Citation

Material Information

Title:
An Abstract of Archaeological Investigations by the Barbados Museum, 1986
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Steven Hackenberger ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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A N ABSTRAC T O F ARCHAEOLOGICA L INVESTIGATION S B Y TH E BARBADO S MUSEUM 198 6 Steve n Hackenberge r Archaeologica l investigation s wer e carrie d ou t a t fiv e site s disturbe d b y constructio n projects : 1 ) Th e Shel l Oi l Depot o n th e nort h en d o f th e Sprin g Garde n Highway a t Freshwate r Bay ; 2 ) Brandons o n th e sout h en d o f th e Sprin g Garde n Highway ; 3 ) Greenlan d Site St Andrew nea r th e til e an d bric k factory belo w Farle y Hill ; 4 ) Goddard's withi n th e Fontabell e busines s area ; an d 5 ) Div i St James sout h o f Holetow n a t Sunse t Crest Thes e rescu e effort s wer e undertake n b y th e autho r (the n servin g a s a curato r wit h th e Barbado s Museu m an d Historica l Society ) wit h th e assis tanc e o f volunteer s fro m th e Museum' s recentl y forme d Archaeologica l Societ y o f Barbados Th e natur e an d exten t o f prehistori c cultura l deposit s a t th e Greenlan d an d Brandon s site s wer e previousl y unknown Th e Shel l Oi l Depot Goddar d an d Div i St Jame s site s ar e ne w prehistori c sit e discoveries Majo r portion s o f al l fiv e site s ar e believe d t o remai n intact an d warran t protectio n an d futur e excavation Artifact s recovere d fro m th e site s ar e currentl y curate d a t th e Barbado s Museum A manuscrip t repor t describin g th e method s an d result s o f th e Museum' s 198 6 archaeo logica l investigation s i s i n preparation Th e presen t abstrac t i s intende d t o serv e a s a n interi m report Followin g brie f description s o f th e investigation s a t th e sites a sequenc e o f summarie s i s presente d regarding : ceramics ston e technology subsis tence huma n burials hous e patterns change s i n se a level an d interpreta tion s o f severa l selec t artifact s tha t ma y represen t importan t example s o f "cultura l traits. Regrettably du e t o consideratio n o f space severa l ke y map s an d figure s hav e bee n excluded Als o du e t o th e constrain t o f space th e acknowledgement s owe d t o a lon g lis t o f individual s connecte d wit h th e Barbado s Museum a s wel l a s sit e proprietor s an d constructio n managers mus t b e postpone d t o th e completio n o f a fina l manuscrip t report INVESTIGATION S Shel l Oi l Depo t I n April 198 6 inspectio n o f constructio n trenche s an d a n excavate d foundatio n are a (4 0 x 4 0 m ) a t th e Shel l Oi l Depot Freshwate r Bay reveale d potter y sherd s an d conc h shel l burie d t o a dept h o f on e meter Volunteer s collecte d al l observabl e artifact s fro m th e spoi l sprea d b y bulldozer s fro m th e foundatio n are a an d trenches Thre e 1 x 1 m tes t pit s wer e excavate d b y 1 0 c m level s i n a n undisturbe d are a o f th e site On e pi t containe d a huma n burial 16 3

