Citation

Material Information

Title:
Preliminary Results of Ceramic Analysis and the Movements of Populations into the Bahamas
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
John Winter ( Author, Primary )
Hark Gilstrap ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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PRELIMINAR Y RESULT S O F CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D TH E MOVEMENT S O F POPULATION S INT O TH E BAHAMA S Joh n Winte r an d Mar k Gilstra p Th e us e o f chemica l analysi s ha s bee n utilize d t o determin e th e provenienc e o f prehistori c ceramic s (Wilso n 1978) Thi s ha s allowe d peopl e t o mak e inference s abou t trad e networks th e migration s o f populations an d th e us e o f th e loca l environment Ther e hav e bee n tw o mai n type s o f chemica l compositio n measurements : 1 mineralogic/petrographi c examination s t o identif y th e compound s an d mineral s present ; an d 2 elementa l analysi s t o determin e th e concentratio n o f th e constituen t elements I n usin g th e latte r case th e concentratio n characteristic s o f eac h elemen t ar e define d fo r sherd s a t a site an d the n a compariso n o f thes e concentration s wit h othe r sherd s allow s fo r a decisio n o n possibl e sources Normally a numbe r o f sherd s fro m th e sam e sit e ar e analyze d an d i f possibl e som e loca l clays Ofte n a numbe r o f element s ar e measured althoug h a singl e elemen t ca n b e use d (Wilso n 1978) Th e presen t stud y i s a n attemp t t o determin e whethe r o r no t a n elemen ta l chemica l analysi s o f ceramic s ca n b e a usefu l interpretiv e too l fo r th e Caribbea n region Th e author s hav e chose n t o compar e th e Greate r Antillea n region s o f Cub a an d Hispaniol a (Hait i an d th e Dominica n Republic ) wit h th e Bahamas Th e author s hop e t o determin e th e provenienc e o f possibl e Greate r Antillea n ceramic s tha t wer e foun d i n prehistori c Bahamia n sites a s wel l a s t o mak e inference s o n th e migratio n o f population s an d trad e network s betwee n thes e tw o geographica l areas A majo r reaso n fo r selectin g thes e area s i s tha t the y hav e a differen t geologica l history Thes e difference s ma y produc e differen t chemica l concentration s i n th e source s use d t o mak e ceramics Th e Greate r Antilles geologica l histor y i s o f a volcani c origin Thi s ha s produce d a n environmen t ric h i n igneou s an d metamorphi c materials whic h woul d produc e a cla y texture d soi l upo n weathering Th e Bahama s archipelag o i s jus t th e opposite It s histor y appear s t o b e relate d t o a sedimentar y environmen t derive d fro m calcareou s materials Therefore t o produc e a soi l wit h a cla y textur e i n th e Bahama s archipelago th e neces sar y non-calcareou s component s wer e transporte d b y atmospheri c wind s fro m Nort h Afric a (Man n 1986) Therefore th e geochemica l diversit y o f th e area s an d th e method s use d i n th e preparatio n o f th e potter y migh t produc e elemen t concentratio n difference s withi n th e ceramics Som e o f thes e difference s ma y b e diff i cul t t o facto r ou t whe n doin g a n elementa l analysi s o f ceramics Fo r example i t woul d b e difficul t t o identif y th e actua l locatio n o f al l th e cla y sources; t o accoun t fo r a n individua l potter' s us e o f differen t clay s 37 1

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37 2 CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D POPULATION S MOVEMEN T o r mixture s o f clays ; o r t o determin e whethe r an y ceramic s wer e introduce d int o a sit e fro m outsid e th e area Wit h thi s i n mind th e authors initia l observation s o f cerami c sherd s fro m th e Greate r Antille s an d th e Bahama s archipelag o revea l tha t th e potter' s treatmen t o f th e cla y an d th e additio n o f tempe r produce d marke d difference s betwee n th e areas Th e Greate r Antillea n ceramic s hav e a grit-tempering eithe r wit h feldspar quartz and/o r othe r clasti c inclusions whil e th e Bahamia n ceramic s hav e cal careou s tempering eithe r crushe d limeston e and/o r invertebrat e shell s (Winte r e t al 1985) PROCEDURE S A tota l o f 6 2 prehistori c cerami c sherd s wer e submitte d fo r elementa l chemica l analysis The y wer e sen t t o th e Geolog y Departmen t a t Indian a University wher e the y wer e analyze d b y inductivel y couple d argo n plasm a emissio n spectrometry Th e elementa l analysi s teste d fo r th e followin g elements : 1 Percentage s o f oxide s silicon titanium aluminum iron manganese magnesium calcium sodium potassium phosphoru s ; an d 2 Trac e element s i n part s pe r millio n barium chromium copper nickel strontium vanadium yttrium zinc Th e author s onl y analyze d ceramic s fro m th e Ostionoi d serie s i n th e Greate r Antille s (Rous e 1986) Th e author s chos e thi s serie s becaus e the y believ e i t t o b e th e earlies t cerami c serie s t o ente r th e Bahamas Th e Ostiona n Ostionoi d subserie s o f ceramic s seem s t o hav e appeare d i n easter n Cuba Hispaniola an d Puert o Ric o aroun d A.D 500 The n aroun d A.D 80 0 i n th e nort h centra l regio n o f Hispaniola a ne w subserie s wa s producedMeillaca n Ostionoid Thi s subserie s sprea d throug h wester n Hispaniola easter n Cuba Jamaica an d int o th e Bahamas I n th e Bahamas th e subserie s ha s bee n classifie d a s Palmett o ware Winte r e t al (1985) however believ e tha t thi s i s reall y jus t a n extensio n o f th e Ostionoi d potters wh o wer e adaptin g t o th e calcareou s environmen t o f th e Bahamas I n th e easter n par t o f Hispaniol a aroun d A.D 1200 th e Ostiona n Ostionoi d subserie s develope d int o th e Chica n Ostionoid whic h the n sprea d t o othe r section s o f th e Greate r Antille s an d th e Bahamas Th e 6 2 cerami c sherd s wer e bot h donate d t o an d collecte d b y th e authors The y derive d fro m site s i n th e followin g fou r areas : 1 Fro m Cub a ( 9 sherds ) Potrer o de l Mang o (5) ; E l Pin o (1) ; Lagun a (1) ; Yaguaja y (1) ; an d Lom a de l Indi o (1) 2 Fro m Hait i (1 2 sherds ) Dupla a (1) ; Limb e (1) ; Charitt e (1) ; Macad y (2 ) ', Montholo n (1) ; Meilla c (1) ; Carrie r (1) ; St Raphae l (3) ; an d Isl e a Cabri t (1) 3 Fro m th e Dominica n Republi c (1 2 sherds ) E l Choc o (2) ; E l Carril l (2) ; Ri o Verd e (4) ; an d Ri o Job a (4) 4 Fro m th e Bahamas Nativ e sample s (14 ) Adelaide Ne w Providenc e (1) ; Casuarin a Point Abac o (1) ; Pigeo n Creek

