Citation

Material Information

Title:
The Calabash Boom Site, St John, Usvi: Preliminary Report
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Margaret D. Caesar ( Author, Primary )
Philip D. Caesar ( Author, Primary )
Emily R. Lundberg ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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TH E CALABAS H BOO M SITE ST JOHN USVI : PRELIMINAR Y REPOR T Margare t D Caesar Phili p D Caesar an d Emil y R Lundber g A prehistori c India n sit e a t Calabas h Boom a smal l settlemen t o n th e shor e o f Cora l Ba y nea r th e easter n en d o f St John U.S Virgi n Island s (Fig 1) ha s bee n excavate d ove r th e pas t 1. 5 years Calabas h Boo m prove d t o b e a multi-componen t sit e whic h als o provide d severa l archaeologica l first s fo r St John Th e firs t India n skeletons : seve n wer e found Th e firs t reporte d manate e bones : te n bone s wer e foun d i n thre e separat e strata Th e firs t radiocarbo n dates : a stratifie d moun d wa s excavate d tha t containe d materia l fro m thre e tim e periods ; charcoa l sample s date d fro m 60 0 t o 120 0 A.D Ceramic s wit h Esperanz a trait s predominate d i n som e strata ; Elena n trait s i n others ; whil e lat e Saladoi d typ e potter y wa s foun d i n som e o f th e lowes t strata O f particula r potentia l significanc e wa s th e appearanc e i n on e stratum carbo n date d 60 0 A.D. o f tw o distinc t type s o f pottery SIT E HISTOR Y Th e Calabas h Boo m sit e i s locate d a t 64 o 42'10 W an d 1820 N I t i s 2. 8 k m fro m th e larg e Cora l Ba y Saladoi d site excavate d b y Hatt (1924 ) i n 1922-2 3 an d surveye d b y Sleigh t (1962:23-24 ) i n 1960 Despit e al l th e activit y there the y di d no t fin d th e Calabas h Boo m site I n 192 6 a scientis t studyin g th e faun a o f St Joh n reporte d findin g a n India n cel t an d som e potter y a t Calabas h Boo m (Buchana n 1976 ) I n 197 6 th e sit e wa s reporte d b y Vesceliu s (1976) I n 198 1 a surfac e surve y wa s mad e o n behal f o f th e V.I Plannin g Offic e (Johnsto n 1981) I n tha t surve y artifact s wer e foun d ove r a n are a o f almos t 5 acres I n lat e 198 5 th e presen t excavation s wer e initiated becaus e th e are a wa s bein g subdivide d int o buildin g lots LOCA L ENVIRONMEN T Th e sit e lie s withi n a north-facin g hoo k o f lan d tha t jut s int o Cora l Bay A ree f of f th e easter n poin t protect s th e spo t fro m prevailin g wind s an d create s a shallo w mini-ba y tha t seem s neve r t o hav e bee n affecte d b y wav e action Th e cora l reef rock y shore an d shallo w sand y ba y provid e a n abundan t suppl y o f fis h an d shellfish Th e sit e ha s abou t 10 0 meter s o f north-facin g beac h frontag e fro m whic h th e lan d slope s uniforml y upwar d a t abou t a 1 % grade Th e surroundin g valle y cover s abou t 5 0 acre s an d i s encircle d b y hill s tha t protec t th e sit e fro m th e frequen t southeas t storms A drainag e gu t fo r th e valle y bisect s th e site I n prehistori c time s forest-protecte d aquifer s ma y hav e provide d runnin g wate r mos t o f th e year I t wa s a n excellen t locatio n fo r a settlemen t o f farmer s an d fishermen 20 3

