Citation
A Summary of Amerindian Cultural Geography Research on Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

Material Information

Title:
A Summary of Amerindian Cultural Geography Research on Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Jay B. Haviser ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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A SUMMAR Y O F AMERINDIA N CULTURA L GEOGRAPH Y RESEARC H O N CURAAO NETHERLAND S ANTILLE S Ja y B Havise r Thi s stud y i s a contributio n t o th e reconstructio n o f Amerindia n cultur e histor y o n th e islan d o f Curaao usin g a basi s o f archeologica l dat a fo r interpretation s vi a variou s anthropologica l analogie s an d geo graphica l models A s a n ecologica l approach thi s stud y stresse s th e interrelationshi p betwee n culture s an d th e environment wit h a focu s o n th e availabilit y o f natura l resource s an d th e distributio n o f huma n settle ments Thi s stud y summarize s genera l huma n adaptatio n an d cultur e specifi c expression s o f valu e system s an d perception s o f th e sam e environmen t b y differen t Amerindia n culture s wh o inhabite d th e island Th e basi c dat a fo r thi s stud y wer e 9 7 Amerindia n site s recorde d o n Curaa o b y th e author ove r th e las t thre e years Thes e sites whe n possible wer e attribute d t o th e standar d Caribbea n technologica l stage s define d b y Rous e an d Allair e (1978 ) a s th e Archaic Cerami c an d Histori c Ages Figur e 1 present s th e positio n o f Curaa o i n th e semi-deser t climati c regio n referre d t o her e a s th e "Souther n Caribbea n Region" Th e Souther n Caribbea n Regio n i s suggeste d b y th e autho r t o b e a distinctiv e an d uniqu e cultura l are a withi n th e Caribbean Figure s 25 sho w th e location s o f archeologica l site s o n Curaao i n tota l an d accordin g t o Age O f th e 9 7 Amerindia n site s know n fo r th e island 50.5 % ar e o f th e Cerami c Age 27.8 % ar e o f th e Archai c Age 13.4 % ar e pictograph/petroglyp h sites an d 8.3 % ar e unidentifie d a s t o cultura l affiliation Thes e site s wer e furthe r classifie d a s t o probabl e occupatio n intensit y an d sit e functio n fo r each Probabl e occupatio n intensit y wa s calculate d b y th e vertica l an d horizonta l dimension s o f th e artifac t deposit s a t eac h site a s ca n b e see n i n Figur e 6 Thi s allowe d fo r th e designatio n o f Ephemera l sites whic h ar e considere d t o represen t les s tha n som e fe w day s o r week s a t th e locus ; Temporar y sites whic h ar e considere d t o represen t som e fe w month s occupation ; an d Permanen t sites whic h ar e considere d t o represen t severa l year s o r generation s a t th e site Figur e 7 present s th e ratio s o f thes e probabl e occupatio n intensitie s an d th e site s b y Age Th e individua l sit e function s wer e suggeste d b y identificatio n o f th e numbe r an d variet y o f too l type s i n compariso n t o th e compositio n o f th e deposit s a t eac h site a s i s presente d i n Figur e 8 Th e site s wer e the n designate d wit h function s a s Limite d resourc e extraction Intensiv e resourc e extrac tion o r a s mor e comple x Bas e settlements/Sedentar y communities Again Figur e 7 show s th e ratio s o f thes e sit e function s t o th e site s b y Age Subsequently thre e systemati c excavation s wer e conducte d b y th e autho r a t site s representin g th e mai n Ages : St Michielsber g (Archai c Age) D e Savaa n (Cerami c Age) an d Sa n Hironim o (Histori c Age) Thes e sit e 22 7