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WINTE R AN D GILSTRA P 37 3 Sa n Salvado r (6) ; Ward Sa n Salvado r (5) ; an d W2C3 Grea t Inagu a (1) Fro m th e Bahamas Trad e sample s (15 ) Ma n Hea d Cay Sa n Salvado r (1) ; Pigeo n Creek Sa n Salvado r (2) ; Melville Ru m Ca y (2) ; Lon g Pond Ru m Ca y (1) ; Lon g Bay Sa n Salvado r (1) ; Eas t Conc h Shel l Point Grea t Inagu a (1) ; Wes t Conc h Shel l Point Grea t Inagu a (1) ; Nixon Grea t Inagu a (1) ; Eas t Sal t Pon d Hill Grea t Inagu a (1) ; an d McKay Crooke d Islan d (4) Th e numerica l dat a fo r eac h site' s elementa l analysi s wer e recorde d an d the n th e site s wer e groupe d int o fiv e categories : Cuba Haiti Dominica n Republic Trad e (Tabl e 1) an d Bahama s (Tabl e 2) Usin g a n SPS S (Statistica l Packag e fo r th e Socia l Sciences ) compute r progra m frequenc y analysis th e mea n an d standar d deviatio n wer e calcu late d fo r eac h o f th e previousl y mentione d element s fo r eac h category Thes e result s wer e the n subjecte d t o anothe r SPS S compute r progra m onewa y analysi s o f variance Thi s produce s F statistics whic h indicat e whethe r o r no t populatio n mean s ar e probabl y unequal ; an d a multipl e compariso n test whic h determine s whic h populatio n mean s ar e different Initially th e author s compare d th e result s o f th e Cuban th e Haitian th e Dominica n Republic th e Trade an d th e Bahamia n sherd s t o se e i f an y element s varie d significantl y a t th e 0.0 5 leve l o f confidence Usin g th e Scheff e compariso n test whic h i s th e mos t conservativ e fo r pairwis e comparison s o f means th e author s foun d tha t th e Bahamia n ceramic s ar e significantl y lowe r i n silicon sodiu m an d vanadium bu t highe r i n yttriu m an d calciu m whe n compare d wit h th e Greate r Antillea n an d Trad e ceramics Ther e i s als o a significantl y highe r leve l o f strontiu m i n th e Bahamia n ceramic s whe n compare d wit h th e othe r fou r groups Surprisingly ther e i s a significantl y highe r leve l o f strontiu m i n th e Trad e ceramic s whe n compare d t o th e Cuban Haitian, an d th e Dominica n Republi c ceramics Thi s las t resul t ma y b e brough t abou t b y th e depositio n o f strontiu m int o th e Trad e sherd s fro m th e calcareou s environmen t o f th e Bahamas I n addition th e level s o f nicke l an d zin c ar e significantl y lowe r i n th e Bahamia n ceramic s whe n compare d wit h th e Dominica n Republi c ceramics an d Haitia n an d Cuba n ceramics respectively I t woul d appea r tha t thes e element s leac h ou t i n th e Bahamia n environmen t a s th e Trad e ceramic s produce d a lowe r leve l o f thes e element s whe n compare d t o th e Greate r Antillea n ceramics althoug h no t significan t enoug h usin g th e Scheff e method Whe n th e author s compare d th e Greate r Antillea n ceramics the y foun d tha t th e sodiu m level s fo r th e Cuba n ceramic s ar e significantl y highe r tha n th e Dominica n Republi c ceramics usin g th e Scheff e method wit h th e value s o f th e Haitia n ceramic s bein g close r t o th e Dominica n Republi c ceramics but no t significan t enough Althoug h th e F probabilitie s wer e belo w 0.1 0 fo r thre e othe r element s (barium nicke l an d strontium ) the y wer e no t significan t enoug h fo r th e Scheff e method Ye t whe n th e author s compare d al l th e F probabilitie s non e wer e a s lo w a s thes e thre e elements excep t

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37 4 CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D POPULATION S MOVEMEN T fo r th e previousl y sample d sodiu m whic h wa s lower Therefore th e author s conclude d tha t ther e wa s probabl y a differenc e amon g thes e thre e elements Th e author s the n use d a les s conservativ e metho d o f comparison-th e leas t significan t difference A t th e 0.0 5 leve l o f significance th e author s foun d tha t th e Cuba n ceramic s hav e lowe r strontiu m an d bariu m level s tha n th e Haitia n ceramics wit h th e Dominica n Republi c cerami c value s bein g close r t o th e Haitia n ceramics but no t significan t enough Als o th e Haitia n ceramic s hav e a significantl y lowe r nicke l valu e tha n th e Dominica n Republi c ceramics wit h th e Cuba n cerami c value s bein g close r t o th e Dominica n Republi c ceramics but no t significan t enough Th e leas t significan t differenc e metho d als o reveale d tha t th e sodiu m level s o f th e Cuba n ceramic s wer e significantl y highe r tha n th e ceramic s fro m Hait i an d th e Dominica n Republic Whe n th e author s compare d th e Trad e ceramic s wit h th e Greate r Antillea n ceramic s fo r th e remainin g element s teste d the y foun d n o F probabilitie s belo w 0.10 excep t fo r th e previousl y sample d strontium an d n o significan t differenc e usin g th e Scheff e o r leas t significan t differenc e method Fro m thes e results th e author s reache d th e followin g conclusions First th e Trad e ceramic s ha d a n origi n i n th e Greate r Antilles Second i t appear s tha t th e sodiu m an d bariu m level s wer e relativel y stabl e fo r Greate r Antillea n ceramic s whethe r the y ar e foun d i n th e Greate r Antille s o r i n th e Bahamas ; however th e strontiu m level s increase d an d th e zin c an d nicke l level s decrease d fo r Greate r Antillea n ceramic s lef t i n th e Bahamia n environment Thirdly i t appear s tha t th e Greate r Antillea n ceramic s migh t b e divide d sinc e th e barium sodium an d strontiu m level s varie d betwee n th e Cuba n an d Hispaniola n ceramics whil e th e nicke l level s varie d betwee n th e Haitia n an d Dominica n Republi c ceramics T o tes t thes e conclusions th e author s the n use d anothe r SSP S compute r progra m hierarchica l cluste r analysis Thi s metho d attempt s t o identif y simila r group s o f object s base d o n a variet y o f attributes whereb y smal l cluster s ar e ranke d individuall y an d the n merge d t o for m a large r cluster Th e author s chos e th e War d metho d o f analysi s becaus e th e los s o f informa tio n i n passin g fro m eac h leve l i s minimize d (Massar t an d Kaufma n 1983) Thi s increase s th e heterogeneit y o f th e samples Base d o n th e authors previou s results the y the n chos e t o tes t th e followin g elements : sodium barium nickel an d strontium Th e author s the n carrie d ou t th e followin g cluste r analyse s o n th e ceramic s fro m Cuba Haiti an d th e Dominica n Republic : 1 sodiu m wit h bariu m 2 sodiu m wit h strontiu m 3 sodiu m wit h bariu m an d strontiu m 4 sodiu m wit h bariu m an d nicke l 5 sodiu m wit h bariu m an d nicke l an d strontiu m Th e author s the n joine d th e Trad e ceramic s wit h th e Cuban Haitian an d th e Dominica n Republi c ceramic s i n th e previousl y mentione d cluste r analysi s methods Th e author s di d no t cluste r th e nativ e Bahamia n ceramic s wit h an y o f thes e group s a s the y wer e significantl y differen t fo r th e

