Citation

Material Information

Title:
Adaptations and Exchanges on "Coral Islands": Data from the Bahamas and Oceania
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Frank R. Thomas ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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ADAPTATIO N AN D EXCHANGE S O N "CORAL ISLANDS : DAT A FRO M TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A Fran k R Thoma s Thi s pape r constitute s a n attemp t a t delineatin g similaritie s an d difference s amon g prehistori c cultura l tradition s i n insula r tropica l environments Whil e i t ha s ofte n bee n suggeste d tha t th e amoun t an d qualit y o f ethnohistori c an d linguisti c coverag e i n th e Caribbea n are a ar e a poo r reflectio n o f th e type s o f informatio n availabl e fo r Oceania th e interes t i n subsurfac e investigation s i n th e latte r regio n (o n atolls ) i s barel y tw o decade s old Unti l th e mid-1970 s muc h o f Micronesi a wa s terraincognita, an d ther e ar e stil l man y islands particularl y i n th e atoll / raise d cora l categorie s awaitin g th e spad e o f th e archaeologist Th e fac t tha t "true atoll s ar e absen t i n th e Wes t Indie s shoul d no t diver t u s fro m th e potentia l contribution s tha t migh t aris e i n comparin g huma n adaptatio n t o constraint s impose d b y calcareou s environments O n severa l occasions Watter s (1981 1982 1983 ) dre w attentio n t o th e advance s mad e b y Pacifi c archaeologist s i n th e are a o f subsistence ; w e migh t als o ad d socia l organizatio n an d socia l complexity Becaus e o f variou s limitation s i n th e us e o f ethnographi c dat a b y thei r Caribbea n counterpart s an d th e benig n neglec t o f a "seawar d perspective" i t wa s conclude d tha t muc h coul d b e learne d fro m th e wor k bein g accomplishe d i n Oceania TH E INSULA R SETTIN G I n orde r t o selec t geologica l unit s tha t ar e comparable on e als o need s t o conside r th e qualit y o f bot h ethnographi c an d archaeologica l sequences a s wel l a s th e area l distributio n o f cora l islands I n effect thi s stud y focuse s o n thre e "Cora l Clusters o r "Cora l Complexes' fo r whic h ther e i s a fairl y adequat e recor d o f prehistori c an d protohistori c cultura l develop ments Th e Bahamia n chain comprisin g th e moder n politie s o f th e Common wealt h o f th e Bahama s an d th e Turk s an d Caico s Islands ar e therefor e compare d t o thre e atoll/raise d cora l group s i n Oceania : part s o f th e Tonga n Archipelago th e Tuamotus an d th e Centra l Caroline s (Figs 1-4) A n overvie w o f th e geologica l histor y o f th e variou s group s i s provide d t o highligh t th e constraint s impose d b y th e environmen t an d t o ai d i n under standin g th e strategie s devise d b y huma n population s t o dea l wit h thos e limitations Th e Bahama s ar e compose d o f ol d carbonat e deposit s an d accretionar y sands whic h attaine d present-da y condition s abou t 500 0 B.C (Saue r 1950b : 331 ; Nicholso n 1976:22) Th e limeston e platea u consist s o f calciu m carbonat e deposite d b y chemica l processes Th e resultin g oolithi c grains whic h precipitate d ou t o f th e shallo w waters overli e mor e ancien t coral lin e sand s an d alga e tha t firs t establishe d themselve s alon g th e shallo w edg e o f th e continenta l shel f followin g th e openin g o f th e Atlantic 29 7

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29 8 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A Crato n (1968:14-15 ) distinguishe s thre e type s o f cora l ree f formations : fring e reefs barrie r reef s an d cora l atolls Fring e reef s ar e th e mos t common wit h barrier s an d atoll s havin g a mor e restricte d distribution Th e Bahamia n atoll s ar e o f particula r interest sinc e the y ar e ver y smal l i n siz e (size s o f th e islets ) an d contras t t o th e profusio n o f thi s islan d typ e i n Oceania particularl y i n Micronesia Atolls moreover d o no t necessaril y suppor t islands a s th e Micronesia n bank s an d shoal s o f th e Carolin e Island s illustrate Onl y thre e atoll-lik e formation s hav e bee n define d a s suc h i n th e Bahamas : Hogst y Reef Mira-por-vo s Islets an d Ca y Sa l Ban k (Brya n 1953 : 26 ) Hogst y Ree f consist s o f a reef-enclose d lagoo n wit h tw o san d cay s (islets) supportin g n o poulatio n (Land s an d Surve y Dept 1974) Th e ree f extend s fo r abou t 1 0 k m fro m wes t t o eas t an d i s 5 k m wid e (Columbi a Lippincot t Gazettee r o f th e Worl d 1962:792) Mira-por-vo s i s describe d b y Brya n (1953 ) a s a "kite-shape d shoa l wit h ca y an d rocks. The y pos e a seriou s hazar d t o present-da y navigation Ca y Sa l Bank stretchin g c a 10 5 x 6 6 k m i n it s greates t dimensions ha s a numbe r o f cay s aroun d it s edges th e larges t o f whic h attain s abou t 1 6 m i n length wit h th e highes t elevatio n recorde d a t 3 m (Goldber g 1983) A s reporte d i n 1974 ther e wer e thre e individual s livin g i n th e area Whil e no t qualifyin g a s atoll s per se, th e island s o f Grea t Inagu a an d Mayaguan a bea r som e resemblanc e t o Pacifi c atoll s i n th e natur e o f th e ridge s tha t outlin e thei r shore s an d i n thei r lo w interior s tha t ar e permanentl y o r seasonall y floode d (Keega n 1985:80) Give n present-da y conditions th e islet s woul d not hav e encourage d settlement Accordin g t o a n estimat e fo r Oceani c atolls, a n islan d les s tha n c a .10 6 x .10 6 k m woul d no t b e capabl e o f supportin g a permanen t populatio n becaus e o f th e siz e o f it s freshwate r len s (Ghyben-Herzber g lens) A thoroug h surve y b y Granberr y confirme d tha t assumptio n (Keega n 1985:197) Whil e Oceani a lack s th e typ e o f islan d limeston e formation s foun d i n th e Bahama s (wit h th e exceptio n o f som e Torre s Strai t Islands formerl y par t o f Sahul) on e islan d grou p doe s bea r similarities : th e Tonga n Archipelago specificall y th e uplifte d cora l an d foraminefera l limestone s o f Tongatapu 'Eua an d Vava'u Thes e island s ar e quit e fertile owin g t o blanket s o f volcani c as h fal l fro m neighborin g hig h island s (Hoffmeiste r 1932:17) Oceani c raise d reef s (whic h hav e bee n subjecte d t o seismi c activit y o r volcani c eruptions ) ofte n becom e severel y erode d becaus e o f th e actio n o f slightl y acidi c rainwate r o n solubl e limestone thu s creatin g cavernou s feature s (Thoma s 1963:19) Th e Tuamot u Archipelago.o f Easter n Polynesi a an d th e Centra l Caroline s o f Micronesi a consis t mostl y o f atoll s lyin g les s tha n 8 m abov e se a level The y ar e compare d t o th e Bahama s becaus e o f th e numerou s similaritie s i n huma n response s t o depauperat e terrestria l organi c components O n Tong a an d Vava' u forme r shoreline s bearin g evidenc e o f huma n occupa tio n hav e bee n identifie d severa l meter s inland an d thu s indicat e tectoni c movement s (Davidso n 1979:86) Simila r observation s hav e bee n mad e fo r part s o f Micronesia