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16 4 RESCU E ARCHAEOLOG Y I N BARBADO S Brandon s I n August sherd s an d huma n remain s wer e reporte d fro m a Plantation s Ltd constructio n sit e a t Brandons Previou s surve y o f area s bulldoze d t o approximatel y on e mete r i n dept h locate d onl y a fe w scattere d sherd s an d conc h shell However deepe r trenche s excavate d fo r a retainin g wal l (tw o meter s i n depth ) wer e responsibl e fo r exposin g mor e substantia l archaeolo gica l remains Tw o feature s (5 0 x 5 0 x 5 0 cm) compose d o f layere d potter y sherd s wer e remove d fro m th e wal l o f a n unfille d trench Huma n remain s foun d withi n th e sher d feature s includ e a shove l shape d incisor a meta tarsal an d a fragmen t o f cranium Greenlan d I n November sherd s an d shel l too l find s wer e reporte d fro m a n are a adjacen t t o th e Greenlan d til e an d bric k factor y (Buildin g Supplie s Ltd. ) wher e highwa y constructio n wa s underway Volunteer s mad e collection s o f artifact s fro m on e are a no w occupie d b y a ne w le g o f highwa y a s wel l a s fro m th e nort h fac e o f a cut-ban k lef t a t th e roa d edge Afte r th e initia l roa d cutting an d prio r t o th e fina l mechanica l slopin g o f th e ban k b y th e constructio n crews a livin g surfac e o r hous e floo r wa s identifie d an d on e buria l featur e wa s excavated Th e latte r containe d th e remain s o f tw o Amerindia n individuals Previously i n Marc h o f 198 6 a t th e invitatio n o f th e factor y managers tes t excavation s wer e complete d a t th e factor y entranc e adjacen t t o th e factor y offic e building Approximatel y on e mete r o f sedimen t wa s remove d fro m th e are a durin g constructio n wor k i n th e 1960s an d th e remainin g deposi t wa s highl y compacte d b y vehicl e traffic However withi n th e to p tw o 1 0 c m level s o f a 2 x 5 m excavatio n are a a dens e midde n wa s apparen t an d a buria l featur e wa s discovered Goddard' s I n December constructio n bega n a t Kensingto n (Goddard' s Supermarket ) o n th e propose d sit e o f a ne w discoun t store Engineerin g tes t pit s unearthe d sherds bone shell an d 18t h centur y artifacts Wit h th e proprietor' s assistance a Bobca t wa s use d t o excavat e a trenc h ( 5 x 1. 5 m ) t o a dept h o f 8 0 cm A deposi t o f sand y fil l an d histori c buildin g material s wa s found belo w whic h occurre d claye y san d wit h prehistori c artifact s t o a dept h o f 1 t o 1. 2 m Belo w 1. 2 m beac h roc k wa s found Withi n th e Bobca t trench fiv e unit s (eac h 1 x 1. 5 m ) wer e excavate d i n 1 0 c m levels followe d b y tw o additiona l unit s ( 1 x 1 m ) o n th e nort h sid e o f th e trenc h (Fig 1) I n th e trench a t a dept h o f 9 0 t o 12 0 cm a n undisturbe d extende d Amerindia n buria l wa s discovere d (Fig 2) T o recove r th e maximu m amoun t o f archaeologica l dat a pertainin g t o residenc e pattern s a t th e site arrangement s wer e mad e fo r bulldozer s t o remov e th e to p sedimen t layer s prio r t o th e planne d dat e fo r th e ful l foundatio n excavations A s machine s remove d th e to p 6 0 t o 8 0 c m o f sediment volunteer s collecte d expose d histori c an d prehistori c artifact s i n fou r area s (eac h 1 0 x 1 0 m ) On e concentratio n o f huma n bon e (Amer indian ) an d associate d do g remain s wer e uncovere d b y th e bulldozers Thes e remain s wer e rapidl y excavate d b y han d befor e th e bulldozer s continue d thei r work

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HACKENBERGE R 16 5 A gri d syste m wit h 3 5 unit s ( 5 x 5 m ) wa s establishe d ove r th e expose d deposit s (3 5 m north-sout h b y 2 5 m east-west) Th e surfac e o f eac h unit wa s collected Afte r thre e tes t pit s ( 1 x 1 m ) indicate d tha t th e souther n portio n o f th e gri d are a wa s disturbe d b y histori c occupation excavation s wer e focuse d o n th e norther n two-third s o f th e gri d system Sixtee n tes t unit s ( 1 x 1 m ) wer e excavate d a t th e northwes t