Citation

Material Information

Title:
The Remains of Prehistoric Amerindians of the "Tingi Holo Ridge" in Suriname: A Physical Anthropological Investigation of the "Versteeg Collection"
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
M.R. Khudabux M.D. ( Author, Primary )
G.J.R. Maat, M.D. ( Author, Primary )
A.H. Versteeg ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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TH E REMAIN S O F PREHISTORI C AMERINDIAN S O F TH E "TING I HOL O RIDGE I N SURINAME : A PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L INVESTIGATIO N O F TH E "VERSTEE G COLLECTION M.R Khudabux G.J.R Maa t an d A.H Verstee g Genera l Introduction b y A.H Verstee g A n archaeologica l investigatio n wa s conducte d a t th e Kwatt a Ting i Hol o sit e (sit e no Sur-24 ) b y th e thir d author the n archaeologis t o f th e Surinam e Muse a fro m 8 Octobe r 197 7 u p t o 1 8 Februar y 1978 Thi s investiga tio n ha d tw o aims : 1 th e trainin g o f fiel d personne l fo r th e Archaeologica l Departmen t o f th e Surinam e Musea an d 2 th e collectio n o f databl e materia l relate d t o th e stratigraph y o f th e site Thes e aim s wer e formulate d i n vie w o f a n earlie r investigatio n o f th e sit e b y th e lat e Dr D.C Geijske s i n 1961 Fiel d dat a an d artifact s o f tha t investigatio n hav e bee n studie d b y A Boomert but hav e no t yet bee n published Tacom a (1963) however ha s publishe d result s o f studie s o f skeleta l remains an d Voge l an d Lerma n (1969 ) hav e publishe d th e result s o f datin g o f a radiocarbo n sample A shor t descriptio n o f th e sit e an d it s artifact s ha s bee n give n b y Boomer t (1977) Th e sit e i s situate d o n a n east-wes t oriente d sand y an d shell y chenier o r ridge nea r th e coas t i n centra l Surinam e (Fig 1) Thi s chenie r ha s a widt h o f c a 3 5 m a t th e locatio n o f th e site ; i t form s a relativel y hig h situate d connectio n betwee n th e sit e an d th e Rive r Suriname a t c a 1 2 k m wes t o f Ting i Holo Artifact s ar e foun d ove r a lengt h o f c a 30 0 m o f th e chenier ; the y ar e foun d u p t o a dept h o f 60-7 0 c m belo w th e surface sometime s eve n deeper Th e to p soi l ha s bee n ploughe d intensivel y b y th e owners th e famil y Badrising t o a dept h o f c a 3 5 c m i n recen t decades A ro w o f twelv e 2 x 1.2 5 m evcavatio n pit s a t 0. 5 m interval s wer e du g ove r th e chenie r i n a south-nort h directio n (Fig 2) Excavatio n proce dure s wer e stoppe d whe n th e steril e subsoi l consistin g o f layer s o f san d an d shell s wa s reached Smal l tes t pit s wer e du g a t fou r othe r location s t o chec k whethe r th e archaeologica l materia l o f thos e area s differe d fro m tha t o f th e twelv e pits STRATIGRAPH Y AN D DATIN G Th e stratigraph y o f th e Kwatt a Ting i Hol o sit e i s simple : th e subsoi l consist s o f sand y an d shell y layer s whic h forme d a marin e beac h (chenier Sur. : rits ) c a 170 0 B.P (=Befor e Present) Thi s ag e i s base d o n a datin g resul t o f a laye r o f shell s fro m pi t M i n th e norther n par t o f th e chenier Th e shell s al l ha d th e sam e orientatio n indicatin g a n absenc e o f post depositiona l disturbances I n fac t mos t part s o f th e chenie r i n th e Kwatt a 13 5