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THOMA S 29 9 Th e likelihoo d o f huma n presenc e i n th e Caribbea n prio r t o 500 0 B.C wa s suggeste d b y Rous e an d Allair e (1978:465) althoug h th e earlies t carbo n dat e i s stil l abou t 250 0 B.C fo r Hispaniola Precerami c occupatio n o f th e Bahama s durin g period s o f lowere d se a level s b y Florid a migrant s woul d b e expected bu t th e evidenc e fo r th e settlemen t o f th e Florid a Key s no w make s i t doubtful ENVIRONMENTA L CONSTRAINT S AN D SUBSISTENC E STRATEGIE S Cora l island s ar e generall y characterize d a s impoverished despit e extensiv e ree f flat s o r lagoon s (Bellwoo d 1979:7) Whil e irrigatio n ma y no t b e feasibl e o n atolls i t i s possibl e t o creat e microhabitat s fo r th e cultivatio n o f tar o b y tappin g freshwate r lense s (Kirc h 1979:304 ; Chazin e 1985) Human s hav e a t som e poin t colonize d eve n th e mos t margina l type s o f environmen t i n Oceania suc h a s th e Lin e an d Phoeni x Island s (Emor y 1934b) Som e communitie s hav e succeede d i n establishin g long-ter m surviva l strate gies althoug h populatio n replacemen t cause d b y recurren t factor s suc h a s hurricane s o r sever e drough t mus t hav e take n plac e (Davidso n 1970) A cora l reef bein g porous wil l retar d dissipatio n o f freshwater becaus e o f it s lowe r densit y tha n saltwater thu s creatin g a freshwate r lens A t lo w point s thi s len s ma y ris e abov e th e surface but it s purit y i s contingen t o n th e amoun t an d frequenc y o f rainfal l an d th e siz e o f th e islan d (Alkir e 1978:11) I n th e cas e o f uplifte d islands i t ma y b e mor e difficul t t o ta p thi s lens eve n i f th e raise d are a i s sufficientl y large Th e Tuamotu s receiv e a n averag e o f betwee n 11 4 an d 15 2 c m o f rai n a year Cora l island s tha t receiv e les s tha n 7 6 c m wil l not suppor t mor e tha n 1 5 o r 2 0 plant specie s (Alkir e 1978:13 17) Th e majo r hazar d i n th e Centra l Caroline s stem s fro m hurricanes Thos e i n exces s o f 16 0 k m pe r hou r ma y rais e th e se a 56 m an d consequentl y destro y th e vegetatio n an d severel y distur b th e freshwate r lens Eve n i n area s o f hig h rainfall i t ma y tak e u p t o 1 0 year s t o recove r (Alkir e 1978:14) Othe r factor s influencin g plant growt h includ e isolation th e prevailin g wind s an d currents fligh t pattern s an d habit s o f birds lan d crustcea an d o f cours e th e impac t b y humans thei r domesticate s an d stowaway s suc h a s th e ra t (Fosber g 1953:3) Som e raise d reef s ma y yiel d phosphat e deposit s (Lamper t 1968 ) an d th e weathere d ree f ma y mak e somewha t bette r soil s tha n o n atolls Bu t unles s rainfal l i s abundant w e hav e see n tha t bot h wate r suppl y an d irrigatio n becom e problem s (Thoma s 1963:36) Whil e irrigatio n wa s presumabl y practice d onl y o n a limite d scal e b y manio c farmers i t coul d hav e increase d maiz e yield s i n th e souther n sub-area Lo w rainfal l woul d prohibit this howeve r (Keega n 1985:169 220) I n th e Pacifi c coconut s an d pandanus bein g salt-tolerant ma y hav e alread y bee n establishe d o n atoll s befor e th e arriva l o f man Particularl y fo r Cocos nucfera, whos e floatin g abilit y ha s bee n documente d (War d an d Alle n 1980) on e coul d mak e a cas e b y suggestin g tha t pal m tree s woul d b e a prerequisit e fo r successfu l colonizatio n an d initia l surviva l o n certai n atoll s (Christopherse n 1927:39) Taro lik e coconuts ar e perennia l crops wherea s breadfrui t an d pandanu s ca n b e preserve d b y Oceani c atol l popula tion s (Alkir e 1978:30)

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30 0 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A I n th e Bahama s th e lo w nutrien t requirement s fo r manio c woul d hav e encourage d year-roun d production Intercroppin g o f othe r cultigen s (e.g. swee t potatoes yams cocoyams ) ca n increas e yields O n th e othe r hand protein-ric h supplements suc h a s maize beans an d groundnut s ar e seasona l (Keega n 1985:166 169) Moreover th e cos t o f storin g maiz e fo r year-roun d consumptio n i s great Tropica l cyclone s occu r mor e frequentl y i n Tong a an d i n th e Centra l Caroline s tha n i n th e Tuamotu s (Vishe r 1925:27 ; Thoma s 1963:28) Th e patter n o f hurricane s i n th e Atlantic-Caribbea n are a follow s a northwar d an d northwestwar d pat h a t th e firs t opportunit y irrespectiv e o f longitud e an d tim e o f year Island s i n th e Bahama s ofte n receiv e th e brunt o f on e o f th e doze n o r s o annua l West India n tropica l storms Ever y 1 0 o r 1 5 year s th e Turk s an d Caico s ar e affecte d b y on e o f thes e majo r hurricane s (Crato n 1968:12 ; Sear s an d Sulliva n 1978:21) A s woul d b e expecte d fo r oceani c islands th e prehistori c terrestria l mammalia n faun a i n th e Bahama s wa s limite d t o th e huti a an d cav e dwellin g bats Evidenc e fo r domesticatio n o f th e forme r i s lacking Th e Lucayan s wer e successfu l i n introducin g th e domesti c dog althoug h it s us e a s foo d remain s questionabl e (Keega n 1985:108) I t ha s bee n suggeste d tha t larg e number s o f avifauna l extinction s occurre d durin g th e lat e Pleistocen e (Olso n an d Hilgartne r 1982) However th e smal l percentage s o f terrestria l fauna l remain s i n archaeologica l site s ma y wel l indicat e rapi d declin e sinc e initia l colonizatio n (Keega n 1985:108) I n man y part s o f Oceania th e extinctio n o f bir d species particularl y flightles s varieties i s ofte n correlate d wit h huma n an d anima l prdatio n a s wel l a s habita t destruction Th e lo w reproductiv e rate s o f thes e bird s preclude d thei r domesticatio n (Cassel s 1984 ; Olso n 1986) Cora l islan d population s wer e thu s compelle d t o rel y heavil y o n marin e resources Th e water s surroundin g th e Bahama s provide d man y ree f an d estuar y fis h species se a turtles mon k seals conchs, an d othe r mollusks Th e norther n Bahama s wer e mor e hospitable However th e lo w mea n temperature s durin g th e winte r months whic h woul d hav e destroye d manio c stems ma y partiall y accoun t fo r th e lo w sit e densit y i n th e regio n (Sear s an d Sulliva n 1978:21) Mor e site s o n Gran d Baham a an d Andro s hav e bee n identifie d i n recen t year s (Hoffma n 1985:174) Futur e discoverie s migh t indicat e tha t climati c factor s wer e mor e favorabl e durin g th e settlemen t period Th e impac t o f huma n communitie s o n th e atol l ecosyste m i n Oceani a i s exemplifie d b y extensiv e coconu t grove s fo r th e exportatio n o f copr a an d b y tar o pits includin g th e deposi t o f debri s fro m suc h diggin g t o for m mound s an d ridges Th e neares t Ne w Worl d relativ e t o tar o i s th e genu s Xanthosoma, calle d "yautia o r "malanga i n th e Caribbea n (Saue r 1950a:511) but i t wa s no t reporte d b y Columbus However wha t appear s t o b e th e America n ya m (Dioscorea trfida als o know n a s D. brasiliensis) i s describe d i n Cuba Othe r traditiona l domesticate s amon g Lucaya n Tain o a t contac t includ e potatoes arrowroot beans pepper peanuts manioc aloe an d cotton t o mentio n a fe w (La s Casa s 1893 ; Rous e 1948:520) Bitte r manio c figure s prominentl y a s a storabl e food bu t swee t manio c ma y hav e bee n ver y importan t a t lowe r populatio n densitie s (Keega n 1985:126)