corne r o f selec t 5 x 5 m gri d units Si x additiona l unit s wer e excavate d a t point s withi n th e 5x 5 m units Two three an d mor e rarel y fou r 1 0 c m level s wer e excavate d fro m eac h o f th e 1 x 1 m tes t units Th e sampl e o f 2 2 unit s permitte d th e delineatio n o f sit e dept h an d artifac t densities an d th e collectio n o f representativ e artifac t types On e tes t unit include d a pit featur e containin g thre e larg e inverte d pot s (eac h abou t 5 5 c m i n dia ; se e featur e descriptio n below) Afte r th e tes t excavation s wer e completed bulldozer s returne d t o complet e th e foundatio n excavations Durin g thi s fina l stag e o f eart h removal furthe r artifac t collection s wer e made an d craniu m fragment s wer e foun d i n a depressio n i n th e beac h roc k underlyin g th e cultura l deposits Als o a t thi s tim e a patter n o f post-hole s wa s identifie d tha t represent s th e outlin e o f a circula r t o ova l hous e abou t 1 4 m i n diamete r (Figs 1 an d 3) A s describe d below thi s hous e include d th e buria l discovere d i n th e Bobca t trenc h an d i s locate d adjacen t t o th e pi t wit h th e thre e inverte d pot s ( a probabl e water-hole) Div i St Jame s Th e Div i St Jame s Sit e i s know n onl y fro m a surfac e collectio n o f Troumassoi d and/o r Suazoi d potter y fragment s fro m sedimen t remove d fo r th e constructio n o f a tenni s cour t (5 0 x 5 0 m ) a t th e Div i St Jame s Hote l i n Decembe r o f 1986 Th e deposit s bearin g cultura l material s consis t o f beac h derive d sediment s locate d approximatel y 20 0 m inlan d fro m th e curren t shore Th e are a surroundin g th e tenni s court s need s tes t excavation CERAMIC S A t eac h sit e most o f th e prehistori c ceramic s consis t o f thick-walle d (> 1 cm ) undecorate d war e characteristi c o f th e utilitaria n potter y o f th e Troumassoi d (A.D 650-1100 ) an d Suazoi d (A.D 1100-1450 ) cerami c serie s (Boomer t 1987 ; Drewet t an d Harri s 1988) Al l site s als o contai n example s o f decorate d potter y an d potter y shape s tha t ar e attribute d t o th e Troumas soi d an d Suazoi d series, including : legge d griddle s an d shallo w vessels close d bowls horned-lugs strap-loo p handles pedestals spouts, finger indente d rims black/brow n painte d linea r designs an d plai n re d slip s o r paint (Boomer t 1987) A thermoluminescenc e dat e o f A.D 846-121 4 fo r a sher d wit h a Troumassoid-type outwardl y thickene d ri m give s a n estimat e fo r th e earlies t substantia l occupatio n o f th e Shel l Oi l Depo t Site Example s o f thi n interio r incised exterio r incised an d whit e o n re d painte d pottery though t t o characteriz e th e Pal o Seca n Saladoi d serie s (A.D 350-650 ) (Boomer t 1987) ar e foun d a t Brandons th e Shel l Oi l Depot an d th e Goddar d sites ; however thes e ar e relativel y rare r i n number Rim s o f fla t circula r plate s o r griddle s (Pal o Seca n an d Troumassoid ) ar e foun d

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16 6 RESCU E ARCHAEOLOG Y I N BARBADO S a t th e Oi l Depot Brandons an d Goddard's Rim s fro m th e neck s o f possible jar s ar e presen t a t th e Goddar d Site STON E Fin e screene d sedimen t sample s fro m Greenlan d an d th e Shel l Oi l Depo t hav e reveale d smal l ston e flakes an d simila r find s ar e expecte d fo r Goddard' s onc e sedimen t sample s hav e bee n screened Thes e smal l shar p flake s o f ston e ma y hav e bee n use d i n grater-board s use d t o shre d cassava Larg e flake d ston e fragment