Citation

Material Information

Title:
Amerindian Trinidad and Tobago
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Peter Harris ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item was contributed to the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) by the source institution listed in the metadata. This item may or may not be protected by copyright in the country where it was produced. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by applicable law, including any applicable international copyright treaty or fair use or fair dealing statutes, which dLOC partners have explicitly supported and endorsed. Any reuse of this item in excess of applicable copyright exceptions may require permission. dLOC would encourage users to contact the source institution directly or dloc@fiu.edu to request more information about copyright status or to provide additional information about the item.
Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Digital Library of the Caribbean

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AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Pete r Harri s Thi s i s a n attemp t t o marr y anthropolog y an d archeology an d t o se e it s effec t o n th e prehistor y o f Trinida d an d Tobago I t i s fortunat e tha t a se t o f relevan t Amerindia n lifeway s an d value-system s surviv e i n present da y Amazonia Thei r genera l parameter s hel p t o pu t ou r archeologica l remain s int o a n Amerindia n perspective I n additio n severa l specifi c activitie s an d belief s ca n reasonabl y b e associate d wit h archeologica l artifacts AMAZONIA N ANTHROPOLOG Y S o fa r I hav e onl y looke d a t th e ethnograph y o f th e WARAO PANARE YECUANA YANOMAMO GOAJIRO th e Tucanoa n grou p an d th e tribe s o f Guyan a (Fig 1) Ther e see m t o b e si x majo r parameters : Spirit-world Village Foo d an d othe r resources Men Women an d Institution s wide r tha n th e village Spirit-Worl d Peopl e liv e simultaneousl y i n thre e worlds al l equall y real Sky worl d i s populate d b y positiv e Spirits symbolize d b y th e sun brigh t colour s an d certai n birds etc Under-worl d i s people d b y destructiv e Spirits represente d b y th e moon dar k murk y water s an d reptilians etc I n th e middl e i s This-world populate d b y Indians an d manifestation s o f Sky an d Under-worl d Spirits Al l activitie s ar e governe d b y Spirit-world Succes s i n hunting fo r instance i s du e t o correc t ritua l satisfactio n o f th e "Maste r o f Animals" no t t o persona l skill Spirit-associate d resources artifact s an d activ i tie s ar e restricte d t o men an d ar e forbidde n t o women : e.g. fis h an d arro w poisons ritua l drugs ritua l dress musica l instruments chanting etc Festival s maintai n th e approva l o f th e "Firs t Spirits" Thes e re-enac t importan t aspect s o f triba l mythology : e.g. majo r foods death initia tion fertility etc Al l Spirit s ar e dangerous goo d o r bad ; an d media tio n i s th e provinc e o f th e SHAMAN Shamani c artifact s include : specia l stool rattle sacre d quart z crystals cigar-holder club jaguar an d harpy-eagl e manifestations etc Differen t tribe s us e differen t material s t o communicat e wit h th e Spirits : tobacc o wate r (Guyan a tribes) cigar s an d tobacc o smok e (WARAO) EPEN A snuf f (YANOMAMO) coca-snuf f an d YAJ E drin k (Tucanoa n group) etc Ther e ma y b e a west-eas t differenc e i n communicatio n media : e.g. coca YOPO-typ e snuf f tobacco Present-da y snuf f artifact s ar e al l mad e fro m "wild items : e.g. hardwood bone reed-tube etc Th e YANOMAM O grin d snuf f wit h a n ol d ston e axe 25 9

