. cross-cousin ) marriage fo r middl e sons wife-raidin g o f distan t settlements i f ther e ar e insufficien t kinshi p brides fo r th e younges t son endogamou s marriage o r eve n a membe r o f th e servant-statu s MAK U tribe Endogam y (marriag e withi n th e community ) an d uxorilocalit y (husban d join s hi s father-in-law' s household ) see m t o b e th e nor m amon g th e les s structure d societie s o f th e east wherea s th e mor e structure d Tucanoa n tribe s i n th e west ar e exogamou s an d virilocal Food Ecozone s an d Othe r Natura l Resource s Subsistenc e festival s indicat e a wid e rang e o f importan t foods : morich e pal m sago manioc pijigua o fruit ing a fruit meat fish I n genera l a prope r mea l mus t hav e bot h mea t (obtaine d b y th e men ) an d a vegetabl e stapl e (obtaine d b y th e women) Fo r th e BARASAN A i n th e west th e poores t mea l i s "pepper-pot" i.e. boiled-dow n manio c juic e plu s a fe w odd s an d ends


HARRI S 26 1 Severa l ecozone s ar e covere d b y th e sample : riverin e (WARAO Tucanoa n peoples YECUANA) ; fores t (YANOMAMO PANARE t o som e exten t YECUANA) ; an d deser t (GOAJIRO) Men' s Activitie s Me n an d women' s activitie s ar e normall y separate bu t complementary Th e onl y undifferentiate d activit y seem s t o b e body-painting I n genera l me n operat e withi n th e "wild world s o f th e forest th e river s an d th e Spirits The y produc e mea t fro m huntin g an d fishing an d mak e al l th e associate d artifacts : bo w an d arrow blowpip e an d darts quivers game-bags etc Bot h hunter s an d dog s tak e snuf f t o assis t them Me n conver t th e fores t int o gardens an d tree s int o houses canoe s an d woodwork Drummin g assist s YECUAN A house-constructio n an d garden-clearing Tobacc o smok e an d chantin g assis t th e WARA O canoe-master Me n plant collect prepare mak e an d us e al l Spirit-relate d plant s an d artifacts : e.g. tobacco CAP I vine coca fish an d arrow-poisons ritua l featherwork teet h necklaces bird-ski n cloaks musica l instruments woode n stools snuff-trays etc The y ar e als o th e principa l actor s i n festivals : masqueradin g a s spirits playin g musica l instruments chanting dancing etc Throug h festival s the y ensur e th e spiritua l continuit y o f thei r community Women' s Activitie s I n general wome n operat e i n th e "controlled area s o f settlemen t an d gardens The y wee d an d cro p th e garden prepar e th e dail y foo d (whic h include s cookin g th e meat) collec t an d carr y th e dail y firewood The y prepar e th e bee r fo r festivals The y mak e th e potter y (wit h th e exceptio n o f th e YECUANA) The y weav e (however hammock s ar e usuall y mad e b y th e men) The y mak e an d wea r bea d necklaces an d i n som e instance s bea d aprons Throug h makin g children the y ensur e th e physica l continuit y o f thei r ow n o r a kin-relate d community Supra-Villag e Institution s Kinshi p i s th e majo r extra-villag e institution I t i s maintaine d i n severa l way s : marriage an d i n particula r th e custo m o f "sister exchange festivals exogam y wit h kin-relate d families an d i n limite d circumstances wife-raiding : e.g. whe n i t i s desirabl e t o forg e a n allianc e wit h th e "distant communit y fro m whic h th e wif e wa s taken an d i n whic h sh e stil l ha s kin I n th e les s structure d societie s al l person s fro m outsid e th e communit y ar e viewe d wit h distrust eve n kin I t i s interestin g t o not e th e hostil e