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22 8 AMERINDIA N CULTUR E GEOGRAPH Y O N CURAA O investigation s produce d sample s whic h wer e associate d wit h radiocarbo n date s an d thu s allowe d fo r th e introductio n o f a chronolog y char t fo r Amerindia n culture s o n Curaa o (se e Figs 9 an d 10) B y compilin g th e dat a fro m th e sit e functions occupatio n intensitie s an d chronologies diagram s ar e presente d i n Figure s 1 1 an d 12 showin g th e suggeste d socio-economi c area s fo r th e Archai c an d Cerami c Age s o n Curaao B y referrin g t o anthropologica l insight s an d regiona l ethnographi c analogies thi s diversit y o f archeologica l site s wa s the n utilize d t o interpre t aspect s o f socia l organizatio n fo r th e differen t Amerindia n culture s note d o n Curaao Socia l organizatio n wa s interprete d i n term s o f th e variabilit y o f huma n buria l practice s (se e Havise r 1985) artifac t assemblages an d th e distribution functio n an d occupatio n intensit y o f settlements I t wa s mad e plausibl e tha t th e Archai c Ag e people s probabl y ha d a familistic semi-nomadi c Ban d leve l o f socia l organization wherea s th e Cerami c Ag e Communitie s probabl y ha d a Sedentar y Horticultura l socia l structur e a t severa l semi-autonomou s loca l communities Th e Cerami c Ag e people s wer e apparentl y withi n th e interactionspher e of bu t not subser vient to th e larg e Caqueti o Chiefdo m o n th e adjacen t mainland Th e effect s o f conques t o n th e socia l organizatio n o f th e post-Europea n contac t Amerindian s o n Curaa o ar e evidence d b y th e isolatio n o f settlement s an d a n increas e i n Caqueti o Chiefdo m influenc e o n th e island whic h wa s probabl y arrange d an d authorize d b y th e Spanish Al l majo r settlements--th e fiv e Archai c Ag e bas e camp s an d seve n Cerami c Ag e permanen t settlements--wer e submitte d t o sit e catchmen t analysis Th e primar y purpos e o f thi s procedur e wa s t o gai n knowledg e o f th e preferre d condition s fo r sit e locatio n fo r bot h periods Startin g fro m th e premis e o f a rationa l an d economi c settlemen t location difference s i n preferre d locatio n ca n b e use d t o interpret wit h a give n econom y a s a startin g point adaptiv e response s i n thes e periods Th e sit e catchment s wer e examine d withi n a n are a o f a 3-k m radiu s aroun d eac h site an d thi s are a wa s divide d int o thre e 1-k m radiu s rings Th e followin g wer e itemize d fo r eac h 3-k m area : topography geomorphology geologica l features potabl e wate r sources majo r drainag e basins soil s suitabl e fo r maiz e and/o r manio c cultivation mangroves tida l sal t areas cla y source s an d othe r archeologica l sites Followin g th e identificatio n o f th e above-mentione d characteristic s withi n eac h 3-k m stud y area a Poin t Patter n Analysi s wa s use d t o quantif y th e proportiona l ratio s o f eac h characteristic Th e relativ e valu e o f eac h geographi c characteristi c i n a sampl e are a wa s calculate d b y th e percentag e o f point s representin g thos e characteristic s a t radi i o f 1 km 2 km an d 3 k m fro m th e settlemen t (se e Fig 13) Thi s allowe d fo r rati o comparison s amon g an d betwee n th e Archai c an d Cerami c Ages a s wel l a s betwee n eac h Ag e an d th e overal l islan d ratio s o f eac h characteristic A characteristi c wa s considere d significan t whe n it s loca l percentag e rati o wa s abov e th e calculate d islan d percentag e rati o fo r tha t characteristic Th e combine d analysi s result s o f al l th e majo r Archai c Ag e site s (5 ) an d al l th e majo r Cerami c Ag e site s (7 ) ar e presente d