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20 4 CALABAS H BOO M SITE ST JOHN USV I Althoug h th e surfac e scatte r covere d fiv e acres subsurfac e test s an d trenche s prove d th e actua l occupatio n are a wa s limite d t o abou t thre e acre s (Fig 2) Th e onl y exceptio n t o th e gentl y slopin g terrai n wa s a larg e moun d immediatel y adjacen t an d a t righ t angle s t o th e gut abou t 2 0 meter s fro m th e shore I n 198 5 thi s moun d measure d 3 0 X 1 5 meters an d th e cente r wa s abou t 7 5 c m abov e th e presen t groun d level Thi s mad e i t th e highest prehistori c India n moun d o n St John Th e compositio n o f th e moun d suggest s tha t it s proximit y t o th e gu t ma y hav e contribute d t o it s height Man y part s o f th e moun d contai n thic k layer s o f gravel I t appear s tha t th e occasiona l majo r stor m woul d caus e th e gu t t o overflow Th e midde n woul d the n ac t a s a dam an d grave l woul d b e deposite d a s th e wate r receded Ther e wa s n o indicatio n throughou t th e moun d o f intrusio n o r depositio n fro m th e sea EXCAVATION S AN D STRATIGRAPH Y A t th e tim e thes e excavation s wer e initiated abou t 7 0 c m o f th e easter n two-third s o f th e moun d ha d bee n remove d t o provid e a leve l area Th e wester n third abou t 1 0 X 1 5 meters wa s lef t undisturbed Becaus e th e dispositio n o f thi s are a wa s uncertain excavation s wer e largel y salvag e i n nature Fortunately th e owne r refraine d fro m furthe r developmen t fo r 1. 5 years Durin g tha t perio d th e authors withou t benefit o f crew du g 1 1 one-mete r pit s i n th e undisturbe d mound plu s 4 half-mete r squar e pit s an d a 6 square-mete r excavatio n o f a buria l are a wher e th e to p o f th e moun d ha d bee n removed I n addition si x one-mete r squar e pit s wer e du g i n th e sit e are a outsid e th e mound Moreover 45 0 meter s o f utilit y trenche s wer e profile d wel l int o steril e soil Thi s helpe d confir m th e horizonta l an d vertica l boundarie s o f th e site Materia l fro m pit s du g outsid e th e moun d ha s not yet bee n analyzed Therefore thi s repor t wil l b e base d exclusivel y o n materia l fro m th e mound A t first excavation s wer e mad e i n arbitrar y 10-c m levels ; later b y natura l strata A goo d dea l o f ou r informatio n wa s obtaine d fro m 3 contiguou s pit s du g int o th e cente r fac e o f th e undisturbe d sectio n o f th e mound Th e 20-4 0 c m leve l containe d muc h bone shell an d carbo n a s wel l a s cerami c sherd s wit h Esperanz a traits suc h a s modele d incise d appliques zoomorphi c adornos an d carinate d bowls Averag e thicknes s o f thes e sherd s i s 7 mm ; 57 % ar e red I n thi s stratu m a cora l effig y hea d wa s found whic h wil l b e discusse d later Charcoa l fro m thi s laye r date d 121 0 8 0 A.D (Bet a Analyti c 1986:#16647) Th e stratu m a t 50-9 0 c m wa s mos t prolifi c i n concentratio n an d variet y o f artifacts I t containe d a grea t dea l o f carbon whic h date d 66 0 6 0 A.D (Bet a Analyti c 1987a:#19863) Ther e wer e man y larg e sherds 65 % o f the m red Averag e sher d thicknes s i s 6 mm Thi s stratu m wa s labele d "H" Th e ceramic s i n thi s leve l wer e o f tw o distinc t types On e typ e i s brownware coars e an d heavy som e wit h vertically-incise d rim s an d vesti gia l handles Th e othe r typ e i s fin e redwar e featurin g tapere d rims ofte n slippe d o r polished Dr Irvin g Rous e personall y reviewe d som e 20 0 o f th e sherd s foun d i n thi s stratum H e conclude d tha t th e assemblag e resemble d