s ar e foun d a t th e Goddar d Site an d thi s ston e appear s simila r t o sample s fro m source s i n St Luci a an d Martinique Thes e object s ar e eithe r portion s o f cuttin g an d scrapin g tools o r ar e core s fro m whic h flake s wer e remove d t o us e a s tools SUBSISTENC E Conc h shel l i s densel y scattere d a t th e Shel l Oi l Depo t an d i n th e uppe r level s o f th e Goddar d Site Th e relativ e sparsit y o f conc h shel l i n th e lowes t level s o f th e Goddar d Sit e ma y reflec t th e clearin g o f foo d refus e fro m th e livin g area o r les s us e o f conc h i n th e diet s o f earlie r people A t leas t on e are a o f th e Greenlan d Sit e contain s concentration s o f fragmente d conch othe r marin e shellfish an d lan d snai l shell Thi s are a als o appear s t o contai n greate r densitie s o f fish chiton an d se a urchi n remain s tha n hav e bee n foun d a t th e othe r sites Th e specie s o f fish bir d an d possibl e reptil e an d mamma l remain s ar e t o b e identifie d fo r eac h site HUMA N REMAIN S Remain s o f Amerindia n peopl e wer e discovere d a t fou r o f th e fiv e site s (th e exceptio n bein g th e Div i St Jame s Site) A buria l a t th e Shel l Oi l Depo t contain s a crouche d (semi-flexed ) man som e 14 5 c m ( 4 ft 9 in. ) i n heigh t wh o die d perhap s betwee n th e age s o f 2 5 an d 30 A s fe w a s eigh t teet h o r teet h socket s wer e presen t (P Drewett pers comm.) Othe r burial s ar e reporte d t o hav e bee n destroye d durin g th e constructio n o f th e depo t office A n extende d buria l insid e a hous e featur e (se e below ) a t th e Goddar d Sit e include d a youn g woma n (age d 1 5 t o 20 ) withou t obviou s denta l patholo gies Th e incomplet e remain s o f a mal e (age d 3 0 t o 40 ) burie d i n a semi flexe d positio n sout h o f th e hous e a t th e Goddar d Sit e ar e accompanie d b y th e partia l remain s (forebody ) o f a n immatur e Amerindia n dog Thi s practic e i s know n fro m earl y (Saladoid ) burial s i n th e Caribbean particu larl y i n Puert o Rico Th e ma n suffere d fro m moderat e toot h loss wea r an d decay Tw o individual s recovere d a t th e Greenlan d Site fro m a commo n grave ar e lat e middle-age d (age d 5 0 t o 60) On e ma n appear s t o hav e bee n burie d i n a tightl y flexe d position an d th e other' s remain s appea r t o hav e bee n disarticulate d befor e bein g place d ove r th e flexe d bod y o f th e first Bot h individual s exhibi t toot h los s an d advance d toot h wea r an d decay Thi s buria l featur e ma y reflec t a typ e o f buria l sacrific e describe d i n ethno histori c accounts o r a secondar y buria l o f on e perso n upo n th e late r deat h o f another Anothe r buria l discovere d a t th e Greenlan d Sit e wa s locate d a t

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HACKENBERGE R 16 7 th e edg e o f th e til e an d bric k factor y driveway wher e huma n remain s wer e crushe d i n cla y sediment s o f a midde n compacte d b y vehicle s an d heav y machinery Fragment s o f cranium rib lon g bon e an d on e inciso r wer e recovere d i n associatio n wit h severa l shel l adze s an d a larg e (50-7 0 c m dia ) thick-walle d po t decorate d wit h a huma n hea d adorn o (4x 5 cm ) an d severa l shel l adzes Severa l burial s ar e reporte d t o hav e bee n disturbed bu t lef t i n place o n th e wes t en d o f th e factor y premise s i n 1960 Additiona l partia l an d isolate d huma n remain s ar e presen t a t Brandon s an d Goddard's Thes e remain s ar e probabl y th e resul