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HAVISE R 22 9 i n compariso n wit h eac h othe r an d wit h th e overal l Curaa o are a total s i n Figur e 14 Fro m tha t dat a wa s observe d a leve l o f generalize d adaptiv e respons e fo r basi c huma n necessitie s whic h i s her e designate d a s th e "Ba y Complex" an d i t wa s applicabl e t o al l o f th e Amerindia n culture s know n fo r th e island Als o identifie d wer e changin g perception s o f th e environmen t withi n th e Ba y Comple x a t culture-specifi c level s relatin g t o technologica l development Evidenc e o f th e pre-agricultura l Archai c Ag e exhibite d a "mangrove-roc k shelter emphasi s withi n th e Ba y Complex ; evidenc e o f th e agricultura l pre-Europea n contac t Cerami c Ag e showe d a "suitabl e soils drainag e basin emphasi s withi n th e Ba y Complex ; an d th e post-Europea n contac t Amerindian s eithe r adapte d vi a defensiv e hinterlan d isolatio n o r the y wer e no t allowe d thei r ow n perception s t o decid e villag e placement a t Europea n establishe d settlement s nea r "dee p wate r bays" A s a summar y o f Amerindia n Cultura l Geograph y o n Curaao I hav e bu t briefl y presente d som e prominen t chronological cultura l an d socia l aspect s note d fo r th e island Th e detail s o f thi s analysi s ca n b e foun d mor e thoroughl y explaine d i n th e author' s boo k b y th e sam e title fro m whic h al l Figure s i n thi s tex t wer e take n (Havise r 1987 ) I t i s hope d tha t thes e archeologica l aspect s o f Curaa o ca n offe r a comparativ e structur e fo r regiona l Amerindia n cultura l investigations REFERENCE S CITE D Ja y B Prehistori c Huma n Remain s o n Curaao Pape r presente d a t th e Elevent h Internationa l Congres s fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Sa n Juan) 198 7 Amerindia n Cultura l Geograph y o n Curaao Doctora l Disserta tio n a t Rijkuniversitei t Leiden Holland Hummelinck P Wagenaa r 194 0 Studie s o n th e Faun a o f Curaao Aruba Bonair e an d th e Venezuela n Islands Natuurwetenschappelijk e Studiekrin g voo r Surinam e e n d e Nederlands e Antille n 66 Th e Hague Rouse I. an d L Allair e 197 8 Caribbean I n Chronologie s i n Ne w Worl d Archeolog y (R E Taylo r an d Clemen t W Meighan eds.) pp 431-481 Ne w York : Academi c Pres s Rouse I. an d J M Cruxen t 196 3 Venezuela n Archaeology Yal e Caribbea n Serie s 6 Ne w Haven

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23 0 AMERINDIA N CULTUR E GEOGRAPH Y O N CURAA O Figur e 1 Positio n o f Curaa o i n th e Caribbea n Basi n (top) ; an d detai l o f Aruba-to-Margarit a islan d chai n an d norther n Sout h Americ a (bottom) Punctat e lin e indicate s dr y regio n wit h les s tha n 68 0 m m o f rainfal l pe r yea r (fro m Hummelinc k 1940:119)

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HAVISE R 23 1 Figur e 2 Locatio n o f al l prehistori c sites a s o f Januar y 1 1986 Figur e 3 Locatio n o f al l Cerami c Ag e sites

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23 2 AMERINDIA N CULTUR E GEOGRAPH Y O N CURAA O Figur e 4 Locatio n o f al l Archai c Ag e sites Figur e 5 Locatio n o f al l Pictograp h sites

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HAVISE R 23 3 Horizonta l Diamete r o f Site s surfac e t o 5cm 6cm t o 25cm ove r 25cm unknow n 0-25m •:•:•:•:•:•••••••••-•••••:•••:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•: • £•:•:•:•: • :•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:-:• : n= 2 : "-= 2 ,, ; • n= 0 n= 2 %= 2 26-50ra • Zll W • n= 9 IJ • n= 0 §'•••*, n= l 7. = 1 ove r 5 0 m n= 0 1 n=1 0 M [ 7. = 12g | n= 0 unknow n n= 0 n= 0 n= 0 n= 8 %=1 0 Tota l Site s = 84 (1 3 pictograp h site s excluded ) Ephemera l intensity = smal l size/shallo w dept h deposit s (al l othe r unlisted ) Temporar y intensity = mediu m size/mediu m dept h deposit s (se e Lis t I ) Permanen t intensity = larg e size/larg e dept h deposit s (se e Lis t II ) Lis t I Temporar y roo i rinc n cora l taba k #1/# 2 isl a sim o cholom a st jori s # 1 brakkepu t abo u a s ient o hat o # 2 brievenga t ja n thie 1 Lis t I I Permanen t kni p sant a cru z sa n hironira o klei n sant a mart a sa n jua n d e savaa n spaans e wate r sant a barbar a st michielsber g veeri s unknow n kin t ja n sant a mari e sceenrij k gait o koningsplei n ja n dore t buen a vist a roo i sant u ascen s io n hat o steenbrekkeri j #l/# 2 Figur e 6 Sit e Occupatio n Intensity