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13 6 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E are a wer e deposite d i n th e sam e genera l perio d (Roelevel d an d Va n Loo n 1979) ; Verstee g 1985) Pedogenesi s occurre d fo r a fe w centurie s befor e th e chenie r wa s inhabited Inhabitatio n starte d c a 115 0 B.P accordin g t o th e result s o f th e charcoa l sample s collecte d durin g th e presen t investigation s i n pit G (Verstee g 1980) Th e charcoa l sampl e collecte d b y Geijske s i n a buria l pi t yielde d a slightl y late r date : 97 0 B.P (Voge l an d Lerma n 1969) Th e ver y larg e numbe r o f Amerindia n artifact s occurrin g i n th e sit e confir m tha t th e inhabitatio n laste d a considerabl e period : probabl y a t leas t a fe w cen turies Th e artifact s ar e foun d i n th e brow n o r blac k to p laye r (partl y recentl y ploughed ) situate d o n to p o f th e steril e sand y an d shell y strat a discusse d above Stud y o f th e archaeologica l materia l indicate s tha t n o difference s exis t betwee n tha t o f th e lowe r level s o f th e blac k "Indian laye r an d tha t o f th e to p levels A s state d abov e th e archaeologica l materia l i s foun d t o a dept h o f c a 60-7 0 cm Th e Kwatt a Cultur e a t Ting i Hol o obviousl y i s ver y homogeneous Boomer t (1977 ) give s a shor t descriptio n o f th e potter y an d th e othe r artifact s fro m th e site Hi s suppositio n tha t Kwatt a Cultur e i s relate d t o thos e o f th e lowe r Amazo n i s weakene d b y th e presentl y availabl e dating s fo r Kwatt a Ting i Holo Moreover th e potter y show s som e resemblan ce s t o tha t foun d a t Peruvia2 i n wes t Suriname especiall y i n th e painte d componen t o f th e ceramic s an d i n th e sit e locatio n (Verstee g 1985) Som e differences however ar e note d too : th e cultivatio n o f manio c (Manihot utilissima) occurre d a t Peruvia2 o n artificiall y raise d fields ; thes e hav e a s ye t no t bee n foun d nea r Kwatta Bu t practis e a s foun d a t Peruvia2 wa s als o present HUMA N SKELETA L REMAIN S Huma n skeleta l remain s wer e foun d mainl y a t fiv e location s durin g th e Kwatt a Ting i Hol o investigations : i n pit s I K L L^ an d c a 2 4 m eas t o f pi t M Al l remain s wer e foun d i n th e lowes t sectio n o f th e refus e laye r an d jus t belo w it generall y a t 0.5-0. 8 m belo w th e presen t surface Severa l burial s wer e characterize d b y a dark-coloure d pi t du g i n th e sand y an d shell y subsoi l (se e Fig 3) I n vie w o f th e dar k fillin g o f th e buria l pit s a dark-coloure d "terr a prta laye r ha d alread y bee n forme d prio r t o th e inhumation Apar t fro m th e complet e skeleton s als o part s o f thes e an d stra y find s wer e encountered Unfortunately n o specialis t wa s availabl e a t th e tim e o f excavatio n t o documen t th e anatomica l detail s in situ. Th e refore al l huma n bon e materia l wa s excavate d an d packe d i n th e sequenc e o f excavation Differen t orientation s characterize d th e orientatio n o f th e mor e complet e skeletons I n thre e instances i n pi t K pi t L an d i n th e pi t eas t o f M skull s wer e encountere d tha t wer e facin g u p (th e fron t par t o f th e skul l wa s foun d uppermost) ; al l thes e thre e skull s wer e foun d wit h a n upside-dow n potter y bow l o n to p o f th e face Excep t these n o object s o r artifact s wer e foun d i n associatio n wit h th e huma n remains Al l indivi dual s o f whic h th e lowe r limb s wer e foun d showe d flexe d leg s (Fig 4) Th e bod y wa s usuall y slightl y curved Possibl y thi s positio n i s relate d t o th e us e o f a hammoc k t o inhmat e th e individua l i n a relativel y smal l pit Th e