t o f secondar y buria l practices Thi s i s particularl y th e cas e fo r th e find s o f a metatarsal inciso r an d craniu m fragmen t burie d withi n tw o feature s (eac h abou t 5 0 x 5 0 x 5 0 cm ) constructe d fro m layer s o f broke n sherd s o f man y differen t vessels a t th e Brandon s Site A t Goddard' s a n isolate d portio n (lef t half ) o f a huma n craniu m wa s found Th e abov e describe d buria l discoverie s indicat e a numbe r o f differen t practice s i n th e disposa l an d us e o f th e dead Futur e studie s examinin g large r buria l sample s wil l undoubtedl y identif y th e fashio n i n whic h individual s o f differen t socia l ran k wer e buried an d th e way s i n whic h buria l practice s change d durin g successiv e prehistori c periods Caus e o f deat h an d th e presenc e o r absenc e o f butche r mark s o n huma n bon e ma y als o b e determined Th e curren t sampl e o f huma n remains includin g fou r burial s recovere d b y Dr Pete r Drewet t a t Chancer y Lane i s bein g examine d b y Dr Ego n Reue r o f th e Anthropologica l Institute Braunschwei g University Austria Th e result s o f tha t stud y wil l she d furthe r ligh t o n th e physica l conditio n o f th e Amerindia n people s o f Barbado s an d thei r relationshi p t o people s o f neighborin g island s suc h a s St Luci a (Reuer i n Friesinge r 1986) HOUS E PATTERN S Th e outlin e an d floo r o f a roughl y circula r hous e (1 4 m dia. ) wa s discovere d withi n th e lowes t leve l o f th e Goddar d Sit e (Figs 1 an d 3) Charcoa l fro m a post-hol e featur e locate d withi n th e hous e i s date d t o betwee n B.C 15 0 an d A.D 15 0 (Beta-20723) an d give s th e earlies t suc h dat e know n fo r Barbados I t i s comparabl e i n ag e t o th e earlies t cerami c deposit s i n th e Windwar d Islands Th e hous e wa s foun d beneat h a midde n (densel y sprea d conc h shel l an d potter y sherds ) deposite d durin g late r sit e occupation s (A.D 400-1450) Thoug h ther e hav e bee n recen t discoverie s o f post-hol e feature s i n St Luci a (Point e d e Caille ) (Friesinge r 1986 ) an d Barbado s (Chancer y Lane ) (Drewet t an d Harri s 1988) th e Goddar d Sit e give s th e mos t complet e evidenc e o f earl y hous e constructio n know n i n th e Windwar d Islands Th e hous e remain s exhibi t similaritie s i n hous e design albei t o n a smalle r scale t o thos e reporte d fro m th e Golde n Roc k Sit e i n St Eustatiu s (A.D 600 ) (Verstee g 1988) Thes e prehistori c house s ar e ver y simila r t o houses constructe d u p t o th e presen t day i n th e Tropica l Fores t regio n o f norther n Sout h Americ a (Verstee g 1988 ; Hugh-Jone s 1986) Comparison s betwee n archaeologica l hous e discoverie s an d ethnographi c account s o f hous e buildin g wil l permi t inference s regardin g th e socia l organizatio n an d

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16 8 RESCU E ARCHAEOLOG Y I N BARBADO S symboli c system s o f th e prehistori c Caribbea n people s originatin g fro m Sout h America Eac h post i n th e hous e "wall wa s place d abou t thre e larg e pace s ( 3 m ) apar t b y th e hous e inhabitants Eac h o f thes e post s probabl y measure d betwee n 1 5 an d 2 0 c m i n diameter At leas t fou r large r post s (perhap s 3 0 c m dia ) wer e use d t o suppor t th e sectio n o f th e roo f coverin g th e hal f o f th e hous e tha t wa s archaeologicall y excavate d (presumabl y 8 post s supporte d th e ful l roof ) A larg e centra l roo f pos t wa s probabl y use d i n th e hous e construction bu t th e hol e fo