Citation

Material Information

Title:
The Petroglyphs of Maisabel; A Study in Methodology
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Peter G. Roe ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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191827772 ( OCLC )

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TH E PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABEL : A STUD Y I N METHODOLOG Y Pete r G Ro e Thi s pape r i s abou t roc k ar t despit e it s difficulties Indeed th e problem s whic h afflic t th e stud y o f art e rupestre ar e s o legio n tha t man y professiona l archaeologist s mistakenl y esche w it s study Thi s i s parti cularl y unfortunat e sinc e bot h earl y (Fewke s 1907:150 ; Maller y 1972[1893] : 136 ) an d recen t (Sue d Badill o 1972:8 ) authoritie s hav e remarke d abou t th e singula r elaboratio n an d qualit y o f Puert o Rica n petroglyphs I n th e followin g repor t o n th e petroglyph s associate d wit h th e Elenan-Ostionoi d componen t o f th e larg e Saladoid-Ostionoi d Maisabe l sit e o n th e north centra l coas t o f Puert o Rico nea r Veg a Baj a (Fig 1) I hop e t o sho w tha t thi s assessmen t i s i n error A s I refe r t o thes e uniqu e engravings I wil l borro w th e ter m "lithograph fro m Cruxen t (1955) However I wil l utiliz e i t a s a cove r ter m fo r bot h o f th e kind s o f roc k ar t mos t commonl y foun d i n th e Caribbean : petroglyph s (th e engrave d form ) an d pictograph s (th e painted) Thes e particula r petroglyph s ar e unusua l becaus e the y ar e cu t horizontall y int o th e beddin g plan e o f th e beac h rock i n th e tida l splas h zon e i n fron t o f th e sit e (Figs 2-3) rathe r tha n th e norma l patter n o f bein g engrave d o n rive r boulders plaz a margin s o r cav e walls On e proble m i n analyzin g thi s ar t for m i s context o r rathe r th e lac k o f it Becaus e the y frequentl y appea r alone o r i n dubiou s associatio n wit h othe r databl e artifact s suc h a s pottery lithograph s presen t a proble m o f datin g (Porra s 1973:2-3 ; E Rodrigue z 1985:45) T o thi s fundamenta l difficult y ma y b e adde d th e grea t formal stylisti c an d executiona l variet y o f th e roc k ar t itself T o quot e a n early an d influential studen t o f petroglyph s i n th e Greate r Antilles "(t)h e form s whic h thes e pictograph s tak e ar e almos t numberless (Fewke s 1907:154) Thi s variatio n i s furthe r compounde d b y th e notoriou s difficult y i n decipherin g th e "meaningful o r "intentional meanderin g line s o f a lithograph Thi s fiel d hurdl e begin s wit h merel y distinguishin g thes e line s fro m th e natura l fissure s i n th e stone Thu s roc k ar t al l to o ofte n constitute s th e prototypica l instanc e o f a prehistori c "Rorschac h Test, wher e th e mos t fevere d imaginatio n ca n "fil l i n th e lines wit h everythin g fro m Mexica n glyph s t o th e tracing s o f ancien t astronauts Durin g th e cours e o f documentin g th e Maisabe l petroglyphs I wil l tr y t o partiall y resolv e thes e problem s o n thre e levels : (1 ) dat a recovery throug h a nove l techniqu e o f polyethylene tracing ; (2 ) stylisti c syntax vi a a n equall y ne w methodolog y o f "generative-grammatical componentia l analysis ; an d (3 ) semantic s (iconography) throug h ethnohistorica l an d ethnographi c analogy 31 7

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31 8 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L M y treatmen t o f th e las t leve l o f analysi s wil l hypothesiz e certai n ideological economi c an d politica l function s fo r thes e petroglyphs I n othe r words I hop e t o outlin e ho w art e rupestre ca n b e a resourc e i n it s ow n right not a n impediment o r worse a n irrelevan t "epiphenomenon o f som e othe r aspec t o f culture METHODOLOGICA L DIFFICULTIE S O F LITHOGRAPHI C DAT A RECOVER Y T o begi n a t th e beginning a t th e leve l o f perception on e proble m continue s t o b e a lac k o f establishe d methodolog y (Suj o Volsk y 1975:59) Ho w doe s on e recor d bot h kind s o f lithographs ? Bac k befor e th e adven t o f small portabl e camera s th e difficult y bega n wit h th e untraine d huma n ey e Maller y (1972[1893] : 762-763 Plat e LIV) i n hi s earl y classi c o n Amerindia n "pictur e writing, illustrate s th e barel y recognizabl e rendition s o f th e sam e design s b y differentl y skille d drawer s o f th e Algonkia n Dighto n Roc k petroglyph s i n Massachusett s fro m 168 0 t o 1830 Close r t o home Delgad o (1976:105 Illus 27-29 ) ha s pointe d t o th e mistake n variation s presen t i n th e literatur e o f boulde r petroglyph s i n Venezuela I documente d a simila r proces s o f perceptua l distortio n b y conductin g a n experimen t wit h m y fieldschoo l student s fro m th e Centr o d e Estudio s Avanzado s d e Puert o Ric o y e l Carib e (CEAPRC) Sa n Juan I use d on e particula r petroglyp h fro m th e Maisabe l site a plumed goggle-eyed India n hea d (Figs 4-6) I ha d twelv e student s d o independen t free-han d drawing s o f thi s petroglyph cautionin g the m no t t o compar e notes I expecte d tha t thei r natura l rang e o f graphi c skil l an d perceptua l acuit y woul d reflec t th e rang e o f earl y traveler s wh o sketche d s o man y lithograph s fo r us A s on e migh t expect th e twelv e resultan t version s presente d extreme s o f variatio n suc h tha t i t wa s scarcel y possibl e t o discer n tha t the y al l referre d t o th e sam e engraving Thi s "artistic difficult y i s particularl y gallin g sinc e th e earlies t wor k o n lithograph s i n th e Greate r Antille s wa s don e b y Pinar t (197 9 [1890]) yet h e wa s suc h a n appallingl y ba d artis t tha t hi s illustrations t o quot e Fewke s (1907:149 n."a") "...ar e to o imperfec t t o ai d th e studen t i n identification s o f th e pictograph s (sic ) [petroglyphs]. On e migh t expec t th e adven t o f th e camer a t o hav e solve d thes e techni ca l problems but alas thi s i s no t th e case W e ma y hav e aestheticall y compellin g photograph s o f lithographs suc h a s thos e i n Porras (1973 ) surve y o f th e petroglyph s o f th e Alt o Nap o Rive r i n Ecuador bu t the y ar e o f les s tha n optima l us e i f th e investigator a s i n tha t case doe s no t provid e a scal e fo r siz e o r a nort h arro w fo r orientation Th e sam e lac k o f scal e hamper s drawing s base d o n th e petroglyphs a s i n Delgad o (1976 ) o n Venezuela n lithographs p r i n rubbing s ("surfac e printings") o f Puert o Rica n petroglyph s presente d b y Frassett o (1960:Figs 5-6) Eve n worse th e literatur e i s replet e wit h illustration s o f lithograph s offere d withou t eithe r scal e o r labels whethe r a s t o medi a o r provenienc e (Delgad o 1976:Illus 4 136-236) Thi s pape r wil l introduc e a ne w fiel d methodolog y fo r compensatin g fo r thi s differentia l lac k o f draftin g skills tha t o f polyethylene-tracing

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RO E 31 9 Thi s metho d i s presente d a s a n accompanimen t to no t replacemen t of suc h traditiona l recordin g method s a s sketching photograph y an d rubbings ANALYTI C PROBLEM S I N LITHOGRAPHI C SYNTA X DECIPHERMEN T Th e technica l difficultie s o f lithograph s d o no t en d wit h thei r recording however Ther e i s stil l a deart h o f intersubjectivel y recog nize d schemat a fo r analyzin g th e lithograph s onc e the y hav e bee n recorded whethe r thi s applie s t o simpl e stylisti c analysi s an d typology o r t o th e mor e ticklis h proble m o f iconography i t i s stil l tru e tha t a powerfu l analyti c syste m fo r teasin g meanin g fro m thi s ar t for m i s onl y i n it s infancy Recently however a promisin g ne w approac h base d o n th e pioneer in g effort s o f Shepar d (1971 ) i n cerami c analysi s ha s bee n applied vi a analogy t o lithograph s b y Suj o Volsk y (1975) Thi s i s essentiall y a componentia l analysi s whereb y th e studen t "decomposes th e imag e int o it s componen t part s an d reconstruct s th e commo n pictoria l form s ou t o f thos e part s usin g th e simpl e rule s o f bilatera l an d rotationa l symmetr y (Suj o Volsk y 1975:99-103 106) I n thi s approach th e design s ar e considere d withi n thei r tota l contex t b y specifyin g differen t level s o f analysis fro m th e genera l environmen t o f th e lithographs throug h th e interrelationship s o f th e variou s figures t o th e identit y o f th e image s themselves Or th e analys t ma y procee d fro m th e opposit e direction fro m th e basi c constituen t element s o f th e componen t part s o f th e figures an d thei r interrelation ships t o th e componen t part s themselve s an d thei r mutua l relation s (Suj o Volsk y 1975:96) Th e approac h I wil l sugges t her e i s actuall y a n independen t inventio n simila r t o Suj o Volsky' s approach an d i t use s som e o f th e sam e anteceden t methods suc h a s Shepard' s symmetr y rules However m y metho d diverge s fro m her s b y bein g mor e generativ e an d grammatical Th e genealog y o f m y approac h actuall y date s bac k t o Rouse' s (1939 ) pioneerin g moda l analysi s o f potter y an d Lathrap' s (1970 ) subsequen t modification s o f i t t o presen t processua l "routin g diagrams o f artisan-viewe d creation Tha t techniqu e ha s bee n furthe r modifie d b y Lathrap' s student s (Raymon d e t al 1975 ) int o a generativ e "desig n grammar approach Thi s ne w methodolog y envision s bot h primitiv e constituen t element s o f th e design s ("desig n elements" ) themselves a s wel l a s th e ordere d an d recursiv e rul e set s tha t ca n b e applie d t o them Thes e rule s wil l the n yiel d recognizabl e compound s o f elements o r "motifs. Thi s analysi s wa s firs t applie d t o a Lat e Prehis tori c potter y styl e i n th e Peruvia n jungle th e 9t h centur y A.D Cumancay a Traditio n (Raymon d e t al 1975) an d the n extende d b y mysel f t o th e modern related ethnographi c decorativ e ar t o f th e Shipibo-Conib o Indian s withi n tha t sam e regio n (Ro e 1980) Th e advantag e o f thi s syste m i s tha t i t allow s th e analys t t o "tal k wit h th e dead, t o construc t simila r "statements, o r combination s o f motif s ("desig n layouts") t o thos e th e long-decease d artist s produced I t als o allow s th e analys t t o anticipat e nove l solution s befor e the y ar e discovere d i n th e archaeologica l recor d (Ro e 1973:119) Thi s metho d als o allow s th e systemati c compariso n o f differen t corp i o f ar t an d th e opera tiona l specificatio n o f thei r stylisti c an d grammatica l differences "Ho w simila r i s similar ca n no w b e answere d statisticall y o r b y a n algorithm

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32 0 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L Thi s sam e generative desig n gramma r approac h ha s recentl y bee n applie d t o Saladoid pre-Tain o an d Tain o cerami c ar t b y thi s autho r (Ro e 1983b ) an d i s no w bein g extende d t o lithographs A s such i t parallel s anothe r interestin g approach whic h i s als o componential an d come s ou t o f Frenc h structuralism Thi s ha s bee n applie d b y Henr i Petitjea n Roge t (1976 ) t o Lesse r Antillea n archaeologica l an d ethnographi c art. Th e possibilitie s o f a n "emi c archaeology, whic h al l o f thes e cognap e approache s offer ar e stimulatin g an d offe r grea t promise Som e o f these a s i n compute r simulatio n an d replicatio n o f ethni c desig n structure ar e alread y realize d (Ro e 1982b 1983a) TH E SEMANTIC S O F LITHOGRAPHS : PROBLEM S O F ETHNOGRAPHI C ANALOG Y Anothe r difficult y facin g th e analys t o f roc k ar t i s th e notoriou s proble m o f accuratel y decipherin g th e semantics o r iconographi e meaning o f thes e crypti c images Agai n t o quot e Fewke s (1903:467) "(w) e kno w s o littl e o f th e conventiona l symbolis m o f th e aborigine s o f th e Antille s tha t i t i s difficul t t o hazar d a n explanatio n o f th e meanin g o f individua l pictographs bu t w e ma y ver y properl y sugges t a n interpretatio n o f thei r genera l significance. Par t o f th e problem a t leas t i n th e Antilles wa s th e earl y disappear anc e o f th e Indian s an d th e imperfect an d garbled ethnographi c accounts suc h a s thos e o f Fathe r Pan (Arro m 1974) tha t w e posses s o f thei r ideolog y (Ro e 1982a:191) O f course w e ar e als o i n doub t a s t o th e relationshi p o f thes e image s t o tha t ideology Abou t al l w e kno w i s tha t lithograph s wer e onl y on e for m o f "spiritua l house, o r "zemi, o f th e multitudinou s spirit s tha t inhabite d thei r cosmology Othe r vehicle s fo r thes e sam e spirit s coul d tak e th e for m o f woo d sculpture cotto n figures o r carve d ston e images I n th e lowland s o f Sout h America wher e thes e image s an d th e people s wh o produce d the m ha d thei r origi n (Fewke s 1903:463-464 1907:151-152) th e matte r i s onl y slightl y clearer Th e literatur e i s replet e wit h instance s wher e earl y ethnographer s ascrib e tota l ignoranc e o f th e origi n an d functio n o f lithograph s t o present-da y India n occupant s o f thei r range Thi s implie s greate r antiquit y fo r thes e work s tha n th e ethnographi c present Th e rang e o f nativ e explanation s fo r thes e artifacts i n th e fac e o f tha t ignorance i s manifold Brow n (1873:254-257 ) record s th e Indian s o f Guian a a s believin g tha t the y wer e mad e b y "Makunaima thei r grea t spirit (mor e likely a Cultur e Hero) Simila r veneration an d ignoranc e o f manufacture i s recorde d b y vo n Humbold t (1850 1:196-201) referrin g t o Schomburgk' s voyage s o n th e Essequibo Sometime s fear rathe r tha n veneration greet s thes e powerfu l work s o f th e spirits a s I m Thur n (1883:368-369 ) note s fo r th e Indian s o f Guiana Hi s recordin g o f Indian s rubbin g peppe r int o thei r eye s upo n seein g suc h grave n image s i s under standabl e give n lowlan d Sout h Amerindia n analog y o f peppe r wit h "cultura l ly-cauterizing fir e holdin g thes e "raw spirit s a t ba y (Ro e 1982a ; 1985) Recent sources lik e Porra s (1973:3) recor d th e sam e ambiguit y o n th e par t o f moder n Indian s t o thes e ancien t works H e cite s bot h Quichu a (Quijos ) an d Achua r (Jibaros ) attitude s t o th e Alt o Nap o petroglyph s rangin g fro m th e wor k o f th e devil o r th e savag e (i.e. alien ) "Aucas, t o