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WINTE R AN D GILSTRA P 37 5 followin g elements : silicon sodium vanadium calcium an d yttrium Th e author s di d cluste r th e nativ e Bahamia n ceramic s wit h eac h other Th e result s o f th e cluste r analysi s ar e produce d i n a n agglomeratio n schedul e tha t list s th e square d Euclidea n distanc e coefficient whic h state s tha t th e distanc e betwee n tw o case s i s th e su m o f th e square d difference s i n value s o n eac h variabl e (i.e. th e lowe r th e number th e close r th e variable s grou p together) A dendrogra m i s the n produce d whic h show s th e cluster s bein g combine d an d th e value s o f th e coefficient s a t eac h step Th e dendrogra m fro m thi s cluste r progra m doe s not plo t actua l distances bu t instea d rescale s the m t o number s betwee n 0 an d 25 Thi s preserve s th e rati o o f th e distance s betwee n th e steps Therefore th e greate r apar t th e unit s th e mor e dissimila r th e units I n comparin g th e cluster s o f th e Greate r Antillea n ceramics th e author s observ e tha t ther e appea r t o b e tw o majo r groupings : Cuba n an d Hispaniolan Thi s hold s tru e fo r al l fiv e clusters Unfortunately al l th e Hispaniola n ceramic s d o no t cluste r int o tw o regions : Hait i an d th e Dominica n Republic Ther e is however som e pairin g o f Dominica n Republi c ceramic s wit h othe r Dominica n Republi c ceramic s an d likewis e fo r th e Haitia n ceramics Fortunately mos t o f th e Cuba n ceramic s cluste r to gether excep t fo r one th e E l Pin o sit e nea r Manzanilla Cuba whic h i s foun d i n th e Hispaniola n group Ther e ar e als o som e Hispaniola n ceramic s whic h ar e foun d i n th e Cuba n group A cerami c sher d fro m th e Meilla c sit e nea r For t Libert Haiti cluster s int o Cuba Ye t th e cerami c sherd s fro m tw o othe r site s nea r For t Libert (Carrie r an d Macady ) cluste r wit h Hispaniola Tw o site s nea r Quartie r Morin Haiti als o separat e int o tw o groups : th e cerami c sher d fro m th e Dupla a sit e cluster s wit h Cuba whil e th e cerami c sher d fro m th e Charitt e sit e cluster s wit h Hispaniola Th e Ri o Job a sit e i n th e Dominica n Republi c ha s on e cerami c sher d (#2 ) clusterin g wit h Cuba whil e th e remainin g cerami c sherd s (#1 #3 an d #4 ) cluste r t o Hispaniola Thes e cluster s ma y b e th e resul t o f trad e networks th e migratio n o f population s o r a n imprope r choic e o f element s teste d (Table s 3-7) Th e cluste r analyse s comparin g th e Greate r Antillea n ceramic s wit h th e Trad e ceramic s foun d i n th e Bahama s revea l tha t th e Trad e ceramic s cam e fro m th e Greate r Antille s an d tha t the y cam e fro m bot h groups : Cub a an d Hispaniola Ther e i s n o on e group Cuba n o r Hispaniolan foun d o n a singl e islan d i n th e Bahamas Thi s coul d indicat e a diversit y o f trade popula tio n movement s o r a n imprope r choic e o f element s tested O n Grea t Inagua Bahamas th e cerami c sher d fro m th e Nixo n sit e clustere d wit h Hispaniol a throug h th e St Raphae l sit e (sher d B) ; whereas th e cerami c sherd s fro m th e Eas t Conc h Shel l Poin t site th e Wes t Conc h Shel l Poin t site an d th e Sal t Pon d Hil l sit e clustere d wit h Cub a throug h th e Lom a de l Indi o site Potrer o de l Mang o sit e (sher d #3) an d th e Yaguaja y site respectively O n Crooke d Island Bahamas a cerami c sher d (#3 ) fro m th e McKa y sit e clustere d wit h Cub a throug h th e Potrer o de l Mang o sit e (sher d #4) ; wherea s th e othe r cerami c sherd s fro m th e McKa y sit e (#1 #2 an d #4 ) clustere d wit h Hispaniol a throug h th e St Raphae l sit e (sher d B) th e Macad y sit e (sher d B ) an d th e E l Carril l site respectively O n Ru m Cay Bahamas th e cerami c sher d fro m th e Lon g Pon d sit e clustere d wit h

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37 6 CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D POPULATION S MOVEMEN T Cub a throug h th e Potrer o de l Mang o sit e (sher d #3 ) whil e th e cerami c sherd s fro m th e Melvill e sit e (sherd s # 1 an d #2 ) clustere d wit h Hispaniol a throug h th e St Raphae l sit e (sher d B ) an d th e E l Choc o sit e (sher d #2) O n Sa n Salvador Bahamas th e cerami c sher d fro m th e Ma n Hea d Ca y sit e clustere d wit h Hispaniol a throug h th e Ri o Verd e sit e (sher d #1) whil e th e cerami c sherd s fro m th e Lon g Ba y sit e an d th e Pigeo n Cree k sit e (sherd s # 1 an d #2 ) clustered.wit h Cub a throug h th e Potrer o de l Mang o sit e (sher d #2) th e Yaguaja y site an d th e Ri o Job a sit e (sher d #2) respectively Th e author s als o examine d th e nativ e Bahamia n cerami c sherd s t o se e i f ther e wa s an y variatio n betwee n an d withi n th e islands Unfortunately whe n th e author s ra n a n SPS S compute r progra m correlatio n analysis man y o f th e element s wer e highl y related Thi s hig h correlatio n ha s bee n take n t o mea n tha t th e sample s ar e ver y similar Th e author s the n selecte d trac e element s whic h wer e no t highl y correlated Thi s wa s a difficul t proces s becaus e tw o cerami c sherd s (sherd s T an d B ) fro m th e sam e vesse l a t th e Pigeo n Cree k site Sa n Salvador produce d differin g concentration s fo r simila r elements althoug h the y wer e stil l withi n on e standar d deviatio n o f eac h other Th e author s d o no t kno w whethe r th e potte r use d differen t clay s i n th e manufacturin g proces s o r i f thi s variatio n i s normall y foun d i n cerami c vessels Th e author s woul d nee d t o ru n mor e test s t o determin e i f th e variatio n o f elemen t concentration s i s foun d i n othe r cerami c vessels Therefore th e author s neede d t o determin e whic h element s woul d cluste r thes e cerami c sherd s together Th e author s obtaine d bot h cerami c sherd s i n th e sam e cluste r uni t whe n the y clustere d bariu m wit h chromium copper an d zinc ; an d chromiu m wit h coppe r an d zin c (Tabl e 8) Whe n thes e cluste r analyse s wer e run al l o f th e Pigeo n Cree k sit e sample s clustere d togethe r a s on e unit Thi s di d no t hol d tru e fo r th e ceramic s fro m th e War d site Sa n Salvador ; however 8 o f th e 1 1 Sa n Salvado r cerami c sherd s di d cluste r together Th e Ne w Providenc e sher d separate d ou t becaus e o f it s hig h zin c content bu t th e othe r Bahamia n island s clustere d wit h th e War d site Sa n Salvador ANALYSI S B y obtainin g radiocarbon-1 4 date s fo r sites notin g th e cerami c decoration s an d determinin g th e origi n o f th e importe d ceramic s foun d i n Bahamia n prehistori c sites i t ma y b e possibl e t o mak e inference s abou t th e movement o f population s o r trad e network s withi n th e Bahamas Th e Melvill e site Ru m Cay appear s t o b e th e earlies t sit e i n th e Bahama s a s i t ha s yielde d tw o radiocarbon-1 4 date s producin g a n averag e dat e o f 98 5 7 5 B.P (Winte r 1987) Th e sit e ha s yielde d bot h importe d an d loca l cerami c sherd s whic h ar e decorate d i n th e Meillaca n style Tw o importe d (Trade ) cerami c sherd s fro m th e site neithe r o f whic h wer e decorated wer e teste d usin g elementa l analysi s an d appea r t o hav e com e fro m Hispaniola : St Raphae l (sher d B ) an d E l Choc o (sher d #2) Th e McKa y site Crooke d Island appear s t o b e a transitiona l sit e i n th e Bahama s a s i t ha s yielde d decorate d impor t cerami c sherd s o f th e Meillaca n an d Chica n styles Tw o radiocarbon-1 4 date s produce d a n averag e dat e o f 70 0 7 0 B.P (Winte r 1978) Th e us e o f elementa l analysi s reveal s th e possibilit y tha t fou r o f th e Trad e cerami c sherds o f whic h non e wer e