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23 4 AMERINDIA N CULTUR E GEOGRAPH Y O N CURAA O Tota l sites : 9 7 (100% ) Cultur e affiliations : Cerami c Ag e Archai c Ag e Pictograph s Unknow n Probabl e occupatio n intensity : 1 Ephemera l 2 Temporar y 3 Permanen t Probabl e sit e function : 1 Non-sub socia l 2 Limite d Resourc e Extractio n 3 Intensiv e Resourc e Extrac tio n 4 Bas e Settlement / Sedentar y Communit y n = 4 9 2 7 1 3 8 9 7 n = 1 7 7 3 2 7 1 6 1 0 1 2 7 i 50. 5 27. 8 13. 4 8. 3 10 0 Archai c % az e 63. 0 25. 9 11. 1 10 0 59. 3 37. 0 3. 7 10 0 Ag e % tota l 17. 5 7. 2 3. 1 27. 8 16. 5 10. 3 1. 0 27. 8 n = 3 8 4 7 4 9 3 6 6 7 4 9 i Cerami c % ae e 77. 7 8. 2 14. 3 10 0 73. 5 12. 2 14. 3 10 0 Ag e % tota l 39. 2 4. 1 7. 2 50. 5 37. 1 6. 2 7. 2 50. 5 n = 8 8 1 3 • 1 3 Unknow n % tota l 8. 3 ^_ 8. 3 13. 4 13. 4 Figur e 7 Amerindia n site s inventor y totals

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HAVISE R Composici n o f Site s / n o cool s shel l •goug e sh e L I adz e sh e 1 1 cel t sh e 1 I scoo p u c 1 1 Ize d cora l groun d bon e groun d Iimescon e groun d s I l c scon e groun d bas a 1 c chippe d b a s a l c c h ippe d sh a l e chippe d cher c cassav a grate r dril l cor e hammerston e jnvi t ma c a c e ornamenc a 1 obJe e C s mporce d o b jece s she l l onl y n = 3 2 — — 1 — _ — Limi c she l 1 ston e o n l y n=2 9 1 9 5 — U — 1 — — — — u u 2 — — — — — — — e d Resourc e Ex c she l 1 scon e cerami c o n l y n=O 0 2 0 3 — 6 1 — 1 i* i* rac e Io n she l 1 1 she l 1 scon e 1 scon e (vc h o r wichou c ceramic ) fauna l bon e o n l y n=l 2 6 — 1 0 2 6 2 1 1 7 3 8 2 1 l* 1 ; — fauna l bon e huma n bon e n= 9 9 Pas e Secttemen e Sedentar y Comm u Intensiv e Resourc e Fxcracclo n Figur e 8 Sit e functions