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26 0 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Th e mai n drin k artifac t i s a "wild calabas h cup However th e Tucanoa n tribe s als o hav e a specia l pot : wit h a tal l (1 3 cm ) cylindrica l base painte d design s i n wil d swirlin g colour s (red yellow white ) representin g th e YAJ E vision ofte n wit h mal e an d femal e symbol s indicatin g spiritua l rebirth an d suspensio n hole s fo r hangin g outsid e th e hous e unde r th e northeas t eav e (Schultes pers.comm.) Th e po t i s freshl y repainte d fo r eac h festival b y th e men Buria l custom s ofte n includ e th e intermen t o f "personal artifacts : e.g. blowpipe bo w an d arrows coc a pouch etc WARA O burial s ar e usuall y two-stage : primar y i n a canoe the n secondar y i n a hollowed-lo g box Althoug h bee r i s mad e speciall y fo r festivals i t doe s not appea r t o b e Spirit-related I t i s mad e variousl y fro m manioc sugarcane maize ; an d i s alway s mad e b y women Th e bee r canoe however i s alway s mad e b y th e men an d i s ofte n painted Th e PANAR E mak e a fres h on e fo r eac h festival Villag e an d Famil y Famil y an d villag e ar e th e majo r socia l institutions an d ar e almos t synonymous Villag e layout s vary : on e multi-famil y hous e wit h centra l spac e fo r ritua l activity ; a plaz a surrounde d b y adjoinin g houses ; centra l men' s hu t i n a plaz a wit h surroundin g houses Communit y member s var y fro m 3 0 t o 300 Hous e layou t i s ofte n highl y regulated an d wit h th e Tucanoa n tribe s an d th e YECUAN A i t reproduce s th e structur e o f th e universe Ther e ar e alway s wel l define d entrance s an d approac h paths Garden s ar e usuall y clos e by The y las t 23 year s fo r roo t crop s an d 5-10 0 year s fo r tre e crops Village s mov e ever y 5-1 0 years Usuall y th e settlemen t i s aban done d o n th e deat h o f it s Headman Mos t communit y member s ar e kin Th e Headma n i s th e senio r famil y male Possibl y 30 0 i s th e maximu m communit y membershi p tha t ca n b e hel d togethe r b y kinshi p authorit y alone Th e Tucanoa n BARASAN A see m t o hav e a marriag e scal e : fo r a n eldes t son kinshi p (i.e. cross-cousin ) marriage fo r middl e sons wife-raidin g o f distan t settlements i f ther e ar e insufficien t kinshi p brides fo r th e younges t son endogamou s marriage o r eve n a membe r o f th e servant-statu s MAK U tribe Endogam y (marriag e withi n th e community ) an d uxorilocalit y (husban d join s hi s father-in-law' s household ) see m t o b e th e nor m amon g th e les s structure d societie s o f th e east wherea s th e mor e structure d Tucanoa n tribe s i n th e west ar e exogamou s an d virilocal Food Ecozone s an d Othe r Natura l Resource s Subsistenc e festival s indicat e a wid e rang e o f importan t foods : morich e pal m sago manioc pijigua o fruit ing a fruit meat fish I n genera l a prope r mea l mus t hav e bot h mea t (obtaine d b y th e men ) an d a vegetabl e stapl e (obtaine d b y th e women) Fo r th e BARASAN A i n th e west th e poores t mea l i s "pepper-pot" i.e. boiled-dow n manio c juic e plu s a fe w odd s an d ends

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HARRI S 26 1 Severa l ecozone s ar e covere d b y th e sample : riverin e (WARAO Tucanoa n peoples YECUANA) ; fores t (YANOMAMO PANARE t o som e exten t YECUANA) ; an d deser t (GOAJIRO) Men' s Activitie s Me n an d women' s activitie s ar e normall y separate bu t complementary Th e onl y undifferentiate d activit y seem s t o b e body-painting I n genera l me n operat e withi n th e "wild world s o f th e forest th e river s an d th e Spirits The y produc e mea t fro m huntin g an d fishing an d mak e al l th e associate d artifacts : bo w an d arrow blowpip e an d darts quivers game-bags etc Bot h hunter s an d dog s tak e snuf f t o assis t them Me n conver t th e fores t int o gardens an d tree s int o houses canoe s an d woodwork Drummin g assist s YECUAN A house-constructio n an d garden-clearing Tobacc o smok e an d chantin g assis t th e WARA O canoe-master Me n plant collect prepare mak e an d us e al l Spirit-relate d plant s an d artifacts : e.g. tobacco CAP I vine coca fish an d arrow-poisons ritua l featherwork teet h necklaces bird-ski n cloaks musica l instruments woode n stools snuff-trays etc The y ar e als o th e principa l actor s i n festivals : masqueradin g a s spirits playin g musica l instruments chanting dancing etc Throug h festival s the y ensur e th e spiritua l continuit y o f thei r community Women' s Activitie s I n general wome n operat e i n th e "controlled area s o f settlemen t an d gardens The y wee d an d cro p th e garden prepar e th e dail y foo d (whic h include s cookin g th e meat) collec t an d carr y th e dail y firewood The y prepar e th e bee r fo r festivals The y mak e th e potter y (wit h th e exceptio n o f th e YECUANA) The y weav e (however hammock s ar e usuall y mad e b y th e men) The y mak e an d wea r bea d necklaces an d i n som e instance s bea d aprons Throug h makin g children the y ensur e th e physica l continuit y o f thei r ow n o r a kin-relate d community Supra-Villag e Institution s Kinshi p i s th e majo r extra-villag e institution I t i s maintaine d i n severa l way s : marriage an d i n particula r th e custo m o f "sister exchange festivals exogam y wit h kin-relate d families an d i n limite d circumstances wife-raiding : e.g. whe n i t i s desirabl e t o forg e a n allianc e wit h th e "distant communit y fro m whic h th e wif e wa s taken an d i n whic h sh e stil l ha s kin I n th e les s structure d societie s al l person s fro m outsid e th e communit y ar e viewe d wit h distrust eve n kin I t i s interestin g t o not e th e hostil e