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CAESAR CAESAR AN D LUNDBER G 20 5 tha t o f on e leve l o f th e Monserrat e sit e i n easter n Puert o Rico Th e repor t o f Ro e e t al.(1985 ) delineate s th e Monserrat e ceramic s a s "spannin g th e continuu m betwee n lat e Saladoi d an d Elenoi d pottery" Th e las t habitatio n layer separate d fro m "H b y a steril e layer wen t dow n t o 13 0 cm Ther e wer e fewe r artifact s an d to o littl e charcoa l fo r carbo n dating Th e potter y i n thi s leve l i s harde r tha n tha t i n th e uppe r level s an d ha s a n averag e thicknes s o f 5 mm Som e o f th e sherd s hav e red painte d interio r rim s an d painte d o r slippe d interior s an d exteriors Ther e wer e als o som e ver y pal e ta n sherd s (possibl y Saladoi d kaoli n paste ) tha t coul d hav e bee n fro m th e nec k o r pedesta l o f a vessel Othe r pit s i n th e moun d containe d n o potter y wit h Esperanz a traits Instea d the y ha d a n ill-define d laye r containin g mixe d re d an d brow n sherd s an d som e shell bone an d carbon Belo w suc h a stratu m i n on e pi t wa s a larg e concentratio n o f potter y wit h trait s solel y o f th e Elena n subseries Sherd s larg e enoug h t o reconstruc t significan t part s o f seve n bowl s wer e foun d here Thi s stratu m wa s carbo n date d a t 105 0 6 0 A.D (Bet a Analyti c 1987b:#20605) Belo w thi s wa s a stratu m containin g th e tw o type s o f potter y describe d i n leve l "H above Despit e th e 45 0 meter s o f trenche s profile d an d man y pit s excavated n o postmold s o r an y othe r soli d evidenc e fo r dwelling s wer e observed Th e habitatio n strat a eas t o f th e gu t ar e shallowe r an d les s productiv e tha n th e moun d area On e are a wes t an d sout h o f th e moun d ha s dee p blac k soil bu t agai n th e habitatio n strat a ar e les s productive Thi s lan d wa s neve r tille d i n colonia l times althoug h th e owner s ar e sai d t o hav e produce d som e ba y oi l there Moreover ther e wer e n o historica l artifact s i n th e topsoil I t i s unlikely therefore tha t postmold s wer e obliterate d b y historica l action CERAMI C ARTIFACT S Throughou t th e moun d th e vesse l form s range d fro m flare d ope n bowl s t o curve d bowl s wit h ope n o r restricte d orifices ; fro m carinate d forms navicula r shape s an d shallo w bowl s t o fla t dishe s an d griddle s (Fig 3 ) On e shap e no t heretofor e reporte d fro m St Joh n ha s a n everte d rim con stricte d nec k an d globula r bod y (Fig 3f e-c-g) Thi s shap e i s usuall y redware I t resemble s typ e 4 fro m E l Bronc e (Robinso n 1985 ) bu t th e curve s ar e mor e extreme Thi s for m wa s mos t abundan t i n leve l "H" Ther e wer e a surprisingl y larg e numbe r o f flare d ope n bowl s wit h ri m diameter s o f 5 5 c m o r more Ove r 10 % o f th e ri m sherd s ar e fro m vessel s o f thi s size Th e wall s o f thes e bowl s flar e fro m comparativel y smal l bases usuall y flat A straigh t colla r ofte n wa s use d o n potter y fro m th e lowe r levels ; i n th e uppe r leve l th e collar s ar e les s well-defined On e complet e vesse l o f thi s siz e wa s reconstructed I t measure s 5 5 c m i n diameter stand s 1 7 c m high an d ha s a capacit y o f abou t 1 2 liter s (Fig 4) Vesse l rim s ar e rounded semi-flat flat tapered o r interio r bevele d (Fig 3) Re d i s th e predominan t colo r throughout rangin g fro m 57 % i n th e to p leve l t o 78 % i n th e lowest A fe w sherd s ar e purplis h red Th e lowes t