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RO E 32 1 th e home s o f thei r ow n dea d ancestors Nevertheless analyst s ten d t o concu r o n th e obviou s "religious connotation s o f suc h work s an d th e site s i n whic h the y ar e mos t commonl y found : cave s an d rapid s o r pool s i n white wate r rivers Brow n (1873:257) fo r example cite s bot h th e grea t car e wit h whic h th e rive r 'boulde r petroglyph s wer e cu t o n th e Corentyn Berbic e an d Cassikyty n (Kassikaytiu ) River s o f Guyana a s wel l a s th e phalli c imager y presen t o n som e o f them t o argu e fo r a religiou s purpos e behin d thei r creation I n th e sam e manner Pinar t (1979[1890] ) speak s o f th e cave s withi n whic h man y Puert o Rica n petroglyph s ar e cut an d pictograph s painted a s rendezvou s point s fo r ancien t India n ceremonie s an d sacrifices Fewke s i s mor e explici t i n citin g moder n Puert o Rica n fol k wisdo m amon g th e "Jibaros, o r mestizo peasant s o f th e interio r o f th e island Presumabl y becaus e the y ma y hav e som e Tain o heritage thei r belie f tha t th e cave s an d thei r associate d artifact s ar e sacre d i s relevan t here Thes e enigmati c symbol s ar e stil l associate d wit h th e Indian s (a s troglodytes ) an d thei r work s ar e stil l (a s o f th e earl y 20t h century ) ascribe d wit h magica l propertie s an d action s (Fewke s 1907:156-157) Ther e i s som e chronicle r evidenc e t o bac k u p thes e survivin g fol k beliefs : Th e India n belie f tha t cave s wer e th e dwellin g place s o f spirit s i s mentione d b y severa l writer s o f th e sixteent h century Thes e spirit s wer e suppose d t o leav e th e cavern s an d wande r ove r th e eart h a t night Th e superstitio n i s stil l curren t i n severa l Wes t India n islands Th e Antilleans lik e th e Puebl o Indian s o f ou r Southwest believe d tha t th e firs t ma n an d woma n emerge d fro m a cav e i n th e eart h o r wer e bor n o f th e eart h Goddess Th e dea d wer e suppose d t o retur n t o th e cave s consequentl y (speciall y a s ancesto r worshi p playe d a mos t importan t rol e i n thei r worship ) the y performe d man y o f thei r ceremonie s i n cave s an d subterranea n cavern s (Fewke s 1903:453 n.l) Indeed i n lowlan d Sout h Amerindia n cosmology I hav e argue d (Ro e 1982a:138-139 ) tha t cave s represen t entryway s int o th e subterranea n o r subaquati c Underworld Jus t a s thos e othe r liminal o r "connecting overlappin g realms th e mountains the y functio n a s "shamanisti c ladders fo r acces s t o th e Uppe r an d Lowe r World s tha t symmetricall y flan k th e eart h o n whic h me n dwell I n th e cas e o f th e Waiwa i o f ou r recen t expeditio n t o th e Uppe r Essequibo thes e Carib s regar d th e larg e boulder s tha t do t th e surgin g water s o f th e Essequib o a s th e fragmente d remain s o f thei r Worl d Mountain T o judg e fro m othe r regiona l Cari b associations thi s Worl d Mountain o r "Rock, i s a mythi c transformatio n o f a petrifie d Worl d Tre e trun k holdin g u p th e thre e superimpose d level s o f thei r multi-tiere d cosmos I t functione d bot h a s armatur e an d condui t t o th e worl d o f th e Bir d Sk y Spirits th e kakenau kworokjam. Thu s an y carving s engrave d int o thes e rock s woul d b e sacre d b y associatio n a s wel l a s representin g th e "mythicall y empirical corroboratio n o f th e sacre d accounts "See, a n informan t coul d affirm "th e tale s abou t th e fallin g o f th e Worl d Roc k ar e true don' t yo u se e it s fragments thos e hug e boulders ther e i n th e rive r t o thi s day? Unfortunately th e us e o f thes e moder n ethnographi c account s t o explai n th e fabricatio n o f archaeologica l petroglyph s entail s a methodologica l problem Tha t proble m i s th e appropriatenes s o f th e us e o f direc t histori

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32 2 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L ca l analog y betwee n dat a derive d fro m th e ethnographi c presen t (whethe r i t b e report s fro m th e 16t h o r th e 20t h centuries ) an d th e archaeologica l past Boa s (1955 ) lon g ag o pointe d ou t th e mutabilit y o f symbolism particularl y o f geometri c designs a s on e goe s fro m on e ethni c grou p t o th e next O n th e archaeologica l level Griede r (1975 ) als o cautione d agains t suc h symboli c "disjunction betwee n differen t diachroni c phase s o f eve n relate d prehistori c cultures However i f carrie d t o extrem e (Dubelaa r 1986a:82-83 ) suc h a skeptica l view a kin d o f "interpretationa l nominalism, woul d demolis h iconograph y a s a n approac h t o ancien t art Thu s I wil l no t choos e tha t pat h bu t rathe r wil l attemp t som e limite d decodin g o f th e Maisabe l petroglyphs base d o n a genera l meta-cosmologica l mode l I hav e develope d fo r lowlan d Sout h Amerin dia n societie s (1982a) a s wel l a s specifi c observation s derive d fro m m y ow n recen t ethnographi c researc h amon g th e Waiwa i Indian s o f Guyan a (1985) Th e latte r ar e particularl y importan t sinc e the y occup y th e culture geographi c regio n fro m whic h th e ancestor s o f th e Maisabe l Indian s cam e i n th e firs t centurie s B.C Close r t o home I wil l als o emplo y ethnohistori c studie s conducte d fo r coasta l Tain o settlement s i n Puert o Rico Th e Tain o were afte r all th e direc t descendant s o f th e Elena n occupatio n o f site s lik e Maisabel Th e las t o f th e difficultie s lithograph s presen t i s th e seemingl y limite d kin d o f cultura l dat a the y ca n yield Principally thi s ha s bee n aestheti c information Present-da y artist s hav e treate d the m a s source s o f inspiratio n reflectin g a cultura l identit y the y shar e o r wis h t o shar e (Collaz o 1983) A s aestheticall y compellin g a s thes e lithograph s are thei r cultura l valu e i s no t limite d t o tha t importan t function Th e accurat e recordin g o f lithograph s an d th e detaile d spatia l plottin g o f thei r distributio n ca n als o hel p i n a n understandin g o f thei r rol e i n cultur e histor y an d process bot h ove r spac e an d time Boter o y Oostr a (1977:34-35) fo r example hav e foun d tha t i n Colombi a petroglyph s an d pictograph s d o no t hav e th e sam e patter n o f distributio n o r history Eac h mediu m occupie s a differen t ecologica l zone range s acros s disparat e geographica l region s an d ha s contrastin g stylisti c properties Whil e th e styl e o f pictograph s an d petroglyph s doe s see m t o co-var y i n th e Greate r Antilles wit h certai n difference s bein g a n obviou s produc t o f thei r contrastin g media th e primary meticulou s documentin g o f th e spatia l an d stylisti c variabilit y o f lithographs suc h a s Dubelaa r ha s recentl y pioneere d fo r th e Guiana s an d th e Lesse r Antille s (1986a 1986b) i s stil l i n it s infanc y i n Puert o Rico Despit e th e earl y effort s o f Pinar t (Alegri a 1979) Fewke s an d Maso n (Dvil a 1985) an d th e late r wor k o f Frassett o (1960) ther e i s stil l n o progra m o f systemati c islan d lithograp h mapping documentatio n an d archiving Althoug h muc h wor k ha s bee n done i t i s o f highl y variabl e quality frequentl y unpublishe d o r burie d i n contrac t reports W e ar e n o close r toda y t o a refine d chronolog y o f thi s for m o f roc k art muc h les s a detaile d mappin g o f styl e provinces tha n w e wer e i n th e 1960s Thi s pape r attempt s t o redres s som e o f thes e deficiencie s b y presentin g accurat e scal e drawings photographicall y reduce d fro m 1: 1 polyethylen e

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RO E 32 3 tracing s (Figs 4 7-13 ) an d carbo n pape r rubbing s (Fig 6) togethe r wit h scale d obliqu e an d vertica l photograph s (wit h th e contrastiv e filling-i n don e i n non-destructiv e brea d flou r rathe r tha n th e commonl y employe d chalk Figs 15-16) o f som e 3 2 ne w petroglyph s fro m th e multi-component Maisabe l site I offe r informatio n o n thei r execution interrelationships generativ e grammatica l an d moda l analysis iconography cultura l affilia tion s an d dating I wil l als o addres s a recen t cal l b y E Rodrigue z (1985:37 ) t o exten d th e analysi s o f lithograph s t o ne w socia l domains tha t is beyon d th e aestheti c an d religious Whethe r thi s effor t i s calle d "socia l archaeo logy, or a s I prefe r t o designat e it "cultura l archaeology, i t signal s a n additiona l interes t i n roc k ar t a s a channe l o f communicatio n betwee n contrasting an d possibl y competitive ethni c societies I n thi s ligh t roc k ar t become s relevan t o n bot h th e subsistenc e an d politica l levels Thus despit e th e problem s lithograph s presen t t o student s o f cultur e histor y an d process the y als o offe r a broa d spectru m o f importan t cultura l informatio n abou t Amerindia n societies Thes e societies afte r all uniquel y combine d th e aestheti c an d th e technologic th e socia l an d th e metaphysica l aspect s o f th e huma n enterpris e (Ro e 1980 1982a) Wit h th e prope r recordin g technique s an d method s o f analysis the y ca n yiel d surprisingl y detaile d informatio n abou t extinc t cultura l systems A s Huckerb y (1914:238 ) lon g ag o pointe d out whil e most o f th e othe r artifact s an d ecofact s th e archaeologis t deal s wit h hav e emerge d fro m th e travail s o f preservationa l bia s (thei r trave l throug h time ) a s distorte d o r incomplet e fragment s o f what wer e originall y cultura l wholes petroglyph s ofte n resis t tha t distortion Whil e Indian s neve r mad e potsherd s (the y mad e pots) "th e petroglyph s hav e remaine d i n th e sam e positio n a s the y wer e whe n firs t chisele d b y th e prehistori c artist (1914:238) an d wit h thei r physica l propertie s mor e intac t tha n othe r aspect s o f materia l culture Thus whil e the y presen t man y problems lithograph s d o offer an d ofte n bette r tha n an y othe r categor y o f materia l desiderata th e cultura l whole s tha t th e archaeologist s profes s t o reconstruct On e ha s onl y t o deciphe r thei r crypti c messages TH E SETTIN G O F TH E MAISABE L PETROGLYPH S Th e stor y o f th e Maisabe l sit e (Aye s 1985b ; Siege l 1986) firs t discovere d i n 197 9 b y a loca l residen t base d o n hi s awarenes s o f th e petroglyph s nea r th e shore begin s i n earl y Cedrosia n Saladoi d times Th e Maisabe l sit e fit s th e patter n o f othe r ver y large but spatiall y isolated site s alon g th e norther n coas t o f Puert o Ric o (Ro e 1984:156 ; Ro e e t al 1985:56 ) (Fig 1) On e find s suc h site s o n th e windwar d sid e o f th e island wher e th e prevailin g northeasterlie s las h th e coast bu t wher e ther e ar e offshore bufferin g rampart s tha t interfer e wit h th e easterl y wavetrain s (Kay e 1959:54 60) I n th e proces s o f diffractin g th e waves suc h formation s creat e shallo w lunat e embayment s (Fig 2) Th e latte r provid e cal m anchorage s fo r dugou t canoes Togethe r wit h th e offshor e lan d forms th e embayment s allo w th e formatio n o f thalassia beds Th e embay ment s an d th e reef-lik e characteristic s o f th e sea-frontin g formation s creat e niche s ric h i n fis h an d mollusca n fauna At Maisabel thos e sea

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32 4 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L frontin g formation s ar e unusuall y broa d an d compris e lithifie d dun e (eolinitic ) an d chemicall y identica l calcite-cemente d sandston e beachroc k o f Holocen e ag e (Kay e 1959:50-51 68-69) I t i s int o th e latte r sof t ston e tha t th e Maisabe l petroglyph s wer e carved Man y favorabl e circumstance s othe r tha n th e sheltere d embayment suc h a s clos e proximit y t o th e mout h o f th e Ri o Cibuc o t o th e east freshwate r spring s an d low-lyin g swamp s t o th e south an d th e brackis h environmen t o f a larg e mangrov e fores t wit h accompanyin g mollusca n an d crustacea n fauna s t o th e southeast al l create d th e necessar y condition s fo r a n early pioneerin g occupation Th e resul t wa s a larg e Saladoi d sit e (Fig 2 ) wit h a concentrically-arranged semi-circula r patter n o f mound s an d fla t plaza lik e inter-moun d areas A t leas t on e suc h regio n ha d a specialize d "cemetery functio n (Siege l an d Bernstei n 1988) Thi s occupatio n date s bac k t o 10 0 B.C b y C-1 4 dating Althoug h othe r larg e contemporaneou s site s li e fa r t o th e east researc h i n Dorad o (t o th e immediat e east ) ha s confirme d th e absenc e o f a larg e Saladoi d sit e i n clos e proximit y t o Maisabe l (Orti z Montae z 1986:24) Rous e (1988:Fig 5 ) depict s a distribu tio n ma p wit h equivalentl y wid e spacin g t o th e west Larg e site s wit h wid e space s betwee n the m hint a t agonisti c inter-societa l relations Tha t is a multi-ethni c competitiv e an d pioneerin g settin g must hav e existed Indication s o f warfar e i n th e earl y Saladoi d osteologica l collections bot h a t Maisabe l (Budinof f 1988 ) an d Haciend a Grand e (ex-Castill o [no w CIIPR ] collectio n include s a mal e skul l wit h a simila r stingra y spin e lodge d i n it s base) confir m tha t pattern B y 600-120 0 A. D ther e wa s a widesprea d "bidirectional (Orti z Montae z 1986:25 ) settlemen t expansio n b y th e Cuevan Monserratea n an d the n Elena n successo r culture s (th e las t bein g o f th e "Ostionoid series) Whil e som e site s penetrat e int o th e piedmon t zon e o f th e interior other s move d towar d th e curren t coastlin e an d a maritim e orientation Thi s bi-pola r movemen t correspond s t o Rainey' s (1940 ) hoar y Crab/Shel l Cultur e dichotomy Tha t dichotom y i s no w assumin g th e dimension s o f a gradual i n situ continuu m o f changin g adaptation l a Goodwi n (1980 ) an d Rous e (1986) Thi s ne w settlemen t patter n represente d a "settling-in t o th e uniqu e insula r environmen t tha t Puert o Ric o offere d an d thu s create d a subsistenc e bas e fo r a subsequen t massiv e demographi c expansion Elena n site s ar e muc h mor e numerou s tha n thei r Saladoi d predecessors but individuall y muc h smaller Thei r clos e proximity on e t o another argue s fo r a mor e pacifi c milieu At th e Maisabe l site thes e regiona l change s ar e manifeste d i n a wa y tha t als o argue s fo r a continuit y o f culture Thi s wa s reflecte d i n a simila r concep t o f th e sit e fro m th e Saladoi d t o th e Elena n occupation s (Siege l an d Bernstei n 1988 ) Th e cemeter y are a continue d it s ancien t function th e restin g plac e o f biologicall y relate d population s throug h nin e centuries Residenc e continue d o n th e hig h ground but no w i n th e inter-moun d "saddle areas Yet ther e i s als o a dramati c expansio n o f settlemen t t o th e curren t shorelin e durin g Elena n times Apparently string s o f hut s an d thei r associate d residentia l compound s occupie d th e lo w dune s i n fron t o f th e lunat e embayment The y nestle d behin d th e protectiv e T-shape d Puert o Nuev o peninsul a (Fig 2 )