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WINTE R AN D GILSTRA P 37 7 decorated cam e fro m bot h Cub a (Potrer o de l Mango sher d #4 ) an d Hispani ol a (Macady sher d B ; E l Carrill sher d #1 ; an d St Raphael sher d B) Althoug h n o radiocarbon-1 4 date s hav e com e fro m th e Lon g Ba y site Sa n Salvador thi s sit e ha s yielde d Columbia n contac t artifact s whic h woul d ten d t o dat e th e sit e t o aroun d A.D 149 2 (Hoffma n 1987a) A n analysi s o f th e prehistori c ceramic s fro m th e sit e hav e yielde d som e nativ e Bahamia n ware s wit h a cross-hatche d desig n (Hoffma n 1987b) a possibl e Meillaca n trait an d importe d wares On e Trad e cerami c sherd whic h wa s no t deco rated wa s teste d usin g elementa l analysis an d i t appear s t o hav e associa tion s wit h th e Cuba n ceramics : Potrer o de l Mang o (sher d #2) I f thi s wer e indee d th e case i t woul d hel p t o explai n wh y th e Lucayan s chos e t o direc t Columbu s alon g a rout e t o Cub a an d no t Hispaniola th e reaso n bein g tha t th e Lucayan s o f Sa n Salvador Bahamas ha d tradin g network s wit h th e inhabitant s o f Cub a o r perhap s Cub a wa s thei r traditiona l homeland I t migh t b e possibl e t o speculat e tha t th e earlies t movement s o r network s int o th e Bahama s cam e b y wa y o f Hispaniol a wit h th e Meillaca n subseries a s evidence d b y th e Melvill e site The n movement s o r network s cam e fro m Hispaniol a an d Cub a bringin g bot h Meillaca n an d Chica n subseries a s evidence d b y th e McKa y site Th e las t movemen t o r networ k int o th e Bahama s ma y hav e com e fro m Cuba a s evidence d b y th e Lon g Ba y site Th e author s doub t tha t th e expansion s int o th e Bahama s wer e thi s simple Wha t the y ar e tryin g t o sa y i s tha t elementa l analysi s o f cerami c sherd s migh t b e use d t o analyz e prehistori c systems CONCLUSION S Fro m ou r preliminar y study i t woul d appea r tha t elementa l analysi s fo r th e provenienc e o f Greate r Antillea n ceramic s i s possible especiall y t o sho w tha t importe d ceramic s fro m th e Greate r Antille s wer e brough t int o th e Bahamas Fro m thi s study i t woul d appea r tha t sodiu m i s th e most impor tan t element a s al l th e cluste r analyse s produc e th e sam e group s regard les s o f th e othe r elements Fro m this th e author s hav e suggeste d possibl e route s o f origi n fo r th e Trad e ceramic s foun d i n th e Bahamas Thes e route s wer e base d upo n th e chemica l compositio n o f th e cerami c sherd s an d no t th e cultura l sequenc e o f th e archaeologica l sites althoug h fo r th e mos t par t sequenc e an d compositio n d o fi t together I t woul d see m tha t Meillaca n potter s entere d firs t followe d b y Chica n potters bot h fro m Hispaniola int o th e souther n an d centra l Bahamas Th e centra l Bahama s ma y hav e continue d contac t wit h th e Meillaca n potter s fro m Cub a unti l th e arriva l o f Columbu s i n 1492 Th e author s believ e tha t thi s techniqu e coul d lea d t o a mor e complet e historica l pictur e fo r tl} e area especiall y o n th e movement s o f population s an d th e us e o f th e loca l environment Th e author s believ e tha t th e analysi s coul d yiel d bette r result s i f ther e wer e large r sampl e size s fo r eac h sit e an d cerami c style Th e author s als o believ e tha t cla y sample s fro m th e are a nea r th e sit e shoul d b e sampled ; however i f thes e ar e surfac e clay s the y coul d yiel d difference s a s a resul t o f atmospheri c contamination Furthe r stud y i s neede d t o se e i f elementa l concentration s var y significantl y enoug h withi n eac h cerami c vessel Althoug h th e author s hav e propose d man y question s whic h nee d t o b e answered the y hav e als o

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37 8 CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D POPULATION S MOVEMEN T show n tha t geochemica l analysi s coul d b e a possibl e too l fo r th e archaeolo gis t i n th e Caribbean ACKNOWLEDGMENT S Th e author s woul d lik e t o than k Do n an d Kath y Gerac e o f th e CCF L Bahamia n Fiel d Station Sa n Salvador Bahamas fo r makin g i t possibl e t o collec t th e ceramic s i n th e Bahamas Th e author s woul d als o lik e t o than k th e Geolog y Department Indian a University fo r th e us e o f thei r equipment Lastly th e author s woul d lik e t o than k Dr Irvin g Rouse Mari a Valdez an d Kurt Fische r fo r donatin g cerami c sherd s fro m Cuba th e Dominica n Republic an d Haiti respectively REFERENCE S CITE D Hoffman, Charle s 1987 a Archaeologica l Investigation s a t th e Lon g Ba y Site Sa n Salvador Bahamas Proceeding s o f th e Firs t Sa n Salvado r Conference pp 237-246 1987 b Curren t Research : Caribbean America n Antiquit y 52(1):192 Mann C Joh n 198 6 Compositio n an d Origin s o f Materia l i n Pre-Columbia n Pottery Sa n Salvador Bahamas Geoarchaeolog y 1(2):183-194 Massart D Lu c an d L Kaufma n 198 3 Th e Interpretatio n o f Analytica l Chemica l Dat a b y Us e o f Cluste r Analysis Joh n Wile y & Sons : Ne w York Rouse Irvin g 198 6 Wilson A.L 197 8 Winter Joh n 197 8 198 7 Winter Joh n 198 5 Migration s i n Prehistory Yal e Universit y Press : Ne w Haven Elementa l Analysi s o f Potter y i n th e Stud y o f It s Provenance : A Review Journa l o f Archaeologica l Scienc e 5:219-236 Preliminar y Wor k fro m th e McKa y Sit e o n Crooke d Island Proceeding s o f th e Sevent h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Caraca s 1977) pp 237-242 Curren t Research : Caribbean America n Antiquit y 52(1):192 193 Julia n Granberr y an d Art Liebol d Archaeologica l Investigation s withi n th e Bahama s Archipelago Proceeding s o f th e Tent h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (For t d e Franc e 1983) pp 83-92

