Citation

Material Information

Title:
The Archaeological Survey of Barbados; 1985-87
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Peter L. Drewett ( Author, Primary )
Mary Hill Harris ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item was contributed to the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) by the source institution listed in the metadata. This item may or may not be protected by copyright in the country where it was produced. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by applicable law, including any applicable international copyright treaty or fair use or fair dealing statutes, which dLOC partners have explicitly supported and endorsed. Any reuse of this item in excess of applicable copyright exceptions may require permission. dLOC would encourage users to contact the source institution directly or dloc@fiu.edu to request more information about copyright status or to provide additional information about the item.
Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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TH E ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADOS : 1985-8 7 Pete r L Drewet t an d Mar y Hil l Harri s Durin g 198 4 th e Directo r o f th e Barbado s Museu m an d Historica l Societ y invite d th e Fiel d Archaeolog y Uni t o f th e Institut e o f Archaeology Universit y o f London t o undertak e a surve y o f prehistori c Barbados Followin g a pilo t surve y durin g Decembe r 198 4 (Drewet t 1985 ) a join t Institut e o f Archaeology-Barbado s Museu m projec t wa s established Th e Archaeologica l Surve y o f Barbado s i s planne d a s a fiv e yea r projec t i n th e firs t instance Al l artifact s recovere d wil l b e deposite d i n th e Barbado s Museu m an d interi m report s ar e bein g publishe d i n th e Journa l o f th e Barbado s Museu m an d Historica l Society TH E PROJEC T RESEARC H DESIG N Th e importanc e o f islan d habitat s i n helpin g archaeologist s t o under stan d th e mechanism s producin g cultura l chang e i n smal l huma n group s i s no w wel l establishe d i n archaeolog y (Evan s 1973) Barbado s i s a smal l islan d situate d wel l t o th e eas t o f th e Lesse r Antille s i n th e Caribbea n Sea It s somewha t isolate d locatio n make s i t particularl y goo d a s a laborator y fo r th e stud y o f cultura l change Professo r I Rous e ha d identifie d fou r mai n level s o f interpretatio n o f archaeologica l dat a whe n attemptin g a stud y o f cultura l chang e (Rous e 1977) Thi s projec t wil l concentrat e o n hi s primar y an d secondar y levels Hi s primar y leve l involve s a stud y o f th e natur e o f th e remain s throug h thei r collectio n an d identificatio n o r classification togethe r wit h a stud y o f th e contex t o f th e remain s throug h surve y an d excavation Hi s secondar y leve l involve s a stud y o f th e identitie s o f th e people s involve d throug h th e classificatio n an d identificatio n o f th e assemblages an d a stud y o f change s i n peoples identitie s throug h th e datin g o f th e assemblage s an d a stud y o f thei r distribution I n practica l term s th e projec t i s designe d unde r fou r mai n sections : (a ) Artifac t Study I t i s propose d t o undertak e a detaile d stud y o f existin g collections bot h o n Barbado s an d elsewhere an d attemp t t o quantif y material s an d artifact s o f differen t type s fro m differen t sites I t ma y b e possibl e t o us e microwea r technique s t o stud y evidenc e fo r us e o f th e conc h tools A petrologica l stud y o f a sampl e o f th e ston e axe s an d potter y wil l b e undertake n i n a n attemp t t o locat e thei r source s an d s o establis h redistributio n networks (b ) A fiel d surve y o f know n site s wil l b e undertake n t o establis h thei r date functio n an d stat e o f preservation A systemati c surve y o f coasta l region s wil l b e undertake n t o locat e ne w sites Thi s wil l b e followe d b y survey s o f sampl e area s inlan d t o locat e sites A sampl e o f al l site s locate d wil l b e surveye d i n detail producin g bot h contou r survey s an d systemati c surfac e artifac t collections 17 5

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17 6 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S (c ) A sampl e excavatio n o f on e o r mor e site s o f eac h typ e locate d wil l tak e plac e t o establis h a sequenc e o f occupation Thi s wil l b e followe d b y are a excavatio n withi n on e o r mor e site s t o establis h th e rang e o f activitie s an d spatia l distributio n o f activitie s withi n th e settle ment Particula r emphasi s wil l b e place d o n th e recover y o f economi c an d environmenta l data (d ) A comparativ e stud y o f materia l fro m adjacen t island s wil l b e mad e t o establis h source s o f importe d artifacts pattern s o f redistributio n betwee n island s an d possibl e route s o f migratio n betwee n islands TH E 1985/8 6 FIEL D SURVE Y Th e basi c fiel d surve y undertake n durin g th e winte r o f 1985/8 6 involve d a systemati c fiel d wal k aroun d al l 7 4 k m o f th e coas t o f Barbados Thi s wa s undertake n b y pair s o f fiel d archaeologist s searchin g a n averag e o f 4 k m a da y fo r eigh t days Eac h pai r ha d know n site s marke d o n a 1:10,00 0 scal e fiel d map Site s locate d wer e recorde d o n th e ma p an d detail s entere d o n a pr o form a read y fo r inpu t int o a computerize d record A t eac h sit e a gra b sampl e o f artifact s wa s take n an d thes e wer e analyse d t o sugges t a t leas t a fina l dat e fo r occupatio n o f th e site Tw o sites Chancer y Lan e an d Heywoods wer e returne d t o an d gridde d surfac e artifac t collection s made A limite d star t wa s mad e o n a n inlan d surve y wit h a n examinatio n o f seve n west coas t watercourse s an d th e Greenlan d Valley A s o f 1986 5 6 site s wer e know n t o th e project eithe r fro m publishe d sources persona l communicatio n o r primar y fiel d survey Th e bul k o f th e informatio n o n th e west an d sout h coas t site s derive s fro m secondar y source s an d thos e o n th e nort h an d eas t coast s fro m th e project' s fiel d surve y (Fig 1) A preliminar y analysi s o f th e locatio n o f coasta l site s woul d sugges t tha t availabilit y o f fres h wate r an d marin e acces s ar e th e tw o crucia l element s i n sit e location Defenc e ma y hav e als o bee n a significan t facto r i n th e locatio n o f lat e sites wit h man y o n promontorie s o r clif f tops Th e tw o majo r site s o f Chancer y Lan e (1 ) an d Heywood s (19 ) hav e a simila r locatio n althoug h post-settlemen t transformatio n processe s hav e substan tiall y change d th e landscap e a t Heywoods Originall y bot h site s appea r t o hav e bee n betwee n san d dune s an d a sal t wate r marsh providin g a degre e o f protectio n bu t als o acces s t o extensiv e marin e an d mars h resources Th e inlan d surve y i s a t a ver y preliminar y stage Th e onl y know n majo r inlan d sit e i s a t Greenlan d (Taylo r 1986) Earl y reference s sugges t site s a t St Luke s Gull y an d Thre e House s (Barto n 1953 ) whil e sherd s o f potter y an d shel l tool s fro m a cav e a t Mapp s (Lang e an d Handle r 1980 ) sugges t som e us e o f cave s b y th e prehistori c population Th e 1985/8 6 fiel d surve y concentrate d o n a surve y o f th e mai n eas t coas t watercourse s an d th e Greenlan d valley N o prehistori c artifact s wer e locate d i n an y o f thes e areas