26 2 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O scen e acte d ou t b y a PANAR E host an d hi s invitee s fro m a neighbourin g community befor e the y ar e admitte d t o a festival Trad e i s anothe r majo r institution Thi s ca n b e intra-people : a s whe n th e YANOMAM O sea l inter-communit y alliances wit h th e agreemen t tha t a certai n commodit y ca n onl y b e supplie d b y on e community : e.g. pottery arrow-grass snuff dogs etc O r i t ca n b e inter-people : e.g. blowpipe s (YECUAN A t o PANARE) ; canoe s fo r tobacc o (16t h centur y WARA O an d Trinidad) ; canoes dogs curare etc (19t h centur y Guyana) Interestingly n o trad e i n "primitiv e valuables (e.g. gree n ston e frogs ) seem s t o exis t today Tw o othe r unusua l institution s exis t i n th e sampl e covered Whe n PANAR E boy s ar e initiated me n fro m anothe r communit y ar e responsibl e fo r guiding dressin g an d testin g them Th e GOAJIR O "casta i s a highl y structure d for m o f kinship whic h include s severa l communities A n individua l offenc e agains t a membe r o f anothe r "casta i s settle d wit h a "cobro (fine) payabl e b y th e "casta o f th e offender Th e difference s betwee n lo w an d hig h degre e o f structurin g shoul d b e born e i n min d whe n w e loo k a t th e archeologica l data TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O ARCHEOLOG Y Pleas e no w loo k a t th e Archeologica l Timefram e (Fig 2) Yo u wil l se e that : si x differen t archeologica l serie s ar e presen t betwee n th e tw o islands : Preceraraic Saladoid Barrancoid Arauquinoid Suazoid Mayoid thes e serie s combin e differentl y i n eac h island an d th e dif ferenc e increase s ove r time th e Amerindia n perio d continue s wel l int o post-Columbia n tim e i n bot h islands Als o n o assemblag e ha s ye t bee n identifie d fo r th e fina l 30 0 year s i n Tobago Eac h serie s wil l b e considere d i n turn i n th e ligh t o f th e si x ethnographi c parameter s reporte d above Precerami c Thes e ar e mostl y a canoe-people wit h settlement s locate d nea r a swamp Subsistenc e i s base d o n shellfis h an d hunting Th e latte r give s wa y t o fishin g aroun d B.C 5000 Th e tool-ki t include s th e present-da y bon e fishing-arro w point an d a fla t "fish-hook (Boomert pers comm. ) stil l use d b y th e 19t h centur y WARAO Th e plac e o f manio c i s presumabl y take n b y anothe r dail y vegetabl e staple Settlemen t habita t make s morich e pal m sag o a likel y candidate bu t th e abundan t handstone-and-sla b artifact s d o no t see m relate d t o th e processin g o f thi s food Unlik e present-da y settlements site s sho w considerabl e continuity Banwar i ha s seve n stratigraphi e layer s coverin g 250 0 years Fina l abandon men t seem s t o hav e occurre d afte r severa l deaths Som e Spirit-worl d activitie s ar e clearl y present Severa l importe d blue-gree n ston e pestle s an d a serpentinit e cu p see m closes t t o th e snuff


HARRI S 26 3 and-drin k ritual Burial s includ e on e primary wit h a possibl e persona l possessio n i n th e for m o f a roun d stone ; an d on e secondary i n a bundl e a s thoug h place d i n a perishabl e box Th e mai n "primitiv e valuable i s a conica l greenston e pestle an d a widesprea d exchang e networ k i s indicated coverin g th e Lesse r Antille s a t leas t a s fa r a s Grenada an d part s o f th e Guian a Shiel d and/o r th e Coasta l Cordiller a o f Venezuela Banwaria n site s occu r o n bot h side s o f th e Orinoc o delta : E l Conchero-typ e o n th e Gul f o f Pari a an d Alaka-typ e o n th e Guyan a coast Curren t WARA O residenc e i n th e delta plu s th e myt h o