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G 13 7 autho r witnesse d a buria l o f a Tri o woma n i n Kwamalasamoeto e i n 1980 wher e thi s procedur e wa s used leadin g t o a n arrangemen t o f th e limb s o f th e decease d simila r t o tha t o f th e skeleton s excavate d a t Kwatt a Ting i Holo Tabl e 1 Radiocarbo n dating s o f sample s fro m Ting i Holo AG E DEPT H BELO W MATERIA L (C0NV. 14 C ) LAB NO REFERENC E SURFAC E (m ) YEAR S B.P 0 0 0 0 .30-0.5 0 .9 5 .6 8 .7 5 shell s charcoa l charcoa l charcoa l 171 5 2 5 114 0 9 0 105 0 10 0 97 0 5 0 GrN-830 2 Roelevel d & Va n Loo n 197 9 GrN-825 0 Verstee g 198 0 GrN-824 9 Verstee g 198 0 GrN-455 2 Voge l & Lerma n 196 9 Introductio n t o th e Materia l b y M.R Khudabu x an d G.J.R Maat Th e collectio n o f huma n skeleta l fragment s wa s offere d b y th e Archaeo logica l Servic e o f Surinam e (Drs B Mitrasingh) I t originate d fro m th e "Ting i Hol o ridge" a shell y ridg e i n th e Kwatt a regio n o f coasta l Suri name wes t o f th e tow n Paramaribo I t wa s assemble d b y Dr A Verstee g i n 197 6 an d 1977 durin g archaeologica l excavation s o f th e so-calle d pit s I K L an d L^ a s referre d t o fro m labels Th e materia l fro m thes e pit s wa s presente d i n 5 8 bag s wit h label s recordin g th e date pi t an d sit e wher e i t wa s found Som e bag s containe d part s o f severa l skeletons Th e abov e mentione d collectio n o f skeleta l materia l wil l furthe r b e referre d t o a s th e "Verstee g Collection" Befor e processin g th e assemblag e anthropometrically w e looke d fo r th e minimu m numbe r o f individual s whic h ha d contribute d t o th e collection Thi s wa s don e wit h th e ai d o f dat a fro m th e label s o f th e bag s an d b y takin g int o accoun t th e incidence s o f overlappin g anatomica l structures METHOD S Ag e an d se x determinatio n wa s don e accordin g t o th e method s stipulate d b y th e Worksho p o f Europea n Anthropologist s (1980) Th e age s a t deat h ar e biologica l ages derive d fro m universa l skeleta l change s du e t o ageing The y d o not hav e t o coincid e exactl y wit h calenda r years Th e criteri a fo r se x determinatio n ar e base d o n Europea n material an d ma y diffe r i n som e degre e fro m criteri a vali d fo r geneticall y differen t population s suc h a s Amerindians Bu t a s suitabl e an d practicabl e method s fo r Amerindian s ar e stil l no t availabl e (Bas s 1979 ) w e decide d t o us e thi s generall y approve d syste m whic h outline s sex-relate d feature s i n th e best way Pelvi c features a s the y ar e functionall y closel y relate d t o sex wer e preferre d

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13 8 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E t o crania l features Th e stature livin g standin g height o f th e indivi dual s wa s calculate d afte r Genov s (1967) Th e laborator y instrument s use d fo r thes e determination s were : a n osteometri c board slidin g an d spreadin g callipers a laryngea l mirror a ban d sa w an d a n X-ra y apparatus Paleopathologica l analysi s wa s mainl y don e afte r Steinboc k (1976) Denta l calculus attritio n an d alveola r resorptio n wer e score d accordin g t o Brothwel l (1981 ) RESULT S Th e "Verstee g Collection" a numbe r o f incomplet e skeletons consiste d o f a t leas t 1 5 individuals Th e skeleton s wer e reconstructe d an d wer e numbere d fro m TH 1 t o TH15 TH1 5 wa s no t sufficien t fo r examinatio n an d fo r thi s reaso n onl y th e othe r 1 4 skeleton s wer e processe d physical-anthropolo gically Se x determinatio n Metrica l determination s accordin g t o Novotn y (1975 ) wer e onl y processe d o n thre e