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RO E 32 5 Th e 1985-198 7 CEAPR C fieldschools o f whic h I a m th e Director hav e documente d a continuous bu t no t dense Elena n midde n erodin g ou t o f th e curren t san d dunes I t extend s som e 50 0 m alon g th e shore an d fo r 1 5 m offshor e a s th e secon d onl y submarin e prehistori c surve y i n Puert o Rica n archaeology initiate d b y tw o scuba-equippe d CEAPR C student s i n ou r 198 7 fieldschool indicated Th e denses t part s o f tha t shallo w midde n (begin nin g a t 1 0 c m belo w curren t surfac e level ) ar e concentrate d a t th e ben d i n th e embaymen t nea r th e easter n bas e o f th e peninsula i n direc t associatio n wit h th e petroglyph s (Fig 3) Furthermore w e kno w tha t th e Holocen e beachroc k int o whic h thes e petroglyph s wer e carve d i s i n a continuou s proces s o f formatio n extendin g int o th e presen t (Kay e 1959:70-79) Th e curiou s step-lik e course s o f thi s eoliniti c beachroc k curv e insid e o f th e sand y beac h i n a manne r suggestiv e o f dramati c erosio n o f th e beac h bluff Thi s i s a phenomeno n als o atteste d t o b y th e expose d root s an d topplin g trunk s o f th e dune-retainin g coconu t palm s an d pine s tha t for m th e presen t vegetatio n o f th e dune Differen t area s o f thi s beachroc k therefor e lithif y a t differen t times W e foun d moder n bottl e glas s actuall y encruste d int o th e roc k a t on e point Moreover w e als o recovere d a t a n olde r segmen t o f th e beachrock i n a n are a fa r remove d fro m th e petroglyph s (Fig 3) bot h a petaloi d cel t an d a n edge-grinde r o f basal t encruste d int o th e beachrock Th e latte r i s a n Elena n holdove r fro m Archai c an d Haciend a Grand e Saladoi d time s (Walke r 1985:186 Figs 9-10) Thi s materia l wa s discovere d a t th e easternmos t extensio n o f th e expose d beachroc k nea r whol e Elena n vessel s eroding vi a wav e action int o th e se a ou t o f th e sandstone The y wer e stil l i n situ a s the y ha d bee n whe n th e san d i n whic h the y wer e interre d turne d t o stone TH E PETROGLYPH S Furthe r t o th e west o n a n olde r patc h o f beachrock ar e th e thre e group s o f uniqu e "beac h petroglyphs. The y loo k upward bein g engrave d int o th e horizonta l beachroc k step s (Fig 15) rathe r tha n bein g carve d int o vertica l o r obliqu e rive r boulde r o r cav e locations a s w e ar e accustome d t o seeing Indeed thes e nearl y unprecedente d beac h petroglyph s ad d a ne w fourt h typ e t o Fewkes (1907:149 ) hoar y three-typ e classification : river cav e an d (bal l park ) boundar y ston e petroglyphs W e ca n no w ad d "beac h petroglyphs t o tha t list Thes e Maisabe l specimens however ar e no t completel y uniqu e sinc e anothe r beac h petroglyp h ha s bee n reporte d fro m par t o f th e contem porar y Ostiona n Ensenad a (R-l ) sit e a t Rinc n o n th e northwester n coas t (Alem n e t al 1986:18 Fig 6) A s a furthe r poin t o f similarit y t o som e o f th e Maisabe l beac h petroglyphs th e Ensenad a glyp h i s als o repute d t o b e a fish However i t i s currentl y invisible bein g covere d b y th e tid e an d san d sediments Thi s i s th e sam e sor t o f overburde n w e ha d t o laboriousl y clea r fro m th e Maisabe l examples Th e twice-dail y inundatio n o f th e Maisabe l petroglyph s unde r hig h tid e argue s fo r th e mea n se a leve l havin g bee n somewha t lowe r whe n the y wer e carve d tha n i t i s today Indeed a geomorphologica l stud y o f th e beac h are a b y Questel l (1987 ) suggest s tha t th e se a leve l wa s 5 0 c m lowe r i n

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32 6 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L Elena n times Thi s prio r leve l produce d a loca l histor y o f subsequen t eustati c regressio n an d beac h erosio n whic h i s consisten t wit h th e presen t beac h degradatio n an d th e redepositio n o f Elena n potter y fragment s throug h wav e action Th e beachroc k itsel f i s ver y sof t sandston e an d wa s apparentl y carve d b y harde r diorit e o r greenston e implement s usin g th e "pec k an d groove technique The y revea l broa d U-shape d incision s (Fig 16) I n it s softnes s th e beachroc k i s equivalen t t o th e yieldin g calcit e deposit s i n th e Kars t topograph y o f th e Puert o Rica n caves Indeed th e famou s Cuev a de l Indi o sit e nea r Arecib o t o th e wes t (Pinar t 1979[1890] : 75 wher e i t i s designate d Cuev a de l Islote) an d i n whic h ther e ar e stylisticall y cognat e petroglyph s o f a simila r age i s forme d b y wav e solutio n withi n th e sam e kin d o f tectonicall y uplifted lithifie d dune s tha t compos e th e Puert o Nuev o peninsul a protectin g th e Maisabe l beac h petroglyphs Lon g ag o Fewke s (1907:150 ) note d tha t th e natur e o f th e ra w roc k material s upo n whic h Puert o Rica n petroglyph s wer e incise d determine d thei r quality Th e har d diorite/quartzit e rive r boulder s paradoxicall y (becaus e o f th e greate r effor t neede d t o wor k them ) hav e th e finest mos t controlle d carvings I n contrast th e softe r calcit e cav e petroglyph s evidenc e sloppie r execution Thes e new but sometime s sloppy beachroc k petroglyph s ar e therefor e comparabl e t o th e cav e petroglyphs Typicall y th e beac h glyph s ar e meanderin g an d ver y dee p (1. 2 c m deep 2. 5 c m wide) Perhap s thei r dept h reveal s th e sam e periodi c "renewing o r "re-engraving tha t Frassett o (1960:385-386 ) note d fo r som e boulde r an d cav e types Wit h th e exceptio n o f th e isolate d petroglyp h o f Grou p C (thi s "group bein g compose d o f onl y on e carving th e anomalou s plume d India n hea d C-l Figs 4-6) al l o f thes e petroglyph s see m t o b e contemporary The y ap parentl y dat e t o Elena n times base d jointl y o n thei r associatio n wit h th e linea r Elena n beac h occupation an d o n stylisti c grounds Thi s accord s wit h a genera l patter n aroun d th e island wher e petro glyph s (pictograph s ma y b e earlier ) see m t o star t wit h th e Elena n Ostionoi d an d Ostiona n Ostionoi d styles Thi s ma y b e becaus e the y represen t a shif t fro m th e small semipreciou s an d exquisitely-worke d lapidar y ar t (Chanlatt e 1981 1983 ) o f th e "persona l presentation materia l cultur e o f th e triba l Saladoi d societies t o th e monumenta l an d distantly-visibl e "publi c art o f th e incipien t chiefdom s o f pre-Tain o times I t i s thu s no t a coincidenc e tha t bal l park s com e i n a t thi s tim e (probabl y jus t b y differentiatin g fro m danc e plazas) an d ar e als o associate d wit h petroglyph s a s boundar y marker s a t site s suc h a s Tibe s (Questel l 1983 ) an d E l Bronc e (Robinso n e t al 1983 Frontispiece 51-52 Plate s 9-10 [Plat e 9 redraw n her e a s Fig 14 a fro m m y ow n polyethylene-tracin g fro m th e origina l ston e slab] ; Robinso n 1985:12 Fig 3 Fig 9 [F955]) Bot h bal l park s an d thei r associate d petroglyph s ar e manifestation s o f distantly-visible "display art The y ar e crud e monument s t o th e con spicuou s consumptio n o f manpowe r and indirectly th e displa y o f politica l power A s such bal l park s an d boundar y glyph s contras t wit h th e cultura l refinemen t o f th e smal l an d exquisitely-worke d artifact s o f earlie r islan d societies Th e latte r ar e usuall y "sartorial object s intende d t o b e

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RO E 32 7 examine d an d commente d upo n fro m u p close and a s such ar e alway s essentiall y personal TH E METHODOLOG Y O F DAT A RECOVER Y I hav e discusse d th e difficultie s o f usin g freehan d sketche s t o recor d petroglyphs A mor e reliabl e metho d o f drawin g i s t o d o tracing s o f slid e projections o r opaque-projecto r tracing s o f photoprint s o r negatives I n al l case s thes e ar e helpfu l an d ma y revea l detail s no t capture d i n rubbing s o r tracing s (Dubelaa r 1986a:5-6) Yet the y shar e th e difficultie s o f photograph s i n tha t th e obliqu e natur e o f man y shot s wil l yiel d distorted foreshortened asymmetrica l tracing s o f th e lithographs Thes e view s ma y alte r o r obscur e importan t details Man y investigator s therefor e hav e experimente d wit h alternativ e 1: 1 copyin g techniques Th e simples t metho d i s th e rubbing ofte n don e a s w e di d the m fo r al l th e glyphs wit h crumpled-u p carbo n pape r (Fig 6) Thi s i s bette r tha n usin g charcoa l stick s becaus e th e pape r doe s not brea k u p ove r irregula r surfaces Nevertheless rubbing s wor k muc h bette r o n th e flatter smoother mor e regula r surface s an d incision s o f rive r boulde r petroglyph s tha n the y d o o n th e dee p an d irregula r contour s o f cav e o r beachroc k petroglyphs Furthermore ther e i s ofte n a fuzzing-ou t o f th e incision s i n a rubbing an d tha t obscure s detail Nevertheless ou r rubbing s di d yiel d additiona l dat a an d ar e henc e t o b e recommende d i n eve n this thei r mos t difficul t application The y ar e bu t on e o f a batter y o f necessar y recordin g techniques Th e relate d practic e o f "overprinting, usin g roller s an d printer' s ink a s William s (1978:Fig 1 ) ha s don e fo r Guyan a petroglyphs yield s bette r result s tha n rubbings but require s mor e material s an d implement s an d work s bes t o n th e bette r qualit y rive r boulde r carvings Frassett o (1960:382 ) ha s develope d a surfac e printin g techniqu e tha t als o work s o n th e deepe r an d mor e irregula r cav e petroglyphs bu t i t i s mor e cumbersom e an d involve s mor e step s tha n eithe r o f th e othe r methods Goodlan d (Bulle n 1973b : 65 ; Dubelaa r 1986a:135 ) innovate d a latex moldin g "peel techniqu e fo r recordin g Guyan a petroglyphs I t hold s grea t promis e an d wil l b e employe d nex t fiel d seaso n o n Maisabe l petroglyp h C-l However bot h late x an d acryli c modelin g paste whic h hav e simila r proper ties ar e heavy time-consumin g an d expensive Fortunately anothe r techniqu e ha s evolve d whic h i s perhap s th e simplest mos t portabl e an d leas t expensiv e o f th e accurat e 1: 1 method s fo r recordin g lithographs Unlik e othe r methods sav e drawin g an d photographs i t wil l wor k fo r bot h petroglyph s an d pictographs regardles s o f thei r paren t materia l an d execution Moreover i t wil l yiel d a mor e unambiguou s lin e tha n th e relie f techniques On e lay s a clea r shee t o f acetat e o r polyethylen e ove r th e lithograph an d draw s directl y ove r th e lines tracin g the m wit h a fine-pointe d permanent marke r lik e "Sharpie. Sanoj a an d Varga s firs t employe d thi s techniqu e t o trac e th e pictograph s o f Cuev a E l Elefant e i n Venezuel a (1970:39) whil e I independentl y reinvente d i t fo r tracin g rive r boulde r