f thei r culture her o exile d t o Trinidad' s Sa n Fernand o Hill plu s 16t h centur y report s o f th e exchang e o f WARA O canoe s fo r Trinida d tobacco plu s thei r recentl y (1930s ) prohibite d annua l visit t o th e Sa n Fernand o interio r fo r purpose s unknown, plu s fish-crab-snai l foo d resource s mak e WARA O ancestor s a stron g ethno/cultura l candidat e fo r ou r Precerami c people O n th e othe r hand th e handstone-and-sla b artifact s d o no t fi t wit h th e present-da y processin g o f morich e pal m sago an d th e pestl e an d cu p see m close r t o th e snuff-and drin k ritua l tha n t o th e 50-7 5 c m cigar s use d b y present-da y WARA O shaman s t o communicat e wit h thei r Spirit-world I n southeas t Trinidad a cluste r o f slightl y differen t site s i s found Ortoiran Th e mai n stapl e appear s t o b e sandy-shor e shellfish Artifact s ar e rare bu t includ e th e fla t "fish-hook" importe d greenston e oblongoi d pestles an d abundan t re d ochre Date s ar e B.C 80 0 ?A.D 0 I n Tobago on e undate d sit e ha s bee n found withou t artifacts Isolate d "barrel-shaped local-ston e pestle s hav e bee n foun d nearb y an d ma y b e related Saladoi d Thi s i s clearl y anothe r canoe-people wh o liv e of f cassav a brea d an d shellfish plu s som e huntin g an d fishing Settlement s ar e mostl y locate d o n lo w foreste d ridge s an d slopes clos e t o th e coast The y ar e mor e numerou s tha n before larger an d severa l spa n 60 0 years Thes e peopl e als o hav e pottery whic h i s decorate d wit h a multiplicit y o f heads presumabl y reflectin g a multi-Spiri t belie f system Becaus e o f thi s probabl e spiri t association th e head s ar e likel y t o hav e bee n mad e b y th e men : especiall y rattler-heads whic h presumabl y belonge d t o a Shaman Difference s o f tempe r an d decoratio n mod e sugges t ther e wer e fou r distinc t group s i n Trinida d an d a fift h i n Tobago Th e las t substitute s fine-lin e incisio n (simila r t o Itacoatiar a o n th e centra l Amazon ) fo r red-and-whit e painting Th e snuff-and-drin k ritua l i s clearl y present Snuf f artifact s include : nostril-bow l wit h bird/turtl e motif Crosshatc h (late r red-rimmed ) effig y bowl s wit h variou s Under worl d motifs


26 4 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O smal l oblongoi d grinder mad e fro m importe d ston e o r a n ol d celt Drin k artifact s includ e : red-and-whit e painte d bottle som e wit h BARASANA-typ e mal e an d femal e symbols cylindrica l pot-stand two-hande d oblongoi d drinkin g bowl Mos t o f thes e ar e mad e o f "cooked potter y instea d o f present-da y "raw o r "wild materials Sinc e Amerindian s regar d potter y a s a "civilized material a greate r degre e o f politica l structur e i s suggeste d tha n today Buria l offering s var y fro m ni l t o a persona l round-stone t o a cel t an d 12 bowls Th e las t i s fel t t o indicat e a smal l degre e o f hereditar y statu s i n th e positio n o f Headman On e burial wit h a cel t an d fou r snuf f and-drin k vessels ma y represen t stron g Barrancoi d influenc e fro m th e Orinoc o delt a (se e nex t assemblage) wher e societ y ha s reportedl y bee n a t a highe r leve l sinc e A.D 0 Primitiv e valuable s hav e no w change d t o celts bead s an d pendants whic h Trinida d mus t impor t a s i t ha s n o suitabl e stone Thi s ne w cultur e derive s archeologicall y fro m th e centra l Orinoco Man y feature s see m generall y simila r t o th e present-da y Tucanoa n people s o f th e Vaupe s area betwee n th e Ri o Negr o an d th e foothill