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SIT E SS-T-Ma n Hea d Ca y SS-T-Pigeo n Cree M SS-T-Pigec. n Crec-k 2 PC-T-Lon g Pon d RC-T-Melvill* l RC-T-Nelville 2 SS-T-Lon q Ba y Gl-TE Ccmch'Shel l GI-T-Nixo n GI-TH Conc h Shel l GI-TE Sal t P d H i I CI-T-McKay l Cl-T-McKay Z ri-T-Mcf.ay 3 CI-T-McKsy 4 Cuba-Po t d'Mango l Cub-a-F'o t d'Mango 2 Cuba-Po t d'Mango ? Cuba-Po t d'Manqo 4 Cuba-Po t d'Mango 5 Cuba-E l F'in o Cuba-Lagun a Cuba-Yaguaja y Cuba-Lom a d'Indi o Haiti-Oupla a H a i t i L i nib e Haiti-Charitt e Haiti-Hacady H Haiti-Macady B Hait i -Mon t h o Io n Halti-Car r ie r Haiti-S t Raphael H Haiti-S t Raphael s Haiti-S t Paphael C Haiti-ls l Cabrit s Haiti-Meilla c Do m Pep-E l Choco l Do ™ Pep-E l Choco 2 Do m Pep-P Uerde l Do m Pep-P Verde! Do m Pep-P Verde Do m F'ep-F' Verd> 4 Do m Pep-E l Carril l Do m Pep-E l Carril 2 Do m PepP i o Joba l Do m Pep-F' i o Joba 2 Do m F'ep-Pi o Joba 3 Do m Pep-Pi o .loba 4 Percentage s o f Oxide s S i T i l F e M n M g 58.20 0 01 56.70 0 01 56.70 0 00 52.00 0 02 61.50 0 01 59.40 0 01 57.70 0 00 48.90 0 00 55.50 0 00 59.40 0 00 55.90 0 00 00 00 00 67.80 0 00 DO OI 00 00 0 0 01 01 01 00 02 01 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 56.40 0 00. 58.30 0 00 62.80 0 00 56.70 0 59.10 0 00 54.40 0 0 1 56'.80 0 -0 0 52.00 0 0 1 61.20 0 0 0 65.60 0 0 0 66.20 0 0 0 70.10 0 0 0 24 0 06 0 62 4 05 0 01 0 18 0 70 8 89 0 90 0 64 0 80 0 72 1 39 2 52 0 37 5 87 8 11 0 95 3 se s 84 4 38 0 C7 0 11 0 B0 1 29 0 91 0 82 2 47 0 47 6 80 0 86 2 82 7 30 4 63 1 60 3 60 2 64 7 55 4 91 1 81 0 82 2 15 0 80 3 85 0 93 3 65 0 65 9 68 0 12.00 0 11 16.90 0 09 17.20 0 06 16.50 0 11 12.20 0 09 14.40 0 09 17.80 0 07 18.30 0 11 18.40 0 06 14.20 0 05 17.10 0 09 15.70 0 05 15.20 0 03 13.20 0 06 16.30 0 03 13.20 0 07 13.90 0 08 15.50 0 08 16.50 0 05 13.50 0 00 12.30 0 11 15.80 0 09 15.80 0 08 17.20 0 08 16.70 0 10 14.90 0 12 17.50 0 07 14.00 0 09 15.50 0 07 14.50 0 09 14.40 0 08 14.20 0 08 13.20 0 08 14.80 0 12 08.74 0 04 16.50 0 08 15.30 0 06 14.80 0 06 13.70 0 08 15.40 0 10 16.40 0 10 15.50 0 11 12.60 0 10 15.30 0 I1 12.90 0 09 14.50 0 06 12.20 0 06 13.00 0 06 30 0 00 36 0 00 50 0 00 90 0 00 14 0 00 25 0 00 00 0 00 50 0 00 96 0 00 56 0 00 21 0 00 02 0 00 57 0 00 04 0 00 39 0 00 41 0 00 00 0 00 75 0 0 0 62 0 0 0 80 6 0 0 40 0 0 0 52 0 0 0 50 0 0 0 38 0 0 0 60 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 57 0 0 0 46 0 0 0 67 0 0 0 93 0 0 0 32 0 0 0 36 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 89 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 24 0 0 0 92 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 60 0 0 0 60 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 eo o o o 78 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 55 0 0 0 76 0 0 0 16 1 04 06 0 02 06 4 01 13 2 05 13 5 01 04 7 00 08 2 01 09 0 04 05 0 01 06 0 00 14 0 04 06 3 02 04 6 00 06 0 02 04 5 00 09 1 02 08 2 03 06 9 02 05 8 00 04 5 02 11 4 02 17 4 02 09 9 02 11 5 02 15 9 04 11 3 03 06 4 02 17 4 02 11 9 00 18 1 04 10 7 02 09 8 01 12 6 06 10 1 04 23 0 01 06 0 01 03 7 01 04 1 00 14 6 01 .24 8 02 .20 2 0 1 : .15 5 06 15 5 05 11 0 05 06 6 05 05 9 01 07 6 02 06 8 02 27 0 43 0 71 0 21 0 94 0 81 9 61 0 18 0 07 0 96 0 65 0 19 0 77 3 26 0 78 1 59 0 79 0 63 0 82 9 43 0 84 0 79 0 36 0 22 0 50 0 79 0 05 0 50 0 81 4 27 0 06 0 34 0 21 0 60 0 55 0 59 0 00 0 43 B 71 0 18 0 92 0 62 0 16 0 61 0 69 0 57 0 86 0 73 0 03.59 0 02.30 0 03.42 0 04.42 0 03.26 0 01.63 0 03.21 0 05.16 0 02.83 0 02.80 0 02.16 0 03.02 0 01.37 0 02.68 0 01.43 0 02.75 0 03.72 0 02.26 0 02.33 0 02.47 0 02.40 0 06.06 0 02.31 0 02.67 0 04.75 0 04.22 0 03.15 0 02.76 0 01.72 0 04.74 0 03.96 0 01.92 0 03.19 0 03.69 0 02.45 0 02.11 0 01.67 0 01.29 0 02.46 0 01.97 0 01.92 0 06.64 0 03.64 0 06.15 0 03 14 0 02.33 0 01.89 0 01.58 0 M a 01.05 0 04.57 0 02.83 0 03.38 0 01.87 0 01.59 0 02.61 0 02.56 0 01.74 0 03.36 0 04.43 0 01.85 0 01.15 0 02.89 0 01.11 0 02.46 0 02.64 0 03.29 0 02.98 0 02.46 0 00.62 0 02.6e 0 04.02 0 02.50 0 02.48 0 01.70 0 02.23 0 02.09 0 01.21 0 02.13 0 02.25 0 02.21 0 01.79 0 01.68 0 00.49 3 02.51 0 02.01 0 01.57 0 00.98 0 01.66 0 57 0 72 0 29 0 72 0 97 0 0 01 0 12 0 Lo l Part s pe r Millio n o f Trac e Elenien t B a C r C u M i Sr 01 01 01 01 01 U2 r o 0 2 41 3 83 5 30 0 57 1 84 0 71 0 45 0 96 0 96 0 45 0 39 0 21 0 34 0 59 4 85 0 14 0 90 4 50 0 24 0 41 0 55 2 53 0 75 2 49 8 37 6 37 3 32 0 73 b 51 5 80 9 31 3 51 1 35 5 39 6 86 6 82 6 60 9 51 5 46 5 99 0 67 0 19 4 74 0 73 0 38 1 81 7 02 0 13 0 00.27 0 00.13 0 00.16 0 00.12 0 00.12 0 00 18 0 00.13 0 00.20 0 00.16 0 00.09 0 00.13 0 00.27 0 00.06 9 00.11 7 00.07 0 00.14 9 00.18 5 00.16 2 00 12 2 00.17 7 00.18 3 00.14 3 00.15 6 00.18 3 00.25 1 01.46 0 00.19 2 00.19 9 00.12 7 00.41 3 00 18 1 00.12 3 00.11 9 00.15 2 00.20 9 00.14 2 00.61 0 00.47 0 00.16 0 00.22 0 00.22 0 00.17 0 00.16 0 00.14 0 00.55 0 00.47 0 00.26 0 00.21 0 38 0 52 0 41 0 03 0 17 1 62 0 49 0 02 0 25 0 31 0 54 0 06.65 0 02 0 53 0 54 0 81 0 03 0 35 0 21 0 56 0 51 0 99 0 50 0 15 0 00012 6 00011 0 00104 0 FJ0004 7 00027 6 00028 4 00114 0 00015 5 00097 2 00033 2 00086 6 00074 6 00018 1 00028 3 00016 5 00025 6 00017 2 00025 6 00031 6 00023 0 00041 5 00013 7 00016 1 00020 9 00049 2 00045 4 00103 2 00046 5 00068 2 00054 0 00029 9 00021 2 00019 3 00019 9 00048 4 00019 9 00017 7 00018 8 00031 3 00068 7 00063 1 00014 6 00044 4 00035 0 00087 5 00045 9 00046 6 00032 1 00110 0 00013 0 00003 9 00235 0 00032 4 00049 2 00008 8 00024 0 00023 0 00011 6 00031 5 00007 8 00007 0 00021 4 00005 7 096 1 00125 5 0G019 1 0079 5 00031 4 00107 6 O037 1 00018 1 00008 6 00020 6 00085 7 00011 5 00046 4 00020 8 00033 7 00016 9 00010 6 00069 1 00055 5 00018 7 00018 3 00014 3 00009 8 00043 8 00014 0 00016 2 00059 1 00069 2 00032 1 00203 0 00022 6 00172 0 00137 0 00010 7 00005 7 00008 7 00003 7 00005 3 00006 3 00007 9 00006 8 00002 6 00002 1 00005 8 00001 6 00002 0 00002 6 00002 0 00004 6 00019 8 00007 1 00001 9 00007 1 00013 0 00005 7 00006 7 00008 9 00018 1 00018 5 00004 6 00010 4 00006 4 00007 7 00003 2 00007 4 00003 0 00011 8 00005 9 00002 7 00003 2 00003 9 00005 9 00018 7 00014 6 00010 0 00006 1 00007 4 00003 2 00004 4 00003 9 00003 5 00012 0 00007 4 O0O3 6 00048 2 OU D 10 8 00004 7 00002 6 00009 9 00007 6 00002 8 DOO I 0 2 00003 4 00002 3 00004 7 00002 2 0U013 7 000)9 5 00008 9 00027 1 00014 1 00017 2 00011 5 00005 5 00003 3 00008 7 00013 6 00003 4 00012 7 00005 4 00013 1 00004 2 00002 6 00010 6 00009 2 00008 7 00006 7 00004 7 00004 7 00014 4 00006 5 00006 7 00017 2 00016 3 00 0 H l 00050 3 00013 9 00041 4 00036 0 00029 2 00032 0 00066 0 00042 7 (10059 1 00057 0 00075 1 00049 7 00097 2 00054 4 0004 1 1 00026 4 00027 3 00023 4 00027 1 D0015 0 00014 9 00013 6 00020 3 00011 7 00012 0 00021 2 00013 1 00016 1 00024 7 00023 1 00060 3 00026 5 00014 5 00027 3 00028 9 00013 8 00012 1 00013 5 00027 5 00030 5 0007 9 00005 9 00031 0 00041 4 00029 0 00012 8 00017 0 00024 0 00018 5 00021 5 00019 3 00016 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tabl e 1 Elementa l analysi s o f th e cerami c sherd s fro m th e Greate r Antille s (Cuba Dominica n Haiti ) an d th e Bahama s (Trade)