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THOMA S 30 1 Man-mad e disturbanc e o n cora l island s als o include s disposa l o f dea d vegetativ e debri s throug h burnin g o r b y transfe r int o th e sea whic h ma y resul t i n losse s o f organi c matter I t i s als o tru e tha t disposa l o f persona l bod y wast e throug h excretio n i n shallow s o r o n tide-washe d ree f flat s ca n als o resul t i n th e remova l o f additiona l nutrient s (Wien s 1962 : 456) Beside s direc t huma n prdatio n o n certai n bir d species domesti c animals insects an d rat s (i n th e Pacifi c region ) hav e als o contribute d i n reducin g th e numbe r o f indigenou s species suc h a s lan d crabs Reef/lagoo n ecosystem s ar e generall y les s affecte d b y huma n interventio n (Vayd a 1963:166) bu t ther e ar e case s wher e overfishing gatherin g o r captur e o f certai n marin e lif e form s ha s le d t o th e nea r extinctio n o f specie s (e.g. gree n turtles pear l oysters an d Trochus snails ) (Wien s 1962:457 ) Finally ther e ar e cultura l activitie s i n th e for m o f buria l mound s an d architectura l features suc h a s th e ritua l platform s o f th e Tuamotus MATERIA L CULTUR E I n a recen t address Kirc h (1985 ) indicate d tha t island s wer e especial l y invitin g fo r th e stud y o f evolutionar y divergenc e i n group s o f phylo geneticall y relate d lineages Th e Lapit a an d Polynesia n dispersal s acros s th e Pacifi c wer e th e focu s o f hi s inquiry Kirc h identifie d fou r processe s tha t influence d evolutionar y trajectories : "1 ) th e founde r effec t o r drift ; 2 ) environmenta l selectio n contingen t upo n colonization ; 3 ) long-ter m environmenta l constraints includin g stochasti c processe s an d human-induce d change ; an d 4 ) demographi c transitions particularl y th e so-calle d r/ K selectio n continuum (Kirc h 1985:6) Give n difference s i n th e orde r o f magnitud e fo r distance s betwee n island s (an d i n relatio n t o continents ) i n th e West Indie s an d Oceania, i t woul d appea r tha t th e significanc e o f drif t i n th e Caribbea n wa s over shadowe d b y othe r contingencies suc h a s selectio n pressur e attribute d b y th e specifi c varietie s o f insula r environments Th e West India n insula r steppin g stone s als o allowe d fo r mor e frequen t contact s betwee n communitie s an d wit h adjacen t continenta l areas Fo r instance Lucayan s wer e acquirin g pot s an d othe r item s fro m th e Greate r Antille s (Southe y 1968:9) Becaus e cora l island s li e i n tropica l zones i t woul d b e appropriat e t o focu s o n technologica l convergenc e i n ligh t o f similaritie s o f marin e resource s belongin g t o th e sam e genera order o r familie s (Watter s 1982:7) Th e paucit y o f fishhook s i n Wes t India n site s ca n b e explaine d i n ligh t o f ethnoarchaeologica l studie s o n Niuatoputapu Tonga Th e occur renc e o f Scarus sp p (parrotfish ) i n th e tw o area s throw s ligh t o n exploita tiv e strategie s a s the y relat e t o th e peculia r anatomica l characteristic s o f th e parrotfis h ja w apparatus I n Tonga Scaridae ar e take n b y spea r o r nets Watter s (1982:7 ) ha s observe d th e us e o f rifle s an d speargun s t o captur e thi s fis h o n th e Antillea n islan d o f Barbuda Evidenc e o f fishin g gea r ma y com e i n th e for m o f Cypraea zebra (Measle d cowrie ) th e dors a o f whic h hav e bee n removed presumabl y t o manufactur e weight s fo r di p net s (Watter s 1982:7) Poulse n (1970:44 ) ha s identifie d cowrie-ca p octopu s lure s fro m Tong a an d othe r Polynesia n islands

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30 2 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A I t i s not surprisin g tha t give n th e environmenta l condition s i n Wes t Polynesi a (extensiv e ree f flats) onl y a fe w simpl e one-piec e fishhooks cowrie-ca p octopu s lures an d othe r lur e shank s hav e turne d u p i n archaeo logica l site s (Poulse n 1970:45) Th e sam e ca n b e sai d abou t fishin g technique s i n th e Tuamotus wher e han d collectin g an d th e us e o f spears nets an d trap s predominate d (Emor y 1975:187-188) Fo r th e Bahama s specifically w e ar e tol d tha t spear s an d th e bo w an d arro w wer e utilize d fo r fishin g (Rous e 1948:544) I t shoul d b e note d tha t tw o woode n fishhook s hav e bee n recovere d fro m a cav e o n Crooke d Island Cora l islander s i n Oceani a mad e a n extensiv e us e o f shel l implements especiall y Tridacna maxima fo r th e manufactur e o f adze s an d chisels Tridacna clam s gaine d wid e acceptanc e i n Micronesia eve n whe n ston e wa s readil y availabl e (apar t fro m th e Marianas ) (Poulse n 1970:36) Micro nesian s displaye d thei r preferenc e b y utilizin g th e exterio r surfac e o f th e shel l t o for m th e bac k o f th e blade wherea s Polynesian s wer e mor e incline d t o orien t th e insid e t o th e bac k (Poulse n 1970:42) Th e hing e sectio n wa s selecte d fo r th e manufactur e i n Tonga Whil e thi s require d mor e work th e en d produc t wa s als o mor e durabl e (Poulse n 1970:44) Emor y (1975:109 ) note d th e genera l uniformit y o f Tridacna shel l type s throughou t th e Tuamotus whic h ma y b e regarde d a s a n indicatio n o f limite d possibilitie s offere d b y thi s material Th e numerou s use s o f Strombus gigas o r Quee n conc h (th e closes t functiona l equivalen t t o th e Indo-Pacifi c Tridacna) hav e bee n describe d b y Keega n (1984:16) althoug h cel t tool s mad e fro m th e shell' s thic k li p see m t o occu r i n lo w frequencie s throughou t th e area includin g th e Bahama s (se e Sear s an d Sulliva n 1978:9) Keega n (pers comm 1985 ) cite s fou r hypo these s fo r thei r lo w incidence : "1 ) poo r preservation ; 2 ) misidentificatio n i n case s wher e th e shel l li p lack s discernibl e edg e grinding ; 3 ) th e lesse r abundanc e o f Strombus aroun d certai n islands suc h a s Antigu a (cf Olse n 1974:167) ; and/o r 4 ) difference s i n th e way s Strombus celt s an d ston e tool s wer e curated. Lambis lambis, o r Spide r conch i s a n Oceani c gastropo d resemblin g Strombus b y th e siz e o f it s li p (Melvi n 1966 ) althoug h adze s fro m thi s shel l d o no t occu r a s frequentl y a s Tridacna (B Moir pers comm 1985) Bot h Tridacna an d Strombus wer e significan t component s o f insula r diets Cassis rufa, a Helme t shel l o f Oceania wa s utilize d fo r makin g adze s an d chisel s i n th e Tuamotu s (Emor y 1975:110) Cassis shell s wer e als o use d a s container s o n Lamotrek Centra l Caroline s (Fujimur a an d Alkir e 1984:92) Th e Wes t India n Cassis tuberosa an d madagascarensis serve d t o fashio n implement s resemblin g carpenter' s scissors Murex pomum (Appl e murex ) o f th e Caribbea n ma y hav e bee n use d fo r it s dy e (Sutt y 1978:195) SIT E DISTRIBUTIO N Prio r t o J Davidson' s excavation s o n Nukuor o ( a Polynesia n Outlie r i n Micronesia) i t wa s assume d tha t an y evidenc e o f pas t occupatio n o n atoll s woul d b e obliterate d b y hurricane s an d tida l waves Moreover th e limite d spac e woul d hav e compelle d th e dumpin g o f refus e i n th e sea Notwithstand in g thos e perceive d limitations i t wa s fro m a smal l isle t locate d o n a ree f nea r Maupiti Societ y Islands tha t a serie s o f "Archaic Eas t