r thi s pos t wa s obliterate d b y earth-movin g machiner y prio r t o th e discover y o f th e hous e outline Du e t o th e consoli date d natur e o f post-hol e fil l belo w 4 0 c m beneat h th e surfac e o f th e beac h rock an d tim e constraint s impose d b y th e constructio n schedule th e ful l dept h o f post-hol e feature s coul d no t b e adequatel y determined However th e impression base d o n th e relativel y smal l diamete r o f th e excavate d holes i s tha t th e origina l post-hole s wer e probabl y no t muc h deepe r tha n 5 0 cm A serie s o f slende r post s (10-1 5 cm ) wa s use d t o construc t a t leas t on e partitio n withi n th e house A n ova l pi t abou t 1 m lon g an d thre e smalle r pit s probabl y serve d a s hearths Th e extende d remain s o f th e teenag e woma n wer e foun d i n th e southeas t sectio n o f th e hous e (Figs 1 an d 3) an d a larg e dee p pi t o f disturbe d sedimen t i n th e hous e cente r ma y hav e als o serve d a s a grav e area fro m whic h remain s wer e exhume d fo r ritua l us e o r secondar y buria l b y th e hous e inhabitant s (Fig 1) A pi t containin g th e nearl y complet e remain s o f thre e stacke d pot s (eac h abou t 5 5 c m dia ) wa s discovere d a t th e wes t entranc e t o th e hous e nea r th e larges t heart h (Fig 1) Du e t o th e constructio n design an d th e existenc e o f fres h sprin g wate r a t th e botto m o f thi s feature i t i s inferre d tha t th e pi t an d retainin g wal l o f stacke d pot s serve d a s a water hole o r well Tw o pot s (to p an d bottom ) wer e intac t wit h th e exceptio n o f remove d bases Th e thir d po t (middle ) wa s apparentl y place d i n th e pi t i n section s interleave d wit h th e sherd s o f tw o othe r pots Th e latte r sherd s wer e place d s o a s t o creat e a shel f tha t extende d underneat h a rectangula r sectio n o f beac h roc k (5 0 x 7 0 cm ) Thi s shel f woul d hav e functione d t o collec t wate r fro m a san d aquife r cappe d b y th e beac h rock Fragment s o f larg e grindin g stone s (approximatel y 2 0 x 3 0 x 1 0 cm perhap s fro m a sourc e o f ston e i n St Lucia ) surrounde d th e uppe r leve l o f th e pit an d thre e stacke d pots Grindin g stone s fo r shapin g shell bon e an d woo d implement s woul d b e associate d wit h a wate r source du e t o th e us e o f wate r i n grindin g a n objec t t o shape Th e locatio n an d orientatio n o f th e hous e features includin g th e wester n positio n o f a fres h wate r sourc e (th e probabl e well) ar e consis ten t wit h Sout h America n hous e pattern s an d relate d concept s o f th e hous e a s a cosmologica l symbo l i n Tropica l Fores t Culture s (Hugh-Jone s 1986) Mappin g o f artifac t an d refus e location s outsid e th e hous e featur e i s revealin g pattern s i n whic h th e large r sit e are a wa s use d fo r differen t activities

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HACKENBERGE R 16 9 SE A LEVE L Preserve d fragment s o f woo d foun d i n ancien t beac h deposit s belo w th e wate r tabl e (belo w th e beac h roc k an d cultura l deposits ) a t th e Goddar d Sit e ar e radiocarbo n date d t o B.C 230-34 0 (Bet a 19969) Thes e deposit s o f beac h san d ar e abou t 15 0 m fro m th e histori c exten t o f th e seashor e an d occu r a t 0. 5 t o 0. 