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Percentage s o f Oxide s Part s pe r H i 1 1 io n o f Trac e Elemen t SIT E NP-N-Rdelaid e RB-H-Casurm a P t SS-N-pigeo n SS-H-Pigeo n SS-H-Pige-o n SS-H-Pxgeo n SS-H-Pigeo n SS-N-Piqeo n SS-N-Hard l SS-N-Hard 2 SS-N-Hard 3 SS-H-Ward 4 SS-H-Hard 5 GI-N-W2C 3 Creek L Creek 2 Creek J Creek T Creek B Creekf c S i 17 23 20 14 17 14 21 16 17 24 12 18 24 13 L .20 0 .20 0 80 0 .20 0 90 0 .60 0 .10 0 .00 0 80 0 30 0 10 0 50 0 60 0 70 0 T i 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 01 00 L .63 0 .99 0 .86 0 .49 0 .57 0 ,56 0 .87 0 .49 0 12 0 68 0 54 0 59 0 .01 0 .74 0 R ] 14 19 14 09 12 12 18 10 19 32 12 14 22 14 1 00 0 50 0 80 0 67 0 80 0 00 0 .20 0 40 0 20 0 90 0 10 0 60 0 20 0 60 0 F e 04 07 05 03 03 04 06 03 08 13 05 05 07 06 88 0 .77 0 .85 0 .33 0 .87 0 .48 0 .89 0 .72 0 .36 0 .20 0 .10 0 19 0 .87 0 27 0 M n 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 .05 1 .04 1 05 3 .02 3 .02 0 .04 0 .04 0 02 0 .15 3 .11 9 02 0 .04 0 04 0 .04 0 M g 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 01 01 00 01 01 01 .01 0 .50 0 .53 0 .13 0 13 0 .94 0 .39 0 .96 0 .86 0 .64 0 .87 0 .54 0 ,54 0 .10 0 C a 29 20 25 35 30 33 22 34 21 05 34 28 16 29 .10 0 .40 0 .20 0 .30 0 .50 0 .40 0 .80 0 .90 0 .40 0 .81 0 .20 0 .50 0 .60 0 ,80 0 Ha 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 CI 00 00 00 00 33 1 38 6 57 2 .53 2 35 0 .39 0 .32 0 .36 0 .35 4 ,36 2 46 0 46 0 33 0 34 0 k 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 01 00 01 00 00 01 00 .724 83 1 36 0 17 0 ,17 0 .71 0 .06 0 14 0 .63 2 .03 0 22 0 .89 0 .06 0 .35 0 P 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 34 0 12 0 12 0 11 0 11 0 10 0 14 0 10 0 20 0 17 0 09 0 11 0 14 0 12 0 Lo l 31 25 28 34 31 32 26 32 28 18 33 30 24 32 92 0 .68 0 .40 0 ,00 0 ,24 0 ,38 0 .82 0 .45 0 .80 0 .40 0 ,45 0 .00 0 .27 0 .84 0 B a 00019 6 00012 8 00023 0 00018 0 00022 2 00020 9 00029 3 00020 5 00016 0 00016 0 00004 6 00019 5 00028 5 00005 2 c 00013 0 00017 2 00008 6 00005 8 00009 6 00007 8 00011 7 00007 6 00016 0 00028 0 00010 9 00012 8 00018 1 00019 0 C u 00001 3 00000 7 00000 6 00000 7 00000 7 00000 7 00001 0 00000 6 00001 0 00000 7 00000 5 00000 6 00000 9 00008 0 H i 00002 6 00003 4 00003 7 00002 3 00001 8 00002 1 00003 6 00001 8 00007 5 00014 0 00002 5 00002 7 OD004 5 00002 7 S r 00118 0 00124 0 00100 0 00126 0 00103 0 00138 0 00128 0 00117 0 00187 0 00109 0 00099 0 00100 0 00093 0 00101 0 Tabl e 2 Elementa l analysi s o f th e cerami c sherd s tha t wer e manufacture d an d foun d i n th e B a (N P = Ne w Providence ; A B = Abaco ; S S = Sa n Salvador ; G I = Grea t Inagua )

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WINTE R AN D GILSTRA P 38 1 lescale d Distaac e Cluste r Colim e eacaie d Oistanc e Cluste r Coibia e C 1 S E Libe l Caba-Po t d'Ianjo l Caba-Po t d'laofa S laiti-Dapla a Caba-Loi a d'Indi o Haiti-Ieilla c Caba-Po t d'!aago 2 Caba-Lagan a Oo i lep-li o Joba 2 Caba-Po t d'aago ] Caba-Po t d'ango i Caba-Tagaajd y Caba-E l Pin o laiti-Is l Cabht s Jaiti-acady B Do t iep-i l Cabtil l Do i lep-1 ierde l Do t Iep-E l Coco Do t lep-1 Terde l Do i lep- Terde Do i lep-S l Cabri U laiti-Liib e Haiti-S t laphael C Do i lep-1 7erde 2 Saiti-S t apbael B ¡aiti-Carrie r Hiti-S t lapbael l aiti-Cbaritt e aiti-ontbolo a Da i lerii o Jaba 4 Saiti-!acady l Do i iep-E l Cboco l De i lep-li o Joba ] Do i lep-li o Joba l Se q 1 S 1 0 5 2 1 2 1 l 3 1 3 4 2 0 1 4 2 1 2 4 2 3 2 2 7 2 9 1 1 1 9 2 5 1 8 1 1 7 1 2 1 5 3 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 3 0 0 S 1 0 T + t + + + -++ + t + — t -++ + -++ + + + t 1 + + : + + i, + + I + I • + + + t t + + 1 5 2 0 2 5 • i h C I S E Labe l Se g 1 0 2 5 -+ Caba-Po t d'iaago l Caba-Po t d'Iaago S laiti-Oopla a Caba-Loi a d'Iadi o laiti-leilla c C-I-tE Cour t Shel l Caba-Po t d'iaago Caba-Lagaa a SS-T-Lon g Ba y SS-T-Pigeo n Creei 2 Do i lep-li o Joba 2 CI-T-cay J Caba-Po t d'Haago 4 ¡C-T-Lon g Pon d GI-ti Coar t Sbel l Caba-Po t d'laago 3 SS-t-Pigeo n Creei l GI-TI Sai t P d li l Cnba-Tagaajd y Caba-E l Pin o laiti-Is l Cabrit s Saiti-acady B Oo i ep-E l Cabril l CI-McIay 2 CI-T-cIay 4 SS-T-ia n lea d Ca y Do i ltp-1 Terde l Haiti-Carrie r aiti-S t Iapbael l Baiti-Cbantt e laiti-oataolo a So i lep-li o Joba 4 laiti-Iacady i lo i lep-E l Cloco l Do i lep-li o Joba i Do i lep-li o Joba l K-T-IelTille l CI-T-cIay l Saiti-S t lapaael B ¡C-T-ebille 2 Do i lep-E l Cboco 2 Do i lep-1 erde 3 Do i lep-i ferde 4 Do i lep-2 1 Cabri U Saiti-Liii e Saiti-S t ¡apaael C Doilep-1 Terde tl-I-Iiio a 1 ( + 2 0 + ¡ 5 + 2 1 + 3 5 + 3 + 1 7 + 2 2 -+--+ 7 + I 3 + K 1 !_..-. 1 4 + 1 9 t 4 + 1 0 -t— t 1 1 + 2 + 2 3 t 2 1 + U _J._.™-__ 2 9 + 4 3 • 1 3 + 1 5 + 1 + 3 9 • i t + i 3 2 t 2 7 T 1 0 -rt 4 1 + 2 8 + ¡ 3 7 + 4 7 t • 4 4 5 + : t ¡ 1 2 + 3 3 + ¡ -++ 3 8 r 4 1 + 4 2 + 4 4 + 2 5 t 3 4 + 4 0 + + Tabl e 3 Dendrogra m o f War d Cluste r Analysi s fo r th e elements : sodiu m an d barium A Greate r Antille s B Greate r Antille s wit h Trad e