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THOMA S 30 3 Polynesia n burial s wer e discovere d (Emor y an d Sinot o 1964) Pacifi c atoll s nevertheles s attracte d attentio n b y th e presenc e o f ston e structures suc h a s marae (ritua l platforms) hous e pavements an d cairn s (Emor y 1934a:3 1939:42-47) Th e islan d o f Middl e Caico s ha s als o yielde d evidenc e o f pre Columbia n ceremonia l plaza s (Keega n 1985:220) but th e remainde r o f th e Bahama s chai n i s largel y devoi d o f architectura l features Archaeologist s migh t perhap s focu s o n th e discover y o f wei r traps whic h coul d b e lyin g i n th e shallow s nea r villag e site s an d i n channel s betwee n islets Emor y (1934b:23 ) describe d suc h trap s mad e fro m block s an d fragment s o f coral buil t u p t o ris e severa l centimeter s abov e wate r a t hig h tide On e advantag e i n doin g fieldwor k i n th e Tuamotu s reside d i n th e fac t tha t th e traditiona l name s an d precis e location s o f suc h feature s wer e know n t o th e inhabitants Whil e deepl y stratifie d site s ar e rar e i n th e West Indie s an d i n Tong a (Rous e 1977:8 ; Davidso n 1979:107) activit y area s o f ove r 1 m i n dept h hav e bee n locate d i n th e Bahama s (Sear s an d Suliva n 1978:9) Davidso n (1967a : 364 ) excavate d cultura l deposit s attainin g 3 m an d dee p site s wer e als o identifie d fo r Ngul u i n th e Wester n Caroline s (som e belo w se a level suggestin g tectoni c activity ) (Into h 1981:77-78 ) an d fo r th e raise d cora l islan d o f Nissa n i n Melanesi a (M Spriggs pers connu 1986) Th e succes s o f Davidson' s wor k ma y b e partl y attribute d t o th e positio n o f Nukuor o outsid e th e norma l pat h o f hurricanes Subsequen t researc h i n th e Centra l Caroline s ha s eve n demonstrate d tha t stratifie d deposit s coul d b e preserve d o n atoll s locate d i n th e typhoo n bel t (Fujimur a an d Alkir e 1984) Whil e ther e i s th e obviou s advantag e o f havin g a circumscribe d lan d are a fo r reconstructin g th e cultur e o f a n atoll th e clusterin g o f activ i tie s ca n mak e thei r identificatio n quit e difficult Anothe r majo r proble m lie s i n th e burrowin g actio n o f lan d crabs Contemporar y settlemen t pattern s o n Moki l an d Pingela p Atoll s i n th e Easter n Caroline s wer e simila r t o Nukuoro i n tha t a singl e village marke d b y a highe r elevatio n an d surrounde d b y tar o pits i s locate d o n th e lagoo n shor e o f on e o f th e islet s (Davidso n 1967b:82-83) A simila r distributio n wa s note d fo r Ulith i (Crai b 1981:49 53) wit h settlement s correlate d wit h th e wides t portio n o f a n islet whic h als o corresponde d t o th e best freshwate r len s i n whic h tar o swamp s coul d b e excavated Trail s an d ope n space s withi n a vallag e ar e pave d wit h a thi n laye r o f cora l rubble Crai b als o note d a reductio n i n th e numbe r o f inhabite d islet s a s a resul t o f documente d hurricanes Th e greates t damag e t o cultura l features however appear s t o relat e t o th e loca l faun a an d flora particularl y th e roo t system s o f larg e Ficus tree s whic h expan d unde r platform s an d burial s (Crai b 1981:51) Bahamia n settlement s follo w a simila r pattern Island s oriente d alon g a N/ S o r NW/S E axi s presen t a marke d leewar d sid e fro m th e prevailin g wind s an d currents thu s allowin g th e formatio n o f sand y beache s wit h lo w energ y bays tida l flats an d estuaries A s woul d b e expecte d fo r cora l island ers settlemen t distributio n i s essentiall y coastal