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 17 7 TH E 1985/8 6 EXCAVATION S Sampl e excavation s wer e undertake n a t tw o site s durin g th e 1985/8 6 fiel d season Th e ai m o f th e excavation s wa s t o attemp t t o establis h whethe r th e tw o majo r site s a t Heywood s o n th e wes t coas t an d Hillcres t o n th e eas t coas t ha d an y survivin g stratigraph y fro m whic h a chronologica l sequenc e coul d b e established Thi s coul d the n b e compare d wit h th e sequence s obtaine d fro m sout h coas t site s b y Dr R Bulle n i n th e 1960 s (Bulle n an d Bulle n 1968) A t th e sam e tim e sample s o f environmenta l an d economi c dat a wer e obtaine d fro m th e site s usin g bot h we t an d dr y sievin g wit h mes h size s dow n t o 1 mm Wit h th e exceptio n o f th e large r anima l bone s identifie d b y Dr 0 Bedwin sample s o f fis h bone s identifie d b y Dr E.S Wing an d th e large r marin e shell s identifie d b y Carolin e Cartwright thes e dat a awai t analysis ; likewis e detaile d artifac t list s wil l appea r o n completio n o f thei r analysis i n futur e reports Heywood s Excavatio n (Figs 2 an d 3 ) Th e sit e a t Heywood s cover s a n are a o f som e 30 0 m alon g th e coas t immediatel y nort h o f th e Heywood s Holida y Villag e wit h potter y spread s inlan d fo r abou t 15 0 m Tw o majo r transformatio n processe s appea r t o hav e take n plac e sinc e th e sit e wa s deserte d b y it s prehistori c population Firstl y th e are a ha s bee n extensivel y cultivated perhap s t o a dept h o f som e 6 0 cm fo r suga r cane Histori c materia l i n th e ploug h soi l consiste d o f a variet y o f post-Medieva l Europea n ware s includin g Freche n stoneware s an d ti n glaze d earthenwares loca l Barbadia n ware s an d cla y pipes A Georg e V silve r shillin g (1916 ) bring s thi s materia l int o th e presen t century Th e secon d majo r transformatio n o f th e sit e wa s th e constructio n o f th e coas t roa d whic h appear s t o hav e resulte d i n beac h o r dun e materia l bein g dumpe d o n it s wester n side Si x trenches eac h 2 m x 1 m wer e excavated : tw o o n th e san d dun e o r beac h deposi t wes t o f th e ol d coas t roa d an d fou r a t righ t angle s t o th e se a acros s th e site T o thes e dat a wa s adde d th e informatio n obtaine d b y recordin g th e sectio n o f a recentl y du g wate r hol e betwee n Trenche s 2 an d 3 an d o f a pip e trenc h du g o n th e wes t sid e o f th e ne w roa d north-eas t o f Trenc h 5 ( X o n Fig 2) Al l find s recovere d durin g th e excavatio n wer e recorde d bot h b y archaeologica l contex t (e.g. layer ) an d i n arbitrar y 1 0 c m spits Thi s procedur e wa s adopte d a s som e context s (e.g. contex t (1 ) i n Trenc h 6 ) wer e ove r 1 m deep Trenche s 1 an d 6 wer e excavate d throug h beac h an d dun e material Althoug h prehistori c materia l wa s foun d i n al l level s i t i s probabl e tha t th e materia l i s al l par t o f th e sam e assemblage deposite d i n accumulatin g san d whic h ha s sinc e bee n subjecte d t o transformatio n processes Histori c materia l wa s als o presen t throughou t context s (1 ) an d (2 ) i n Trenc h 1 an d contex t (1 ) i n Trenc h 6 • A t a dept h o f 5 0 c m i n Trenc h 6 fo r example wa s discovere d a cla y pip e bas e stampe d wit h "EB" Thi s wa s probabl y mad e b y Edwar d Bird a n Englis h pip e make r workin g i n Amsterda m betwee n 1630-65 Likewis e histori c anima l bone s includin g Bos, Sus, Canis, an d Ovis/capra wer e foun d dow n t o depth s o f 7 5 cm Th e prehistori c materia l does however appea r t o b e al l o f th e Suazoi d tradition consistin g o f roughl y mad e coars e ware Characteristi c type s

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17 8 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S include d griddl e sherds, leg s fro m foote d bowl s an d rim s wit h finger-mar k decoratio n (Fig 3) Associate d wit h thi s materia l wer e si x conc h shel l adze s an d a rang e o f smal l conc h piece s (Fig 3) A fine-graine d micaceou s sandston e 'knife an d fragment s o f sandston e fro m grindin g an d smoothin g tool s indicat e movemen t o f resources perhap s fro m th e eas t o f th e island A wid e rang e o f shell s cam e fro m al l level s i n Trenche s 1 an d 6 Thes e include d Quee n Conc h (Strombus gigas), Wes t India n To p Shel l (Cittarium pica), Jewe l Bo x (Chama sp.) Chito n (Chiton sp.) Con e Shel l (Conus sp.) Beade d Periwinkl e (Tectarius muricatus) Virgi n Nerit e (Nertna virgnea), Cowri e (Cypraea cf cervus) Lucin a (Lucina sp.) Keyhol e Limpe t (Fissurella sp.) Sur f Cla m (Mactra sp. ) an d Sta r Shel l (Astraea sp.) Cra b an d fis h remain s recovere d b y 1 m m sievin g include d parrot-fis h an d tuna Trenc h 2 onl y reveale d 3 8 prehistori c sherd s bu t thi s trenc h wa s badl y disturbe d b y a Histori c Perio d trenc h (Fig 8 Trenc h 2 contex t (3)) Th e sectio n suggest s tha t thi s are a represent s th e ploughed-dow n remain s o f th e landwar d sid e o f san d dunes Thu s th e mai n prehistori c elemen t fro m thi s are a ma y hav e bee n removed Th e majorit y o f th e potter y i s Suazoid simila r t o tha t fro m Trenche s 1 an d 6 but a fe w sherd s coul d b e slightl y earlie r tha n th e mai n assemblage Th e numbe r o f prehistori c potsherd s increase d t o 17 9 i n Trenc h 3 but rapidl y decline d t o fiv e i n Trenc h 4 an d non e i n Trenc h 5 A tentativ e interpretatio n o f th e soi l profile s a t Heywood s suggest s san d dunes/beac h materia l (Trenche s 1-3 ) holdin g bac k a sal t wate r lagoo n (Trenche s 4-5 ) wit h perhap s intermittentl y a habitabl e o r cultivabl e are a betwee n (Trenc h 3 ) O n a developin g beac h o r dun e syste m a lat e prehis tori c communit y cooke d cassav a an d perhap s at e shellfis h an d fish dis cardin g thei r wast e clos e by Hillcres t Excavatio n (Figs 4 an d 5 ) Unlik e th e low-lyin g sit e a t Heywoods wit h a ris e o f les s tha n 3 m abov e se a leve l acros s th e entir e site th e sit e a t Hillcres t o n th e eas t coas t i s situate d o n a promontor y som e 20-3 5 m abov e se a level Fiv e trenches eac h 1 m wer e excavate d dow n t o th e natura l bedroc k o f globi gerin a an d radiolarian-ric h crea m an d whit e marl s o f th e Oceani c Group Th e limite d evidenc e obtaine d fro m th e fiv e tes t trenche s suggest s a n earl y settlemen t o n th e promontory Potter y sherd s o f 'modified Saladoi d typ e wer e foun d i n al l trenche s excep t Trenc h 3 Stratifie d abov e thes e i n Trenche s 1 an d 2 wer e coars e Suazoi d sherds Th e greate r dept h o f deposi t i n Trenche s 1 an d 2 compare d wit h 3 an d 4 ma y b e explaine d b y Suazoi d agricultur e o n th e fairl y leve l are a sout h o f Trenc h 1 resultin g i n soi l movemen t int o th e sligh t hollo w wher e Trenche s 1 an d 2 wer e excavated Trenche s 1 an d 2 bot h produce d conc h adze s fro m 30-4 0 cm whil e a conc h scoo p an d tw o adze s wer e foun d o n th e surfac e (Fig 5) Al l trenche s produce d som e se a foo d refus e includin g Quee n Conch West India n To p Shell Virgi n Nerite Sta r Shell Beade d Periwinkle Chito n an d Cone Wit h th e exceptio n o f 2 0 West India n To p Shell s fro m th e Suazoi d contex t i n Trenc h 4 al l wer e represente d b y fe w example s an d som e ma y hav e bee n carrie d t o th e promontor y b y bird s rathe r tha n man A numbe r o f fragment s o f san d