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38 2 CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D POPULATION S MOVEMEN T lescale d Distanc e Cliste r Coibia e C 1 S E Labe l Se q t— Caba-Po t d'laaso l Caba-Po t d'!aaijo 5 laiti-Dipla a Caba-loi a d'lidi o laiti-eilla c Caba-Po t d'!aajo 2 Caba-Laoaa a Do t ep-i o Joba i Caba-Po t d'laajo l Cuba-Po t d'aago 4 Caba-iaqaajd y Caba-S l Pin o laiti-Is l Cabrit s Haiti-acady B Do i lep- l Cabril l Do t lep-i Terde l Do i lep-s l Caoco 2 Do i ¡ep-1 Terde 3 Do i ¡ep-1 Terde 4 Do i lep- l Cabnl 2 laiti-iiiib e Haiti-i t laphael C Do i lep-l Terde 2 Haiti-S t iapbaei a laiti-Carrie r laiti-S t laphael i Haiti-Charitt e aiti-oatholo n Do i Iep-ii o Job a 4 Jaiti-acady l Do i ep- l Choco l Do i lep-li o Joba j Do i lep-li o Joba l + + + + -+ + + + + — + + + + + + t + + + + + I S 2 0 —+ 2 5 — + CIS Labe l Caba-Po t d'lanjo i Caba-Po t d'aago i lam-Dapla a Caba-Loi a d'ladi o laiti-eilla c CI-T2 Coac b Shel l Caba-Po t d'Iaago 2 Caba-Laoaa a SS-T-Loa j Ja y 5S-T-Pigeo n Creet 2 Do i lep-li o Joba 2 CI-T-HcIaj 3 Caba-Po t d'!aaao 4 IC-T-Loa g oa d tl-If Coac h ¡bel l Caba-Po t d'Hango ] SS-T-Pigeo a Creek l 0I-! Sal t P d li l Caba-Tagaajd y Cnba-E l Pii o Haiti-Is l Cabrit s laiti-acady Do i ep- l Cabril l CI-T-IcIa7 2 CI-Mclay 4 SS--a n Bea d Ca y Do i Iep-1 Terde l Haiti-Carrie r laiti-s t laphael i Jaiti-Ciantt e 3aiti-!oathoio a Do i iep-ii o Joba l laiti-Iacady l Do i ¡eD- l Cboco l Do i iep-h o Joba ] Do i lep-li o Joba l IC-T-Ielnlle l CI-T-Iciay l Haiti-S t laphael B lC-Hei7ille 2 Do i lep-S l Cioco Do i iep-1 Terde l Do i Iep-1 Terde l Do i lep- l Cabril 2 Jiiti-liiih e 3aiti-i t jpbaei C Do i Iep-1 Terde 2 CH-iio a Se q t I S 2 0 2 5 2 4 ] i 8 1 7 2 2 1 4 S 1 4 1 9 4 1 0 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 5 2 9 ( 3 1 3 I S lescale d Distaac e Cliste r Coibii e S 1 0 1 5 2 0 > + + + + + T + + 1 + + h + t -++ + + T t + t t T -t+ t t + + f + + + + + + Tabl e 4 Dendrogra m o f War d Cluste r Analysi s fo r th e elements : sodium barium an d nickel A Greate r Antille s B Greate r Antille s wit h Trad e

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WINTE R AN D GILSTRA P 38 3 C l S E Labe l Cnba-Po t d'ango l Cnba-Po t d'Saaqo 5 laiti-Dnpla a Cnha-Lo u d'Indi o Jaiti-eilla c Cnba-Po t d'Iango 2 Cnba-Ugnn a Do t iep-ii o Joba 2 Cgbi-Po t d'Iango 3 Cuba-Po t d'ango 4 Cnba-agnajd Cnba-2 1 Pis o aaiti-Is l Cabrit s Haiti-Iacady B Oo i Iep-E l Cabril l Do i iep-i Terde l Do i iep-E l Cboco 2 Do i iep-i Terde l Do i iep-i erae 4 Do i iep-E l Cabri U iaiti-Liib e Iaiti-S t iapbael C Do i iep-i erde ] Haiti-S t iapaael B Jaiti-Cbaritt e iti-Carrie r Sait!-S t iaphael l iaiti-ontholo n Oo i iep-ii o Joba i Jaiti-Iacady A Do t iep-E l Cboco l Oo i lep-ii o Joba 3 Oo i iep-ii o Joba l 0 Se g t 1 5 1 0 9 2 1 I 3 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 2 ( 2 3 2 $ 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 9 2 5 1 1 2 1 5 1 1 1 5 3 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 3 0 + t -++ ¡escale d Distanc e Cliste r Coibit e 5 1 0 1 5 ¡ 0 h + + T ¡escale d Distanc e Cliste r Coibin e CU E Labe l Se g 1 5 2 0 2 5 — + Cuba-Po t d'ango l Cnba-Po t d'ango i aiti-Onpla a Ciba-Loi a d'Indi o Haiti-eilla c Cnba-Po t d'ango l Coba-Lagun a SS-T-Lon g 3a y CI-TE Coac h Shel l SS-T-?igeo n C:eek 2 CI-T-cIay J Do t lep-ii o Joba 2 Cnba-Po t d'ango 4 IC-T-Lon g Pon d OI-T Conc h Shel l Ciba-Po t d'ango l SS-T-Pigeo n Creei l CI-tE Sal t P d li l Cnba-Tagtajd f Cibi-E l Pin o Iiiti-Is l Cabrit s aiti-acady i Oo i iep-E l Cabril l CI-T-cIay 2 CI-T-ciay 4 SS-T-a n Hea d Ca y Oo i iep-l Terde l Haiti-Ciantt e Jaiti-Carne r aiti-S t lapbae Saiti-onthoio n Oo i iep-ii o Joba 4 Jaiti-acady l Oo i iep-E l Cboco l Do i iep-ii o Joba l Oo i iep-ii o Joba l lC-T-!ehiile l CI-T-icIay l Iaiti-S t iaphael l Do i iep-E l Cboco 2 Do t iep-i Terde l ¡C-T-enille Oo i iep-i Terde 4 Oo i iep-E l Cabril 2 Saiti-Liib e Iaiti-S t ¡aphael C Oo i iep-i Terde l GI-Huo n I S 2 0 2 5 2 4 3 6 1 1 2 2 1 J 3 H 4 5 1 9 4 1 0 I S I 1 1 ¡ 3 2 1 3 5 2 9 4 3 1 3 1 5 1 3 9 2 1 1 1 3 2 3 0 ( 8 2 3 3 1 4 7 4 5 5 1 2 3 3 1 4 1 S 4 2 4 4 ¡ 6 3 4 4 0 9 i T T + t • + + + + + + ¡ + t + -+— t + t • + + + + + + + 4 + i + + -+T T ¡ • + T ¡ + t + 1 • • T ¡ + 1 -+T t + + + + + t 1 1 1 + 1 1 "^ 1 Figur e 5 Dendrogra m o f War d Cluste r Analysi s fo r th e elements : sodiu m an d strontium A Greate r Antille s B Greate r Antille s wit h Trad e