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30 4 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A COLONIZATIO N AN D TRAD E Th e expansio n o f Austronesia n speaker s acros s Islan d Southeas t Asia Melanesia an d the n t o th e fa r corner s o f Polynesia ma y hav e bee n cause d b y a numbe r o f factor s (e.g. conquest s b y neighborin g groups voyage s o f exiles desir e fo r adventure) Th e mos t dramati c episod e o f thi s coloniz in g proces s relate s t o th e rapi d sprea d fro m th e Bismarc k Archipelag o t o Wester n Polynesia-a distanc e o f 500 0 k m withi n a spa n o f perhap s 30 0 years Th e Antille s exten d fo r abou t 130 0 km bu t i t too k twic e a s lon g fo r th e Tain o Arawa k t o dispers e fro m Sout h Americ a t o th e souther n Bahamas Whil e acerami c Cibone y group s wer e know n historicall y fro m wester n Cub a an d fro m southwes t Hait i an d northwes t Hispaniola ther e i s a t presen t n o evidenc e o f precerami c occupatio n anywher e i n th e Bahamas D e Boo y (1912:88 ) suggeste d tha t initia l settlemen t wa s th e resul t o f Cari b incursion s i n th e Greate r Antilles whic h force d th e mor e peacefu l Tain o t o migrat e north Thi s positio n i s n o longe r tenabl e i n ligh t o f earl y date s fo r th e Bahama s an d th e Cari b tradition s tha t too k plac e onl y a fe w centurie s befor e Columbu s (Gullic k 1980:464) Winte r e t al (1985:84-85 ) argue d tha t on e o f th e reason s fo r expansio n ma y hav e bee n t o follo w th e fligh t pattern s o f migratin g birds notabl y th e flaming o (th e flaming o islan d o f Grea t Inagu a lie s abou t 10 0 k m fro m th e coas t o f Cuba) Anothe r theor y postulate d initia l colonizatio n b y seasona l visitors wh o presumabl y realize d th e advantage s o f exploitin g th e sal t pan s an d drie d conch s i n th e Turk s an d Caico s fo r expor t t o Hispaniol a (Dora n 1958:397) Recen t economic-demographi c analyse s o n th e timin g o f settlement s sugges t a mor e plausibl e mode l fo r expansio n (Keega n 1985:297) Fo r Micronesia earl y date s fo r th e wester n "high island s o f Saipan Belau an d Ya p (Pelle t an d Spoeh r 1961:332 ) contras t significantl y wit h th e sequence s i n th e Centra l Carolin e atolls I t ha s bee n suggeste d that give n a choice peopl e wil l generall y avoi d settlemen t o n atolls O n th e othe r hand a n offshoo t o f th e Austronesia n Lapit a expansio n ma y hav e bee n anxiou s t o leav e th e malaria-infeste d regio n o f Melanesi a t o coloniz e Kiribat i (th e Gilberts ) an d th e Marshal l Island s (Rile y 1981) Linguisti c reconstruction s fo r Proto-Malayo-Polynesia n revea l a comple x seafarin g technology whic h include d th e sai l an d th e outrigge r (Blus t 1976:21) Thi s undoubtedl y facilitate d th e rapi d dispersa l o f th e Lapit a Cultura l Complex It s bearers wh o wer e alread y acquainte d wit h th e insula r world proceede d t o discove r man y differen t islan d types varyin g i n siz e an d i n resources Generall y speaking however th e farthe r east th e smalle r an d mor e impoverishe d th e island Upo n reachin g Tonga th e ancestor s o f th e Polynesian s maintaine d tradin g relationship s wit h Fij i righ t dow n t o histori c time s (Kirc h 1984:239) Abou t 50 0 year s ago th e islan d o f Tongatap u ha d elaborate d a comple x socia l structure whic h culminate d i n politica l hegemon y ove r th e entir e archipelag o an d furthe r afield Th e colonizin g sequenc e fo r th e Centra l Caroline s i s stil l not clearl y understood but linguisti c dat a indicat e a lin k wit h Nuclea r Micronesian whic h ca n ultimatel y b e derive d fro m easter n Melanesia Again ther e i s

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THOMA S 30 5 ampl e evidenc e fo r a sea-oriente d econom y an d possibl e prio r knowledg e o f atol l lif e (Kiribati Marshalls) althoug h archaeologist s hav e barel y scratche d th e surfac e i n thos e areas Th e Tuamotu s seeme d t o hav e bee n colonize d fro m th e Societ y Islands I n spit e o f th e paucit y o f wood th e Tuamotuans lik e th e Carolin e Island ers wer e skille d navigator s (Finne y 1979:348) I t shoul d b e note d tha t i n spit e o f th e apparen t absenc e o f th e sai l i n th e Caribbea n prio r t o Europea n contac t (McKusic k 1960) th e India n dugou t canoe s i n th e Bahamas som e capabl e o f holdin g u p t o 4 0 people wer e abl e t o guid e Columbu s t o th e Greate r Antille s (La s Casa s 1893:39 45) Th e Colonize r mode l fo r th e Lapit a phenomeno n (Gree n 1982 ) encompasse s settlement s tha t ar e widesprea d an d culturall y homogeneous Fo r th e Bahamas however th e evidenc e seem s t o fi t th e Supertram p mode l charac terize d b y rapi d populatio n growt h an d b y a stron g emphasi s o n movin g o n t o a ne w settlemen t location Thi s mode l i s supporte d b y th e larg e numbe r o f site s i n th e south-centra l Bahamas wher e rapi d expansio n wa s n o doub t promote d b y th e fragil e characte r o f hig h ranke d terrestria l resource s an d th e shor t wate r passage s (Keega n 1985) W e ca n attes t t o th e presenc e o f homogeneou s Lucaya n cultur e an d languag e a t contact du e i n par t t o th e environmenta l homogeneit y o f th e Bahama s Archipelago althoug h Columbu s seeme d mor e impresse d b y th e cotto n mantle s an d bands a s wel l a s th e gol d piece s wor n b y th e inhabitant s o f Fernandin a (Lon g Island ) (Southe y 1968:9) Prehistorically bot h th e Meillacoi d an d late r Chicoi d potter y style s reflec t clos e tie s wit h th e Greate r Antille s (Winte r e t al 1985:89) Th e rate s o f chang e fo r Lapit a ar e characterize d b y element s o f rapi d dispersal resistanc e t o extinctio n o r cultura l replacement an d frequen t interaction s amon g communitie s a t distance s u p t o 60 0 km Gree n (1982 ) cite s th e causa l variable s fo r hi s model whic h assum e th e followin g characteristics : a generalize d econom y wit h bot h marin e an d horticultura l components effectiv e colonizers skillfu l voyagers rapi d populatio n growth an d effectiv e communicatio n networks Fo r th e Bahamas w e ca n als o spea k o f a generalize d econom y wit h perhap s a stronge r emphasi s o n hig h ranke d terrestria l resource s i n th e earl y stage s o f settlement causin g rapi d expansion Th e Lucayan s wer e effectiv e colonizer s i n tha t the y adapte d quit e wel l t o a calcareou s environment but di d encounte r situation s o f sever e drough t an d must hav e becom e victim s o f hurricanes I n addition the y ma y hav e ha d t o conten d wit h th e winte r col d o n th e norther n islands a conditio n no t foun d i n th e calcareou s setting s o f Oceania Th e Lucayan s wer e quit e skillfu l naviga tor s an d maintaine d contac t wit h th e Greate r Antilles Give n th e paucit y o f ethnographi c data however littl e i s know n o n intra-archipelag o exchanges Fo r tha t reason i t i s difficul t t o decid e o n Alkire' s cate gorie s o f "Cora l Clusters an d "Cora l Complexes" Th e environmenta l homogeneit y o f th e archipelag o woul d limi t exchange s a t th e loca l leve l (i.e. wit h communitie s clos e a t hand) However give n th e relativ e proximit y o f th e islands particularl y i n th e centra l area an d th e possibl e uneve n distributio n o f cla y fo r ceramics togethe r wit h th e