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 17 9 ston e fro m Trenche s 4 an d 5 ar e probabl y derive d fro m th e underlyin g bedrock bu t ma y hav e bee n utilize d b y man Tw o piece s fro m Trenc h 5 (a t 6 0 cm ) wer e burnt Th e excavation s a t Hillcrest togethe r wit h surfac e collectio n i n th e area s o f Trenc h 5 (Sit e A ) an d Trenc h 4 (Sit e B ) plu s materia l collecte d b y Mr J Baul u betwee n th e 3 0 an d 3 5 m contour s south-wes t o f Trenc h 1 (Fig 4) indicat e widesprea d us e o f th e Hillcres t promontor y b y prehis tori c man Thi s ma y b e divide d int o a t leas t tw o phases a 'modified Saladoi d phas e an d a Suazoi d phase Clarificatio n o f th e natur e o f activit y i n thi s are a must however awai t furthe r excavation 198 7 EXCAVATIONS CHANCER Y LAN E Th e prehistori c sit e a t Chancer y Lan e (Fig 6 ) i s situate d o n lo w san d dune s toward s th e middl e o f Lon g Ba y o n th e souther n coas t o f Barbados Th e san d dune s hol d bac k a sal t mars h wit h a degrade d clif f lin e t o th e north-west Prehistori c artifact s hav e bee n foun d ove r th e las t 5 0 year s i n a n are a som e 50 0 x 5 0 m Previou s excavation s includ e thos e i n th e 1930 s b y Mr E.M Shilston e (Taylo r 1986) Mr N Connel l i n 194 8 (Taylo r 1986) Mr Clark e Holma n i n th e 1950 s (pers comm. ) an d Dr R Bulle n i n 196 6 (Bulle n an d Bulle n 1968 ) Th e purpos e o f th e 198 7 excavatio n wa s t o obtai n a detaile d stratigraphi e sequenc e o f artifact s an d economi c dat a fro m wha t appeare d durin g th e 198 6 surve y t o b e th e mos t deepl y stratifie d sit e o n th e islan d (Drewet t 1987) Fou r trenche s ( 4 x 3 m ) wer e excavate d a t righ t angle s t o th e se a toward s th e centr e o f th e sprea d o f surfac e artifacts Thi s provide d dat a o n th e natura l developmen t o f th e sit e i n additio n t o it s archaeologica l sequence Th e trenche s wer e numbere d I-IV crossin g th e sit e fro m north wes t t o south-east Trenc h I consiste d o f som e 4 0 c m o f ligh t gre y claye y san d restin g o n a shel f o f natura l san d rock Fou r burials thre e i n natura l hollow s an d on e i n a du g pit wer e located Th e fou r burial s wer e studie d b y Davi d Rudling H e report s tha t Buria l 1 wa s ver y disturbe d bu t wa s a n adult Buria l 2 wa s als o badl y disturbe d bu t appeare d t o b e o f a n adul t male flexe d an d lyin g o n it s side Buria l 3 la y o n it s bac k wit h arm s extende d b y it s side Th e skeleto n wa s tha t o f a mal e wh o ha d die d i n hi s mid-20s Th e bes t preserve d buria l (4 ) wa s i n a flexed sittin g positio n i n a n artificiall y du g pi t (Fig.7) Th e ova l pi t wa s directl y abov e a deepe r hole perhap s du g a s a wate r hole Th e skeleto n appear s t o b e o f a matur e female perhap s age d 45-5 5 year s a t death Th e onl y othe r featur e i n Trenc h I wa s a dee p wate r hol e i n th e south-eas t corner Trenc h I I wa s excavate d 1 5 m south-eas t o f Trenc h I Trenc h I I containe d 1. 5 m o f fin e ligh t gre y windblow n san d abov e a san d roc k platform N o man-mad e feature s wer e located bu t clearl y th e are a ha d bee n use d t o dum p domesti c rubbis h includin g potter y an d shellfis h refuse Trenc h III althoug h onl y 60-8 0 c m deep reveale d th e mos t comple x stratigraph y o n th e site Th e trenc h i s clearl y withi n a n are a intermit tentl y occupie d fro m Saladoi d throug h t o Suazoi d times Tw o pos t hole s

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18 0 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S almos t certainl y represen t timbe r upright s fro m a hous e (Fig 7) Prehis tori c feature s includ e a shallo w pit perhap s du g fo r storage I n th e 17t h centur y A.D a cla y pip e wa s broke n int o a shallo w pit locate d agains t th e north-wester n edg e o f th e trench Trenc h IV excavate d 1 7 m south-eas t o f Trenc h I containe d entirel y natura l beac h san d wit h n o artifacts suggest in g recen t san d dun e an d beac h deposition Th e excavation s i n Trenche s I-II I yielde d 2 8 shel l artifact s identifie d b y C.R Cartwright Th e 1 5 conc h shel l (Strombus gigas) axes/adze s ar e subdivide d thus : Typ e I 6 ; Typ e II 4 ; Typ e III 3 ; an d Typ e IV 2 specimen s (Fig 8) Othe r artifact s manufacture d fro m conc h includ e hammerston e fragment s an d miscellaneou s dresse d conc h piece s ( 3 each) 'scrapers (2) a 'spatula' a 'punch' an d a bead On e Cypraecassis testiculus (Bab y Bonnet ) wit h fracture d ape x exhibite d a horizonta l sli t toward s th e bas e o f th e bod y whorl an d a simila r basa l sli t wa s foun d o n a specime n o f Terebra cinrea (Cockspur) Th e varie d utilizatio n o f Strombus gigas i s well-know n a t Chancer y Lan e an d th e curren t materia l prove s n o exception bot h fo r functiona l an d decorativ e purposes I n additio n t o th e sli t Cypraecassis testiculus an d Terebra cinrea specimens i t i s feasibl e tha t othe r fracture d o r modifie d marin e mollus c specimen s no w classifiabl e a s foo d refus e ma y originall y hav e bee n functiona l debris Som e ma y formerl y hav e ha d a dua l rol e a s functiona l o r decorativ e objects Example s includ e Chama sp an d spli t Cittarium pica, whic h ma y hav e bee n receptacles a s wel l a s Mactra sp an d Cypraea sp. whic h ma y hav e bee n scrapers/spoons/spatulae etc Th e excavation s o f Trenche s I-II I produce d 4 5 piece s o f stone Nin e o f thes e ar e fine-graine d sandston e 'knives' tw o ar e sandston e rubber s an d on e i s possibl y a zemi Anothe r fine-graine d sandston e objec t canno t b e functionall y attributed Apar t fro m on e 'cherty flake th e res t o f th e materia l comprise s 3 1 sandston e fragment s (possibl y artifactual ) o f whic h si x ar e fine-graine d an d seve n ar e coarse-grained I t seem s likel y tha t th e artifactua l materia l illustrate s th e repertoir e o f activitie s suc h a s smoothing rounding polishing grindin g an d rubbing a s wel l a s hammering cutting an d sharpening Som e o f thes e fragment s ma y relat e directl y t o th e manufactur e o f shel l tool s an d pottery Survivin g foo d refus e consiste d mainl y o f shellfis h an d fis h bones Substantia l quantitie s o f fis h bone s wer e recovere d usin g a 1 m m sieve Althoug h not yet examine d i n detail the y includ e th e diagnosti c ja w an d throat-jaw s o f th e parrot-fish Lan d mammal s include d tw o jaw s o f th e domesticate d India n dog Shellfis h include d Cittarium pica (Wes t India n To p Shell) Strombus gigas (Quee n Conch) Chama congregata (Jewe l Box) Cypraea sp (Cowrie) Chama sp. Charonia variegata (Trumpe t Triton) Purpura patula, Tonna sp. Melongena melongena, Cypraecassis testiculus (Bab y Bonnet) Cypraea zebra (Cowrie) Codakia orbicularis, Phacoides pectinatus; Turicula imperialis an d Fissurella nodosa. I n addition man y fragment s o f se a urchi n an d crab s wer e locate d i n severa l contexts togethe r wit h carbonize d coconu t shel l (Cocos nucfera)