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26 2 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O scen e acte d ou t b y a PANAR E host an d hi s invitee s fro m a neighbourin g community befor e the y ar e admitte d t o a festival Trad e i s anothe r majo r institution Thi s ca n b e intra-people : a s whe n th e YANOMAM O sea l inter-communit y alliances wit h th e agreemen t tha t a certai n commodit y ca n onl y b e supplie d b y on e community : e.g. pottery arrow-grass snuff dogs etc O r i t ca n b e inter-people : e.g. blowpipe s (YECUAN A t o PANARE) ; canoe s fo r tobacc o (16t h centur y WARA O an d Trinidad) ; canoes dogs curare etc (19t h centur y Guyana) Interestingly n o trad e i n "primitiv e valuables (e.g. gree n ston e frogs ) seem s t o exis t today Tw o othe r unusua l institution s exis t i n th e sampl e covered Whe n PANAR E boy s ar e initiated me n fro m anothe r communit y ar e responsibl e fo r guiding dressin g an d testin g them Th e GOAJIR O "casta i s a highl y structure d for m o f kinship whic h include s severa l communities A n individua l offenc e agains t a membe r o f anothe r "casta i s settle d wit h a "cobro (fine) payabl e b y th e "casta o f th e offender Th e difference s betwee n lo w an d hig h degre e o f structurin g shoul d b e born e i n min d whe n w e loo k a t th e archeologica l data TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O ARCHEOLOG Y Pleas e no w loo k a t th e Archeologica l Timefram e (Fig 2) Yo u wil l se e that : si x differen t archeologica l serie s ar e presen t betwee n th e tw o islands : Preceraraic Saladoid Barrancoid Arauquinoid Suazoid Mayoid thes e serie s combin e differentl y i n eac h island an d th e dif ferenc e increase s ove r time th e Amerindia n perio d continue s wel l int o post-Columbia n tim e i n bot h islands Als o n o assemblag e ha s ye t bee n identifie d fo r th e fina l 30 0 year s i n Tobago Eac h serie s wil l b e considere d i n turn i n th e ligh t o f th e si x ethnographi c parameter s reporte d above Precerami c Thes e ar e mostl y a canoe-people wit h settlement s locate d nea r a swamp Subsistenc e i s base d o n shellfis h an d hunting Th e latte r give s wa y t o fishin g aroun d B.C 5000 Th e tool-ki t include s th e present-da y bon e fishing-arro w point an d a fla t "fish-hook (Boomert pers comm. ) stil l use d b y th e 19t h centur y WARAO Th e plac e o f manio c i s presumabl y take n b y anothe r dail y vegetabl e staple Settlemen t habita t make s morich e pal m sag o a likel y candidate bu t th e abundan t handstone-and-sla b artifact s d o no t see m relate d t o th e processin g o f thi s food Unlik e present-da y settlements site s sho w considerabl e continuity Banwar i ha s seve n stratigraphi e layer s coverin g 250 0 years Fina l abandon men t seem s t o hav e occurre d afte r severa l deaths Som e Spirit-worl d activitie s ar e clearl y present Severa l importe d blue-gree n ston e pestle s an d a serpentinit e cu p see m closes t t o th e snuff