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30 6 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A distributio n o f Greate r Antillea n export s i n th e centra l an d souther n Bahama s an d th e aforementione d environmenta l hazard s throughou t th e islan d chain th e concep t o f a "Cora l Complex ma y stil l b e valid Th e Tuamotu s wer e initiall y organize d int o smal l cluster s unti l the y wer e incorporate d i n a "Cora l Complex whe n Tahit i extende d it s influence Th e Centra l Caroline s li e i n a n are a o f hig h rainfal l an d hig h producti vity havin g supporte d som e o f th e denses t population s o f an y cora l island s o f th e Pacific Mos t o f th e atoll s ar e les s tha n 16 0 k m apar t an d wer e reache d b y sophisticate d craft s (Alkir e 1978:114-115) O n th e othe r hand the y wer e susceptibl e t o devastatio n b y hurricanes ; henc e cooperatio n wa s essential I n addition th e island s varie d i n siz e an d productio n poten tia l (Ayre s an d Hau n 1983:7) Th e Centra l Caroline s wer e als o incorporate d int o th e sawei exchang e syste m o f th e Ya p Empire Th e Ypes e lineag e head s o f a particula r distric t claime d ownershi p o f th e oute r island s o r district s fro m whic h representative s cam e t o pa y tribute Th e tribut e consiste d o f wove n fibers, sennit shells etc I n exchang e th e cora l islander s receive d foo d an d returne d t o thei r home s whe n th e seasona l wind s woul d return Th e syste m ensure d cooperatio n i n th e distributio n o f resource s betwee n atoll s an d district s (Alkir e 1978:119) Thes e exchange s wer e sustaine d becaus e i t wa s though t tha t th e Ypes e woul d otherwis e sen d hurricane s i n th e direc tio n o f th e atolls I n th e "Cora l Complex situation competitiv e raidin g i s no t adaptive sinc e hurricane s woul d weake n a grou p s o tha t i t woul d n o longe r b e capabl e o f raisin g a n arm y o f sufficien t size Th e Marshal l comple x ca n b e understoo d b y difference s betwee n th e drie r nort h versu s th e wette r south althoug h competitio n wa s mor e prevalen t becaus e o f th e absenc e o f hur ricane s A s oppose d t o atolls Tongatap u an d th e Bahama s possesse d cla y sources Deposit s o f Bahama s Re d Loa m appea r t o hav e bee n distribute d b y wind carrie d soil s a t a probabl e rat e o f 5 c m pe r 100 0 years Cla y concentra tion s ar e create d b y th e leachin g o f calciu m carbonate leavin g th e clay s behind Presen t concentration s ar e greatl y reduce d owin g t o intensiv e cultivatio n durin g th e las t centur y (Hoffma n 1986:167) Th e "decline o f Lapit a potter y i n Oceani a ha s fascinate d researcher s fo r quit e som e time but spac e preclude s a revie w o f explanator y model s (cf Claridg e 1984 ; Leac h 1982 ; Irwi n 1981 ; Fros t 1979) Whil e w e witnes s a simila r declin e i n th e craf t o f cerami c manufactur e i n th e Antilles bes t exemplifie d b y Suazoi d ceramics a recen t analysi s o f Bahama s potter y (Keegan pers coram 1985 ) reveale d a hig h degre e o f complexity exhibitin g onl y poo r outwar d qualit y becaus e o f th e poo r qualit y o f th e material s available Compare d t o certai n area s o f Oceania neithe r th e Bahama s no r th e othe r island s i n th e Caribbea n abandone d cerami c technolog y entirely W e ca n onl y speculat e o h whethe r o r no t the y wer e actuall y headin g towar d becomin g aceramic Rapi d populatio n growt h i n th e Bahama s Archipelag o seeme d t o hav e occure d durin g th e termina l period I n Oceania atoll s specificall y an d

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THOMA S 30 7 small relativel y isolate d island s i n genera l might hav e witnesse d repeate d instance s o f populatio n replacement o r a t th e ver y least wer e mor e susceptibl e t o externa l influence s (Vayd a 1959:820-821) I n th e Bahamas Chicoi d potter y appear s b y abou t A.D 1250 but thi s refer s t o a movement o f a dominatin g ideolog y whic h ha d onl y mino r influences CONCLUSIO N Severa l aspect s pertainin g t o genera l adaptatio n t o a calcareou s environmen t wer e examined W e hav e see n man y simila r response s i n th e classi c sens e o f technologica l convergence bu t als o differences particu larl y fo r som e aspect s o f dispersa l o f th e typ e presentl y defende d fo r th e Lapit a expansion B y th e tim e Bahama s archaeolog y i n specifi c an d West India n prehistor y i n genera l reac h th e stag e o f reconstructin g mor e precisel y th e socia l an d ideologica l subsystems ther e wil l hav e developed hopefully les s o f a dependenc e o n Oceani c parallels I n th e meantime however le t u s continu e t o poo l ou r resource s i n orde r t o mak e th e fiel d o f islan d archaeolog y a mor e activ e an d vigorou s discipline ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I wis h t o than k Willia m F Keega n an d Matthe w J Sprigg s fo r thei r helpfu l comment s an d criticism s o n earlie r draft s o f thi s paper. REFERENCE S CITE D Alkire Willia m H 197 8 Cora l islanders Ahm : Arlingto n Heights Ayres Willia m S an d Ala n E Hau n 198 3 Prehistori c foo d productio n i n Micronesia Revisio n o f a pape r presente d i n th e symposiu m "Pacifi c Productio n Systems a t th e XVt h Pacifi c Scienc e Congres s (Dunedi n 1983 ) Pete r S Th e Oceani c context I n Th e Prehistor y o f Polynesi a (Jess e D Jennings d.) pp 6-26 Harvar d Universit y Press : Cambridge Blust Rober t 197 6 Austronesia n cultur e history : som e linguisti c inference s an d thei r relation s t o th e archaeologica l record Worl d Archae olog y 8:19-43 Bellwood 197 9

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30 8 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A Bryan E.H. Jr 195 3 Chec k lis t o f atolls Atol l Researc h Bulleti n 19 Cassels Richar d 198 4 O f Ne w Zealan d an d othe r Pacifi c Islands I n Quaternar y Extinctions : a prehistori c revolutio n (Pau l S Marti n an d Richar d G Klein eds.) pp 741-761 Universit y o f Texa s Press : Tucson Chazine Jean-Miche l 198 5 Le s Fosse s d e cultur e dan s le s Tuamotu : travau x e n cour s e t perspectives Journa l d e l a Socit de s Ocaniste s 41:25-32 Christophersen Erlin g 192 7 Vegetatio n o f th e Pacifi c Equatoria l Islands B.P Bisho p Museu m Bulleti n 44 Claridge G.G.C 198 4 Potter y an d th e Pacific : th e cla y factor Ne w Zealan d Journa l o f Archaeolog y 6:37-46 Columbi a Lippincot t Gazettee r o f th e Worl d 196 2 Columbi a Universit y Press : Ne w York Craib Joh n L 198 1 Settlemen t o n Ulith i Atoll Wester n Carolin e Islands Asia n Perspective s 24:47-55 Craton Michae l 196 8 A Histor y o f th e Bahamas Collins : London Davidson Jane t M 1967 a Archaeolog y o n cora l atolls I n Polynesia n Cultur e History : essay s i n hono r o f Kennet h P Emor y (Geneviv e A Highlan d e t al. eds.) pp 363-376 B.P Bisho p Museu m Specia l Publica tio n 56 1967 b Preliminar y archaeologica l investigation s o n Ponap e an d othe r Easter n Carolin e Islands Micronesic a 3:81-95 197 0 Polynesia n Outlier s an d th e proble m o f cultura l replacemen t i n smal l populations I n Studie s i n Oceani c Cultur e Histor y 1 (R.C Gree n an d M Kelly eds.) pp 61-72 B.P Bisho p Museum Pacifi c Anthropologica l Record s 11 197 9 Samo a an d Tonga I n Th e Prehistor y o f Polynesi a (Jess e D Jennings d.) pp 82-109 Harvar d Universit y Press : Cambridge d e Booy Theodoo r 191 2 Lucaya n remain s o n th e Caico s Islands America n Anthropolo gis t 14:8 1 105