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32 8 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L petroglyph s i n Adjuntas Puert o Rico i n 1980 On e ca n purchas e cheap heav y gaug e clea r polyethylen e i n fabri c store s tha t sel l tabl e covering s fo r restaurants Or i n th e field on e ca n improvis e fla t sheet s b y cuttin g u p clear heav y dut y plasti c artifac t bags I f necessary on e ca n tap e th e bag s togethe r t o cove r irregula r an d three-dimensiona l feature s lik e cav e stalagmit e petroglyphs Th e nex t ste p i s t o photographicall y reduc e (t o avoi d scalin g errors ) thes e tracings togethe r wit h a scale an d the n produc e fina l inked-i n rendering s o n tracin g velu m o r myla r wit h rapidograph s an d permanen t draftin g ink Thes e ar e th e method s I use d t o dra w al l th e figure s fo r thi s report Fo r th e Maisabe l petroglyphs a long continuou s 4 0 m rol l o f plasti c wa s lai d ove r th e group s o f petroglyph s t o preserv e thei r accurat e spatia l interrelationships Thus fo r stud y purposes whe n redrawin g a petroglyph I ca n als o dra w associate d petroglyph s o n eithe r sid e a t a reduce d scal e i n orde r t o sho w th e spatia l contex t o f th e feature d petroglyph B y comparin g black-and-whit e photographs colo r slides an d rubbings wit h th e acetat e tracing s on e ca n eve n presen t alternativ e rendering s fo r al l petroglyph s (fo r ther e i s alway s som e doub t a s t o details) Furthermore thes e drawing s wer e mad e afte r repeate d viewing s o f al l th e glyphs, unde r differen t ligh t condition s an d inundationa l circumstance s (i n on e cas e th e latte r phenomeno n helpe d b y depositin g fin e san d i n a n incisio n tha t ha d escape d al l previou s notice thu s highlightin g i t naturally) Or mor e speculatively a s I hav e don e base d o n comparativ e evidenc e i n Fig 14b-a reconstructio n o f m y polyethylen e tracin g o f Fig 14a--on e migh t eve n ventur e a gues s a s t o wha t th e artis t o f a n erode d petroglyp h (thi s on e fro m E l Bronce chronologicall y an d stylisticall y relatabl e t o th e Maisabe l petroglyphs ) ma y hav e originall y intended Ther e i s a s muc h plac e fo r alternat e an d reconstructe d drawing s i n a repor t o n petroglyph s a s ther e i s fo r on e arbitrar y version STYLISTIC S O F TH E MAISABE L PETROGLYPH S However merel y recordin g petroglyphs n o matte r ho w carefull y i t i s done i s pointles s withou t a methodolog y fo r analyzin g thei r element s an d motifs I t i s thi s aspec t tha t wil l yiel d th e initia l space/tim e matri x withi n whic h cultura l question s ca n b e addressed I hav e use d her e a ne w metho d fo r "decomposing th e image s int o thei r part s an d the n "recomposing the m t o for m motif s an d desig n layout s suitabl e fo r iconographi e analysis I t i s base d o n th e fourt h generatio n moda l analyti c framewor k develope d fo r incise d design s o n ceramic s b y othe r investigator s an d mysel f fo r th e Cumancay a Traditio n o f th e Peruvia n monta a (Raymon d e t al 1975) First on e isolate s th e majo r dimension s o f forma l variabilit y fo r a give n corpus Thi s i s don e experimentally unles s on e ca n actuall y observ e fabricationa l stage s i n a n ethnographi c settin g whic h defin e th e dimension s processually Th e latte r optio n i s obviousl y impossibl e i n mos t ardhaeologica l settings I hav e collapse d bot h regiona l petroglyph s an d pictograph s int o on e corpu s fo r thi s provisiona l exercise Whe n a fulle r treatmen t i s eventuall y attempted separat e moda l analyse s fo r bot h medi a shoul d b e don e t o isolat e executiona l medi a influence s (Ro e 1982b:Fig 3 ) o n th e lithographs

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RO E 32 9 I n Figure s 17-3 2 I hav e define d thes e dimension s (b y n o mean s exhaus tively ) fo r jus t th e anthropomorphi c representations The y are : Hea d Forms Ey e an d Pupi l Forms Mouths Noses Diadems Hairline Chee k Patterns Ears Earplugs Uppe r Li p Lines Fac e Appendages Torsos Tors o Patterns Tors o Appendages Tors o Finials Arms Hands Legs Feet an d Genitalia A precociou s analo g o f thi s approac h wa s independentl y deve lope d b y d e Hosto s (1923:Figs 17-22 ) whe n h e isolate d eye nose ea r an d mout h type s fro m sculptur e (not lithographs) bu t withou t th e presen t grammatica l framework A componentia l analysi s o f al l th e image s i n th e corpu s the n yield s a numbe r o f modes o r culturally-recognize d choice s o f images withi n eac h dimension Fo r example ther e ar e 1 4 varietie s o f head s withi n th e "Head dimensio n (Fig 21) I n al l cases I hav e als o indicate d a "null categor y a s th e las t o f th e mode s withi n eac h o f thes e dimensions Th e nul l optio n applie s t o th e depiction s i n whic h suc h mode s ar e no t used th e choic e t o no t us e somethin g on e i s awar e o f bein g jus t a s muc h a choic e a s t o selec t i t (Lemonnie r 1986:161) On e o f th e object s o f thi s exercis e i s t o b e abl e t o differentiat e betwee n contrastin g images I f tw o depiction s ar e stylisticall y divergent jus t ho w differen t ar e they ? On e ca n answe r wha t use d t o b e a frustrating l y subjectiv e questio n wit h a quantitativ e answer Rephrased on e ca n obtai n a "similarit y quotient simpl y b y comparin g share d dimension s an d mode s an d the n applyin g a statistica l test suc h a s Chi-Square t o se e jus t ho w differen t o r simila r the y reall y are Figur e 3 3 show s thre e differen t lithograph s (Figs 9 [A-ll] 1 3 [B-4 ] an d 1 4 [C-2] ) an d ho w the y compar e i n a flo w char t o f moda l selection s withi n th e dimension s o f a huma n depictio n i n Antillea n petroglyphs A systemati c compariso n o f regiona l image s usin g thi s syste m ca n mak e possibl e th e identificatio n o f stylisti c province s a s a firs t ste p t o decipherin g cultur e proces s an d history Thi s metho d accomplishe s anothe r goa l beyon d simpl y definin g stylisti c provinces Thes e image s ar e no t pu t togethe r haphazardly bu t instea d respon d t o cultura l rule s tha t manipulat e th e element s alread y identified Figur e 3 4 begin s th e assayin g o f suc h rules Fo r example w e se e th e sam e mechanis m o f "perceptua l ambiguity i n thes e petroglyph s tha t exist s i n pre-Tain o potter y lugs Thi s i s a playfu l doubl e entent e whereb y on e ca n examin e a fac e o n a modele d lug an d the n tur n th e lu g upside-dow n t o vie w anothe r fac e sharin g th e sam e eye s o r mout h a s th e firs t one bu t inverte d abov e i t (Fig 34 Villa) W e se e thi s i n A-1 4 (Fig 9 ) wher e a smal l hea d wit h limb s perche s ato p th e beginnin g o f another large r fac e wit h tw o eye s an d a (probable ) pendan t mouth Th e outline s o f tha t large r fac e simul taneousl y functio n a s th e lowe r extremitie s o f th e smalle r figur e abov e it Anothe r for m o f perceptua l ambiguit y i s calle d "kenning, followin g Rowe' s (1967 ) decodin g o" f symboli c ambiguit y i n Chavi n iconography Thi s i s a highl y evolve d an d indirec t for m o f referenc e (Ro e 1975 ) whereby fo r example bodie s becom e tongue s b y emergin g ou t o f mouths or a s her e (A-l Fig 7) th e wais t o f a n incomplet e "wrappe d figure become s a face Or th e bod y o f a se a turtl e become s a fac e (A-23 Fig 11 ) an d it s flipper s "rays. Th e imag e become s bot h a "sub-mediall y raye d face, an d a "se a turtl e wit h mark s o n it s carapace (Fig 34 VHIb ) simultaneously

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33 0 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L A n understandin g o f thes e rule s allow s th e studen t t o anticipat e ne w combination s not alread y recorded a s wel l a s deciphe r know n depictions Th e firs t ste p i s t o synthesiz e pattern s ou t o f th e analysis Tha t is a se t o f "desig n compounds, o r motif s (Fig 35) ar e identifie d tha t represen t commo n manipulation s o f th e dimension s an d modes Fo r instance usin g th e "perceptua l ambiguity rul e on e ca n generat e "alte r ego motif s consistin g o f a mai n figur e wit h a smaller subsidiar y figur e perche d o n it s head I n Puert o Ric o th e commo n exampl e o f thi s alte r eg o moti f take s th e for m o f "solar perchin g figure s functionin g a s "crowns o n wrappe d figure s (Bulle n 1973a:Fig 5 Uppe r Icacos) I n th e Dominica n Republi c simple r examples muc h lik e A-14 ar e foun d i n th e Cueva s de l Borbo n (Paga n Perdom o 1978:54) Presumably thes e motif s gaine d currenc y becaus e the y carrie d profoun d meaning W e kno w tha t i n relate d area s o f Sout h America lik e Colombia th e alte r eg o moti f refer s t o powerfu l shamanisti c fami liars o r titula r spirits an d linke d notion s o f spiritua l transformatio n (Reichel-Dolmatof f 1972:Fig 75 ; Ro e 1982a:296) Below I wil l decod e th e semantic s o f on e Maisabe l motif th e "swaddle d infant=ancestor figure Lastly beyon d th e morphologica l level on e identifie s an y coheren t aestheti c statement o r desig n layout employe d i n roc k art. Thi s i s a sequential o r symmetrical arrangemen t o f motifs I n a n ar t for m wher e ever y depictio n wa s don e fo r it s ow n sake sometime s partiall y erasin g a n earlie r imag e beneat h it i t i s rar e t o fin d desig n layouts Obviously thi s make s an y suc h instance n o matte r ho w abbreviated ver y important Figur e 35d fo r example base d o n Fewke s (1907:151 ) fo r pairin g o f th e "swaddle d type petroglyph s i n Utuado perhap s indicate s th e "Magica l Twins. Thi s figur e als o show s "interna l pairing i n a ver y interestin g larg e Ri o Espirit u Sant o wrappe d figure' s face Car a de l Indi o site i n Humaca o (Rodrigue z Lpe z 1981:Fot o 17) REGIONA L STYLISTI C AFFINITIE S O F TH E MAISABE L LITHOGRAPH S Onc e th e motif s hav e bee n synthesized th e nex t ste p i s t o examin e th e regiona l stylisti c affinitie s o f th e motifs I wil l emphasiz e Puert o Ric o an d th e Dominica n Republic leavin g Lesse r Antillea n an d norther n Sout h America n (Guianas Venezuela Colombia ) example s fo r mor e indirec t refer ence Th e goggle d visag e represente d b y th e left-han d engravin g o f A-4 Fig 7 (th e right-han d "T i s probabl y a partiall y complete d eyebrow-nos e motif ) i s als o foun d i n regiona l caves suc h a s th e Cuev a d e la s Archillas Barri o Torrecillas Morovis wher e i t i s calle d a "mask (Aye s 1985a:5-6 Petroglif o 1 ) Simila r oculares hav e bee n recorde d fo r Adjunta s (Collaz o 1983:3-4) a t th e famou s piedra pintada o n th e ol d roa d fro m Aibonit o t o Caye y (Pinar t 197 9 [1890 ] : PI 10 Fig 1) an d furthe r t o th e east a t th e Car a de l Indi o sit e alon g th e Ri o Espirit u Sant o (Rodrigue z Lpe z 1981 : Fot o 8 Dibuj o 3) Th e interestin g Maisabe l "bat hea d portraye d i n A6 (Fig 8 ) als o appear s i n on e o f th e large r petroglyph s ou r fieldschoo l trace d a t th e famou s Cuev a de l Indi o t o th e east nea r Arecibo I t appear s a s wel l i n Jayuy a i n th e interio r (Collaz o 1983:5) an d th e Ri o Espirit u Santo Car a de l Indi o sit e (Rodrigue z Lpe z 1981:Fot o 8 Dibuj o 3) Walke r (1983 : Fig 18 ) ha s recorde d anothe r possibl e bat figur e alon g th e Ri o Blanco easter n

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RO E 33 1 Puert o Rico Clearl y th e bat wa s a n importan t loca l figure mayb e becaus e it s canine s represente d a miniatur e analo g o f th e feline's Simple r faces lik e A7 (Fig 8) an d on e fro m Cuev a de l Islot e (Pinar t 1979[1890] : PI 1) o r a "cognate fac e recorde d b y Fewke s (1907 Plat e LX Pt li) ar e to o commo n t o b e o f muc h use Th e obviou s "Sun portraye d i n A-l l (Fig 9 ) show s ho w th e "sub mediall y raye d face an d th e "sola r crowned motif s intergrade a s the y d o i n numerou s analogou s pictograph s fro m cave s i n nearb y Morovi s (Martine z Torre s 1981:Figs 2-4 18 74 169) Thi s wa s obviousl y a n importan t imag e (ethnographicall y th e Su n i s almos t a suprem e deit y i n lowlan d belie f systems Ro e 1982a:250) a s i t i s picture d frequently fro m Cuev a de l Islote=Indi o (Pinar t 1979[1890] : 75 PI 2 Figs 1-2 ) t o Utuad o (Fewke s 1907:151 Plat e LX Pt ld,e ) t o neighborin g L a Cuev a de l Negro i n th e Ciale s cordillera wher e th e imag e i s associate d wit h "sub-Taino ceramic s (Aye s 1986b:5[6]) t o Salt o Arriba Utuad o (Frassett o 1960:Figs 5 8) Jayuy a (Collaz o 1983:4) an d a t Car a de l Indi o (Rodrgue z Lpe z 1981 : Dibuj o 2 Fot o 16) Th e Sout h America n parallel s stretch a s migh t b e predicted fro m Venezuel a (Suj o Volsk y 1975 Fig 123 a t Quebrad a d e Tusmare) t o Colombi a (Boter o an d Oostr a 1977:30 Lm CVX Ri o Caqueta) Immediatel y t o th e east i n Dorado ther e ar e man y "simpl e faces lik e A-1 3 (Fig 9 ) bu t the y appea r i n mogote (limeston e outlier ) cave s an d appea r t o dat e t o Tain o time s (Orti z Montae z 1986 Apndic e III Tabl a B) Suc h simpl e face s aboun d i n th e mountainou s interior suc h a s i n variou s cave s i n Morovi s (Martine z Torre s 1981:Figs 11-14 63-66) an d i n Ciale s (Aye s 1986a:12-13 1986b:3 ; Pinar t 1979[1890]:P1 9 Fig 80) The y appea r everywhere fro m th e interio r o f th e cente r o f th e islan d aroun d Cagua s (Betancour t 1983:5 ) t o th e Ri o Espirit u Sant o Car a de l Indi o comple x (Rodrgue z Lpe z 1981:Dibuj o 2) The y eve n appea r i n th e northeaster n coas t a t th e Ensenad a sit e nea r Rinc n (Alem n e t al 1986:18 Fig 5) I n th e latte r cas e the y ar e "Elenan b y association a s the y ar e i n on e o f th e Ciale s cave s (Aye s 1986b:3) Elsewhere the y ar e Tain o (Aye s 1986a:12 ) t o judge--i f on e can--b y potter y associations Bulle n (1973a:13 1974:97 ) ha s covere d th e othe r Greate r an d Lesse r Antillea n distributio n o f thi s form Othe r image s a t Maisabel a surprisin g number ar e uniqu e t o thi s site Thes e ar e th e "fishtraps, fish an d som e o f th e "geometric motifs suc h a s A-2 1 (Fig 11) Singula r als o i s what ma y b e a heretofor e unsee n fronta l vie w o f a three-pointe r wit h anthropomorphi c fac e (Alegra persona l identification 1987) O n th e othe r hand certai n Maisabe l images lik e th e "wrappe d figure, hav e almost to o man y parallel s (Bulle n 1973 c : 66-67) I t appear s a t ever y sit e mentione d above However fo r type s tha t hav e th e "single-X tors o patter n o f B4 (Fig 13) w e fin d a tighte r geographica l distribution Thi s include s a n otherwis e dissimila r Cuev a d e la s Paloma s pictograp h fro m Morovi s (Martne z Torre s 1981:Fig 66) an d ver y simila r Cuev a de l Islote=Indi o eoliniti c petroglyph s nea r Arecib o (Pinar t 1979[1890] : Pis 1 2 Fig 6 PI 3 Figs 10-11) Othe r singleX wrappe d figures lik e th e on e Fewke s cite s fro m "easter n Puert o Rico (1907:157 ) (an d Walke r 1983:Fig 4 show s a s comin g fro m th e Ri o Blanco ) ma y b e contemporar y wit h