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38 4 CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D POPULATION S MOVEMEN T A CIS lescale d Distaac e Cluste r Coibia e Labe l 0 Caba-Po t i'Siaqo l Caba-Po t d'Iaajo 5 !aiti-3apla a Cuba-Loi a d'lidi o laiti-leilla c Culu-Po t d'!aago 2 Caba-lapa a Do i iep-li o J a h a 2 Caba-Po t d'aago 3 Caba-Po t d'aago 4 Ctba-Tagaajd r Caha-E l Pia o Jaiti-Is l Cabrit s Haiti-!acadj 8 Do t lep-E l Cabril l Do i iep-1 Terde l Do i lep-S l Choco 2 Do i lep-1 Terde 3 laiti-liib e Do i iep-E l Cabnl 2 Do t lep-1 Terde 4 Eaiti-S t lapbae K Do i Iep-1 Terde 2 Haiti-S t ¡apbaei S laiti-Carrie r Iiiti-S t lapbael l iaiti-Charitt e Haiti-loatholo a Do i lep-ii o Joaa 4 Haiti-acady l Do i lep- l Caoco l Do i lep-ii o Joba 3 Do i ea-i o Joba l + + + + -+ + 1 T 3 1 'T ) -+f } T + 2 D 1 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 2 6 1 1 ¡ 9 2 1 1 9 2 S 1 8 1 1 7 1 2 1 5 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 — + ti n Labe l Caba-Po t d'aago l Caba-Po t d'Jaaqo i Haiti-Dapia a Caba-Loi a d'lidi o laiti-leilla c 5I-II Coac b Shel l Caba-Po t l'laajo 2 Cnba-lagan a SS-T-Lon g la y CI-T-1C3T 3 Caba-Po t d'!aago < SS-T-Pigeo a Cree U Do i lep-ii o Joba 2 iC-T-tion g Poa d CI-1 Coac b Shel l Caba-Po t d'laaoo ] SS-T-Pigeo a Creex l C-I-TI Sal t P d il l Caba-Tagaajd j Caba-s l Pia o Jaiti-Is l Cabrit s Iaiti-!acadj 8 Do i lepU Cabril l CM-IcIiy J CI-T-IcIay 4 SS-t-li a Jea d Ca r Do i lep-1 Terde l Haiti-Carrie r Haiti-S t lapbael l Haiti-Chantt e aiti-Soatiolo a Do t lep-ii o ioha l aiti-acadf l Do i iep-2 1 Cloc Do i lep-ii o Joba l Do i iep-li o Joba l IC-I-lelTille l CH-Kclay l Haiti-S t lapbael l K-I-!elnile 2 Do i lep-1 Terde l Do i lep-I l Caoco i aiti-liiib e Do i lep-2 1 Cabrii 2 Do i Iep-1 7erde 4 Haiti-S t iaphaei C Do i iep- Terde 2 51-T-!iio a 0 Se g + 1 5 2 0 ¡ 5 2 4 3 ( 1 1 2 2 1 1 4 1 9 3 4 5 4 1 0 + + + + -+ t t t + -tt + t T + + f + + + ¡escale d Distanc e Claste r Coihia e 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 ... + + h t Figur e 6 Dendrogra m o f War d Cluste r Analysi s fo r th e elements : sodium barium an d strontium A Greate r Antille s B Greate r Antille s wit h Trad e

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WINTE R AN D GILSTRA P 38 5 escaie d Distanc e Cliste r Coibin e lescale d Distanc e Cliste r Coibia e C 1 S S Labe l Caba-?o t d'ango l Caba-ro t d'!aago 5 aiti-Dnpla a Cnba-Loi a d'Indi a Jaiti-Seilla c Cuba-?o t d'!ango 2 Caba-lagaa a lo i iep-ii o Joba 2 Caba-Po t d'ango l Cuba-Po t d'!ango 4 Cnba-7agna]d j Cnba-S l Pin o ¡uti-Is l Cabrit s 3aiti-Iacady B Do t iep- l Cabril l Do t iep-i Terde l Do i ep- l Choco 2 Do i lep-! erde d laiti-Uib e la i iep- l Cabn U Oo i iep-i Terde 4 iaiti-S t apbaei C Do i iep-1 erde i Iaiti-S t apaael B ¡iiti-Carne r iaiti-S t aphael iaiti-Cbantt e Baiti-ontiolo n Do i ep-i o Joba 4 aiti-acady l Do i lep-E l Cioco l Do i iep-ii o Joba ] Do i iep-ii o Joba l 1 i 1 0 3 2 1 2 i i 3 1 3 4 a s 2 0 1 4 2 2 4 2 3 2 5 1 1 2 9 2 1 S 2 5 S U n 1 2 1 5 3 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 3 0 0 5 1 0 + • T + -f \ -+ ~ + ~ T ¡ + + + + -+T + -++ + + + t T + ^ 1 + t ; + ¡ + ¡ 4 + + t 4 + + 1 5 2 0 2 k i C 1 S labe l Cnba-Po t d'aago l Caba-fo t d'Baago i laiti-Dapla a Cnba-loi a d'Iidi o ¡aiti-leilla c H- Conc h Shel l h Cuba-Po t d'aigo Cnba-Lagnn a SS-T-Lon g !a j CI-T-Bday i Ciba-Po t d'Iaogo 4 SS-T-Pigeo n Cree M Do i iep-ii o Joba 2 iC-T-Loa g Poa d I-TI Coac h Shel l Caba-Po t d'aago SS-I-Pigeo a Creel l h l-t Sai t P d li l Caba-Tagnajd f Caba-E l Pin o Baiti-Is l Cabrit s Baiti-acady B Do i lep-E l Cabril l CI-T-IcIaj l CI-T-lcIar 4 SS-T-a a Hea d Ca j Do i iep-i Terde l aiti-Carne r Baiti-S t lapael l aiti-Chantt e Baiti-!ontaoio n Do i iep-ii o Jo:a 4 Baiti-acady i Do i ep-E l Choco l Do i iep-ii o Joba 3 Do i iep-ii o Joba l IC-T-ehille l CI-HcIay l Iaiti-S t laphael B iC-T-!ehille 2 Do i iep-1 Terde l Do i iep- l C:oco 2 iaiti-Liii e Do i iep- l Cabril J Do i lep-i Terde 4 Haiti-S t iaphaei C Do i lep-1 Terde 2 C-I-T-Jiio a Se g 1 2 0 2 5 2 4 i i 1 1 1 2 2 7 1 4 1 9 3 4 S 4 1 0 S 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 5 2 9 4 3 1 3 1 5 1 3 9 3 1 3 2 2 7 3 0 4 8 2 8 3 7 4 7 4 5 5 1 2 3 1 4 1 3 8 2 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 0 9 0 5 + + + + T t t f + • x i t + -+— t + + + i + + + t t + T + -+T + 1 + + + + + 1 0 1 5 i i 1 i 2 0 ¡ S • ~* Figur e 7 Dendrogra m fo r War d Cluste r Analysi s fo r th e elements : sodium barium nickel an d strontium A Greate r Antille s B Greate r Antille s wit h Trad e

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38 6 CERAMI C ANALYSI S AN D POPULATION S MOVEMEN T Xescale d Distanc e Cluste r Coibin e Labe l sss SS-5 SS-Ef ss-s SS5 S5S SS-S SSS SS-H GI IB-I T SSS SS JP C 1 S E •Pigeo n Creek T •Pigeo n Creek G •Pigeo n Creek J •Pigeo n Creek l •Pigeo n Creek 2 •Hard i •Pigeo n Creek B •ara 5 •ard 3 •2C 3 •Casnrin a P t •ard l -ard 2 -Adelaid e 0 Se g + 1 0 1 5 —t 2 0 3 4 1 2 7 1 3 1 1 1 4 2 9 1 0 1 + + + + + — + -+ — + —+ — + -+ — + iescaie d Distanc e Cluste r Coibin e Labe l SS-S SS-S SS-S SS-S ss-s ii-tss-s ss-s iB-S i^SS- GI- ss-s P-S C i S E •Pigeo n Creek T •Pigeo n Creek G •Pigeo n Creek 2 •Pigeo n Creek l •Pigeo n Creek J •ard 3 Pigeo n Creek B ¡ard Casurin a P t ard S •ard l 2C 3 ard 2 Adelaid e Se q t 1 1 7 1 2 1 0 —f t t 2 0 t 1 3 -++ ¡ ; 9 t + T ¡ ¡ 1 4 — + + + ¡ 1 0 T ; 1 + Tabl e 8 Dendrogra m o f War d Cluste r Analysi s fo r th e nativ e Bahamia n cerami c sherds A fo r th e element s barium chromium coppe r an d zinc B fo r th e element s chromium copper an d zinc