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HARRI S 26 3 and-drin k ritual Burial s includ e on e primary wit h a possibl e persona l possessio n i n th e for m o f a roun d stone ; an d on e secondary i n a bundl e a s thoug h place d i n a perishabl e box Th e mai n "primitiv e valuable i s a conica l greenston e pestle an d a widesprea d exchang e networ k i s indicated coverin g th e Lesse r Antille s a t leas t a s fa r a s Grenada an d part s o f th e Guian a Shiel d and/o r th e Coasta l Cordiller a o f Venezuela Banwaria n site s occu r o n bot h side s o f th e Orinoc o delta : E l Conchero-typ e o n th e Gul f o f Pari a an d Alaka-typ e o n th e Guyan a coast Curren t WARA O residenc e i n th e delta plu s th e myt h o f thei r culture her o exile d t o Trinidad' s Sa n Fernand o Hill plu s 16t h centur y report s o f th e exchang e o f WARA O canoe s fo r Trinida d tobacco plu s thei r recentl y (1930s ) prohibite d annua l visit t o th e Sa n Fernand o interio r fo r purpose s unknown, plu s fish-crab-snai l foo d resource s mak e WARA O ancestor s a stron g ethno/cultura l candidat e fo r ou r Precerami c people O n th e othe r hand th e handstone-and-sla b artifact s d o no t fi t wit h th e present-da y processin g o f morich e pal m sago an d th e pestl e an d cu p see m close r t o th e snuff-and drin k ritua l tha n t o th e 50-7 5 c m cigar s use d b y present-da y WARA O shaman s t o communicat e wit h thei r Spirit-world I n southeas t Trinidad a cluste r o f slightl y differen t site s i s found Ortoiran Th e mai n stapl e appear s t o b e sandy-shor e shellfish Artifact s ar e rare bu t includ e th e fla t "fish-hook" importe d greenston e oblongoi d pestles an d abundan t re d ochre Date s ar e B.C 80 0 ?A.D 0 I n Tobago on e undate d sit e ha s bee n found withou t artifacts Isolate d "barrel-shaped local-ston e pestle s hav e bee n foun d nearb y an d ma y b e related Saladoi d Thi s i s clearl y anothe r canoe-people wh o liv e of f cassav a brea d an d shellfish plu s som e huntin g an d fishing Settlement s ar e mostl y locate d o n lo w foreste d ridge s an d slopes clos e t o th e coast The y ar e mor e numerou s tha n before larger an d severa l spa n 60 0 years Thes e peopl e als o hav e pottery whic h i s decorate d wit h a multiplicit y o f heads presumabl y reflectin g a multi-Spiri t belie f system Becaus e o f thi s probabl e spiri t association th e head s ar e likel y t o hav e bee n mad e b y th e men : especiall y rattler-heads whic h presumabl y belonge d t o a Shaman Difference s o f tempe r an d decoratio n mod e sugges t ther e wer e fou r distinc t group s i n Trinida d an d a fift h i n Tobago Th e las t substitute s fine-lin e incisio n (simila r t o Itacoatiar a o n th e centra l Amazon ) fo r red-and-whit e painting Th e snuff-and-drin k ritua l i s clearl y present Snuf f artifact s include : nostril-bow l wit h bird/turtl e motif Crosshatc h (late r red-rimmed ) effig y bowl s wit h variou s Under worl d motifs