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33 2 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L thi s Maisabe l depictio n whil e others suc h a s th e one s Bulle n (1973a:Fig 5 ) an d Frassett o (1960:Fig 8 ) pictur e fro m Uppe r Icacos Utuado ar e almos t certainl y later tha t i s Taino Othe r Lesse r Antillea n (Cler c 1973:Fig 7 Campesterr e site Guadeloupe) Guiana n (Dubelaa r 1986a:84 Wonotob o Falls Surinam) an d Brazilia n (Dubelaa r 1986a:Figs 230 235 Arquiplag o d e Tarum Cumin River ) singleX tors o patterne d wrappe d figure s ar e al l conceptuall y related bu t stylisticall y distinct The y ar e probabl y variant s o f th e mor e numerou s "multiple-X type Considerin g then bot h th e morpholog y an d synta x o f thes e lithographi c images an d thei r space-tim e systematics th e stag e i s no w se t fo r th e iconographi e decodin g o f thes e petroglyphs ICONOGRAPH Y O F TH E MAISABE L IMAGE S Wha t i s ver y strikin g abou t thi s assemblag e o f petroglyph s i s thei r marke d aquati c imagery Unlik e an y o f th e inlan d rive r o r cav e petro glyphs thes e Maisabe l carving s displa y a wealt h o f oceani c fish crusta cea n an d reptilia n imager y i n additio n t o th e familia r anthropomorphi c (A 1 Fig 7 ) an d non-representational o r conventionalized geometri c depictions Perhap s thi s iconograph y reflect s th e Elena n orientatio n t o th e sea A cra b appear s (A-2 Fig 7 ) an d i s simila r t o clea r depiction s (wit h pincers ) fro m Cuev a d e la s Palomas Cuev a d e l a Mat a d e Guine o an d Cuev a d e la s Golondrinas al l fro m neighborin g Morovi s (Martne z Torre s 1981:Figs 71-73 128) A smal l turtl e i s depicte d i n A3 (Fig 7) a s wel l a s a muc h large r Carey de Concha, th e Hawksbil l (Eretmochelys imbricata) (CIC A n.d.) Thi s figur e (A-23 Fig 11 ) i s portraye d oriente d t o th e shor e (afte r all thes e larg e se a turtle s com e t o lan d t o la y thei r egg s an d ar e the n vulnerabl e t o huma n prdation) whil e righ t nex t t o i t i s a conventionalize d fis h (A-24 Fig 12) Th e latte r point s i n th e opposit e direction towar d th e sea th e natura l habita t o f fish A virtuall y identica l fis h wa s recorde d b y thi s autho r fro m th e analogou s sit e o f Cuev a de l Indi o nea r Arecib o t o th e west whil e a simila r Carey wa s recorde d b y Walke r (1983:Fig 20 ) fro m a rive r petroglyp h i n th e Ri o Blanco easter n coas t o f Puert o Rico bu t no t i n associatio n wit h fish F Fernndez a "Recurso s Naturales ichthyologist ha s identifie d th e A-2 3 schemati c rendering an d tha t o f th e simila r A-2 6 an d A-2 7 (Fig 12) a s probabl y representin g on e o f th e Jacks th e Carangida e (los jureles i n Puert o Rica n Spanis h [Erdma n 1987:3]) Thes e ar e strong-swimming rovin g fis h tha t ente r thes e ree f zone s a s predators A s Randal l (1983:101 ) point s out "(m)an y o f th e carangids suc h a s th e pmpanos ar e highl y esteeme d foo d fish. I n term s o f thei r spiked projectin g dorsa l an d ana l fins an d thei r scissore d cauda l fins outline d i n blac k agains t a strikin g silver y body th e Permit (Trachinotus falcatus) (Randal l 1983 : Fig 131 ) o r th e Harves t Fish th e palometa i n regiona l Spanis h (Peprilus paru) (Erdma n 1987:Fig XLIII) ar e th e bes t loca l candidate s fo r thes e petroglyphi c representations Ther e ar e other les s conventionalized fis h depiction s amon g -th e Maisabe l petroglyphs Som e ar e unidentifiable lik e A-1 2 (Fig 9) whil e

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RO E 33 3 other s are lik e A9 (Fig 8 ) an d A-1 5 (Fig 10) F Fernnde z immediate l y labele d A9 a s th e Quee n Triggerfish o r peje puerco i n loca l Spanis h (Erdma n 1987:Fig XLVI Balistes vetula) on e o f th e tetraodontiformes I t i s a commo n ree f fis h esteeme d fo r it s tast y fles h (Randal l 1983:Fig 290) Th e Triggerfis h an d simila r form s ar e als o on e o f th e mos t commo n fis h i n th e Maisabe l fauna l assemblage Lastly F Fernnde z ha s identifie d A-1 5 (Fig 10) wit h it s bulk y body gapin g mout h an d projectin g mandible a s a grouper on e o f th e Serranidae Th e bes t loca l candidat e i s th e Re d Hind o r mero chema (Epinephelus guttatus) (Randal l 1983:57-58 ; Erdma n 1987 : Fig XXII) I t ma y b e significan t tha t al l thre e o f th e identifie d fis h depiction s als o hav e thre e thing s i n common : (1 ) the y ar e al l identifie d a s bein g particularl y savor y foo d fish ; (2 ) the y ar e al l visuall y striking bein g colorfull y and/o r dynamicall y marked ; an d (3 ) al l o f the m occasionall y carr y th e potentiall y deadl y neurologica l illnes s ciguatera ( a Tain o Arawa k term) Fo r a cultur e tha t use d mind-alterin g hallucinogens th e symptom s o f thi s tropica l affliction on e o f whic h i s t o alte r sens e perception s (col d feel s intensel y hot ; heat freezing) migh t hav e marke d i t a s havin g a supernatura l etiology M y ow n studie s o f lowlan d mythi c symbolis m (Roe i n press ) indicat e tha t th e overlappin g zon e betwee n tw o contrastin g (opposing ) conceptua l categories th e Ven n diagra m o f "Esteeme d Foo d Fish/Poisonou s Inedibl e Fish, ma y hav e bee n mythicall y marked Therefor e th e fis h tha t occupie d tha t conceptua l zon e coul d b e graphicall y repre sente d a s bein g paragon s o f thei r kind Depiction s o f fis h ar e considere d rare bu t hav e bee n reporte d o n occasion i n bot h th e Antille s (Alegra pers comm 198 7 o n a fis h pictograp h h e sa w i n a cav e nea r th e Sa n Vicent e central, L a Vega nea r th e coas t t o th e eas t o f Maisabel sinc e unlocatable ; Fewke s 1907 PI LXIa Ponce Puert o Rico ; Robinso n e t al 1985 Frontispiece E l Bronc e nea r Ponce ; Paga n Perdom o 1978:Pls 82-8 6 [pictographs] Cueva s de l Borbon Dominica n Republic ) an d norther n Sout h Americ a (Dubelaa r 1986a:Fig 154a Kuyuwin i River Guyana ; Fig 2233 [pictograph] Inip i River Frenc h Guiana ; Suj o Volsk y 1975 Fig 39 L a Candelaria Venezuela) O F FIS H TRAP S AN D POWE R Consonan t wit h th e numerou s depiction s o f fis h a t Maisabe l i s a geometri c moti f (A-10 Fig 9 ) locate d righ t nex t t o a fish I interpre t this base d o n th e littl e "+ motifs a s a wicke r wove n basketr y fis h trap I f thi s identificatio n i s correct mayb e it s redundan t proximit y t o a Maisabe l versio n o f th e "Sun (A-ll Fig 9 ) allude s t o a Guian a myth th e "Sun' s Fis h Trap (Lvi-Straus s 1973:221 o n th e Macusi) Ther e ar e severa l reason s fo r findin g th e identit y o f thi s an d simila r Maisabe l petroglyph s (Bl an d B-2 Fig 13 ) a s fis h trap s o r part s o f fis h weir s instructive First w e hav e a uniqu e numbe r o f edibl e aquati c faun a picture d a t Maisabel Second w e kno w fro m Fernnde z Mndez' s (cite d i n Ramo s y Ramire z 1987:4 ) investigation s o f th e ethnohistori c source s tha t th e Tain o ha d extensiv e fis h weirs Moreover the y use d the m t o tur n rive r mouths lak e island s an d bay s (suc h a s th e Ri o Cibuc o an d bot h side s o f th e Puert o Nuev o T-shape d peninsula ) int o giganti c "naturefact trap s (Fernn

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33 4 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L de z Mnde z 1960:10) Third w e als o kno w tha t ocea n frontag e wa s valuabl e fo r thes e Indians particularl y i f tha t frontag e include d suc h lan d features W e als o kno w tha t thes e feature s an d thei r associate d trap s continue d t o b e a controlle d resource th e us e o f whic h require d petition in g dow n int o colonia l time s (Fernnde z Mnde z 1960:12) Th e sourc e o f protei n throug h fishin g thi s technolog y provide d wa s easil y convertibl e int o politica l power. Th e source s tel l u s tha t high-rankin g caciques wh o controlle d acces s t o suc h zone s hel d swa y ove r lesse r neighborin g caciques wh o di d not Fourth Duran t (1981:80 ) inform s u s tha t i n simila r cultur e area s lik e aborigina l Virginia wher e th e sam e technolog y wa s employed on e wa y India n group s expresse d agonisti c relation s wit h competin g group s wa s t o sabotag e thei r enemy' s fishin g weirs Fifth w e kno w fro m Ramo s y Ramirez' s (1987:10 ) ethnohistorica l an d archaeologica l investigation s tha t a t leas t som e o f th e loca l Puert o Rica n fis h traps suc h a s th e on e o n Lak e Joyud a nea r Cab o Roj o o n th e southwes t coast date d bac k t o th e Ostionoi d time s o f th e Maisabe l petroglyphs Sixth fro m neighborin g an d culturally-relate d region s o f Sout h Americ a lik e th e Guiana s an d th e Northwes t Amazon w e ar e informe d o f bot h archaeo logica l (William s 1979 bu t se e Dubelaa r 1986a:80-8 1 fo r a critiqu e o f thi s interpretation ) an d ethnographi c instance s o f petroglyph s representin g fis h trap s an d bein g associate d wit h dee p pool s alon g river s wher e the y coul d bes t hav e bee n employed The y wer e use d a s territoria l marker s t o clai m favore d fishin g spot s b y ethni c group s i n competitio n wit h thei r neighbor s (Goldma n 1948:784 1963 o n th e Cubeo Northwes t Amazon) Seventh w e als o fin d i n neighborin g Venezuel a tha t petroglyph s ar e unusuall y abundan t a s a communicatio n devic e (carrying amon g others, message s abou t territoriali ty ) alon g th e river s an d coast s tha t woul d hav e provide d th e ver y migrator y an d tradin g avenue s alon g whic h th e mutua l exchang e o f suc h message s woul d hav e bee n most sociall y usefu l (E Rodrigue z 1985:48) Lastly Canin o Salgad o (1986:2 ) inform s u s vi a ethnohistorica l researc h i n Dorado tha t th e Ri o Cibuc o jus t t o th e eas t o f th e Maisabe l Play a wa s th e beginnin g o f on e suc h frontie r betwee n riva l cacicazgos. Fro m al l o f thes e element s I conclud e tha t th e Maisabe l petroglyph s marked an d mythologicall y validated th e ethni c "joint ownershi p o f valuabl e fishin g an d marin e huntin g resource s a s wel l a s th e necessar y naturefac t aid s (loca l landforms) Moreover thes e lithograph s wer e designe d t o communicat e tha t differentia l acces s acros s competitiv e ethni c boundaries On e migh t objec t tha t thi s inferenc e compare s apple s an d oranges : a n archaeologica l comple x wit h ethnohistorica l accounts Yet th e fac t tha t (1 ) I a m referrin g t o th e comparativel y lat e Elena n Ostionoi d complex no t th e muc h earlie r Saladoi d traditio n wher e symboli c an d economi c discon tinuitie s wit h th e ethnographi c presen t o f th e 15t h centur y ar e muc h mor e evident (2 ) ther e i s evidenc e tha t th e life-way s wer e simila r betwee n th e Elenoi d cultur e an d som e Tain o group s sinc e bot h utilize d th e littora l niche s an d manifeste d a simila r dietar y an d settlemen t organization an d (3 ) th e Tain o wer e th e direc t cultura l descendant s o f th e Elena n popula tion s i n thi s regio n o f Puert o Rico Fo r al l thes e reason s I argu e tha t direc t historica l analog y i s usefu l t o "explain th e functio n an d appear anc e o f thes e petroglyphs

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RO E 33 5 I f thes e allege d socio-economi c semiotic s o f th e Maisabe l petroglyph s ar e correct i s ther e an y evidenc e fo r th e mythi c justificatio n o f thei r markin g functions ? I sugges t tha t ther e wa s an d i t involve d th e figure s wit h X-shape d tors o patterns eithe r single lik e B4 (Fig 13) o r wit h multipl e X-shape d patterns TH E "SWADDLE D INFANT A S "WRAPPE D ANCESTOR Th e huma n figure s tha t appea r wit h thes e subsistence-oriente d glyphs whethe r a s ancestor s o r importan t deitie s lik e th e Su n (A-ll Fig 9) o r anthropomorphize d "three-pointer "zemis lik e th e on e see n i n full-face no t profile vie w i n A-2 0 (Fig 11 ) migh t hav e legitimize d tha t ownershi p i n term s o f kinship-base d join t propert y concepts Bot h Fewke s an d Lov n lon g ag o documente d th e importanc e o f ancesto r worshi p i n a t leas t th e Tain o en d o f thi s Antillea n animisti c tradition On e coul d als o cit e Frassetto' s rephrasin g o f Goldman' s studies : "I n Sout h America th e Cube o Indians primaril y a fishin g peopl e o f th e Vaups-Caquet a regio n (Northwes t Amazon ) conside r th e petroglyph s a t loca l rock y site s t o b e th e creatio n o f si b ancestor s an d defen d thei r rive r right s b y citin g th e engraving s a s territoria l validatio n [ I migh t add ther e hierarch y wa s als o implie d b y rive r placement statu s goin g u p th e furthe r dow n strea m one' s grou p occupie s spac e (Goldma n 1963:25)--wide r river s downstrea m bein g abl e t o suppor t mor e fis h an d therefor e yiel d mor e protein] Thes e petroglyph s ar e renewe d fro m tim e t o time (Goldma n 1948:784) T o thi s observatio n I als o relat e Porras Ecuadoria n Achua r identifica tio n o f thes e petroglyph s a s no t onl y bein g th e wor k o f th e ancestors bu t thei r "homes, o r "bodies a s well Hence I sugges t tha t th e traditional ly-designate d "Swaddle d Infant, als o presen t a t Maisabe l a s B4 (Fig 13) i s nothin g o f th e kind Rather i t i s a dea d ancesto r wrappe d i n a hammock Thu s it s presenc e a t th e sit e add s tha t dimensio n o f ancestra l supernatura l validatio n t o th e importan t subsistenc e an d politica l re source s th e Maisabe l petroglyph s safeguarde d wit h thei r profusio n o f symboli c aquati c protein. Thi s hypothesi s i s buttresse d b y th e fac t tha t ther e i s n o legitimat e loca l ethnographi c basi s fo r th e morphologica l analog y betwee n th e wrappe d figur e presen t i n th e Antilles a s i n B-4 an d th e Nort h Amerindia n patter n o f swaddlin g infants Th e analog y wa s initiate d i n th e 19t h centur y b y Pinar t (Alegri a 1979:75 n.3) an d wa s carrie d o n throug h conventio n b y Maller y (1972[1893] : 137 ) and i n th e 20t h century b y Frassett o (1960:386 ) an d Bulle n (1973c:66) Th e wa y i s ope n fo r a n alternativ e designation Wrappe d figure s aboun d a s lithographi c motif s i n Puert o Ric o an d th e Lesse r Antilles The y ar e al l directl y relatabl e t o th e Guiana n "Timehri typ e o f I m Thur n b y th e simpl e substitutio n o f a roun d o r squar e hea d fo r th e Guiana n semi-circula r expande d hea d (althoug h eve n tha t typ e i s sometime s foun d i n th e Lesse r Antilles--Huckerb y 1914 Plate s XXV a an d XXVII b fo r St Vincent ; se e Bulle n 1974:99 10 1 fo r th e contras t wit h th e Puert o Rica n petroglyphs) Componentially the y ar e all fro m th e Antille s t o Colombi a an d Brazil associate d wit h ("Solar" ) raye d (thereb y possibl y conferrin g supernatura l status ) headdresse s an d X-shape d tors o wrappin g patterns I decod e th e latte r moti f a s twined o r looped hammoc k netting