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 18 1 TH E POTTERY CHANCER Y LAN E 1987 b y Mar y Hil l Harri s Ove r 600 0 sherd s wer e presen t i n th e thre e non-steril e trenche s excavate d i n 198 7 a t Chancer y Lane Mos t wer e examine d durin g th e fiel d season Th e objec t o f studyin g th e sherd s wa s no t onl y t o us e diagnosti c sherd s o f know n cultura l type s t o dat e th e layer s o f deposits bu t als o i f possibl e t o establis h war e categorie s fo r us e i n Barbados sinc e thos e Bulle n develope d o n Grenad a (Bulle n 1964 ) migh t o r migh t no t b e applicabl e here I t wa s hope d i n particula r t o thro w ligh t o n th e distinctio n betwee n Calivinoi d an d Suazoi d ware s an d t o se e whethe r thes e ware s d o i n fac t represen t differen t cultura l periods Fo r th e momen t Calivinoi d an d Suazoi d wil l b e referre d t o a s i f the y wer e chronologicall y distinc t phase s o f th e perio d betwee n A.D 65 0 an d th e Conquest Whethe r o r no t suc h us e o f th e term s i s vali d accordin g t o thi s year' s find s wil l b e discusse d later A s usual decorate d o r othe r clearl y diagnosti c sherd s wer e i n a smal l minority Th e plai n potter y wa s initiall y sorte d b y ey e int o abou t 1 8 group s o n th e basi s o f surfac e finis h an d colou r an d past e colour No t al l o f thes e prove d t o var y i n an y significan t wa y accordin g t o layer an d probabl y onl y abou t hal f o f the m ca n coun t a s usefu l war e types I n particular th e distinctio n betwee n rough-surface d an d polished-surface d ware s seeme d t o depen d mor e o n condition s o f erosio n an d surfac e adhesion s tha n o n basi c fabric N o "rough crude Suazoi d war e coul d b e certainl y distinguished Microscopi c wor k wa s no t possibl e durin g thi s fiel d season bu t i t ma y b e tha t suc h examinatio n wil l furthe r sor t ou t otherwis e indistinguishabl e sherds Cream-slipped red-slippe d an d fawn-slippe d ware s wer e distinguishe d an d thei r proportion s see m t o var y throug h time a s d o thos e o f ware s wit h a scratche d surface Scratche d war e coul d b e divide d int o severa l sub-types : th e usua l fairl y thick roug h scratche d ware ; a war e whic h wa s scratche d bu t wit h a crea m sli p applie d ove r th e scratches whic h on e suspect s ma y hav e bee n mad e t o hel p th e sli p adhere ; an d a thinner dar k brow n war e quit e smoot h o r eve n polishe d underneat h th e scratching On e sher d o f slipped-and-scratche d war e actuall y showe d Calivin y Polychrom e pain t ove r scratchin g (Fig 8 3) Sherd s wer e als o measure d an d 6 thicknes s code s defined : 05 mm 57 mm 7-1 0 mm 10-1 2 mm 12-1 5 mm an d ove r 1 5 mm (Sherd s exactl y 5 7 10 1 2 o r 1 5 m m thic k wer e include d i n th e large r thicknes s category. ) Thes e prove d usefu l distinction s an d th e thinne r ware s ar e mor e frequen t i n earlie r layers Decorate d sherd s wer e studie d individuall y an d th e changin g frequenc y o f decorativ e technique s noted Rim s an d form s ar e stil l i n proces s o f analysi s t o se e ho w the y var y accordin g t o period Twenty-tw o sher d sample s wer e brough t hom e fo r microscopi c analysis The y wer e examine d b y Carolin e Cartwrigh t an d Mar y Hil l Harris an d thi n section s ar e bein g prepare d b y Carolin e Cartwright Mos t o f th e sample s wer e selecte d becaus e the y showe d som e unusua l feature an d perhap s partl y fo r thi s reason certai n difference s ar e apparen t betwee n the m an d th e sherd s studie d durin g 198 5 i n th e Barbado s Museu m an d reporte d i n th e Journa l o f th e Barbado s Museu m an d Historica l Societ y (Drewet t 1987)

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18 2 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S Th e mos t notabl e differenc e i s th e presenc e o f calcareou s tempe r (possibl y crushe d coral ) i n abou t hal f th e sampl e sherds I t wa s almos t completel y absen t i n th e sherd s previousl y studied Othe r ne w element s wer e vegetable-matte r inclusion s (i n a sher d selecte d becaus e o f it s unusua l ligh t feel ) an d gro g temper Th e gro g appeare d t o b e compose d o f a war e identica l t o anothe r o f ou r sampl e sherds Th e characteristi c brown-suga r past e (wit h inclusion s primaril y o f quart z an d iro n minerals ) an d th e evenly-ground-quartz-tempere d ware bot h o f whic h wer e reporte d previousl y (Drewet t 1987) wer e presen t i n a numbe r o f ou r samples o f severa l differen t macroscopi c war e types Th e sampl e sherd s selecte d i n 198 7 sho w a broade r repertoir e o f paste s tha n wa s previousl y known I n th e nex t fiel d seaso n i t i s propose d t o examin e microscopicall y representativ e sherd s o f th e war e type s whic h hav e emerge d i n thi s year' s sorting an d t o examin e enoug h o f th e undistin guishe d plai n ware s t o se e whethe r difference s ca n b e distinguishe d microscopically Trenc h II I Th e cleares t an d most extensiv e stratigraph y wa s apparen t i n Trenc h III whic h als o ha d th e larges t numbe r o f sherd s (3255) Loos e san d layer s (context s (1) (2) an d (4) ) overla y a compacte d floo r ((3) coverin g (5)) Potter y wa s abundan t fro m a dept h o f 2 0 c m dow n t o th e botto m o f (5) Pit s an d post-hole s di d no t contai n significan t amount s o f pottery Ware s (Tabl e 1 ) : Moder n o r histori c sherd s wer e presen t onl y i n th e uppe r san d layer s abov e 2 0 cm excep t fo r a cla y pip e i n th e contex t (7 ) pit Th e cream-slippe d war e (Typ e H ) whic h ha s bee n associate d wit h th e Calivin y perio d (an d o n whic h Calivin y Polychrom e paintin g i s most ofte n found ) i s most commo n i n th e lowe r san d layer s o f contex t (4 ) an d i n contex t (2 ) bu t it s nex t highes t frequenc y occur s i n contex t (5 ) I t i s les s commo n i n contex t (1 ) Red-slippe d war e (Typ e Y ) i s significantl y mor e frequen t i n contex t (5 ) tha n i n th e late r layers wit h it s nex t highes t frequenc y i n (3 ) Scratche d war e (Typ e F ) i s almos t absen t i n contex t (5) bu t i s constantl y presen t i n lo w proportion s i n othe r layer s u p t o 1 0 cm Slippe d an d scratche d (Typ e SS ) show s a simila r spread wit h it s highest frequenc y i n th e lowes t par t o f contex t (4) Th e changin g frequenc y o f scratche d ware s mor e o r les s parallel s tha t o f cream-slippe d wares Thicknes s code s (Tabl e 2) : Ware s unde r 5 m m thic k wer e mos t frequen t b y a substantia l proportio n i n contex t (5) decreasin g i n frequenc y throug h (3 ) an d (4) an d a t thei r lowes t i n contex t (2 ) an d th e uppe r layer s o f (1) Ware s 57 m m thic k ar e mor e frequen t tha n thos e 7-1 0 m m thic k i n (3 ) an d (5) wit h 7-1 0 m m ware s predominatin g i n (4) (2 ) an d (1) Ware s thicke r tha n 1 0 m m ar e mos t frequen t i n th e uppe r layer s o f (1 ) (2 ) an d (4) Decoratio n (Tabl e 3) : Th e classi c marke r fo r earl y (Cedrosan ) Saladoi d i s Zone d Incise d Cross-hatch A singl e sher d wit h Zone d Incise d Cross hatc h cu t i n a polishe d surfac e wa s foun d i n contex t (5 ) (Fig 8 1) Amon g