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23 6 AMERINDIA N CULTUR E GEOGRAPH Y O N CURAA O c TO I J ( A u x u m 0 1 TO a s o 0 ) i_ > TO o M a ; > u — 4_ — £ 3 TO — • U 0 > J E o > u i/ i > u o 1 l> C ( t ^ L a c E a TO T m — C J C Q O i n C N O v O + 1 o o <3 <3 E u i n I N I O C O C N ttfc TO 0 u u ( 0 X u e o u c C E o 0 O S r '/ ) < r a C N U i m O u t< TO > c j r— N' c ? C Q O N N O C O + \ O <£ 3 E O m 1 m C N -* C O C N =fc = n c u L X u c 0 u c 0 5 0 o se -£ > •n < r m C N U t ( 0 c j i i— C > o F— < > o ffi o C N m *> + 1 o vr f E u o C N | O •"• • 3 X > 0-, ( C 0 u u TO X u c o u c o o o o •~ ~ < r if l P" > TO C N O 1 TO U i rH ( 0 > u 1— < *— C D O) o J C O < c u C Q O ( N C N m o + 1 O r O E u O o i O C N -% ZZ U TO 0 u U i TO X u c o u c c e o 0 o s C N !/ > j TO C N o 1 TO C J u r e > C J C J t Q O c C N O m + t O o > o m E u O m 1 m C M ** i n t t o c u u TO X u c 0 O c cc 0 0 O S o < T C N 1 u r— • > (— 1 u c a O C O o r + 1 O C N C O E u O r 1 O \C ^ c c u — 1 c r a •* — V X w 0 0 0 > X < n 0 ) X u £ • u C O '"" J 5 S u m u t o Z O S 3 O C O n N£ > + 1 O C M C O 6 O o C O i o r — C C u — • C 3 — • — O J X m o c X i n 0 1 u X u w c < ^ b t N R I O E C — 0 — 1 X = < K O Z — i J : c < o ^ < w u | 0 3 O -3 C O O I A + 1 O o r ^ E u O C O 1 o r ~ *> ^ a u c = > ^ — ^ 0 1 x : m 0 0 0 1 X ) v i 0 ) x : u X 4 J 0 0 ^ v m ra O 6 — 0 i x : < I D z — i" J < o < w o m O < O O C M + 1 O O ul E u i n f M l O "• ^ 4H | c 0 X I c O E 3 x : c ra > w 0 1 O •3 *-' &• C M '' 1 z w c c o o ^ a < o <£ > + 1 O •5 o o U! 1 > n C M ^ a • ( J ( C o C J u X u c a 3 • n c w 0 0 r ^ C — c 0 u ;: > n C M 1 O y~i > 1— O C M O < o <£ > + 1 O f n C M E U m r M 1 O •* ^ £ > C M =< t n 0 u u a x u a c ^ m O a /" i U C M 1 l U m i< u > o o c < o t n + 1 O O E u i n C M 1 O ~ ^ o ^ n 0 u u t o X u c c e n ci t o ci U C M 1 0 1 u o ( 0 .. u > 0) O E r a < u o C M • a < o M O + 1 O r i C O E u o n I m C M ^ o > a t n 0 u u re X u a c t/ i ^ j ft ) > J ( J C M t o i l O t o *-• o > w o ^ N a < o s O + I O J r E u m i i n e n •v m ¡4 a > a ^ • ^ 0 ) X m c m ( 0 > C O 0 1 a m i n a U O 1 a j o ^ U 1 n ) Z i ^ O O a > C N O < o N + 1 o -c o E u m C N t o "•** N 1 t o 0 ) c 0 X c ( C E 3 X c 0 9 > C O 0 o c 0 1 0 > oor c c — C N C — 0 1 ^ 2 O u w O O C N m a < o c + 1 o n o E u i n C N | O ^* r C M ^ t m 0 L TO X u a c c 0 1 a u o = < r C M C 0 U l i ri ^ ) > O C N m O < O i n + i O e n sC e o o i n i m C M •** v O C M % ( 3 0 I J R ] X U a • ^ c i O m m a < i n ^• + l O C N < r E u ui 1— 1 ( O <— i •^ ^ fH 1_ | — c p TO O U U i TO X 0 E c 0 u c TO t o i c o i n f u C M o cr > U U i | TO i— < t O u > o u W ri ^ (J ) — 0 ) 0 0 c c 0 u C J + u C O O I o D O O s O O < o m + i O i n m E u i n M i O • 4 •^ tH 4 J 4 c = 5 i ^ 4 0 ) X ( A 0 E c o 11 c TO U D c 0 ) £ S > Z c o ^ ^ c i o z 2 o ^ ^ <£ > a < o i n + l O j m E m C N l O 0 0 t TO O O U TO X u 0 11 TO C J < r C N i c j > m ( N N O a < m tn + l i n C M m E U m I O -m • ^ > r H i j C n TO 0 U U ra u 0 E C o 1 X c TO C O £ .*** 4 w J O o C TO C u ^ ^ TO ^ C k < 0 TO ™ U o r z o ^, c o ra O ra t j 3 o u o U I O J 41 ra T > c o u ra o o • H • a ra ee t 3 0 0 • H i

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HAVISE R 23 7 < x cc < X E I I o A.D 100 0 'B.C 2000 t.C 500 0 B.C. .a s casita s e l Job o s laguna s ~Itals¡ 2 r '|tal W V^Sa n JuanK/ ^ Sc Michllsber g Roo i Rinc n P I / DABAJUROI D SERIE S Figur e 10 Chronolog y char t fo r Curaao i n relatio n t o a revise d versio n fo r northwes t Venezuel a b y Rous e an d Cruxen t (1963)