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33 6 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L Suc h a n identificatio n i s no t fancifu l sinc e on e o f th e commo n method s fo r interrin g o r exposin g th e dea d amon g lowlan d Sout h Amerindian s involve d wrappin g th e bod y i n a hammock Furthermore on e possibl e explanatio n fo r th e feta l positio n o f most ceramic-ag e burial s i n Puert o Rico includin g th e majorit y o f thos e fro m Maisabe l (Budinof f 1988) an d fo r thei r somewha t haphazar d orientatio n i n th e groun d (lyin g o n th e lef t side th e righ t side th e back o r seated ) i s tha t i t wa s easie r t o carr y an d lowe r a corps e wrappe d i n hi s o r he r hammoc k int o a narro w hol e tha n t o excavat e larg e hole s fo r extende d burials Thes e tightly-wrappe d bodie s woul d remai n i n whateve r attitud e the y assume d whe n the y hi t th e botto m o f thei r narro w buria l pit Moreover amon g th e anthropomorphi c Maisabe l petroglyph s (A-l Fig 7 ; A-16 A-17 an d A-19 Fig 10 ; A-22 Fig 11) a comparativ e componentia l an d generative-grammatica l analysi s o f th e whol e corpus an d relate d find s fro m m y ow n investigation s i n site s lik e Cuev a de l Indio suggest s tha t man y o f th e fragmentary eroded o r unfinishe d specimen s ma y reall y hav e bee n "Wrappe d Figures a s well Glyp h A-l fo r example show s a fac e o n th e middl e o f a n elongate d bod y o f a wrappe d figure-a pictoria l devic e foun d elsewher e i n th e Lesse r Antilles bu t wit h it s hea d missing ; A-1 7 i s a n "open-ended wrappe d figur e remarkabl y simila r t o analogou s figures wit h X-shape d markings fro m th e Troi s Rivire s sit e i n Guadeloup e (Cler c 1973:Fig 6) Eve n purel y geometri c designs lik e A-19 ar e reall y unfinished o r abraded portion s o f wrappe d figures What i s visibl e o f A 1 9 corresponds fo r example t o th e vertically-pitte d (Fig 28t ) tors o patter n o f othe r complet e regiona l specimens Moreover i t terminate s wit h th e "tri-footed tors o finia l patter n (Fig 29d ) o f typica l wrappe d figures Eve n mor e enigmati c icons lik e A-16 ma y als o represen t "ances tra l cocoons. Not onl y i s i t simila r i n th e vertically-pitte d tors o patter n t o a pictograp h fro m Cuev a d e la s Palomas Morovi s (Martine z Torre s 1981:Fig 100) but i t parallel s a grea t quantit y o f isomorphi c Cuev a l a Catedra l pictographs bu t wit h horizontally-line d tors o patterns i n Barri o Bayane y Hatillo nea r th e Camu y River sout h o f Arecib o (Dia z 1986:1) Cave s were afte r all idea l "storag e places fo r th e wrappe d dea d o f Puert o Rico Fo r a mor e complet e "wrappe d cocoon, i n tha t i t ha s a visage se e Cler c 1973:Fig 5 agai n fro m th e Troi s Rivire s site I therefor e sugges t tha t thes e raye d an d wrappe d ancestra l figure s validate d th e kin-grou p ownershi p o f thi s sacred an d economicall y an d politicall y important spo t i n a wa y bot h supernaturall y efficaciou s an d aestheticall y compelling Wha t bette r wa y t o ge t thi s charge d messag e o f ki n grou p "ownership o f desire d resource s acros s tha n uniqu e roc k art beachroc k petroglyphs locate d o n a ric h frontier TH E CHRONOLOG Y O F TH E MAISABE L PETROGLYPH S Buildin g upo n th e chronologica l finding s o f som e o f Rouse' s earl y work i n 196 0 Frassett o distinguishe d deeply-engrave d an d shallowly-engrave d petroglyphi c styles Sh e relate d the m t o pre-Tain o an d Tain o time s respectively Sh e pointe d ou t certai n desig n motifs lik e horizontally elongate d eyes a s bein g th e stigmat a o f th e mor e elaborat e late r "Capa type a s bes t exemplifie d fro m Caguan a i n Utuad o (Frassett o 1960 : 387) M y

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RO E 33 7 analysi s add s othe r styl e marker s (lik e uppe r li p line s an d eccentri c pupils ) t o thes e differences Not e tha t th e thir d Maisabe l group Grou p C i s anomalousl y represente d b y a singl e petroglyph Cl (Fig 4) I t i s als o th e mos t comple x fac e i n thi s corpus Cl i s als o stylisticall y divergen t fro m th e rest principa l l y i n it s horizontal goggle d eyes The y ar e place d o n th e fac e asymmetr i cally lik e thos e Fewke s (1907:159 Plat e LXII ) figure d fro m St Vincent Close r t o home thi s goggle d typ e i s als o presen t i n th e lat e (an d mor e elaborate ) Uppe r Icaco s petroglyph s (Bulle n 1973a:Fig 5) Th e tw o curiou s "plumes o f Cl ar e echoe d o n a pictograp h fro m l a Cuev a Lucer o i n Guana dill a (Diaz pers comm 1987) Moreover C-l' s incision s ar e muc h mor e finel y an d shallowl y mad e ( 5 c m deep ; 1. 2 c m wide ) tha n thos e o f Group s A an d B Next i t i s als o spatial l y isolate d fro m th e othe r tw o groups bein g ove r 5 0 m t o th e wes t o f Grou p A Lastly i t i s th e onl y on e o f th e 3 2 petroglyph s t o b e carve d o n a tiltin g uppe r fac e o f a ste p i n th e beachrock Unlik e al l th e othe r petroglyphs i t i s neve r submerge d b y hig h tides Als o i n contras t t o th e othe r petroglyphs whic h ar e mostl y oriente d north-south Cl face s precisel y du e east incline d o n it s roc k t o gree t th e firs t ray s o f th e mornin g sun Fo r al l o f thes e reasons I argu e tha t thi s uniqu e glyp h i s Tain o i n dat e an d therefor e postdate s (whe n th e se a leve l wa s a s hig h a s i t i s today ) th e earlie r pre-Tain o petroglyphs I f th e res t o f m y argumen t abou t th e "iconic functio n o f thes e roc k metonym s ar e correct suc h evidenc e fo r Tain o continue d interes t i n a t leas t th e shor e o f thi s sit e bolster s m y othe r argumen t fo r cultura l continuity Suc h a continuit y o f economi c an d socio-politica l exploitatio n carrie s th e symboli c association s o f th e Maisabe l playa sit e u p t o a poin t i n tim e wher e th e ethnohistorica l source s becom e relevant SUMMAR Y AN D CONCLUSION S Thi s repor t document s a uniqu e se t o f horizonta l beachroc k petroglyph s a t th e sit e o f Maisabel nort h coas t o f Puert o Rico Thes e glyph s ad d a new fourt h type tha t o f th e "beachroc k petroglyph, t o Fewkes litho graphi c typology Th e iconograph y o f thes e beachroc k glyphs i n thei r aquati c imagery document s th e subsistenc e an d settlemen t shif t withi n th e multi-componen t Maisabe l sit e tha t w e hav e picke d u p i n othe r artifactua l an d ecofactua l (principall y faunal ) domains The y punctuat e th e continuu m o f th e ol d Cra b Culture/Shel l Cultur e dichotomy M y analysi s o f th e lithograph s present s a cas e stud y i n a ne w methodo log y o f dat a retrieva l (polyethylene tracing ) a s wel l a s a n exercis e i n "emi c archaeology (th e generative-grammatica l an d moda l analysi s o f th e petroglyph s i n th e figures ) I an d other s pioneere d originall y i n cerami c desig n analysis I t demonstrate s tha t no t al l o f one' s informant s nee d b e alive Lastly lithograph s relat e t o othe r area s beyon d aestheti c an d spirit ua l domains Specifically I hav e advance d a "socia l archaeological explanatio n o f th e glyph s a s a communicativ e devic e t o mar k th e politica l

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33 8 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L an d subsistenc e ownershi p o f importan t fishin g resource s an d facilitie s (fis h trap s an d weirs) Moreover thi s "marking occur s i n competitio n wit h neighborin g ethni c unit s alon g geo-ecologica l boundarie s (Barth' s 196 9 famou s territoria l expressio n o f ethnicity) Yet th e presenc e o f super naturall y validating solar-attributed anthropomorphi c "ancestra l wrappe d figures amon g thes e petroglyph s argue s fo r a synthesi s o f th e socia l an d th e cosmological Th e Maisabe l petroglyph s reall y attes t t o th e nee d fo r a "cultura l archaeology o f thes e cryptic but movin g an d valuabl e remains REFERENCE S CITE D Alegra Ricard o E 197 9 Introducci n y nota s d e "Nota s sobr e lo s petroglifo s y antigedade s d e la s Antilla s Mayore s y Menores po r Alphons o L Pinart Revist a de l Muse o d e l a Universida d d e Puert o Ric o l(l):71-88 Alem n Crespo Harr y E. Eduard o Questel l Rodrgue z y Edga r J Ma z Lpe z 198 6 Inform e d e evaluaci n cultura l (Fase s 1A-1B) construcci n balneari o pblico Bo Ensenada Rincn Puert o Rico Prepare d for : Municipi o d e Rincn Antoni o Hernnde z Virella Ingenier o Consultor Oficin a Estata l d e Preser vaci n Histric a (SHP O #09-13-85-10) Arrom Jos Jua n 197 4 Fra y Ram n Pan : Relaci n acerc a d e la s antigedade s d e lo s Indios Mexico : Sigl o Veintiun o Editores S.A Ayes Carlo s M 1985 a Par a graduars e d e cialeo ha y qu e subi r a la s Archillas Arqueolog a 1(1):2-9 1985 b Excavacione s arqueolgica s e n Maisabel E l Metropolitan o 1(2):4. 1986 a Investigacione s Arqueolgica s e n l a Cuev a d e la s Guindas Horizontes Enero-Febrero pp 12-13 1986 b L a cuev a de l negro Arqueolog a 2(l):2-7 Barth Frederic k 196 9 Introduction I n Ethni c Group s an d Boundaries : The Socia l Organizatio n o f Socia l Differenc e (Frederic k Barth d.) pp 9-38 Boston : Little Brown Betancourt Ange l 198 3 Investigaci n arqueolgic a e n l a Cuev a de l Caball o (Part e I) Revist a d e l a Socieda d par a e l Estudi o d e l a Arqueolog a l(l):4-5 Boas Fran z 195 5 Primitiv e Art Ne w York : Dove r Publications

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RO E 33 9 Botero Sylvi a y Menn o Oostr a 197 7 Art e rupestr e e n Colombia I n Lectura s e n Teor a y Prctic a d e l a Arqueolog a Colombian a 1 (Mar y Ann e Gme z Fablin g y Alvar o Sot o Holguin eds.) pp 2-40 Bogot : Departament o d e Antropologa Universida d d e lo s Andes Brown Charle s Barringto n 187 3 Th e India n Pictur e Writin g i n Britis h Guiana Journa l o f th e Anthropologica l Institut e o f Grea t Britai n an d Irelan d 2:254 257 Budinoff Lind a C 198 8 A n Osteologica l Analysi s o f th e Huma n Buria l Remain s Re covere d fro m Maisabel : A n Earl y Cerami c Sit e o n th e Nort h Coas t o f Puert o Rico Proceeding s o f th e Twelft h Congres s o f th e Internationa l Associatio n fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Cayenn e 1987) pp 117-133 Bullen Riple y P 1973 a Petroglyph s o f th e Virgi n Island s an d Puert o Rico Proceed ing s o f th e Fourt h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (St Luci a 1971) pp 13-16 1973 b RE : Petroglyph s i n Guyana Proceeding s o f th e Fourt h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (St Luci a 1971) p 65 1973 c Furthe r Comment s o n Antillea n Petroglyphs Proceeding s o f th e Fourt h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (St Luci a 1971) pp 65-67 197 4 Certai n Petroglyph s o f th e Antilles Proceeding s o f th e Fift h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Antigu a 1973) pp 94-109 Canin o Salgado Marcelin o 198 6 E l Dorad o Pre-Colombino I n Estudi o investigativ o sobr e e l reconocimient o arqueolgic o de l litora l nort e d e l a cost a d e Dorad o y l a documentaci n d e die z localidade s arqueolgica s adicionale s e n e l municipi o d e Dorad o (Hern n Ortz d.) Apndic e 1:1-8 Dorado P.R. : Gobiern o Municipa l d e Dorado Chanlatt e Baik Lui s A 198 1 L a Huec a y Sorc (Vieques Puert o Rico) : Primera s Migracione s Agroalfarera s Antillanas Sant o Domingo