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 18 3 th e thi n wares anothe r possibl e marke r fo r earl y Saladoi d i s fine-lin e incision an d i n particula r Bullen' s "Interio r Incised typ e (Fig 9 1) Fiv e Interio r Incise d sherd s wer e foun d i n (5) on e i n (3) on e i n (4 ) jus t abov e contex t (5) an d on e i n (1 ) 10-2 0 cm I t ha s bee n claime d tha t becaus e o f it s internall y thickene d ri m Interio r Incise d date s t o A.D 65 0 o r later Ou r excavation s see m rathe r t o plac e i t firml y i n th e Saladoi d phase Whethe r i t i s a n earl y Saladoi d marke r canno t b e certainl y deter mine d a t thi s stage bu t futur e absolut e date s ma y giv e u s a clue O f th e 3 1 othe r fine-line-incise d sherds 1 6 wer e foun d i n contex t (5) 4 i n (3 ) an d 2 i n th e san d les s tha n 1 0 c m abov e (5) wit h th e other s i n th e othe r loos e san d layers White-on-re d paintin g i s anothe r earl y Saladoi d marker Th e whit e pain t i s alway s ver y fugitiv e an d al l th e example s foun d b y u s a t Chancer y Lan e ar e n o bette r tha n possible O f th e seve n fro m Trenc h III non e wer e foun d i n contex t (5) ; thre e wer e foun d i n th e floo r (3) tw o i n th e uppe r san d layers an d tw o i n th e histori c pi t (7) Turnin g t o late r form s o f decoration a diagnosti c typ e whic h neve r form s mor e tha n a smal l minorit y o f sherd s i s Calivin y Polychrom e (Fig 9 2) Thi s pain t to o i s pron e t o disappearin g unde r condition s o f wear an d man y example s ar e doubtful It s presenc e i s stronges t i n contex t (4) the n (1 ) wit h a reduce d frequenc y i n (3 ) an d near-absenc e i n (5 ) Barbado s Incise d Ri m (Fig 9 3) a characteristi c for m o f incise d cross-hatc h decoratio n whic h appear s o n th e shoulder s o f thick fairl y coars e cazuelas, i s als o a minorit y type It s greates t frequenc y i s a t a dept h o f 20-3 0 c m i n bot h context s (1 ) an d (4 ) I t doe s no t appea r i n (3 ) an d ther e ar e on e an d on e possibl e i n (5) Althoug h th e sampl e i s ver y small it s appearanc e i n Trenc h II I seem s t o paralle l tha t o f Calivin y Polychrom e rathe r tha n eithe r th e earlie r Saladoid/Barrancoi d form s mos t frequen t i n th e compacte d layers o r th e late r Suazoi d finger-marke d sherd s (Fig 9 4) Thes e las t appea r i n Trenc h II I onl y abov e 2 0 cm i n context s (1 ) an d (2) Scratch ing usuall y considere d anothe r Suazoi d characteristic i s no t limite d t o th e uppe r layer s i n Trenc h III I t i s no t presen t i n th e to p 1 0 c m o f Trenc h II I (thoug h a finger-marke d sher d is ) ; i t i s presen t i n smal l quantitie s throug h al l layer s dow n t o contex t (5) an d definitel y underlie s finger-markin g a s a decorativ e technique Th e numbe r o f sherd s showin g detail s o f vesse l for m (othe r tha n ri m type ) i s s o smal l tha t onl y roug h impression s o f frequenc y ca n b e given I n Trenc h II I flarin g bowl s ar e mos t commo n i n context s (3 ) an d (5) Inturne d bowl s reac h thei r highes t frequenc y i n th e lowe r san d layers Massiv e form s appea r onl y abov e 2 0 c m (wit h a singl e possibl e sher d i n contex t (3)) Typicall y Saladoi d concavo-conve x o r flat-flange d rim s appea r onl y i n context s (3 ) an d (5) Pal o Sec o typ e flange d rim s ar e mos t commo n i n contex t (3) wit h Eri n typ e triangula r flange s mostl y occurrin g i n (3) (5) an d (4 ) jus t abov e (5) Th e fe w ri m lug s appea r onl y abov e 2 0 cm A singl e fla t bas e appear s i n (1 ) 10-2 0 c m an d th e othe r 2 4 ar e al l i n (4) (3) (5 ) an d (11) a pi t simila r t o contex t (5) Concav e base s als o appea r mos t frequentl y i n (3 ) an d (5) Th e distributio n o f th e 7 rin g bases bot h hig h an d low appear s random On e broke n foo t appear s i n II I (5) an d tw o

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18 4 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S shouldere d fee t betwee n 2 0 an d 3 0 cm D-shape d handles commo n i n Sala doid/Barrancoi d times occu r mos t frequentl y i n (5 ) bu t als o i n (4 ) 20-3 0 cm Tw o possibl e po t stands thre e incens e burner s an d thre e "cassava cakes appea r i n th e 10-2 0 c m laye r i n context s (1 ) an d (2) A n additiona l possibl e incens e burne r wa s foun d i n contex t (4) Thre e foote d griddl e sherd s wer e found al l abov e 2 0 cm A sher d fro m contex t (5 ) (Fig 8 2 ) ha s a n incise d tortoise-shel l patter n an d ma y hav e bee n par t o f a n effig y vessel A n upward-lookin g ri m lu g representin g a huma n o r anima l fac e (Fig 9 5 ) wa s foun d i n (1 ) 10-2 0 cm On e o f th e fe w modern/histori c sherd s (II I (1 ) 10-2 0 cm ) (Fig 9 6 ) i s worth y o f mentio n because althoug h wheel-made it s ri m profil e outline d b y a groov e i s ver y simila r t o prehistori c ones Trenche s I an d I I Trenche s I an d I I wil l b e mentione d onl y briefly A smal l numbe r o f sherd s fro m th e lowe r layer s o f thes e trenche s remaine d unexamine d throug h lac k o f time an d o f th e sherd s analyse d b y fa r th e larges t proportio n ar e post-65 0 A.D Th e context s ar e no t clearl y distinguishe d o n th e basi s o f thei r sher d content no r fo r mos t feature s i s ther e a clearl y marke d vertica l distributio n patter n throug h th e 10-c m spits Trenc h II I n Trenc h II wit h a dept h o f 16 0 cm n o Zone d Incise d Cross-hatc h wa s found A singl e Interio r Incise d sher d wa s foun d a t th e to p o f contex t (2 ) (100-10 5 cm) Th e 80-9 0 c m laye r ha d b y fa r th e larges t numbe r o f sherd s an d bot h finger-markin g an d tota l scratchin g reac h thei r highest frequenc y i n thi s layer Thi n sherd s (< 5 mm ) ar e rare but somewha t mor e commo n i n contex t (2 ) tha n i n (1) ; thic k sherd s (>1 0 mm ) ar e distinctl y mor e frequen t abov e 8 0 cm Flarin g bowl s appea r most ofte n i n th e lowe r layers rin g an d pedesta l base s see m t o hav e rando m distribution an d shouldere d fee t an d scar s o f fee t appea r betwee n 7 0 an d 9 0 cm A n unusua l scallope d ri m o f a shallo w bow l o f cream-slippe d war e wa s foun d betwee n 6 0 an d 7 0 c m (Fig 9 7) Contex t (2 ) 110-12 0 c m als o feature d a sher d wit h a cross-hatche d desig n cu t i n deepV incisio n int o a re d sli p (Fig 9 8) whic h look s neithe r quit e lik e Zone d Incise d Cross hatc h no r lik e Barbado s Incise d Rim whic h i s usuall y foun d i n rough surface d wares Trenc h I Trenc h I als o ha s mostl y lat e pottery wit h n o earl y Saladoi d technique s s o fa t found Calivin y Polychrom e appears rarely i n th e lowe r layers Th e thickes t ware s ar e somewha t mor e frequen t i n th e highe r layers Trenc h I containe d a numbe r o f burial s an d partia l burials thre e o f whic h ha d associate d potter y whic h ma y hel p u s t o dat e the m (and wit h radiocarbo n dates vic e versa) Unfortunatel y neithe r whol e pot s no r larg e quantitie s wer e present an d onl y limite d amount s o f decorate d pottery