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THOMA S 30 9 Doran Edwin Jr 195 8 Th e Caico s conc h trade Geographica l Revie w 48:338-401 Emory Kennet h P 1934 a Tuamotua n ston e structures B.P Bisho p Museu m Bulleti n 118 1934 b Archaeolog y o f th e Pacifi c Equatoria l Islands B.P Bisho p Museu m Bulleti n 123 193 9 Archaeolog y o f Mangarev a an d neighborin g atolls B.P Bisho p Museu m Bulleti n 163 197 5 Materia l cultur e i n th e Tuamot u Archipelago B.P Bisho p Museum Pacifi c Anthropologica l Record s 22 Emory Kennet h P an d Y.H Sinot o 196 4 Easter n Polynesia n burial s a t Maupiti Journa l o f th e Polynesia n Societ y 73:143-160 Finney Be n R 197 9 Voyaging I n Th e Prehistor y o f Polynesi a (Jess e D Jennings d.) pp 323-351 Harvar d Universit y Press : Cambridge Fosberg F Raymon d 195 3 Vegetatio n o f Centra l Pacifi c Atolls a brie f summary Atol l Researc h Buleti n 123 Frost Everet t L 197 9 Fiji I n The Prehistor y o f Polynesi a (Jess e D Jennings d.) pp 61-81 Harvar d Universit y Press : Cambridge Fujimura Keik o an d Willia m H Alkir e 198 4 Archaeologica l tes t excavation s o n Faraulep Woleai an d Lamotre k i n th e Carolin e Island s o f Micronesia I n Carolin e Island s Archaeology : Investigation s o n Fefan Faraulep Woleai an d Lamotre k (Y.H Sinoto d.) pp 66-129 B.P Bisho p Museum Pacifi c Anthropologica l Record s 35 Goldberg Walte r M 198 3 Ca y Sa l Bank Bahamas : a biologicall y impoverishe d physicall y controlle d environment Atol l Researc h Bulleti n 271 Green Roge r C 198 2 Model s fo r th e Lapit a Cultura l Complex : a n evaluatio n o f som e curren t proposals Ne w Zealan d Journa l o f Archaeolog y 4:7 19 Gullick C.J.M.R 198 0 Islan d Cari b tradition s abou t thei r arriva l i n th e Lesse r Antilles Proceeding s o f th e Eight h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (S t Kitt s 1979) pp 464-472

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31 0 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A Hoffman, Charle s A 198 6 Curren t research : Caribbean America n Antiquit y 51:167-169 Hoffmeister J Edwar d 193 2 Geolog y o f Eua Tonga B.P Bisho p Museu m Bulleti n 96 Intoh Michik o 198 1 Reconnaissanc e archaeologica l researc h o n Ngul u Atol l i n th e Wester n Carolin e Islands Asia n Perspective s 24:69-80 Irwin Geoffre y 198 1 Ho w Lapit a los t it s pots : th e questio n o f continuit y i n th e colonisatio n o f Polynesia Journa l o f th e Polynesia n Societ y 90:481-494 Keegan Willia m F 198 4 Patter n an d proces s i n Strombus gigas too l replication Journa l o f Ne w Worl d Archaeolog y 6:15-24 198 5 Dynami c horticulturalists : populatio n expansio n i n th e prehistori c Bahamas Unpublishe d Ph.D dissertation Universit y o f Californi a a t Lo s Angeles Universit y Micro films : An n Arbor Kirch Patric k V 197 9 Subsistenc e an d ecology I n Th e Prehistor y o f Polynesi a (Jess e D Jennings d.) pp 286-307 Harvar d Universit y Press : Cambridge 198 4 Th e Evolutio n o f th e Polynesia n Chiefdoms Cambridg e Universit y Press : Cambridge 198 5 Divergen t evolutio n i n Polynesia Pape r presente d a t th e 50t h Annua l Meetin g o f th e Societ y fo r America n Archaeolog y (Denver) Lampert R.J 196 8 A n archaeologica l investigatio n o n Ocea n Island Centra l Pacific Archaeolog y an d Physica l Anthropolog y i n Oceani a 3: 1 18 Land s an d Surve y Departmen t 197 4 Atlas : th e Commonwealt h o f th e Bahamas Bahama s Governmen t Printin g Department : Nassau La s Casas Bartolom d e 189 3 Journa l o f th e firs t voyag e o f Columbu s (Clement s R Markham trans an d d.) Hakluy t Societ y 86 London Leach Hele n M 198 2 Cookin g withou t pots : aspect s o f prehistori c an d traditiona l Polynesia n cooking Ne w Zealan d Journa l o f Archaeolog y 4:149-156

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THOMA S 31 1 McKusick Marshal l D 196 0 Aborigina l canoe s i n th e West Indies I n Paper s i n Caribbea n Anthropolog y (Irvin g Rouse d.) pp 3-11 Yal e Universit y Publication s i n Anthropolog y 63 Melvin A Gordo n 196 6 Se a shell s o f th e world Charle s E Tuttle : Rutland Motteler Le e S 198 6 Pacifi c Islan d Names B.P Bisho p Museu m Miscellaneou s Publicatio n 34 Nicholson Desmon d V 197 6 Th e importanc e o f se a level s i n Caribbea n archaeology Journa l o f th e Virgi n Island s Archaeologica l Societ y 3:19-23 Olsen Fre d 197 4 O n th e Trai l o f th e Arawaks Universit y o f Oklahom a Press : Norman Olson Storr s L 198 6 Prehistori c huma n impac t o n th e avifaun a o f Hawaii Pape r presente d a t th e Elevent h Annua l Pacifi c Island s Studie s Conferenc e (Honolulu) Olson Storr s L an d Willia m B Hilgartne r 198 2 Fossi l an d subfossi l bird s fro m th e Bahamas I n Fossi l Vertebrate s fro m th e Bahama s (Storr s L Olson d.) pp 22 56 Smithsonia n Contribution s t o Paleobiolog y 48 Pellet Marcia n an d Alexande r Spoeh r 196 1 Mariana s archaeology Journa l o f th e Polynesia n Societ y 70:321-325 Poulsen Jen s 197 0 Shel l artifact s i n Oceania : thei r distributio n an d signifi cance I n Studie s i n Oceani c Cultur e Histor y 1 (R.C Gree n an d M Kelly eds.) pp 33-46 B.P Bisho p Museum Pacifi c Anthropologica l Record s 11 Riley Thoma s J 198 1 Fina l repor t o n archaeologica l surve y an d testing Majur o Atoll Marshal l Islands M s 07228 1 prepare d fo r th e Histori c Preservatio n Office Saipan Rouse Irvin g 194 8 Th e West Indies : a n introduction I n Handboo k o f Sout h America n Indian s 4 (Julia n Steward d.) pp 495-565 Burea u o f America n Ethnology Bulleti n 143 197 7 Patter n an d proces s i n West India n archaeology Worl d Archaeolog y 9:1-11