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26 4 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O smal l oblongoi d grinder mad e fro m importe d ston e o r a n ol d celt Drin k artifact s includ e : red-and-whit e painte d bottle som e wit h BARASANA-typ e mal e an d femal e symbols cylindrica l pot-stand two-hande d oblongoi d drinkin g bowl Mos t o f thes e ar e mad e o f "cooked potter y instea d o f present-da y "raw o r "wild materials Sinc e Amerindian s regar d potter y a s a "civilized material a greate r degre e o f politica l structur e i s suggeste d tha n today Buria l offering s var y fro m ni l t o a persona l round-stone t o a cel t an d 12 bowls Th e las t i s fel t t o indicat e a smal l degre e o f hereditar y statu s i n th e positio n o f Headman On e burial wit h a cel t an d fou r snuf f and-drin k vessels ma y represen t stron g Barrancoi d influenc e fro m th e Orinoc o delt a (se e nex t assemblage) wher e societ y ha s reportedl y bee n a t a highe r leve l sinc e A.D 0 Primitiv e valuable s hav e no w change d t o celts bead s an d pendants whic h Trinida d mus t impor t a s i t ha s n o suitabl e stone Thi s ne w cultur e derive s archeologicall y fro m th e centra l Orinoco Man y feature s see m generall y simila r t o th e present-da y Tucanoa n people s o f th e Vaupe s area betwee n th e Ri o Negr o an d th e foothill s o f th e Andes Barrancoi d Ther e i s n o chang e i n lifeway Settlement s ar e fewer large r an d generall y continu e o n th e sam e site I n Trinidad influenc e fro m th e Barrancoi d centr e a t th e nec k o f th e Orinoc o delt a ha s increased : unti l 50 % o f th e potter y i s no w Saladoi d past e i n a Barrancoi d style whil e th e othe r 50 % i s delt a Barrancoi d (temper quality style) Eithe r ove r hal f th e ritua l potter y i s no w fro m th e delta o r hal f th e populatio n consist s o f delt a immigrants I n Tobago th e smal l Saladoi d populatio n seem s t o hav e bee n swallowe d u p b y immigrants Whethe r the y cam e fro m th e delt a o r th e Lesse r Antille s i s no t ye t clear Loca l manufactur e o f valuables chiefl y greenston e celt s an d black-and-whit e beads mus t hav e give n Tobag o considerabl e economi c importance Decorate d vessel s ar e large r tha n i n Trinidad an d decoratio n i s mor e sophisticated A smal l numbe r o f import s see m t o b e present bot h fro m th e delt a an d th e Lesse r Antilles I n additio n ther e i s a clea r distinctio n betwee n th e finis h o f ritua l an d utilitaria n ware Th e latte r ha s a horizontall y scrape d appearance whic h begin s t o chang e t o horizonta l scratchin g fro m c a A.D 500-60 0 (Boomert pers connu.) Presumabl y th e utilitaria n potter y wa s mad e b y women Th e overal l increas e i n qualit y o f desig n an d manufactur e suggest s tha t ritua l potter y fro m th e delt a i s mad e b y specialis t craftsmen an d tha t al l ritua l potter y i s mad e b y men Thi s increas e i n qualit y als o implie s a n equivalen t increas e i n politica l structure Variet y o f head s i s greatl y

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HARRI S 26 5 reduced i n favou r o f a creatur e wit h a lon g snou t an d a feathe r head dress I interpre t th e latte r a s a "Suprem e Spirit symbol ; an d th e reductio n i n variet y a s a n indicatio n o f increase d religiou s structure A t th e sam e tim e th e numbe r o f snuff-and-drin k vessel s seem s t o increase Th e long-snoute d creatur e ma y variousl y represen t deer bat jagua r o r cayman I t i s interestin g tha t severa l present-da y Amazonia n Indian s us e differen t animal s t o identif y kinshi p unit s suc h a s sibs Buria l offering s no w includ e 14 vessels mostl y relate d t o th e snuff and-drin k ritual I n Tobago 2 7 celt s ar e foun d amon g 5 burials an d a n effig y bow l i s foun d wit h a juvenile Thes e see m t o indicat e a n increas e i n hereditar y status probabl y relate d t o th e manufactur e o f exchang e valuables Th e apparen t increas e i n religiou s an d politica l structure an d th e probabl e expansio n o f exchang e valuable s t o includ e larg e amount s o f ritua l pottery impl y th e exercis e o f considerabl e religiou s an d politica l powe r b y th e Barrancoi d centr e a t th e nec k o f th e delta Al l thi s seem s closel y linke d wit h th e snuff-and-drin k ritual Th e Shamani c secto r probabl y ha d mor e powe r tha n i n an y o f th e present-da y group s studied whil e th e Headma n ma y hav e ha d simila r authorit y t o th e hea d o f th e GOAJIR O "casta" A t th e sam e time persona l relationship s probabl y remai n a t th e kinshi p level Arauquinoi d I n Trinidad ther e i s generall y a brea k i n settlemen t location an d ove r 80 % o f th e vesse l repertoir e changes Mai n ne w vesse l i s th e Buckpot i n whic h th e "pepper-pot ste w o f th e Guiana s i s prepared Percentag e o f decorate d potter y fall s fro m abou t 60 % t o les s tha n 5% desig n motif s change an d afte r a whil e U-lin e incisio n become s V-line Th e Saladoi d temper/decoratio n patter n o f fou r group s re-emerges : a s coastal inland north an d southeast A fe w CAUIXI-tempere d item s ar e assume d t o b e import s fro m th e Orinoco an d includ e th e utilitaria n griddle no w les s tha n 2 % o f artifac t repertoire Severa l smal l shallo w site s sugges t th e beginning s o f present-da y villag e mobility I n short Trinida d seem s t o hav e quickl y absorbe d a ne w lifeway i n whic h : "pepper-pot i s th e mai n staple wome n mak e th e pottery religio n an d powe r ar e comparativel y unstructured snuff-and-drin k artifact s ma y mostl y b e mad e fro m perishabl e materials th e beer-cano e ma y becom e a n importan t artifact ther e i s minimu m cultura l contac t wit h th e Arauquinoi d successo r t o th e Barrancoi d centr e a t th e nec k o f th e delta th e exchange-syste m i s close r t o present-da y intra an d inter peopl e relations Probabl y thes e change s involve d bot h immigratio n an d cultura l in fluenc e