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 18 5 Buria l 1 ha s a fingernail-marke d sher d (Fig 9 9) a possibl e shoul dere d foot an d tw o sherd s o f pedesta l bases On e sher d ha s possibl e trace s o f zone d re d paint Cream-slippe d war e sherd s ar e present a s ar e bot h natural-fawn-slippe d an d red-slipped thoug h thes e ar e i n lowe r frequencies Sherd s unde r 5 m m ar e no t present an d 7-1 0 m m i s th e singl e mos t commo n thickness Mos t o f thes e characteristic s fi t int o a Calivinoi d cluster thoug h fingernai l markin g i s normall y calle d Suazoid Th e co presenc e o f cream-slippe d war e an d fingernai l markin g present s anothe r argumen t agains t th e fir m chronologica l divisio n o f Calivinoi d an d Suazoid Buria l 2 (2 3 sherds ) als o ha s a fairl y hig h proportio n o f cream-slippe d ware wit h a lo w presenc e o f red-slippe d ware I t to o lack s sherd s unde r 5 m m thick an d ha s 7-1 0 m m a s it s mos t commo n thickness It s singl e mos t diagnosti c sherd fro m a roug h foote d bow l wit h fingerti p impression s i n th e rim i s Suazoid Buria l 4 (2 8 sherds ) i s harde r t o assig n t o period Cream-slippe d sherd s ar e stil l frequen t (n o fawn o r red-slippe d ar e present) ; ther e i s a singl e sher d < 5 m m bu t 7-1 0 m m i s stil l th e singl e mos t commo n thickness Ther e ar e n o decorate d sherds an d a singl e D-shape d handl e i s no t diagnos ti c enoug h t o assig n Buria l 4 t o a specifi c period Summar y Th e macroscopi c sortin g carrie d ou t i n th e fiel d wa s partiall y success fu l i n distinguishin g war e type s wit h diagnosti c value thoug h no t al l o f th e easil y recognise d type s change d throug h tim e i n an y recognisabl e pattern Th e thre e slippe d type s (cream natural an d red ) showe d change s o f proportio n accordin g t o depth thoug h th e presenc e o f crea m sli p bot h i n th e earlies t contex t o f Trenc h II I and i n on e case o n a finger-marke d sherd mean s tha t i t canno t b e equate d wit h a limite d (Caliviny ) period Th e existenc e o f a war e combinin g scratchin g an d crea m sli p wa s estab lished Sher d thicknes s als o prove d t o var y significantl y throug h time a s di d certai n decorativ e techniques I n Trenche s I an d I I ther e i s a s ye t onl y sligh t evidenc e fo r develop men t fro m a n earl y t o a lat e cerami c style an d lat e (Calivinoid/Suazoid ) sherd s ar e i n th e majority Burial s 1 an d 2 i n Trenc h I eac h contai n finger-marke d sherd s o f Suazoi d type I n Trenc h II I ther e i s clea r evidenc e fo r occupatio n ove r a tim e perio d stretchin g fro m Saladoi d t o lat e prehistoric Th e contex t (5 ) deposit s underneat h th e compacte d layer wit h thei r hig h proportio n o f thi n ware s an d red-slippe d wares an d decorativ e technique s suc h a s re d paint grooves th e combinatio n o f th e two an d fine-lin e incisio n includin g i n particula r th e "Interio r Incised type ca n b e describe d a s Saladoid / Barrancoi d o r modifie d Saladoid Th e singl e Zone d Incise d Cross-hatche d sher d hint s a t th e occupation' s havin g begu n ver y earl y i n th e Saladoi d period Th e compacte d laye r itsel f fall s i n mos t categorie s neatl y betwee n th e deposit s belo w an d above Th e combinatio n o f groove s wit h re d pain t i s

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18 6 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S most frequen t i n thi s level I t ha s th e appearanc e o f a transitio n stag e betwee n Saladoid/Barrancoi d an d Calivinoid I n th e loos e san d o f context s (1) (2 ) an d (4 ) re d pain t decrease s fro m botto m t o top an d thicke r ware s ar e commo n throughout Sherd s wit h fingernai l o r fingerti p impression s confir m th e late-dat e occupatio n o f th e layer s abov e 2 0 cm Scratche d an d slipped-and-scratche d ware s occu r throughou t th e loos e san d layer s an d canno t b e use d fo r datin g thes e late r layers Bot h crea m sli p an d Calivin y Polychrom e see m t o b e a t thei r mos t commo n betwee n 2 0 an d 4 0 c m an d clearl y underli e th e finger-marke d sherds I s i t possibl e o n th e basi s o f ou r 198 7 excavation s t o decid e whethe r Calivinoi d an d Suazoi d ar e separat e chronologicall y i n Barbados ? Cali vinoi d an d Suazoi d potter y shar e man y form s an d hav e bee n distinguishe d b y Bulle n o n th e basi s o f past e (a s see n i n Grenada ) an d decoration Crea m sli p an d Calivin y Polychrom e pain t wer e assigne d b y hi m t o Calivinoi d an d roug h paste thic k sherds scratchin g an d finger-markin g t o Suazoid A s ha s bee n said macroscopi c distinctio n betwee n Calivinoi d an d Suazoi d past e wa s not possible s o w e ar e lef t wit h th e surfac e techniques Finger marking limite d t o th e to p layer s i n al l 3 trenches definitel y overla y bot h Calivin y Polychrom e and largely crea m sli p an d scratching Scratch in g parallele d crea m sli p i n distributio n excep t tha t crea m sli p wa s presen t eve n i n th e earl y contexts I t appear s tha t scratchin g canno t b e counte d a s diagnosti c o f Suazoid no r cream-slippe d o f Calivinoid O n th e evidenc e o f ou r Chancer y Lan e finds Calivin y Polychrom e a s a techniqu e precede s finger-marking bu t ther e ar e no t enoug h othe r difference s i n th e ware s produce d i n Barbado s afte r A.D 65 0 t o sa y ther e ar e tw o distinc t periods an d certainl y no t enoug h t o postulat e th e arriva l o f a ne w people INTERI M CONCLUSION S I t i s perhap s prematur e eve n t o star t considerin g conclusion s abou t th e natur e o f prehistori c settlemen t o n Barbados What i s clea r fro m th e wor k o f thi s projec t i s tha t Barbados althoug h havin g excellen t artifactua l collections lack s an y adequat e stratigraphi e o r spatia l database I t als o lack s virtuall y an y environmenta l o r economi c data I t i s t o provid e thi s databas e tha t thi s projec t wa s established Th e tas k wil l not b e eas y becaus e o f th e extensiv e post-depositiona l transformatio n processe s eviden t a t al l site s identified O f th e primar y settlemen t o f Barbado s w e hav e onl y tantalizin g hints Saladoi d movemen t int o th e Lesse r Antille s probabl y too k plac e abou t 10 0 B.C Odd unprovenance d sherd s fro m th e Harrison' s Cav e an d Barbado s Museu m collections togethe r wit h a sher d fro m Chancer y Lane ma y b e 'pure earl y Saladoid I f so i t i s no t impossible althoug h a t presen t unlikely tha t ma n wa s presen t i n Barbado s a t som e stag e durin g th e perio d 10 0 B.C 35 0 A.D A n eve n earlie r pre-cerami c stag e als o remain s possible althoug h fo r thi s ther e i s currentl y absolutel y n o evidence Th e firs t extensiv e settlemen t o f Barbado s i s represente d b y potter y o f th e Saladoid/Barrancoi d traditio n wit h a likel y dat e o f c 350-65 0 A.D Th e natur e o f thi s settlemen t i s uncertain Currentl y identifie d densitie s o f Saladoid/Barrancoi d potter y ar e extremel y low but ar e perhap s mor e