s o f th e Andes Barrancoi d Ther e i s n o chang e i n lifeway Settlement s ar e fewer large r an d generall y continu e o n th e sam e site I n Trinidad influenc e fro m th e Barrancoi d centr e a t th e nec k o f th e Orinoc o delt a ha s increased : unti l 50 % o f th e potter y i s no w Saladoi d past e i n a Barrancoi d style whil e th e othe r 50 % i s delt a Barrancoi d (temper quality style) Eithe r ove r hal f th e ritua l potter y i s no w fro m th e delta o r hal f th e populatio n consist s o f delt a immigrants I n Tobago th e smal l Saladoi d populatio n seem s t o hav e bee n swallowe d u p b y immigrants Whethe r the y cam e fro m th e delt a o r th e Lesse r Antille s i s no t ye t clear Loca l manufactur e o f valuables chiefl y greenston e celt s an d black-and-whit e beads mus t hav e give n Tobag o considerabl e economi c importance Decorate d vessel s ar e large r tha n i n Trinidad an d decoratio n i s mor e sophisticated A smal l numbe r o f import s see m t o b e present bot h fro m th e delt a an d th e Lesse r Antilles I n additio n ther e i s a clea r distinctio n betwee n th e finis h o f ritua l an d utilitaria n ware Th e latte r ha s a horizontall y scrape d appearance whic h begin s t o chang e t o horizonta l scratchin g fro m c a A.D 500-60 0 (Boomert pers connu.) Presumabl y th e utilitaria n potter y wa s mad e b y women Th e overal l increas e i n qualit y o f desig n an d manufactur e suggest s tha t ritua l potter y fro m th e delt a i s mad e b y specialis t craftsmen an d tha t al l ritua l potter y i s mad e b y men Thi s increas e i n qualit y als o implie s a n equivalen t increas e i n politica l structure Variet y o f head s i s greatl y


HARRI S 26 5 reduced i n favou r o f a creatur e wit h a lon g snou t an d a feathe r head dress I interpre t th e latte r a s a "Suprem e Spirit symbol ; an d th e reductio n i n variet y a s a n indicatio n o f increase d religiou s structure A t th e sam e tim e th e numbe r o f snuff-and-drin k vessel s seem s t o increase Th e long-snoute d creatur e ma y variousl y represen t deer bat jagua r o r cayman I t i s interestin g tha t severa l present-da y Amazonia n Indian s us e differen t animal s t o identif y kinshi p unit s suc h a s sibs Buria l offering s no w includ e 14 vessels mostl y relate d t o th e snuff and-drin k ritual I n Tobago 2 7 celt s ar e foun d amon g 5 burials an d a n effig y bow l i s foun d wit h a juvenile Thes e see m t o indicat e a n increas e i n hereditar y status probabl y relate d t o th e manufactur e o f exchang e valuables Th e apparen t increas e i n religiou s an d politica l structure an d th e probabl e expansio n o f exchang e valuable s t o includ e larg e amount s o f ritua l pottery impl y th e exercis e o f considerabl e religiou s an d politica l powe r b y th e Barrancoi d centr e a t th e nec k o f th e delta Al l thi s seem s closel y linke d wit h th e snuff-and-drin k ritual Th e Shamani c secto r probabl y ha d mor e powe r tha n i n an y o f th e present-da y group s studied whil e th e Headma n ma y hav e ha d simila r authorit y t o th e hea d o f th e GOAJIR O "casta" A t th e sam e time persona l relationship s probabl y remai n a t th e kinshi p level Arauquinoi d I n Trinidad ther e i s generall y a brea k i n settlemen t location an d ove r 80 % o f th e vesse l repertoir e changes Mai n ne w vesse l i s th e Buckpot i n whic h th e "pepper-pot ste w o f th e Guiana s i s prepared Percentag e o f decorate d potter y fall s fro m abou t 60 % t o les s tha n 5% desig n motif s change an d afte r a whil