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23 8 AMERINDIA N CULTUR E GEOGRAPH Y O N CURAA O Sc Jori s Ba y slee s Sp.ans e Wate r lit e C-039 ) Figur e 11 Suggeste d socio-economi c area s fo r th e Archai c Ag e o n Curaao Kni p sic e (C-0O1 ) Sa n Hiromm o sit e (C-06O ) Sant a Cru z (C-OOi. ) Figur e 12 Suggeste d socio-economi c area s fo r th e Cerami c Ag e o n Curaao

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¡ soil s suita b .$ soil s suita b i|i j mangroves a O Archai c Ag e 0 Cerami c Ag e o • Ephemera l s i O • Temporar y s i O • Permanen t s i Lvm d CONTOU R LIN E A CONTOU R LIN E A DRAIN ROO I MARS H SANO T PLAI N ROCKINESS H O CLIF F D E SAVAA N SIT E (C-021 ) Figur e 13 Exampl e o f Point s Patter n use d i n thi s analysi s o n a sampl e are a o f 3 k m ra d primar y settlement Point s ar e space d a t 40 0 m interval s wit h 22 1 point s i n eac h sampl e relativ e valu e o f eac h geographi c characteristi c i n a sampl e are a i s calculate d b y th e p point s representin g thos e characteristic s a t radi i o f 1 km 2 k m an d 3 k m fro m th e sett l

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24 0 AMERINDIA N CULTUR E GEOGRAPH Y O N CURAA O Archai c Ag e Sites : C-01 3 C-01 5 C-02 3 C-03 9 C-03 5 Cerami c Ag e Sites : C-00 1 C-06 0 C-00 4 C-02 1 C-00 7 C-03 6 C-00 8 ¡ geomorphology : coasta l ¡ ope n plain/rollin g hill s ¡ hill y lan d highes t hilltop s | ope n se a inlan d ba y elevation : 0 4 9 m ¡ 5 0 9 9 m ¡ 10 0 20 0 m ove r 20 0 m / ¡ geology : (lithics/vegetation ) Ser u Dom i formatio n ¡ Midden-Curaca o formatio n Kni p grou p Curaa o Lav a formatio n resourc e areas : soil s fo r maiz e soil s fo r manio c mangrove s tida l sal t area s cla y source s ¡ othe r potabl e wate r source s majo r drainag e roo i site s Ephemera l ¡ Temporar y Permanen t Combine d Area s o f Archai c Ag e 1 km radiu s (10 5 points ) n = 1 7 3 8 2 9 0 2 1 10 5 9 6 9 0 0 10 5 5 9 9 0 3 7 10 5 8 1 2 1 0 1 0 2 6 3 10 5 % 16. 2 36. 2 27. 6 0 20. 0 100. 0 91. 4 8. 6 0 0 100. 0 56. 2 8. 5 0 35. 2 100. 0 7. 6 11. 4 9. 5 9. 5 1. 9 60. 1 100. 0 7 ( 1 spring ) Archai c 5 3 3 Cerami c 2 1 Curaa o Are a Totals approximat e percentage s 11 % 53 % 28 % 3 % 0 % 5 % 100 % 8 2 % 1 5 % 2.8 % .2 % 100/ % 32 % 7 % 9 % _52.% 100 % 4.7 % 18.6 % 1 % 1.5 % 3 % 71.2 % 10 0 /SK 5 0 potentia l loc i ( 2 Archaic=2 7 1 7 7 3 drainag e ro c sites¡Cerami c springs ) i s =49site s 3 8 4 7 Combine d Areas o f Cerami c A&e j 1 km radiu s \ (14 7 points ) ¡ n = 1 6 11 4 1 0 0 2 14 2 11 1 2 4 7 0 14 2 1 1 0 3 3 9 8 14 2 1 3 4 0 2 6 1 8 0 14 2 % 11. 2 80. 3 ¡ 7. 0 ¡ o 1. 5 loo. o 78. 2 16. 9 ¡ 4. 9 0 100. 0 I 7. 7 0 23. 2 ¡ 69. 1 ¡ 100. 0 ¡ 9. 2 ¡ 28. 1 ¡ 1. 5 ¡ 4. 2 ] • 7 56. 3 100. 0 1 0 Archai c Ceramic ¡ ^ 7 ¡ Figur e 14 A compariso n o f combine d analysi s result s an d th e overal l Curaa o are a totals