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20 6 CALABAS H BOO M SITE ST JOHN USV I leve l als o containe d sherd s colore d yellow-brown pinkis h brow n an d black an d orange-yellow Thes e sherd s ar e al l fine-tempere d an d hard Basa l sherd s wit h annula r ring s o r wit h n o raise d ring s bu t a definit e angl e betwee n bas e an d sid e wer e concentrate d i n stratu m "H containin g th e Monserrat e styl e pottery Onl y on e specime n o f eac h wa s foun d i n th e 20-4 0 c m level Tempe r siz e varie s enormousl y an d doe s not appea r t o b e dependen t o n vesse l form wal l thicknes s o r stratigraphi e provenience Calcareou s tempe r predominates Ther e i s som e shel l temper an d a ver y fe w example s o f sand-tempere d sherds Abou t 90 % o f th e sherd s hav e blac k cores indicatin g tha t the y wer e mad e i n a n oxidizin g atmosphere Griddl e sherd s fro m thi s sit e ar e plain N o rim s ar e decorated ; 33 % ar e shallo w an d rounded an d 66 % ar e straigh t edge d an d slightl y deeper Th e griddl e bottom s ar e th e onl y interestin g aspect Som e ar e smoot h an d mad e wit h care other s stil l hav e th e coil s showing An d o n some pattern s o f gras s o r soi l ar e visible suggestin g tha t th e griddl e ha d bee n mad e b y simpl y spreadin g th e cla y o n th e groun d an d puttin g a n edg e t o it Thirtee n spindl e whorl s wer e found The y ar e circular flat uni faciall y pierce d an d appea r t o hav e bee n mad e fro m broke n pottery Thre e ovoi d fragment s o f pottery crudel y notche d o n thei r lon g side s als o ma y hav e bee n use d fo r spinnin g thread NON-CERAMI C ARTIFACT S Th e lithi c industr y i s no t ver y impressive Ston e tool s wer e fe w an d th e majorit y crude Onl y 13 6 piece s o f worke d ston e wer e foun d i n th e mound ; one-thir d i s debitage O f th e 9 6 tools 3 6 wer e mad e b y flaking 7 b y grinding an d 5 7 (60% ) wer e utilize d pebble s tha t probabl y wer e picke d u p alon g th e shore Th e 1 2 too l type s include d celt hoe chopper scraper mano peckin g stone hammerstone anvil abrader knife an d drill A fe w netsinker s complete d th e too l kit Althoug h 3 stone s wer e foun d tha t coul d b e manos ther e wer e n o metates Als o absen t wer e th e smal l chip s require d fo r manio c graters Celt s wer e reuse d a s hammer s o r abrader s whe n th e origina l bit s wer e broke n off Ther e seem s t o b e n o significan t correlatio n betwee n too l type s an d occupatio n levels Shel l an d cora l tool s wer e no t numerous Ther e wer e a fe w celt s mad e fro m Strombus gigas an d chisel-lik e tool s mad e fro m a specie s o f Cassis. Ther e wa s on e shel l scoop Staghor n cora l wa s forme d int o abrader s a s wel l a s T-shape d drills Shell stone bone an d cora l wer e use d fo r ornamenta l an d ceremonia l purpose s a s wel l a s tools Numerou s bead s wer e foun d mad e fro m Oliva shells Tw o disc s an d a smal l smoot h rectangl e o f unknow n purpos e wer e cu t fro m a Strombus shell Ther e wa s a smal l shel l three-pointe r (Fig 5 center ) an d severa l preforms O f particula r interes t a s ornamenta l o r ceremonia l object s ar e seve n cylindrica l ston e bead s foun d i n th e sam e are a o f stratu m "H a s th e three