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34 0 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L 198 3 Sorc-Vieques : Clima x cultura l de l Igner i y s u participaci n e n lo s proceso s socioculturale s Antillanos Proceeding s o f th e Nint h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f Pre Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Sant o Doming o 1981) pp 73-95 C.I.C.A (Cuerp o d e Investigadore s Cientifico s Auxiliares ) n.d Tortuga s marinas Sa n Juan : Departament o d e Recurso s Naturales Estad o Libr e Asociad o d e Puert o Rico Clerc Edga r 197 3 Petroglyph s o n Guadeloupe Proceeding s o f th e Fourt h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (S t Luci a 1971) pp 21-24 Collazo Nelso n Rafae l 198 3 Petroglifo s Indgenas Revist a Cultura l "Hequet 5:2-8 Cruxent Jos M 195 5 Litglifo s d e Carmen de Uria. Bolet n de l Muse o d e Ciencia s Naturale s 1(3-4) : 177-178 Dvila Ovidi o 198 5 L a arqueolog a d e la s cueva s d e Puert o Rico Revist a de l Institut o d e Cultur a Puertorrique a 24(89):24-27 Delgado Rafae l 197 6 Lo s Petroglifo s Venezolanos Caracas : Mont e Avil a Editores Daz Marl n 198 7 Inform e sobr e cuev a 'L a Catedral, Barri o Bayaney Municipi o d e Hatillo Manuscrip t o n fil e a t Universit y o f Delaware Departmen t o f Anthropology Dubelaar Corneli s Nicolaa s 1986 a Th e Petroglyph s i n th e Guiana s an d Adjacen t Area s o f Brazi l an d Venezuela ; A n Inventor y wit h a Comprehensiv e Bibliograph y o f Sout h America n an d Antillea n Petroglyphs Monument a Archaeologic a 12 Lo s Angeles : Th e Institut e o f Archaeology Universit y o f California Lo s Angeles 1986 b Sout h America n an d Caribbea n Petroglyphs Koninklij k Instituu t voo r Taal, Land e n Volkenkunde Caribbea n Serie s 3 Dordrecht Holland : Fori s Publications Durant Davi d N 198 1 Raleigh' s Los t Colony : Th e Stor y o f th e Firs t Englis h Settlemen t i n America Ne w York

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RO E 34 1 Erdman Donal d S 198 7 Nombre s vulgare s d e pece s e n Puert o Rico / Commo n Name s o f Fishe s i n Puert o Rico Inform e Tcnico/Technica l Report Corporaci n par a e l Desarroll o y Administraci n d e lo s Recurso s Marinos Lacustre s y Fluviale s d e Puert o Ric o (CODREMAR) Sa n Juan : Estad o Libr e Asociad o d e Puert o Rico Fernnde z Mndez Eugeni o 196 0 Lo s corrale s d e pesc a indgena s d e Puert o Rico : Breve s apunte s par a s u historia Revist a de l Institut o d e Cultur a Puertorrique a 3(9):9-13 Fewkes Jess e Walte r 190 3 Prehistori c Port o Rica n Pictographs America n Anthropologis t 5:441-467 190 7 Th e Aborigine s o f Port o Ric o an d Neighborin g Islands Extrac t fro m th e Twenty-fift h Annua l Repor t o f th e Burea u o f America n Ethnology Washington D.C. : U.S Governmen t Printin g Office Frassetto Monic a Flahert y 196 0 A Preliminar y Repor t o n Petroglyph s i n Port o Rico America n Antiquit y 25:38 1 391 Goldman, Irvin g 194 8 Tribe s o f th e Uaups-Caquet a Region I n Handboo k o f Sout h America n Indian s 3 (Julia n H Steward d.) pp 763-798 Burea u o f America n Ethnology Bulleti n 143 196 3 Th e Cubeo : Indian s o f th e Northwes t Amazon Urbana : Univer sit y o f Illinoi s Press Goodwin, R Christophe r 198 0 Demographi c Chang e an d th e Crab/Shel l Dichotomy Proceeding s o f th e Eight h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (St Kitt s 1979) pp 45-67 Grieder Terenc e 197 5 Th e Interpretatio n o f Ancien t Symbols America n Anthropolo gis t 77:849-855 d e Hostos Adolf o 192 3 Anthropomorphi c Carving s fro m th e Greate r Antilles America n Anthropologis t 25:525-558 vo n Humboldt Alexande r 185 0 Aspect s o f Nature 2 vols London Huckerby Thoma s 1914 Th e Petroglyph s o f St Vincent Britis h West Indies America n Anthropologis t 16:238-246

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34 2 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L l m Thurn Everar d F 188 3 Amon g th e Indian s o f Guiana : Bein g Sketche s Chiefl y Anthropo logi c fro m th e Interio r o f Britis h Guiana London : Keagan Pau l an d Trench Ltd Kaye Cliffor d A 195 9 Shorelin e Feature s an d Quaternar y Shorelin e Changes Puert o Rico Geologica l Surve y Professiona l Pape r 317-B Washing to n D.C. : U.S Governmen t Printin g Office Lathrap Donal d W 197 0 A Forma l Analysi s o f Shipibo-Conib o Potter y an d It s Implica tion s fo r Studie s o f Panoa n Prehistory Pape r presente d a t th e 35t h Annua l Meetin g o f th e Societ y fo r America n Archaeo log y (Mexic o City) Lemonnier Pierr e 198 6 Th e Stud y o f Materia l Cultur e Today : Towar d a n Anthropolog y o f Technica l Systems Journa l o f Anthropologica l Archaeolog y 5(2):147-186 Lvi-Strauss Claud e 197 3 Fro m Hone y t o Ashes : Introductio n t o a Scienc e o f Mytholog y 2 (Joh n an d Doree n Weightman trans.) Ne w York : Harpe r & Row Mallery Garric k 197 2 Picture-Writin g o f th e America n Indians 2 vols Ne w York : [1893 ] Dove r Publications Reprinte d fro m Tent h Annua l Repor t o f th e Burea u o f Ethnolog y t o th e Secretar y o f th e Smithsonia n Institution 1888-188 9 (J.W Powell d.) pp 31-807 Martine z Torres, Robert o 198 1 Pintura s Indgena s d e Boriquen Morovis P.R. : Edicione s "E l Mapa. Orti z Montaez Hern n 198 6 Estudi o investigativ o sobr e e l reconocimient o arqueolgic o de l litora l nort e d e l a cost a d e Dorad o y l a documentaci n d e die z localidade s arqueolgica s adicionale s e n e l municipi o d e Dorado Dorado P.R. : Gobiern o Municipa l d e Dorado Paga n Perdomo Dat o 197 8 Nueva s pictografa s e n l a isl a d e Sant o Domingo : La s Cueva s d e Borbon Sant o Domingo : Edicione s de l Muse o de l Hombr e Dominicano Petitjea n Roget Henr i 197 6 Not e su r l e moti f d e l a grenouill e dan s l'ar t Arawa k de s Petite s Antilles Proceeding s o f th e Sixt h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Guadeloup e 1975) pp 177-181

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RO E 34 3 Pinart Alphons e L 197 9 Nota s sobr e lo s petroglifo s y antigedade s d e la s Antille s [1890 ] Mayore s y Menore s (Manue l Crdenas trans.) Revist a de l Muse o d e Antropologa Histori a y Art e d e l a Universida d d e Puert o Ric o 1(1):71-88 Porra s Garcs Padr e Pedr o I 197 3 Petroglifo s de l alt o apo Guayaquil : Cromo s Ca Ltda. Edicione s "Huancavilca. Questel l Rodrguez Eduard o 198 3 Tibes : India n Cultura l Heritag e i n Puert o Rico Qu e Pasa ? 35(5):6-9 198 5 Inform e sobr e l a geomorfolog a de l siti o d e Maisabel Veg a Baja Puert o Rico Manuscrip t o n fil e wit h th e author Rainey Froelic h G 194 0 Port o Rica n Archaeology Scientifi c Surve y o f Port o Ric o an d th e Virgi n Islands 18 Ne w York : Ne w Yor k Academ y o f Sciences Ramo s y Ramre z d e Arellano Antoni o (Mao ) 198 7 Lo s corrale s d e pesc a e n e l Municipi o d e Cab o Rojo Manu scrip t o n fil e wit h th e Centr o d e Estudio s Avanzado s d e Puert o Ric o y e l Caribe Sa n Juan Randall Joh n E 198 3 Caribbea n Ree f Fishe s (2n d d.) Neptun e City Ne w Jersey : T.H.F Publications Raymond J Scott Warre n R DeBoe r an d Pete r G Ro e 197 5 Cumancaya : A Peruvia n Cerami c Tradition Occasiona l Paper s 2 Calgary : Departmen t o f Archaeology Universit y o f Calgary Reichel-Dolmatoff Gerard o 197 2 Sa n Augustin : A Cultur e o f Colombia Ne w York : Praeger Robinson Lind a Sickle r 198 5 Th e Ston e Ro w a t E l Bronc e Archaeologica l Site Puert o Rico Appendi x I i n Archaeologica l Dat a Recover y a t E l Bronce Puert o Rico : Fina l Report Phas e 2 (Lind a Sickle r Robinson Emil y R Lundber g an d Jeffer y B Walker) Prepare d fo r th e U.S Arm y Corp s o f Engineers Jacksonvill e District Robinson Lind a Sickler Emil y R Lundberg an d Jeffer y B Walke r 198 3 Archaeologica l Dat a Recover y a t E l Bronce Puert o Rico : Fina l Report Phas e 1 Prepare d fo r th e U.S Arm y Corp s o f Engineers Jacksonvill e District

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34 4 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L 198 5 Archaeologica l Dat a Recover y a t E l Bronce Puert o Rico : Fina l Report Phas e 2 Prepare d fo r th e U.S Arm y Corp s o f Engineers Jacksonvill e District Rodriguez Elen a 198 5 Lo s petroglifo s e n arqueolog a social Gen s 1(1):37-50 Rodrigue z Lpez Migue l 198 1 Estudi o y evaluaci n recurso s culturale s proyecto s embalse s Ri o Mameye s y Ri o Espirit u Sant o (Informe s Fas e 1A y 1-B) Submitte d t o Vincent e Col n an d Associates R o Piedras P.R Roe Pete r G 197 3 Cumancaya : Archaeologica l Excavation s i n th e Peruvia n Montaa Unpublishe d Ph.D dissertation Departmen t o f Anthropology Universit y o f Illinoi s (Champaign-Urbana) 197 5 198 0 1982 a 1982 b A Furthe r Exploratio n o f th e Row e Chavi n Seriatio n an d It s Implication s fo r Nort h Centra l Coas t Chronology Studie s i n Pre-Columbia n Art an d Archaeolog y 13 Washington D.C. : Dumbarto n Oaks Art an d Residenc e Amon g th e Shipib o Indian s o f Peru : A Stud y i n Microacculturation America n Anthropologis t 82:42-71 Th e Cosmi c Zygote : Cosmolog y i n th e Amazo n Basin Ne w Brunswick : Rutger s Universit y Press Ethnoaesthetic s an d Desig n Grammars : Shipib o Perception s o f Cognat e Styles Pape r Presente d a t th e 81s t Annua l Meetin g o f th e America n Anthropologica l Association Washington D.C 1983 a Th e Componentia l Analysi s o f Art A PLAT O Interactiv e Compute r Lesson Newark : Universit y o f Delaware Offic e o f Computer-Base d Instruction 1983 b A Forma l Analysi s o f th e Greate r Antillea n Saladoi d Vesse l For m an d Surfac e Decoratio n Grammars Typescrip t o n fil e wit h th e Departmen t Anthropology Universit y o f Delaware 198 4 A Preliminar y Repor t o n th e 198 0 an d 198 2 Fiel d Season s a t Haciend a Grand e (1 2 PSJ7-5) : Overvie w o f Sit e History Mappin g an d Excavation Proceeding s o f th e Tent h Interna tiona l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Martiniqu e 1983) pp 151-179 206 224 198 5 Fiwa' s Tales : Waiwa i Mytholog y i n Comparativ e Perspective Manuscrip t o n fil e wit h th e Centr o d e Investigacione s Indgena s d e Puert o Rico Sa n Juan

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RO E 34 5 i n pres s Th e Josho Nabuanbo ar e al l We t an d Undercooked : Shipib o View s o f th e Whit e Ma n an d th e Inca s i n Myth Legen d an d History I n Myth an d Histor y (Jonatha n Hill d.) Champaign-Urbana : Universit y o f Illinoi s Press Roe Pete r G. Agamemno n Gu s Pante l an d Margare t B Hamilto n 198 5 Monserrat e Restudied : A Preliminar y Repor t o n th e Excavatio n an d Mapping Lithi c Artifac t an d Huma n Osteologica l Collec tion s fro m th e 197 8 CEAPR C Fiel d Season Pape r presente d a t th e Elevent h Internationa l Congres s fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Sa n Juan) Rouse Irvin g 193 9 Prehistor y o f Haiti : A Stud y i n Method Yal e Universit y Publication s i n Anthropolog y 21 Ne w Haven 198 6 Migration s i n Prehistory : Inferrin g Populatio n Movemen t fro m Cultura l Remains Ne w Haven : Yal e Universit y Press 198 8 People s an d Culture s o n th e Saladoi d Frontie r i n th e Greate r Antilles Pape r presente d a t th e 53r d Annua l Meetin g o f th e Societ y fo r America n Archaeolog y (Phoenix) Rowe Joh n H 196 7 For m an d Meanin g i n Chavi n Art I n Peruvia n Archaeology : Selecte d Reading s (Joh n H Row e an d Doroth y Menzel eds.) pp 72-103 Pal o Alto CA : Pee k Publications Sanoja Mari o y Iraid a Varga s 197 0 L a Cuev a d e E l Elefante Proyect o Orinoco Inform e 2 Caracas : Institut o d e Investigacione s Econmica s y Sociales U.C.V Shepard Ann a O 197 1 Ceramic s fo r th e Archaeologis t (5t h d.) Washington D.C. : Carnegi e Institution Siegel Pete r E 198 6 Th e Maisabe l Project Arqueolog a 2(1):20-21 Siegel Pete r E an d Davi d Bernstei n 198 8 Samplin g fo r Sit e Structur e an d Spatia l Organizatio n i n th e Saladoid : A Cas e Study Proceeding s o f th e Twelft h Interna tiona l Congres s fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Cayenn e 1987) pp 87-107 Sue d Badillo Jali l 197 2 Lo s grabado s rupestre s e n Puert o Rico Bolet n Informativ o d e l a Fundaci n Arqueolgica Antropolgic a e Histric a d e Puert o Ric o 1(1):5-7

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34 6 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L Suj o Volsky Jeannin e 197 5 E l Estudi o de l Art e Rupestr e e n Venezuela Institut o d e Investigacione s Histricas Centr o d e Lengua s Indigenas Caracas : Universida d Catlic a "Andre s Bello. Walker Jeffer y B 198 3 Stylisti c Analysi s o f th e Ri o Blanc o Petroglyp h Site Typescrip t o n fil e wit h th e author 198 5 A Preliminar y Repor t o n th e Lithi c an d Osteolog y Remain s fro m th e 1980 198 1 an d 198 2 Fiel d Seaso n a t Haciend a Grand e (1 2 PSJ7-5) Proceeding s o f th e Tent h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Martiniqu e 1983) pp 181-224 Williams Deni s 197 8 Petroglyph s a t Marlissa : Berbic e River Archaeolog y an d Anthropolog y 1:24-31 197 9 Precerami c Fishtrap s o n th e Uppe r Essequibo : Repor t o n a Surve y o f Unusua l Petroglyph s o n th e Uppe r Essequib o an d Kassikaity u Rivers 12-2 8 March 1979 Archaeolog y an d Anthropolog y 2(2) : 125-140