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26 6 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Arauquino-Suazoi d I n Tobago th e degre e o f continuit y seem s t o b e muc h greater Fine war e continue s wit h th e sam e polishe d ginge r paste U-lin e incisio n an d flaring-rin g base suggestin g tha t ritua l potter y continue s t o b e mad e b y men Ne w wavy-lin e motif s an d a drum-shape d bow l presumabl y reflec t influenc e fro m th e successo r centr e o n th e delta Coarse-war e add s a ne w neckles s oll a shape an d no w 50 % o f th e sherd s hav e vertica l o r blurre d horizonta l scratching Troumasso-Suazoi d Th e mai n fine-war e vesse l i s no w a casuel a shap e wit h a n incise d double-hoo p motif Thi s suggest s a chang e o f cultura l influenc e fro m delt a t o souther n Lesse r Antilles Th e vesse l itsel f seem s distantl y relate d b y bot h decoratio n an d shap e t o th e YAJ E vesse l o f th e BARASANA an d coul d hav e bee n specifi c t o thi s function Th e painte d polychrom e curve s an d spiral s o f th e Lesse r Antille s Calivin y styl e sugges t thi s relationshi p mor e strongly Th e majorit y o f coarse-war e (85% ) i s no w covere d i n multi-directiona l scratching It s absenc e fro m Trinida d suggest s tha t th e tw o island s hav e belonge d t o differen t interactio n sphere s sinc e a t leas t A.D 500-60 0 whe n scratchin g firs t appears Mayoi d A ne w assemblag e (ne w CARAIP E tempering ne w vesse l shape s wit h smal l fla t bases ne w decoratio n mode s o f tw o notche d rim-pellet s an d fugitiv e blac k painting an d a ne w emphasi s o n fores t hunting ) arrive s o n to p o f a n Arauquinoi d sit e i n southeas t Trinidad wher e a devian t decoratio n mod e existe d i n bot h Saladoi d an d Arauquinoi d times Trad e wit h contemporar y Arauquinoi d site s i s indicate d b y a mino r presenc e i n the m o f CARAIP E tempe r an d th e occasiona l decorate d necke d jar Th e ne w assemblag e i s als o typica l o f thre e sout h Trinida d Missio n sites founde d i n A.D 1687 th e las t o f whic h ende d i n 1849 Th e presenc e o f a n importe d greenston e snuff-grinde r i n on e o f thes e suggest s th e continuatio n o f Spirit-worl d belief s an d practice s i n thes e Missio n villages Ther e i s som e evidenc e t o identif y thi s assemblag e wit h th e NEPUY O nation who m Raleg h foun d o n th e sout h ban k o f th e Orinoc o delta Archeologicall y thi s assemblag e i s relate d t o th e Marajoaroi d traditio n (Boomert pers comm.) Thi s include s Islan d Carib an d th e present-da y Carib-speakin g WAYAN A o f th e Brasil-Surinam-Frenc h Guyan a border wh o stil l mak e a necke d ja r i n th e Mayoi d desig n (Petitjea n Roget pers comm.) CONCLUSION S Differen t ethnographie s appea r t o b e presen t a s wel l a s differen t archeologica l assemblages Th e Amerindia n histor y o f Trinida d an d Tobag o shoul d b e divide d int o thre e broa d period s o f time eac h characterize d b y difference s of : food exchang e items religiou s an d politica l structure an d cultura l tradition