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CAESAR CAESAR AN D LUNDBER G 20 7 pointe r an d som e huma n bones The y ar e graduate d i n lengt h fro m 1 7 t o 3 0 mm ar e highl y polished an d ar e mad e o f diorite rangin g fro m a n almos t whit e bod y wit h blac k splotche s t o a n almos t blac k bod y wit h white Al l ar e biconicall y drille d longitudinall y wit h a secon d hol e drille d latitud i nally possibl y fo r feathers Thre e othe r ston e bead s wer e foun d i n th e sam e area On e i s diorit e lik e th e abov e seven on e i s a n unknow n typ e o f brow n stone an d th e las t i s a gree n nephrite-lik e material Onl y on e lack s th e latitudina l hole an d tw o bead s bulg e a t th e middl e wit h fin e incise d line s a t eithe r sid e (Fig 5) A smal l cleat-shape d objec t o f carve d an d polishe d manate e bon e wa s foun d whic h ma y hav e ha d ceremonia l significanc e (Fig 5 uppe r left) On e o f th e point s o f th e bas e i s missing O f th e 1 0 manate e bone s excavated thi s i s th e onl y worke d piece I t i s unlikel y tha t al l th e bone s cam e fro m th e sam e animal sinc e som e wer e foun d i n eac h habitatio n level A smal l effig y hea d o f cora l (Fig 5 ) wa s foun d a t th e highes t remain in g poin t o f th e moun d unde r a n ovoi d boulder I t i s calcine d an d wa s accompanie d b y man y calcine d cora l fragments a grea t dea l o f charcoal an d potter y wit h Esperanz a traits A t a lowe r leve l wa s foun d a larg e piec e o f brai n cora l roughe d int o a flat-based semi-ova l shape I t wa s lyin g i n a shallo w bow l tha t ha d bee n symbolicall y kille d wit h a smal l hol e punche d i n th e cente r o f th e botto m (Fig 6) Bot h thes e item s appea r t o hav e ritua l meaning SUBSISTENC E REMAIN S Invertebrat e materia l ha s bee n quantifie d b y minimu m number s o f individual s o f eac h specie s represented Vertebrat e materia l ha s bee n store d fo r late r examinatio n b y a specialist Fo r th e presen t i t appear s tha t th e inhabitant s o f Calabas h Boo m raise d cassava ; hunte d hutia iguana an d som e birds ; an d caugh t an d at e fish turtle an d crab The y gathere d shellfish whic h mus t hav e bee n a majo r componen t o f thei r die t sinc e ove r 7 0 specie s wer e foun d i n thei r middens The y migh t eve n b e calle d th e 'whel k culture'--whel k bein g th e loca l nam e fo r Cittarium pica. Ove r 200 0 individual s o f thi s specie s wer e excavate d fro m 1 0 c m o f a 3 squar e mete r pit ; an d 58 % o f al l discret e mollusca n shell s ar e tha t species HUMA N SKELETA L REMAIN S Th e Indian s o f Calabas h Boo m ar e represente d b y seve n skeletons Fou r wer e foun d togethe r nea r th e cente r o f th e origina l mound Th e firs t wa s lyin g i n a semi-flexe d positio n wit h th e bod y oriente d north-south Th e secon d skeleton als o semi-flexed wa s burie d clos e b y an d oriente d east west Apparentl y th e hol e fo r th e secon d skeleto n cu t righ t acros s th e hea d o f skeleto n #1 leavin g a fe w teet h bu t n o skul l (Fig 7) Th e thir d skeleto n wa s place d o n it s bac k i n a tightl y flexe d position lyin g east west Th e hea d wa s separate d fro m th e bod y an d place d verticall y i n fron t (Fig 8) Th e fourt h skeleto n wa s jus t eas t o f th e firs t three lyin g east-wes t i n a semi-flexe d position Thes e skeleton s wer e locate d i n a steril e stratum a n estimate d 90-10 0 c m belo w th e origina l surfac e o f th e mound Abov e the m wa s a continuou s laye r o f midde n materia l extendin g t o leve l "H o f th e 3 contiguou s pit s i n th e undisturbe d moun d area Thes e