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ATLANTIC OCEAN -MAISABE L BREA S OJ O DE L BUE Y — HACIEND A GRAND E PUERT O RIC O CARIBBEAN SEA Figur e 1 A ma p o f Puert o Ric o showin g som e o f th e site s wit h lithographi c materia l simi l

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ATLANTIC OCEAN PUNT A PUERT 0 N u I0 O Figur e 2 Th e Maisabe l sit e an d th e locatio n o f th e beac h petroglyph s base d o n groun d sur v aeria l photographs

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RO E 34 9 TOWAR D UOUND S "Al l CONTOU R INTERVA L 2 0 CM SUB MARIN E COUJECT10 N T O F ERODE D SHERD S -WESTER N UMr r O F ENCRUSTE D CERAMIC S Figur e 3 A close-u p o f th e petroglyp h an d offshor e surve y locations transit-sighted 2 0 c m contou r mapped

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35 0 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L O 5 1 0 Figur e 4 Grou p "C Maisabe l Petroglyp h (C-l) th e isolate d plume d head

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RO E 35 1 ''-'•• { Figur e 5 Th e C1 petroglyp h (incision s highlighte d i n beac h sand ) an d it s unique naturall y incline d beachroc k sla b (non-inundatable) . .. 'V : 4 •-• •*'-., 1 '*• ; : I : 7 ' : '.' • ^^^; • ; ;^m.:,.-..; ; f rf: ;v •' i^Sw> > ; V Figur e 6 A carbo n pape r rubbin g o f C1 showin g greate r uniformit y o f lin e tha n group s "A an d "B

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35 2 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L Al 3 1 0 CM 5 O C M A4 0 3 0 C M 0 5 1 0 CM Figur e 7 Grou p "A Maisabe l petroglyphs:A-l a probabl e "wrappe d figure, middl e section ; A-2 a possibl e crab ; A-3 a probabl e turtle ; A-4 a "masked, goggle-eye d motif ; an d A-5 a visag e missin g eye s an d mouth

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O 1 0 C M ^^ p Figur e 8 Grou p "A Maisabe l petroglyphs : A-6 a possibl e ba t depiction ; A-7 a simpl e face originall y completel y close d i n outline ; A-8 a composit e fish/huma n visag e depiction ; an d A-9 a probabl e Quee n Trigger fis h portrayal

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35 4 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L A-1 3 O S 1 0 CM Figur e 9 Grou p "A Maisabe l Petroglyphs : A-10 a possibl e basketr y fis h trap ; A-ll th e sun ; A-12 a fish ; A-13 a simpl e face ; A-14 a doubl e huma n visage

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RO E 35 5 A-1 5 A-1 6 O 3 ( O CM A-1 8 3 1 0 C U O 3 1 0 C M Figur e 10 Grou p "A Maisabe l petroglyphs : A-15 a possibl e Re d Hind ; A 16 a possibl e "ancestra l cocoon" ; A-17 a "wrappe d figure" ; A-18 a simpl e fac e missin g th e mouth ; an d A-19 th e middl e portio n (headless ) o f a "wrapped figure

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35 6 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L A-2 0 o 5 oe n O 3 O C M A-2 3 O 5 1 0 C M Figur e 11 Grou p "A Maisabe l petroglyphs : A-20 a possibl e fronta l vie w o f a three-pointer ; A-21 a "three-pointer (?) ; A-22 lowe r portio n o f a possibl e "wrappe d figure's torso ; an d A-23 a Hawksbil l turtl e wit h th e carapac e kenne d a s a huma n visage

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RO E 35 7 A-2 4 A-2 6 A-2 7 O 3 1 0 CM Figur e 12 Grou p "A Maisabe l petroglyphs : A-24 a possibl e Permi t o r Harves t fis h depiction ; A-25 a n aquati c mamma l ( a piniped?) ; A-26 anothe r possibl e Permi t o r Harves t fis h depiction ; an d A-27 anothe r possibl e Permi t o r Harves t fis h depiction

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35 8 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L 82 O S 1 0 CM O i 1 0 C M B3 o 3 ¡oc* 0 5 OCM 84 Figur e 13 Grou p "B Maisabe l petroglyphs : B-1 a possibl e fis h tra p o r wei r (?) ; B-2 a geometri c (trap? ) depiction ; B-3 a fis h hea d (th e bod y extend s upward bu t fragraentarily) ; an d B-4 a "wrappe d figure wit h X shape d tors o pattern

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RO E 35 9 Figur e 14 Tw o version s o f a n E l Bronc e petroglyp h stylisticall y relate d t o th e Maisabe l petroglyphs : a ) th e origina l glyph polyethylene-trace d b y th e author ; b ) a reconstructio n base d o n probabl e intent

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36 0 PETROGLYPH S O F MAISABE L Figur e 15 A panoram a o f th e Maisabe l petroglyph s o f Grou p "A bein g inundate d b y hig h tide Fro m lef t t o right thos e visibl e ar e th e su n (A 11) th e fis h tra p (A-10 ) an d th e Quee n Triggerfis h (A-9) a visibl e representatio n o f th e "Sun' s Fis h Trap myt h o f th e Guianas Figur e 16 A close-u p o f th e "sun rayed-hea d petroglyp h showin g th e dept h an d irregularit y o f th e incision s int o thi s sof t eoliniti c beac h rock

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HEAD S (I ) Q ) H H CIRCULA R I ) • t ) ) ^ H ^ ^ SEMI-CIRCULA R j ) c ) m m EUPsoiD ^ ^ k ) I I t TRIANGULA R HEART-SHAPE D "U'-SHAPE O d i H H INVERTE D / • • OVOI D OPEN DOUBL E L ) | I WINGE D e ) SX m m ovo, D m ) Y f ) g ) ROUNOE D RECTANGULA R \ OOT-FINIA L SEM-RECTANGULA R o) 0 h ) w Figur e 17 Th e lithograp h "head dimensio n (I ) an d mode s (a-o) EYE S AN D u ) Q Q PITTE D ) ( O Q ) ENCLOSE D C ) (Q ) a"***™"" 1 /^— \ >--i v CONCENTRICA L Q) \CJ/y<^) ENOJ3SE D f ) f\ (i£\ CUPPE O a l (^— % \ CUPPE D a \L/ O CONNECTE D (-) ) [ •=•)(=> ) RECTANGULA R ¡ ) Q(E3Sv^ NGULARIZE D i \ f v / \ ECCENTRICALL Y J ^-> V J RECTANGULA R f7~~—""T"" ENCLOSE D a > V 1 LV—vl j I GOGGLE D 1 1 {?W \ ECCENTRICALL Y L ; \_^t_ | OOGGLE O m ) ( ^ n ECCENTRICALL Y L_ X VJ OVA L PUPIL S ( n ) 0 ) \\ / i / \ ^-^^ ^ \^^ >< ^ P)' <£ ^ ) ( n ) ¡ 1 |\ V ^ ^ s ) t ) u ) v ) 0 • Q — • — C^j F Figur e 18 Th e lithograp h "eye s a (II ) an d mode s (a-v)

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MOUTH S (TU ) b ) O 1 CONCENTRICALL Y OUTLINE D VERTICALL Y PENDAN T Q ( J ) ^ PITTE D o ) ' STRAIGH T f \ ^ ^ DOWN-TURNE D g ) ^ A UP-TURNE O h)( ? D OUTUNE D j \ yf ~ ^ DOW N -TURNE O ^—^-^ ^ S OUTUNE O UP-TURNE D a OUTLINE D k ) ^ ^ BI-POINTE D I ) ( I I I I I I D TOOTHE D ) Q Figur e 19 Th e lithograp h "mouths dimensio n (III ) an d mode s (a-n) NOSES(EC ) a ) • ) VERTICALL Y JOINE D h ) r 0 \ b ) • 1TRI-FOR M i ) | \ / ) C ) ( | JlNVERTE O "T j ) ( (5\Jc ) ) 'T k ) e ) ( - ) DOUBLE-ARCHED T l ) I X~7, ) f ) VERTICALL Y CONNECTE D TR I CONNECTE D m ) 0 Figur e 20 Th e lithograp h "noses d an d mode s (a-m)

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DIADEM S CZ ) *) CHOWfJf D I } .70 e. ) I 1 FAM-JWAlC p j. ) J. ) I J PLOATIM C t ) ) ) 3 ) NETTB D L) POMCWTB . ) PLAI N • ) nuE P PRoo-piNG PAI€T iMve*re p Tt*4AHR.rn( c Figur e 21 Th e lithograp h "diadems dimensio n (V ) an d mode s (a-n) 0) p ) 1 0 r. ) O t ) u. ) /• % X^ ^ ^ ( 5 CrO O O DIADEM S T3 C C O V/OLUTE P OWMBCLL JHAPe p FLOATING DUMSCL L TABULA R c 0 > 0 PAIRE P TABUL^ft "jw./m riwjtc.T/ic 0-LTJUI.AH rnoTECTINO Figur e 22 Th e lithograp h "diade m an d mode s (o-y)

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HAIRLIN E C3ZE ) >. ) (^ J POIMTC P A. ) * — J OUWPE P e ) [ J S^ 3 ovo, p O c ) ( ) OUNPE P j." ) J> 0 EARP L Figur e 24 Th e lithograp h "ears an d mode s (a-j ) an d "earplugs di m mode s (a-e)

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a ) UPPE R LI P LIN E (X) j e mi-CIRCUA R i. ) EXTERMAUV CONTItlO/L V RAVE V *. Q „o.,™ ™ O -/J\ ™.r.?.' ; ftoveo i } 0 e EXTEANAUY veaTicAtt y rve o PEFiwe p AOfE4 T FAC E APPENDA6E S 9 (XI ) a ) IMTERNAU.V (T O MTTNl / O OL Y ¡ J RAVE D RAve o More o AWiEw r Figur e 25 Th e lithograp h "uppe r li p line dimen sio n (X ) an d mode s (a-f ) an d "fac e appendages dimensio n (XI ) an d mode s (a-i) ¡ 0 i ) 0 a ) e ) TORSO S OT SPHERICA L ^ 0 ELIP50/ P OVOI D JI/flRE P J< } VERTIC/UA Y *>CZZ I J ) Homaor
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TORS O PATTERN S (XIII ) a. ) b. ) c. ) d. ) e. ) f. ) g. ) VERTICALLY LINE D SINGLE NETTE D h. ) HORIZONTALLY I ) LINE D CROSSE D j. ) k. ) DOUBLE I. ) NETTE D DUA L IT!. ) HORIZONTALLY LINE D TRI-HORIZONTA L fl. ) LINE D E 2 fv M MULTIPLY HORIZONTALLY LINE D "X"-SHAPE D STARRE D STACKE D "X"-SHAPE D OVERLAPPIN G "X"-SHAPE D PENDAN T TRIANGLE S MULTIPLY CURVE D o. ) p. ) q. ) r. ) s. ) t. ) u. ) O MULTIPLY WAVE-SHAPE D TRI-LINE D EFFIGY-SHAPE D ROUNDELE D ^ o o o o o 0 MOTTLE D OVA L EFFIGY-SHAPE D VERTICALLY PITTE D ABSEN T b. ) c. ) TORS O A P ( X a. ) c v C / O 1 O \ 0 o r 0 Figur e 27 Th e lithograp h "tors o patterns dimensio n (XIII ) an d mode s (a-u) Figur e 28 T "tors o appen d (XIV ) an d mo d

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TORS O FINIALS(XV ) a. ) b. ) c. ) d. ) e. ) f. ) g. ) 1 II I X X OPENE D CLOSE D DUAL-FOOTE D TRI-FOOTE D BA S ALLY FRINGE D OPE N "X"-SHAPE D TERMINALLY VOLUTE D h. ) i. ) j. ) k. ) 1. ) > < / \ k / 0 EFFIGY-SHAPE D Bl FOO T E D SYMMETRICALLY POINTE D ASYMMETRICALLY POINTE D ABSEN T Figur e 29 Th e lithograp h "tors o finials dimensio n (XV ) an d mode s (a-1) ARM S (XVI ) a. ) STICK-SHAPE D / k b. ) "V-SHAPE D V C. ) y I "U"-SHAPE D d. ) |(// RECURVE D e. ) A // ENCLOSE D f. ) Q< ABSEN T a. ) y V-SHAPE D HA N b. ) c. ) d. ) e. ) f. ) g. ) h. ) Y f t w 1111 1 0 Figur e 30 Th e lithograp h "arms d i mode s (a-f ) an d "hands dimensio n ( X (a-h)

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LEGS(XVIII ) S.. ) STICK-SHAPE D b. ) ^/ \ "V-SHAPE D C. ) / A "IT-SHAPE D d. ) //[ I RECURVE D e. ) ( ( ENCLOSE D f. ) X ABSEN T . ) 1 "Y"-SHAPE D b. ) c. ) d. ) e. ) f. ) g. ) h. ) FEE T (XIX ) 1 i i b A 0 TRI-PRONGE D DENDRITI C ALLY SHAPE D CROSS-SHAPE D RAKE-SHAPE D DIGITE D HALF-OVA L SHAPE D ABSEN T Figur e 31 Th e lithograp h "legs dimensio n (XVIII ) an d mode s (a-f ) an d "feet dimensio n (XIX ) an d mode s (a-h) GENITALI A (X X S.. ) W PHALLU S & T TESTE S b. ) \J / VAGIN A ) 0 ABSEN T Figur e 32 Th e lithograp h "genit a (XX ) an d mode s (a-c)

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DIMENSIONS ~i~~~~ 33. A comparative flow chart of dimensional and modal selections for three figured lithographs (~i~s. 9 [A-111, 13 [B-4) and 14 [c-21).

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RULE S (B ) I MATERIA L SELECTIO N A. ) CALCIT E (CAVE/BEACHROCK ) B ) GRANO-0IORIT E (RIVER/BALLPARK ) EC MEDI A SELECTIO N A. ) PETROGLYP H 1. ) PIGMENT-FILLE D B. ) PICTOGRAP H 1. ) CARBO N 2. ) IRO N OXID E J H STANDARD S O F WORKMANSHI P A. ) SLOPPY VARIABL E B. ) CAREFUL INVARIAN T EC.NATUREFAC T TRANSFORMATIO N A ) CAVITY—-FOR M £zp = £r^) B. ) PROTRUBERANC E -FOR M 1. ) STALAGMIT E 2JSTALAGTIT E )