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31 2 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A Rouse Irvin g an d Loui s Allair e 197 8 Caribbean I n Chronologie s i n Ne w Worl d Archaeolog y (R.E Taylo r an d C.W Meighan, eds.) pp 431-481 Academi c Press : Ne w York Sauer Car l 0 1950 a Cultivate d plant s o f Sout h an d Centra l America. I n Handboo k o f Sout h America n Indian s 6 (Julia n Steward d.) pp 487 543 Burea u o f America n Ethnology Bulleti n 143 1950 b Geograph y an d plant s an d anima l resources I n Handboo k o f Sout h America n Indian s 6 (Julia n Steward d.) pp 319-344 Burea u o f America n Ethnology Bulleti n 143 Sears Willia m H an d Shau n 0 Sulliva n 197 8 Bahama s prehistory America n Antiquit y 43:3-25 Southey Rober t 196 8 Chronologica l histor y o f th e Wes t Indie s 1 Fran k Cass : London Sutty Lesle y A 197 8 A stud y o f shell s an d shelle d object s fro m si x pre-Columbia n site s i n th e Grenadine s o f St Vincen t an d Grenada Proceed ing s o f th e Sevent h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Caraca s 1977) pp 195-210 Thomas Willia m L. Jr 196 3 Th e variet y o f physica l environment s amon g Pacifi c islands I n Man' s Plac e i n th e Islan d Ecosyste m (F.R Fosberg d.) pp 7-37 B.P Bisho p Museu m Press : Honolulu Vayda Andre w P 195 9 Polynesia n cultura l distributio n America n Anthropologis t 61:817-828 i n ne w perspective 196 3 Aspect s o f man' s influenc e upo n islan d ecosystems : alteratio n an d control I n Man' s Plac e i n th e Islan d Ecosyste m (F.R Fosberg d.) pp 153-170 B.P Bisho p Museu m Press : Honolulu Visher Stephe n Sargen t 192 5 Tropica l cyyyclone s o f th e Pacific Bulleti n 20 B.P Bisho p Museu m Ward Gerar d R an d Bryan t J Alle n 198 0 Th e viabilit y o f floatin g coconuts 7(2):69-72 Scienc e i n Ne w Guine a

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THOMA S 31 3 Watters Davi d R 198 1 Linkin g oceanograph y t o prehistori c archaeology Oceanu s 24:11-19 198 2 Relatin g oceanograph y t o Antillea n prehistory : implication s fro m Oceania Journa l o f Ne w Worl d Archaeolog y 5:3-12 198 3 Assessin g th e ocean' s role s i n Antillea n prehistory Proceeding s o f th e Nint h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Sant o Doming o 1981) pp 531-541 Wiens Herol d J 196 2 Atol l environmen t an d ecology Yal e Universit y Press : Ne w Haven Winter John Julia n Granberry an d Ar t Leibol d 198 5 Archaeologica l investigation s withi n th e Bahama s Archipelago Proceeding s o f th e Tent h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Fort de-France 1983) pp 83-92

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31 4 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A 0 Grond Sahara if 1 baa0 NORTHER N 30 0 k a FLORID A \rkbaoo . T L„ ^ ^ • / „ ' p f g J N Ib.tt.r n .„.%-" ---' j^Kut. ^ CENTRA L ^ndror-\^ i %? -blan d UlandXh 0 & m Sauao r Atlanti c Ocea n long I eland Crooked la .r ^ — ^ Hagg.d, jAoklin.===>*' a 9 u!ma It'.' *T ^'^Horth Caico Providencialsa^^^Hiddl Caico ~-~ a ^£a* t Caiooi '" „ tcrand Turk Inagua fea f SOUTHER N Figur e 1 Th e Bahama s Archipelag o (Winte r e t al 1985) -10 N Z 1 ••• NQU' U -8 ,„ iseemsei l \ 1 140 E -So. m 140 1 STAT E O F YA P .Vni p Edu'ipi <• 1 144 FVau'* n • iian 1 4 4 1 Ga'eru i -VP S Qltmara o • E1310 1 ^avu" -Lam o 1 0 P'.emi ^ 5aia<* < Figur e 2 Th e Centra l Caroline s (Mottele r 1986)

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-1530' S /Q^NiudlOO U 17530' W I 174 W ^Taian ~16 S '"'/^NiuatoQulao u NIUATOPUTAP U I GROU P -19 S 1 1?5 W Fon t a „ T 0 VAVA' U GROU P Uiungah e — H.ng a OvaRa-f Laie ^ Nuaoao o — TONG A 0 2 5 1 i STATUT E MILE S N S O 1 ",' Oiotang a M o ung a one„ ^ 0 Ka o Mea-a. L a 0 e V ao0 Foiun a a ,jrf, LriuK a v0 „ng a ...^tToie. a -20 KOTUGROUP^WiaW^'^o, So"> Teaup a ^x^ > ^; \ ^ % O u a ^,a-* ^"" V Nom* M "' ' w S 0 oe'vav a u NOMUK A Mang o ,= Kaon a GROU P ^ i-Te ie ,l 0 ng a -21 17615' W 22 20' S i vTonume a ,.h u ng a Tong a "^e'es. a Muig a H a ao a V „ ^1 T, 21 TongaiaDu N f TONGATAP U / l GROU P / j Eu a \ 1 a a u < " 1 I 174 )£&"'" Mn£?Koio a -^J 7 Panga.mol u ^— — Kao a c HA'APA I GROU P GROU P 19 20 Ataia ^ \ ^ Tongalao u 2110'S V TONGATAP U GROU P (1-9 ) . . STAIu' E waE S 17510' W Oneva i Pala" • Mptutao u Tat, Aia Nuk u P'unav e Figur e 3 Th e Tonga n Archipelag o (Mottele r 1986)

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31 6 TH E BAHAMA S AN D OCEANI A Miuiv a ~ """ / Rangiro a Timha u Arutu a • *-Makal a Kaukurd SOCIET Y ISLAND S 'Mehaii a \ \ N 1 "An e Ap a Toa u a u r •• • I KIN G GEORG E ISLAND S Teool o Nort h • „ Napul a Man.h i .' Takaio a DISAPPOINTMEN T ISLAND S Takapot o 'Pukapuk a •T.ke i a "/Atalik a OKauenr Ta a, Takume., ,Fanga.a u ., flaroiai'/ oFahanm a i \ ,-flarak a Taeng a Fakarava'. J Kali u c. ; . Makemo Fowls'' "' M ;.-.Nihir u . ~ -'Tepot o Sout h -flekarek a Tahane a -•• ' , —i.Maruie a Non h • Motutung a r. -Tekokota *Tauer e -••Tatakot o • 'Ana a • Haraik i "-" • Hikuer u i i • Reilot u ,'.. Aman u •~ Maroka u i' flavahere 'Ha o -Akiak i •Vahiiah i >.;Nengoneng o Manuhangi a Nukuiavak e Vairaataa'1 pfnak i lAhunu i 0 Hereherelu e DUK E O F GLOUCESTE R GROU P ^Anuanurar c A UanU Jn9a -N"^!! Vana.ana OW TUAMOT U ARCHIPELAG O 0 100 20 0 _ 1 | | *>Tflmatang i STATUT E M LE S i*;r ? Moruro a 1 Fangatau' a 145 W 14< T 1 I s Pukaru a Reao"~ N ACTAEO N GROU P (&s& TenarafO l 4 ?^ Matur e ivava o •Man a Moran e 15 J S 20 M a rute a C Sout h Figur e 4 Th e Tuamot u Archipelag o (Mottele r 1986 )