individuals a s onl y thei r pelvice s coul d b e properl y measure d (TH2 TH 4 an d TH6) Fo r thi s reaso n w e hav e don e supplementar y non metrica l determination s afte r Acsd i an d Nemeskr i (1970 ) o n ever y skeleto n i f possible Th e se x coul d no t b e determine d o n thre e individual s a s tw o o f the m (TH 3 an d TH9 ) wer e non-adult s an d a s on e skeleto n (TH8 ) ha d n o skul l no r pelvis O f th e eleve n determine d individual s nin e wer e mal e an d tw o femal e (Tabl e 2) Tabl e 2 Metrica l se x determination s fro m pelvice s (accordin g t o Novotn y 1975 ) an d non-metrica l se x determination s fro m pelvice s an d skull s (accordin g t o Acsd i an d Nemeskr i 1970) INDIVIDUA L TH 1 TH 2 TH 3 TH 4 TH 5 TH 6 TH 7 TH 8 n o TH 9 TH1 0 TH1 1 TH1 2 TH1 3 TH1 4 METRICA L ISCHIO PUBI C INDE X 69. 9 non-adul t 60. 9 60.1 9 skul l o r pelvi s non-adul t NON-METRICA L DEGRE E O F SEXUALIZATIO N Pelvi s +0.5 5 +0.5 3 +1.2 1 -0.6 7 +1. 0 +0. 7 +0. 8 +1. 0 +0.8 6 -1. 0 Skul l +1.3 6 -0.0 7 +0.9 4 +0. 6 +1.1 9 +1.6 3 +0.3 8 +1. 0 0. 0 SEX-DIAGNOSI S mal e mal e mal e femal e mal e mal e mal e mal e mal e mal e femal e

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G 13 9 Determinatio n o f ap e a t deat h Th e feature s use d fo r determinatin g th e ag e a t deat h were : fo r non-adults : th e stag e o f mineralizatio n an d eruptio n o f teeth th e ossificatio n o f crania l an d post-crania l skeleton an d th e epiphysea l fusio n o f th e variou s part s o f th e skeleto n (Brothwel l 1981) fo r adults : th e developmenta l stag e o f th e facie s symphysealis th e endocrania l closur e o f sutures th e structur e o f th e spongios a o f th e proxima l femu r an d humerus Th e score s o f thes e feature s wer e compute d wit h th e ai d o f th e table s o f Sjovol d (1975) Th e method s applie d fo r non-adult s (u p t o 3 0 year s o f age ) ar e suppose d t o b e ver y reliable whil e th e method s fo r adult s hav e a probabilit y o f 80 85 % (rang e 2. 5 years ) whe n al l fou r indicator s ar e used Whe n onl y thre e ag e indicator s ar e use d th e rang e increase s t o 3 years Th e age s a t deat h fo r differen t individual s wer e a s follows : TH l TH 2 TH 3 TH 4 TH 5 TH 6 TH 7 TH 8 TH 9 TH1 0 THl l TH l 2 TH l 3 TH1 4 (male ) (male ) (non-adult ) (male ) (female ) (male ) (male ) (no t determinable ) (non-adult ) (male ) (male ) (male ) (male ) (female ) 24-2 5 year s 14-1 5 year s 3 year s 1 8 year s 40-5 0 year s 23-2 4 year s 49. 3 3 year s 3 0 year s 1. 3 0. 5 year s 18-1 9 year s 2 0 year s olde r tha n 2 0 year s 64. 7 3 year s 23-4 0 year s Th e peak-distributio n o f th e ages th e perio d o f 15-3 5 years include s 8 o f th e 1 4 individuals Onl y tw o male s (TH 7 an d TH13 ) appeare d t o b e older: respectivel y abou t 5 0 an d 6 4 year s o f age O f th e tw o female s (TH 5 an d TH14 ) th e age s wer e respectivel y 40-5 0 year s an d 23-4 0 years Denta l examinatio n Th e dentitio n coul d b e inspecte d i n onl y seve n individuals : partiall y i n THll TH12 TH1 3 an d TH14 an d completel y i n THl TH4 an d TH7 A revie w i s presente d i n Tabl e 3 Denta l abscesse s coul d b e studie d i n si x individuals I n thre e individual s w e foun d a tota l o f 7 abscesses Th e incidenc e varie d fro m 1 (TH14 ) t o 4 (TH7) On e fistul a fro m th e roo t o f a mandibula r inciso r (l2,L ) t o th e labia l surfac e wa s observe d (se e Fig 6) Th e on e maxillar y inciso r whic h coul d b e properl y examine d demonstrate d a shovel-shap e (THll) Occlusio n coul d onl y b e studie d i n tw o case s an d wa s normal Denta l calculus studie d i n thre e individuals wa s sligh t (TH l an d TH4 respectivel y 24-2 5 an d 1 8 years) an d considerabl e (TH7 49. 3