e U-lin e incisio n become s V-line Th e Saladoi d temper/decoratio n patter n o f fou r group s re-emerges : a s coastal inland north an d southeast A fe w CAUIXI-tempere d item s ar e assume d t o b e import s fro m th e Orinoco an d includ e th e utilitaria n griddle no w les s tha n 2 % o f artifac t repertoire Severa l smal l shallo w site s sugges t th e beginning s o f present-da y villag e mobility I n short Trinida d seem s t o hav e quickl y absorbe d a ne w lifeway i n whic h : "pepper-pot i s th e mai n staple wome n mak e th e pottery religio n an d powe r ar e comparativel y unstructured snuff-and-drin k artifact s ma y mostl y b e mad e fro m perishabl e materials th e beer-cano e ma y becom e a n importan t artifact ther e i s minimu m cultura l contac t wit h th e Arauquinoi d successo r t o th e Barrancoi d centr e a t th e nec k o f th e delta th e exchange-syste m i s close r t o present-da y intra an d inter peopl e relations Probabl y thes e change s involve d bot h immigratio n an d cultura l in fluenc e


26 6 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Arauquino-Suazoi d I n Tobago th e degre e o f continuit y seem s t o b e muc h greater Fine war e continue s wit h th e sam e polishe d ginge r paste U-lin e incisio n an d flaring-rin g base suggestin g tha t ritua l potter y continue s t o b e mad e b y men Ne w wavy-lin e motif s an d a drum-shape d bow l presumabl y reflec t influenc e fro m th e successo r centr e o n th e delta Coarse-war e add s a ne w neckles s oll a shape an d no w 50 % o f th e sherd s hav e vertica l o r blurre d horizonta l scratching Troumasso-Suazoi d Th e mai n fine-war e vesse l i s no w a casuel a shap e wit h a n incise d double-hoo p motif Thi s suggest s a chang e o f cultura l influenc e fro m delt a t o souther n Lesse r Antilles Th e vesse l itsel f seem s distantl y relate d b y bot h decoratio n an d shap e t o th e YAJ E vesse l o f th e BARASANA an d coul d hav e bee n specifi c t o thi s function Th e painte d polychrom e curve s an d spiral s o f th e Lesse r Antille s Calivin y styl e sugges t thi s relationshi p mor e strongly Th e majorit y o f coarse-war e (85% ) i s no w covere d i n multi-directiona l scratching It s absenc e fro m Trinida d suggest s tha t th e tw o island s hav e belonge d t o differen t interactio n sphere s sinc e a t leas t A.D 500-60 0 whe n scratchin g firs t appears Mayoi d A ne w assemblag e (ne w CARAIP E tempering ne w vesse l shape s wit h smal l fla t bases ne w decoratio n mode s o f tw o notche d rim-pellet s an d fugitiv e blac k painting an d a ne w emphasi s o n fores t hunting ) arrive s o n to p o f a n Arauquinoi d sit e i n southeas t Trinidad wher e a devian t decoratio n mod e existe d i n bot h Saladoi d an d Arauquinoi d times Trad e wit h contemporar y Arauquinoi d site s i s indicate d b y a mino r presenc e i n the m o f CARAIP E tempe r an d th e occasiona l decorate d necke d jar Th e ne w assemblag e i s als o typica l o f thre e sout h Trinida d Missio n sites founde d i n A.D 1687 th e las t o f whic h ende d i n 1849 Th e presenc e o f a n importe d greenston e snuff-grinde r i n on e o f thes e suggest s th e continuatio n o f Spirit-worl d belief s an d practice s i n thes e Missio n villages Ther e i s som e evidenc e t o identif y thi s assemblag e wit h th e NEPUY O nation who m Raleg h foun d o n th e sout h ban k o f th e Orinoc o delta Archeologicall y thi s assemblag e i s relate d t o th e Marajoaroi d traditio n (Boomert pers comm.) Thi s include s Islan d Carib an d th e present-da y Carib-speakin g WAYAN A o f th e Brasil-Surinam-Frenc h Guyan a border wh o stil l mak e a necke d ja r i n th e Mayoi d desig n (Petitjea n Roget pers comm.) CONCLUSION S Differen t ethnographie s appea r t o b e presen t a s wel l a s differen t archeologica l assemblages Th e Amerindia n histor y o f Trinida d an d Tobag o shoul d b e divide d int o thre e broa d period s o f time eac h characterize d b y difference s of : food exchang e items religiou s an d politica l structure an d cultura l tradition