7 m abov e curren t mea n se a level I t i s tentativel y conclude d tha t se a leve l wa s relativel y highe r a t abou t 220 0 year s ago Furthe r datin g o f th e Shel l Oi l Depo t Sit e beac h deposit s (A.D 846-1214 ) wil l probabl y indicat e a secon d perio d o f hig h se a leve l a t abou t 100 0 year s ago Absolut e datin g fo r archaeologica l site s foun d o n th e coas t wil l hel p reconstruc t a recor d o f prehistori c se a leve l an d shorelin e change s fo r Barbado s tha t ca n b e compare d t o se a leve l chang e throughou t th e Caribbean ARTIFAC T INTERPRETATIO N A cla y phallu s an d a cla y "bod y stamp wit h possibl e dua l male/femal e sexua l representation s (Shel l Oi l Depo t Site ) attes t t o th e us e o f sexua l symbolis m amon g a n agricultura l islan d peopl e fo r who m concept s o f plan t an d huma n fertilit y wer e undoubtedl y important A thum b size d vesse l wit h a beake r lik e ri m (Depo t Site ) ma y represen t anothe r varian t o f th e snuf f bow l use d fo r inhalin g drugs Bon e tube s (2 ) an d a larg e shel l wit h a cu t an d polishe d tubula r en d (Goddar d Site ) probabl y serve d simila r purposes Smal l cu p size d vessels som e wit h spout s an d som e wit h pedestal s (al l sites) probabl y functione d i n th e consumptio n o f hallucinogeni c infusions A carve d shel l pendan t i n th e for m o f a mal e figur e (6. 5 c m i n length) fro m th e Shel l Oi l Depot exhibit s ea r spools a circula r abdomen hand s o n hips an d "clu b feet (Fig 3) On e ey e socke t o f th e figur e stil l contain s th e inlai d dis k o f mother-of-pear l tha t ha s bee n perforate d t o represen t th e iri s an d pupi l o f th e eye Thes e stylisti c feature s ar e ver y simila r t o convention s o f desig n use d i n bot h th e Lesse r an d Greate r Antilles Thre e artifact s foun d i n associatio n wit h th e extende d buria l o f th e teenag e woma n withi n th e Goddar d Sit e hous e are : a cla y figurin e hea d i n th e for m o f a do g o r bird-lik e hea d (3x 4 cm) a re d slippe d cla y dis k ( 4 c m dia) an d a smal l groun d cora l ston e artifac t i n th e shap e o f a triangl e (3x3x 3 cm) Th e firs t tw o o f thes e object s wer e foun d t o th e lef t o f th e woman' s head whil e th e thir d wa s foun d a t he r righ t forearm I t ma y b e conjecture d tha t th e cla y head whic h exhibit s a n inlai d ey e o f burne d shell represent s a plume d serpent a mythologica l creatur e whic h i s widel y documente d i n Centra l an d Sout h America--particularl y i n connec tio n wit h creatio n stories Alternatively th e figurin e ma y portra y a do g deit y associate d wit h th e contro l o f afterlife an d ma y b e relate d t o th e buria l o f dog s wit h humans Cla y disk s hav e previousl y bee n inferre d t o represen t model s o f cassav a cake s use d fo r buria l wit h th e dead ; however thi s conclusio n ha s no t bee n adequatel y demonstrate d throug h buria l excavations Dis k shape d artifact s ar e als o ethnohistoricall y note d t o hav e represente d th e moon Th e triangula r groun d cora l ston e objec t probabl y represent s a variatio n o f th e three-pointe d stone s identifie d

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17 0 RESCU E ARCHAEOLOG Y I N BARBADO S throughou t th e Easter n Caribbean Th e most elaborat e o f thes e objects attribute d t o th e ver y lat e prehistori c period hav e bee n explaine d a s symboli c o f a majo r deit y relate d t o volcani c islan d mountain s an d cassav a fertility Al l o f th e abov e artifac t interpretation s sugges t th e existenc e o f symboli c system s an d relate d socia l practice s wit h extensiv e regiona l distributions whic h include d Barbados CONCLUSION S Th e finding s describe d i n thi s abstrac t ad d significantl y t o dat