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20 8 CALABAS H BOO M SITE ST JOHN USV I skeleton s ar e bein g examine d b y Dr Rober t Dailey Anthropolog y Department Florid a Stat e University I n a persona l communicatio n h e reporte d tha t th e thre e skull s ar e mal e wit h fronto-occipita l deformation A repor t wil l b e issue d i n th e nea r future Th e fift h skeleto n wa s foun d jus t insid e th e seawar d edg e o f th e mound Th e sixt h wa s locate d i n th e dee p dar k soi l abou t 1 5 meter s southwes t o f th e mound Th e sevent h skeleto n wa s foun d i n th e sout h (landward ) sid e o f th e moun d i n a stratu m containin g sherd s o f th e Elena n subseries Accord in g t o Dr D M Pomeranz a dentist wh o place d th e teet h o f th e uppe r ja w i n th e correc t order thi s wa s th e skeleto n o f a 10-1 1 yea r ol d boy Th e shovel-shape d incisor s wer e i n excellen t condition Thi s wa s definite l y a secondar y buria l sinc e mos t o f th e skull th e pelvis an d vertebra e wer e missing N o materia l wa s foun d i n associatio n wit h th e burial s excep t fo r on e ri m sher d painte d re d o n it s interior I n additio n t o thes e buria l skeletons 16 0 fragment s o f huma n bon e an d 5 teet h wer e foun d throughou t th e mound A clos e examinatio n o f thei r scatte r b y pi t an d stratu m indicate s tha t 14 1 o f thes e bone s ma y b e fro m 5 individuals Th e three-pointe r an d bead s show n i n Figur e 5 wer e foun d i n on e suc h bon e cluste r i n leve l "H" Th e remainin g 1 9 bone s wer e widel y scattere d throughou t th e midden A typica l exampl e i s a larg e sher d holdin g th e en d o f a huma n femu r mixe d wit h shell anima l bone an d charcoa l just a s i t wa s foun d (Fig 9) O f thes e scattere d huma n bones 9 3 ar e fro m lon g bones 1 8 ar e finge r an d to e bones an d 7 ar e hea d bones Sixtee n ar e burne d an d a fe w sho w shar p striations Mos t o f th e bone s ar e fro m leve l "H" I t i s temptin g t o infe r cannibalis m a s a logica l rational e fo r th e typ e an d locatio n o f thes e huma n bon e fragments Othe r explanation s are o f course possible CONCLUSIO N I n conclusion w e mus t admi t uncertaint y abou t th e numbe r o f habitatio n strat a i n th e mound N o singl e stratu m extende d throughou t th e mound Deposit s varie d i n thickness width an d slope Strat a combined diverged an d eve n disappeare d entirely Apparentl y differen t area s o f th e moun d wer e use d b y differen t peopl e a t differen t times Radiocarbo n dating combine d wit h th e relativ e abundanc e o f materia l an d characte r o f th e ceramic s foun d i n eac h habitatio n leve l o f th e midden lea d t o th e followin g conclusions A fe w lat e Saladoi d peopl e visite d th e sit e leavin g evidenc e o f thei r potter y i n th e lowes t strata Th e greates t populatio n and/o r th e longes t spa n o f continuou s occupatio n occurre d a t th e sam e tim e an d wit h th e sam e typ e o f ceramic s a s th e Monserrat e styl e tha t appeare d i n easter n Puert o Rico Aroun d 100 0 A.D inhabitant s o f Calabas h Boo m wer e producin g ceramic s wit h purel y Elena n traits Finally a Chica n subserie s wit h Esperanz a trait s predominate d i n th e 13t h century I t i s noteworth y tha t th e populatio n sequenc e propose d b y Ro e e t al (1985 ) fo r th e Puert o Ric o are a durin g th e transitio n fro m Saladoi d t o Elena n Ostionoi d no w appear s i n thi s smal l islan d 'outpost som e 10 0 mile s t o th e east Th e larg e Saladoi d sit e i n Cora l Ba y i s followe d b y smalle r