HARRI S 26 7 Precerami c (B.C 650 0 A.P 0) Th e vegetabl e stapl e i s unknown A pestl e i s th e mai n exchang e valuable Settlement s see m relativel y con tinuous Severa l feature s lin k thi s cultur e t o tha t o f th e WARAO However th e tw o mos t importan t artifacts spirit-associate d pestl e an d dail y handstone-and-slab ar e no t compatibl e wit h present-da y WARA O ethnography Snuff-and-Drin k Ritua l (B.C 20 0 A.D 650) Cassav a brea d seem s t o b e th e staple Th e exchang e valuable s compriz e celts beads pendants an d fro m A.D 35 0 probabl y ritua l pottery Al l o f these includin g ritua l pottery ar e likel y t o hav e bee n mad e b y th e men Religiou s an d politica l structur e see m fa r highe r tha n today perhap s eve n tha n th e GOAJIRO Cultura l link s ar e t o th e west Som e feature s see m simila r t o th e Tucanoa n peoples wes t o f th e Orinoco Thi s write r propose s t o follo w u p i n particula r th e ethnohistor y o f th e CAQUETIO Relativel y Unstructure d Societie s (A.D 65 0 t o date) Pepper-po t seem s t o b e th e staple Othe r present-da y feature s see m t o b e increasingl y th e norm : potter y mad e b y women utilitaria n exchang e items th e importanc e o f beer a n apparen t declin e i n socia l structure an d short-live d settlements Cultura l linkage s li e increasingl y t o th e east wit h th e Guyanas ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Boomert Aa d Senio r Researc h Fello w i n Archeology Univer sit y o f th e Wes t Indies Trinidad Petitjea n Roget Hugue s AGAE Cayenne Frenc h Guyana Schultes Richar d Evan s Professo r o f Botany Harvar d University USA BIBLIOGRAPH Y Chagnon Napoleo n A 198 3 Yanomamo : th e fierc e peopl e (thir d ed. ) Cas e Studie s i n Cultura l Anthropology Holt Rinehar t an d Winston Ne w York Henley Pau l 198 2 Th e Panare traditio n an d chang e o n th e Amazonia n frontier Yal e Universit y Press Ne w Have n an d London Hugh-Jones Christin e 197 9 Fro m th e Mil k River Cambridg e Studie s i n Socia l Anthro polog y 26 Hugh-Jones Stephe n 197 9 Th e Pal m an d th e Pleiades Cambridg e Studie s i n Socia l Anthropolog y 24


26 8 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Reichel-Dolmatoff G 197 8 Beyon d th e Milk y Way UCL A Lati n America n Studie s 42 Riviere Pete r 198 4 Individua l an d Societ y i n Guiana Cambridg e Studie s i n Socia l Anthropolog y 51 Wilbert Johanne s 197 2 Survivor s o f E l Dorado Praege r Publishers Ne w York 197 2 Tobacc o an d Shamanisti c Ecstas y amon g th e Wara o Indian s o f Venezuela I n Fles h o f th e God s (Pete r T Furst d.) pp 55-83 Praege r Publishers Ne w York Figur e 1 Ethnographie s studie d t o date


HARRI S TRINIDA D Plura l 178 0 ?160 0 MAYOI D 150 0 120 0 ARAUQUINOI D 65 0 SALADO BARRANCOI D BARRANCOI D 50 0 A D 35 0 SALADOI D B C 20 0 PRECERAMI C B C 6 50 0 200 0 100 0 A D B C 50 0 -100 0 TOBAG O Plura l — 164 0 ? •?135 0 TROUMASSO-SUAZOI D ?90 0 ARAUQUINO-SUAZOI D ?70 0 BARRANCO-SALADOI D ?35 0 FINE-LIN E SALADOI D ?Z5 0 PRECERAMI C Figur e 2 Tentativ e timefram e o f archeologica l assemblages


27 0