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 18 7 widesprea d tha n formerl y thought Ther e i s n o rea l evidenc e tha t th e Saladoid/Barrancoi d settlemen t o f Barbado s wa s othe r tha n transitory Th e mai n settlemen t o f Barbados o r rapi d populatio n expansio n fro m th e Saladoid/Barrancoi d population too k plac e i n th e perio d c 650-110 0 A.D Locall y developin g cerami c style s includ e griddles suggestin g cassav a cultivation whic h i n tur n perhap s indicate s mor e permanen t settlement Direc t evidenc e fo r cassav a cultivatio n does however remai n minimal Thi s i s hardl y surprisin g a s th e likel y archaeologica l trace s o f cassav a cultivatio n ar e minima l (Yd e 1965) Th e equipmen t neede d fo r planting peeling grating pressing dryin g an d siftin g ca n al l b e mad e o f organi c material s unlikel y t o surviv e i n a tropica l climate Th e smal l mound s o f eart h prepare d fo r plantin g o f stem s fro m a previou s cassav a cro p may however hav e bee n mad e wit h th e shel l adzes Microwea r studie s may a t least establis h whethe r an y hav e bee n use d fo r suc h digging I n th e absenc e o f shar p chip s o f stone cora l o r shel l chip s bedde d int o woo d t o mak e simpl e grater s ma y survive Griddl e plate s are however likel y t o b e th e onl y conclusiv e survivin g evidenc e o f cassav a cultivation I t i s reall y onl y fro m th e fina l phas e o f Barbadia n prehistory th e Suazoi d (c 1100-150 0 A.D.) tha t w e hav e an y reasonabl e databas e an d thi s i s limite d t o artifactua l an d economi c data N o complet e structure s hav e bee n locate d an d nothin g i s know n abou t settlemen t morpholog y o r develop men t Th e Suazoi d people s o f Barbado s gre w cassava as evidence d b y griddles caugh t fis h (e.g. Win g 1968 ) an d collecte d shellfis h (thi s report) I t ma y b e assume d tha t the y als o hunte d an d collecte d wil d plants Evidenc e fo r craf t activit y survive s i n th e for m o f worke d shell ceramic s an d a littl e worke d stone Th e bul k o f al l craf t activitie s must however hav e utilize d organi c material s t o mak e baskets hammocks canoes fis h traps bows arrow s an d al l th e othe r equipmen t know n t o hav e bee n use d b y Amerindian s i n th e ethnographi c presen t (Yd e 1965) Non e o f thi s equipmen t wil l surviv e i n th e archaeologica l recor d unles s desiccate d o r waterlogged I t i s likel y tha t th e prehistori c populatio n o f Barbado s vanishe d betwee n 150 0 an d 153 6 (Barto n 1953:27) B y th e tim e o f th e Englis h settlemen t o f 162 7 n o Indian s ar e recorde d o n Barbados However soo n afte r Europea n settlement Indian s ar e referre d t o agai n (Augie r an d Gordo n 1962:8) I s som e o f th e Suazoi d materia l fro m Heywoods fo r example India n o f th e Histori c period ? I s th e stratigraphi e associatio n wit h 17t h centur y Europea n cla y pipe s an d potter y rea l rathe r tha n th e resul t o f post-depositiona l mixing ? Hopefully wit h ne w dat a recovere d fro m thi s surve y w e ma y b e abl e t o mov e o n fro m th e description classificatio n an d datin g o f sequence s int o a consideratio n o f prehistori c settlemen t morpholog y an d patterns economi c pattern s includin g redistributio n networks an d a consideratio n o f ho w prehistori c ma n live d o n Barbado s rathe r tha n simpl y whe n an d where

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18 8 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S W e shoul d particularl y lik e t o than k Mis s Alissandr a Cummins Directo r o f th e Barbado s Museum fo r he r considerabl e hel p i n establishin g thi s projec t an d he r U.S Peac e Corp s Curator Mr Steve n Hackenberger fo r endles s hel p an d advice W e shoul d als o lik e t o than k th e followin g fo r a variet y o f help : Dr Ari e Boomert Dr Warwic k Bray Mr Jea n Baulu Mr Ronal d Taylor Mr Davi d C Devenish Mr Cliv e Orton Mr D R Atkinson Professo r Woodvill e K Marshall Th e Ministr y o f Labou r an d Communit y Development Norther n Sand s Ltd. Catherin e Holding s Ltd an d ou r fundin g bodies th e Britis h Academy th e Centra l Researc h Fun d o f Londo n Univer sity th e Gordo n Child e Fun d an d Barclay s Bank Mrs Harri s als o wishe s t o than k th e Bartl e Frer e Fund th e Britis h Academy th e Smut s Memoria l Fun d an d th e Societ y o f Antiquarie s fo r financia l support an d th e Cambridg e Universit y Museu m o f Archaeolog y an d Anthropolog y fo r wor k spac e an d encouragement REFERENCE S CITE D Augier F.R 196 2 an d S.C Gordon Source s o f Wes t India n History 1983) Longmans Englan d (reprinte d Barton G.T 195 3 Th e Prehistor y o f Barbados Barbado s (reprinte d 1979 ) Bullen R.P 196 4 Th e Archaeolog y o f Grenada Wes t Indies Contribution s o f th e Florid a Stat e Museum Socia l Science s 11:38-52 Bullen R.P 196 8 an d A.K Bulle n Barbado s Archaeology : 1966 Proceeding s o f th e Secon d Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Barbado s 1967) pp 134-144 Drewett P.L 198 5 Barbados : Th e Prehistor y o f a n Island A repor t o n a pilot archaeologica l surve y an d proposal s fo r futur e work Universit y o f London 7 pp (mimeographed) 198 7 Archaeologica l Surve y o f Barbados Firs t Interi m Report Journa l o f th e Barbado s Museu m an d Historica l Societ y XXXVIII(l):44-80 Evans J.D 197 3 Island s a s laboratorie s o f cultur e change I n Th e Explana tio n o f Cultur e Change : Model s i n Prehistor y (C Renfrew d.) pp 517-520 London : Duckworth

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 18 9 Lange F.W. an d J.S Handle r 198 0 Th e Archaeolog y o f Mapp s Cave : a contributio n t o th e prehis tor y o f Barbados Journa l o f th e Virgi n Island s Archaeologi ca l Societ y 9:3-17 Rouse I 197 7 Patter n an d Proces s i n Wes t India n Archaeology Archaeolog y 9(1):1-11 Worl d Taylor R 198 6 Archaeologica l Event s i n Barbados Journa l o f th e Barbado s Museu m an d Historica l Societ y XXXVII(4) : 337-342 Wing E.S 196 8 Aborigina l fishin g i n th e Windwar d Islands Proceeding s o f th e Secon d Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f Pre Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Barbado s 1967) pp 103-137 Yde J 196 5 Materia l Cultur e o f th e Waiwai hagen Nationa l Museu m o f Copen

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19 0 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S FIGUR E 1 LEGEND : PREHISTORI C SITE S O N BARBADO S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Chancer y Lane Chris t Churc h Sa m Lords St Phili p Palmett o Bay St Phili p Culpeppe r Island St Phili p Conse t Bay St Joh n Andromed a Gardens St Josep h Hillcres t (Sit e A) St Josep h Pic o Teneriffe St Pete r Cov e Bay St Luc y Th e Landlock St Luc y Pi e Corner St Luc y India n Mound St Luc y Goa t Hous e Bay St Luc y Sand y Hill St Luc y Horsesho e Bay St Luc y Cluff s (Sit e A) St Luc y Strou d Point St Luc y St Luc y Pete r St Pete r Jame s Maycock s Bay Heywoods St Speightstown Holetown St Fres h Wate r Bay St Michae l Brandons St Michae l India n River St Michae l Beckle s Spring St Michae l Maxwell Chris t Churc h Oistins Chris t Churc h Sout h Point Chris t Churc h 29 Silve r Sands Chris t Churc h 30 Cluff s (Sit e B) St Luc y 31 Cluff s (Sit e C) St Luc y 32 Eas t Point St Phili p 33 Hillcres t (Sit e B) St Josep h 34 Cattl e Wash St Josep h 35 Martin s Bay St Joh n 36 Littlegoo d Harbour St Pete r 37 Cuckold St Luc y 38 Laycoc k Bay St Luc y 39 Chandle r Ba y (Sit e A) St Luc y 40 Chandle r Ba y (Sit e B) St Luc y 41 King s Bay St Luc y 42 Jone s Ba y (Sit e A) St Luc y 43 Jone s Ba y (Sit e B) St Luc y 44 Rive r Bay St Luc y 45 Sand y Hill St Luc y 46 Lowe r Cra b Hill St Luc y 47 Kitridg e Bay St Phili p 48 Cav e Bay St Phili p 49 Roun d Rock Chris t Churc h 50 Gree n Garden Chris t Churc h 51 Th e Chair Chris t Churc h 52 Mapp s Cave St Phili p 53 Greenland St Andrew s 54 St Luke' s Gully St Georg e 55 Thre e Houses St Phili p 56 Conse t Beach St Joh n