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CAESAR CAESAR AN D LUNDBER G 20 9 suburba n settlement s lik e Calabas h Boo m wher e potter y appear s t o hav e degenerate d ove r th e occupatio n period ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Thi s pape r ha s benefite d fro m discussion s wit h Drs I Rouse P Roe an d B Johnston an d Ms E Righter Th e author s wis h t o than k Drs R Nelli s an d D Parri s fo r identificatio n o f anima l bones ; Drs R Daile y an d R Reave s fo r analysi s o f th e skeletons ; V.I Plannin g Offic e an d Nationa l Par k Servic e personne l fo r advic e an d assistance ; an d Mrs M Servan t an d Mr T Meacha m fo r permissio n an d tim e t o excavat e thei r developmen t site REFERENCE S CITE D Bet a Analyti c 198 6 Notificatio n o f result s fo r sampl e #16647 fro m Bet a Analy tic Inc. Cora l Gables Florida I n possessio n o f senio r author 1987 a Notificatio n o f result s fo r sampl e #19863 fro m Bet a Analy tic Inc. Cora l Gables Florida I n possessio n o f senio r author 1987 b Notificatio n o f result s fo r sampl e #20605 fro m Bet a Analy tic Inc. Cora l Gables Florida I n possessio n o f senio r author Buchanan 0 197 6 M Lette r t o Governo r Kin g r e Goodwi n (1926 ) o n fil e a t th e V.I Offic e o f Archaeologica l Services St Thomas Hatt G 192 4 Archaeolog y o f th e Virgi n Islands Proceeding s o f th e XX I Internationa l Congres s o f Americanist s 1:29-42 Th e Hague Johnston B 198 1 R Archaeologica l Resourc e Survey : Calabas h Boo m 12VAm2-2 5 (Johnso n Ba y 12VAm2-55 ) Inventor y for m o n fil e a t th e Coasta l Zon e Managemen t Office St Thomas Robinson L 198 5 Cerami c Remain s fro m E l Bronc e Archaeologica l Site Puert o Rico I n Archaeologica l Dat a Recover y a t E l Bronce Puert o Rico : Fina l Report Phas e 2 (L.S Robinson E.R Lundberg an d J.B Walker authors) Appendi x F Repor t prepare d fo r th e Arm y Corp s o f Engineers Jacksonville Florida Roe P.G. A.G Pantel an d M.B Hamilto n 198 5 Monserrat e Restudied : A Preliminar y Repor t o n th e Excavatio n an d Mapping Lithi c Artifac t an d Huma n Osteologica l Col lection s fro m th e 197 8 CEAPR C Fiel d Season Pape r presente d a t th e Elevent h Congres s o f th e Internationa l Associatio n fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Sa n Juan)

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21 0 CALABAS H BOO M SITE ST JOHN USV I Sleight F W 196 2 Archaeologica l Reconnaissanc e o f th e Islan d o f St John U.S Virgi n Islands Th e Willia m L Bryan t Foundation America n Studie s Repor t 3 Vescelius G S 197 6 Th e Archaeologica l Site s o f St John Memorandu m prepare d a t th e reques t o f th e Nationa l Par k Service o n fil e a t th e NP S offic e i n Cru z Bay St John Figur e 1 Locatio n o f th e Calabas h Boo m sit e o n th e islan d o f St John

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CAESAR CAESAR AN D LUNDBER G 21 1 s o o 3 3 SI C O X l C O r^ C O O C O E J = o O ) J C/ 3 O ) S b

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21 2 CALABAS H BOO M SITE ST JOHN USV I a Fla t dis h ( 4 x 1 0 cm ) e Carinate d (Esperanza ) b Ope n bow l ( 8 x 3 6 cm ) C D c Constricte d orific e d Carinate d (Elenan ) f e-cg M g Larg e bow l (1 6 x 5 5 cm ) W W h Typica l Ri m Profile s Figur e 3 Cerami c vesse l shape s fro m Calabas h Boom

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CAESAR CAESAR AN D LUNDBER G 21 3 Figur e 4 Reconstructe d larg e bowl X j P u3j¡dBL ^ B ^ H HB^^ T j^^^B B •'• "'•^ wr J • > H K : Figur e 5 Ceremonia l object s o f manate e bon e (uppe r left) cora l (uppe r right) shel l (center) an d stone

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21 4 CALABAS H BOO M SITE ST JOHN USV I Figur e 6 Centrall y puncture d bowl wit h th e cora l objec t tha t wa s foun d insid e it Figur e 7 Skeleton s # 1 an d #2 wit h (a t to p o f photo ) th e skul l o f skeleto n #3

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CAESAR CAESAR AN D LUNDBER G 21 5 Figur e 8 Skeleto n #3 Figur e 9 Huma n bon e fragment s foun d i n midde n levels

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21 6