a o n Amerindia n settlemen t o f Barbado s (A.D 0-1450) Dat a obtaine d fro m th e fiv e investigate d site s provid e importan t informatio n relate d t o cerami c typolog y an d chronology ston e technology subsistence huma n burials househol d an d villag e structure an d change s i n se a level Severa l artifact s represen t importan t example s o f "cultura l traits wit h wid e Caribbea n distributions an d som e object s ar e uniqu e item s o f Amerindia n "artistry. Continuin g archaeologica l investigation s o n Barbado s wil l yiel d ver y interestin g discoverie s tha t wil l hel p reconstruc t th e lifeway s o f th e island' s firs t inhabitants a s wel l a s increas e ou r knowledg e o f th e natur e an d exten t o f prehistori c Caribbea n cultures REFERENCE S CITE D Boomert Ari e 198 7 Note s o n Barbado s Prehistory Th e Journa l o f th e Barbado s Museu m an d Historica l Societ y 38(l):8-43 Drewett Pete r L an d Mar y Hil l Harri s 198 8 Th e Archaeologica l Surve y o f Barbados : 1985-87 Proceeding s o f th e Twelft h Congres s o f th e Internationa l Associatio n fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Cayenn e 1987) pp 175-202 Friesinger Herwi g 198 6 Grabunge n un d Forschunge n au f St Lucia 1984 Mitteilunge n de r Prhistorische n Kommission Verla g de r Osterreichische n Akademi e de r Wissenschaften : Wien Stephe n Th e Maloca : a worl d house I n Th e Hidde n Peopl e o f th e Amazon Museu m o f Mankind Britis h Museu m Publication Ltd. : London Versteeg Aa d H 198 8 Saladoi d House s an d Functiona l Area s Aroun d Them : Th e Golde n Roc k Sit e o n St Eustatius Netherland s Antilles Proceed ing s o f th e Twelft h Congres s o f th e Internationa l Associatio n fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Cayenn e 1987), pp 35-44 Hugh-Jones 198 6

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DEPRESSIO N w / • PARTITIO N BOBCA T TRENCH IX I M TES T UNIT S 'T 3' y MAGNETI C NORT H Figur e 1 Pla n ma p o f th e norther n portio n o f sit e gri d syste m a t th e Goddar d Site show i trench excavate d tes t units th e identifie d hous e outlin e an d relate d feature s (c a 200 0

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17 2 RESCU E ARCHAEOLOG Y I N BARBADO S Figur e 2 Extende d buria l o f a youn g Amerindia n woma n discovere d i n th e Bobca t trenc h excavate d a t th e Goddar d Site Th e buria l wa s locate d withi n a depressio n i n th e beac h roc k an d wa s late r determine d t o occu r beneat h th e livin g floo r i n th e southeas t sectio n o f a circula r t o ova l hous e (c a 200 0 B.P.) Not e positio n o f hand s ove r pelvi s o r hi p are a (adjacen t t o trowel) Figur e 3 Hous e are a expose d afte r fina l remova l o f sedimen t fro m beac h roc k b y bulldozer s a t th e Goddar d Site Stake s flagge d wit h dar k plasti c bag s mar k post-hole s o n th e souther n perimete r o f th e house Ligh t plasti c bag s mar k thre e possibl e hearth s withi n th e house Th e disturbe d mound s o f sedimen t remainin g withi n th e hous e

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HACKENBERGE R 17 3 Figur e 4 Carve d shel l pendan t depictin g a mal e figur e (6. 5 c m i n length ) discovere d a t th e Shel l Oi l Depo t Site Note : inlai d dis k o f mother-of-pear l remainin g i n th e righ t eye ; ea r spools ; circula r abdomen ; an d hands on-hips Shortene d leg s an d perpendicula r fee t ma y represen t a n attemp t t o depic t a crouche d (semi-flexed ) buria l position

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17 4