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 19 1 PREHISTORIC BARBADOS Settlements : • a coasta l • b inlan d Conc h us e sit e • Buria l • Shel l too l •Eare d ston e ax e Figur e 1 Prehistori c site s o n Barbado s (se e legen d o n opposit e page)

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19 2 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S 0 0 SE A Wate r hol e ttrt iiiliiiiiii" HEYWOODS 1985 Site 19 O 5 0 i i i i ' m .e n c e Figur e 2 Heywood s excavatio n 1 985 Sit e plan Trenche s 1-6

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 19 3 Figur e 3 Heywood s excavations 198 5 piece s (7-11) an d conc h adz e (12) Suazoi d potter y (1-6 ) carve d conc h

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19 4 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S HILLCREST 1986 Site 7 O 5 0 1—i— i 1 i m Figur e 4 Hillcres t excavations 1986 Sit e plan Trenche s 1-5 Contour s a t 5 m intervals

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 19 5 PJ 7 ) (l^Sg g VS ^ JpCm s A Figur e 5 Hillcres t excavations 1986 Barrancoi d (4-5) an d conc h adze s (6-9) Suazoi d adorno s (1-3 ) Saladoid

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19 6 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S CHANCERY LANE 1987 Site 1 / J? 5 0 10 0 i m < J CAVE S 1 I i v • i /-^ • / ^3^^ ^ // / 's y=3 M s j / i \ I K I • ; i i \ i /^>s. s v > I / r / V. './• s II\ % s 'I IV •. i, l / . m m m. >*J \j 1 2 3 v4 \ / -60 W O hi o I? v i V / M ' i SE A Figur e 6 Chancer y Lan e excavations 1987 Sit e plan Trenche s 1-4

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 19 7 Pit s 1 Posthol e Trench 3 Burial 4 in Trench I ^~* 1 1 2 5 i cm s Figur e 7 Chancer y Lan e excavations 1987 Top : Pla n o f feature s i n Trenc h III Bottom : Pla n o f flexe d buria l 4 i n Trenc h I

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19 8 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S Figur e 8 Chancer y Lan e excavations 1987 Pottery zon e incise d cross hatc h (1) ; pottery incise d tortoise-shel l patter n (2) ; pottery polychrom e painte d o n crea m sli p ove r scratchin g (3) ; conc h shel l adze/axe Typ e 3 (4) ; conc h shel l adze/axe Typ e 4 (5) ; shel l 'punch (6) ; an d ston e 'knives (7-9)

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S L9 9 < ^ L "WOO t %r
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20 0 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S TABL E 1 Trenc h II I Percentag e o f War e fype s b y Laye r ff o f CONTEX T SHERD S U M/ H L N T J P W HXYQBFSSPSR G Other s (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (2 ) (4 ) (4 ) 0 10 20 10 20 30 -1 0 -2 0 -3 0 -2 0 -3 0 -4 0 (4 ) 0-1 0 abov e (3 ) (5 ) (9 ) (11 ) (7 ) (8 ) (13 ) (14 ) 119 ) c m c m c m c m c m c m c m 5 ) 9 8 81 7 18 4 15 7 22 6 10 8 6 1 36 2 78 8 3 3 1 7 1 0 2 1 3 1 1 5 1 3 4 4 6 8 2 3 6 3 2 0 9 4 X 3 10 3 8 4 5 4 4 3 5 4 1 4 0 4 4 3 4 3 1 5 4 2 9 2 0 5 0 8 9 1 7 1 5 2 1 1 8 1 2 1 7 1 5 1 4 1 0 3 1 8 3 6 2 0 3 1 1 2 5 1 2 1 0 8 2 2 1 2 4 2 2 7 5 1 8 8 4 9 7 1 3 1 6 1 7 1 5 8 1 1 3 6 8 1 8 4 3 X 1 2 1 5 6 4 3 6 2 0 8 6 2 5 1 2 2 2 7 1 7 3 2 9 2 0 5 0 8 1 8 2 0 3 2 5 6 2 6 2 X 8 4 8 1 5 7 3 8 1 1 9 2 0 4 6 1 8 4 0 3 1 1 3 3 2 X 9 3 X X 8 1 2 2 1 1 2 5 ? 1 Th e histori c sher d i n contex t (7 ) i s a cla y pipe x les s tha n 1? M/ H moder n o r histori c L N rough-surface d T J = smooth-surface d 5 S slippe d an d scratche d P S polishe d an d scratche d U unidentifiabl e P polished fairl y thi n dar k red-brow n war e W thi n ware s wit h n o othe r distinguishin g featur e H cream-slippe d X = natural-fawn-slippe d Y red-slippe d Q = a ver y thi n black-past e war e wit h whit e surfac e R = ver y rough thic k war e G = griddle s Other s al l othe r wares Th e one s presen t i n contex t (11 ) ar e o f a ver y light porou s war e (se e sectio n o n microscopi c analysis )

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DREWET T AN D HARRI S 20 1 TABL E 2 Trenc h II I Thicknes s Percentage s b y Laye r CONTEX T (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (2 ) (4 ) (4 ) 0 10 20 10 20 30 -1 0 -2 0 -3 0 -2 0 -3 0 -4 0 (4 ) 0-1 0 abov e I (3 ) (5 ) (9 ) (11 ) (7 ) (8 ) (13 ) 114 ) (19 ) c m c m c m c m c m c m c m [5 ) / / o f SHERD S 9 8 81 7 18 4 15 7 22 6 10 8 6 1 36 2 78 8 3 3 1 7 1 0 2 1 3 1 1 5 < 5 m m 2 4 3 1 6 4 3 1 0 1 4 1 8 1 2 3 0 2 3 9 2 0 57 2 3 2 6 2 1 1 5 3 1 2 8 1 8 3 6 3 8 2 4 5 9 3 0 5 0 6 9 7 3 6 0 7-1 0 2 4 2 9 3 9 3 3 2 6 3 2 4 6 2 9 3 0 2 4 2 9 1 0 5 0 8 9 10-1 2 1 1 1 5 2 6 3 4 1 8 1 8 1 0 8 7 3 0 2 0 12-1 5 9 1 1 4 6 5 6 2 0 4 4 3 9 >1 5 2 7 1 1 3 3 X 2 Unmea surabl e 2 2 3 6 1 2 1 0 Unidenti fiabl e 1 3 4 4 6 8 2 3 6 3 2 0

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20 2 ARCHAEOLOGICA L SURVE Y O F BARBADO S TABL E 3 Trenc h II I Percentage s o f Decorativ e Technique s b y Laye r 8 O F TOTA L CONTEX T DECORATE D f-i U )4 l* J C O U (1 ) 0-1 0 c m (1 ) 10-2 0 c m (1 ) 20-3 0 c m 7 8 65 5 9% 1 0. 1 ? 1 70. 2 1 71. 6 0. 4 3 0. 5 1. 6 2 6 2 2. 7 1 0. 1 1 0. 5 0. 5 1 0. 2 1. 2 2 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 0. 5 (2 ) 10-2 0 c m 3 % 2 2 0. 6 0. 6 2 1 2 2 0. 4 0. 4 0. 4 2 1 1 1 1 7 2 7 1 1 5 5 3 2 2 70. 6 70. 8 3 3 3 0. 2 1. 1 0. 2 70. 1 0. 2 1 7 7 0. 4 2 0. 6 0. 1 70. 2 0. 5 6 3 3 6 3 6 6 1 8 2 4 (7 ) p (8 ) p p (13 ) (14 ) p p (19 ) Presenc e o r absenc e o f techniqu e show n onl y fo r thes e context s a s sample s ar e s o small N.B Althoug h th e figure s give n fo r percentage s o f tota l sherd s decorate d includ e organi c blackenin g o n th e interio r o r exterio r o f th e vessel figure s fa r thi s blackenin g hav e no t bee n include d i n th e table Percentage s quote d ar e o f th e tota l numbe r o f sherds (4 ) (4 ) (4 ) (3 ) (5 ) (9 ) (11 ) 20 30 -3 0 -4 0 0-1 0 ibov e i c m c m c m !5 ) 9% 9% 20 8 11 8 12 8 24 8 29 8 0. 4 1 2 2 0. 5 1 1 1