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HARRI S 26 7 Precerami c (B.C 650 0 A.P 0) Th e vegetabl e stapl e i s unknown A pestl e i s th e mai n exchang e valuable Settlement s see m relativel y con tinuous Severa l feature s lin k thi s cultur e t o tha t o f th e WARAO However th e tw o mos t importan t artifacts spirit-associate d pestl e an d dail y handstone-and-slab ar e no t compatibl e wit h present-da y WARA O ethnography Snuff-and-Drin k Ritua l (B.C 20 0 A.D 650) Cassav a brea d seem s t o b e th e staple Th e exchang e valuable s compriz e celts beads pendants an d fro m A.D 35 0 probabl y ritua l pottery Al l o f these includin g ritua l pottery ar e likel y t o hav e bee n mad e b y th e men Religiou s an d politica l structur e see m fa r highe r tha n today perhap s eve n tha n th e GOAJIRO Cultura l link s ar e t o th e west Som e feature s see m simila r t o th e Tucanoa n peoples wes t o f th e Orinoco Thi s write r propose s t o follo w u p i n particula r th e ethnohistor y o f th e CAQUETIO Relativel y Unstructure d Societie s (A.D 65 0 t o date) Pepper-po t seem s t o b e th e staple Othe r present-da y feature s see m t o b e increasingl y th e norm : potter y mad e b y women utilitaria n exchang e items th e importanc e o f beer a n apparen t declin e i n socia l structure an d short-live d settlements Cultura l linkage s li e increasingl y t o th e east wit h th e Guyanas ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Boomert Aa d Senio r Researc h Fello w i n Archeology Univer sit y o f th e Wes t Indies Trinidad Petitjea n Roget Hugue s AGAE Cayenne Frenc h Guyana Schultes Richar d Evan s Professo r o f Botany Harvar d University USA BIBLIOGRAPH Y Chagnon Napoleo n A 198 3 Yanomamo : th e fierc e peopl e (thir d ed. ) Cas e Studie s i n Cultura l Anthropology Holt Rinehar t an d Winston Ne w York Henley Pau l 198 2 Th e Panare traditio n an d chang e o n th e Amazonia n frontier Yal e Universit y Press Ne w Have n an d London Hugh-Jones Christin e 197 9 Fro m th e Mil k River Cambridg e Studie s i n Socia l Anthro polog y 26 Hugh-Jones Stephe n 197 9 Th e Pal m an d th e Pleiades Cambridg e Studie s i n Socia l Anthropolog y 24

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26 8 AMERINDIA N TRINIDA D AN D TOBAG O Reichel-Dolmatoff G 197 8 Beyon d th e Milk y Way UCL A Lati n America n Studie s 42 Riviere Pete r 198 4 Individua l an d Societ y i n Guiana Cambridg e Studie s i n Socia l Anthropolog y 51 Wilbert Johanne s 197 2 Survivor s o f E l Dorado Praege r Publishers Ne w York 197 2 Tobacc o an d Shamanisti c Ecstas y amon g th e Wara o Indian s o f Venezuela I n Fles h o f th e God s (Pete r T Furst d.) pp 55-83 Praege r Publishers Ne w York Figur e 1 Ethnographie s studie d t o date

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HARRI S TRINIDA D Plura l 178 0 ?160 0 MAYOI D 150 0 120 0 ARAUQUINOI D 65 0 SALADO BARRANCOI D BARRANCOI D 50 0 A D 35 0 SALADOI D B C 20 0 PRECERAMI C B C 6 50 0 200 0 100 0 A D B C 50 0 -100 0 TOBAG O Plura l — 164 0 ? •?135 0 TROUMASSO-SUAZOI D ?90 0 ARAUQUINO-SUAZOI D ?70 0 BARRANCO-SALADOI D ?35 0 FINE-LIN E SALADOI D ?Z5 0 PRECERAMI C Figur e 2 Tentativ e timefram e o f archeologica l assemblages

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27 0