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14 0 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E years ) afte r th e standard s o f Brothwel l (1981) I n th e sam e individual s alveola r atroph y wa s respectivel y slight absen t an d considerable Th e denta l attrition studie d i n si x individuals increase d wit h age Tabl e 4 show s th e wea r patter n o f th e individual s wit h know n ages Tabl e 3 Revie w o n denta l inspection Numbe r o f erupte d teet h Numbe r o f ant e morte m los s Numbe r o f pos t morte m los s Numbe r o f teet h inspecte d Numbe r o f teet h wit h carie s 10 4 1 2 (11.5% ) 1 1 (10.6% ) 8 1 9 (11.1% ) interproxima l 4 occlusa l 3 cervical/bucca l 2 Supernumerar y maxillar y incisor s (TH4 ) 2 (se e Fig 5 ) Tabl e 4 Classificatio n o f mola r wea r (Brothwel l 1981 ) o f individual s wit h know n ages INDIVIDUA L FORMUL A M 3 M 2 M 1 lef t max M 1 M 2 M 3 righ t M 3 M 2 M ^ mand M ^ M 2 M 3 TH 4 mal e 1 8 year s 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 TH1 1 mal e 2 0 year s 2 + 2+ 2 1 TH 1 mal e 24-2 5 year s 2 33 4 3 2 3 + 3 TH 7 mal e 49. 3 3 year s 5 4 TH1 3 mal e 64. 8 3 year s 5 +

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G 14 1 Statur e Thi s wa s calculate d fo r th e individual s (THll TH1 3 an d TH14 ) whos e lon g bone s wer e availabl e an d whos e se x wa s known I n on e (TH14 ) o f th e tw o female s th e statur e coul d b e calculate d an d thi s wa s 154.6 3 3.5 1 cm Th e mal e stature s wer e fo r THl l (174.1 8 3.4 2 cm ) an d TH1 3 (165.5 9 3.4 2 cm) Th e averag e mal e statur e wa s 169.8 9 3.4 2 cm Pathologica l change s i n bone s A genera l perspectiv e i s presente d i n Tabl e 5 Tabl e 5 Incidenc e o f mai n pathologica l change s i n bones PATHOLOG Y NUMBE R O F IND I NUMBE R O F IND I VIDUAL S AFFECTE D VIDUAL S EXAMINE D Heale d fracture s 2 1 4 Treponem a infectio n 1 1 4 Inclinatio n o f th e pelvi s 1 5 Osteophytosi s 4 7 Spin a bifid a 2 9 Supernumerar y teet h 1 3 Artificia l deformatio n o f th e hea d 1 2 Fe w mino r traumati c injurie s hav e bee n found Thes e wer e heale d fracture s o f th e righ t metacarpa l V (TH1 ) an d o f th e lef t proxima l phalan x V (TH5) On e individua l (TH4 ) ha d a treponem a infectio n wit h th e followin g bon e lesions : osteo-periostiti s wit h fusifor m expandin g o f th e lef t dista l femur th e lef t dista l humeru s an d th e lef t proxima l radiu s (Fig 7) Th e skul l ha d pittin g lesions suggestin g a treponem a infection Th e righ t femu r an d tibi a wer e missin g an d th e othe r lon g bone s appeare d a s normally On e individua l showe d th e remain s o f a n infectiou s arthriti s o f unknow n origi n i n th e righ t kne e joint I n fou r individual s w e foun d vertebra l osteophytosi s (Tabl e 6) Osteo arthriti s affectin g th e apophysea l joint s o f th e vertebra e (synovia l joints ) wa s see n i n on e individua l (TH7 ) i n th e lumba r region Congenita l anomalie s were : spin a bifid a o f S I i n on e individua l (TH1) Anothe r individua l (TH4 ) ha d spin a bifid a anterio r an d posterio r o f th e atlas a rar e anomaly Latera l inclinin g o f th e lef t hal f o f th e pelvi s wa s foun d i n TH 1 (se e Fig 8) Artificia l tabula r deformatio n o f th e hea d (Imbellon i 1930 ) wa s see n i n on e o f th e tw o reconstructe d crani a (TH7 ) (se e Fig 5) Fronta l an d occipita l flattenin g wer e presen t an d ra n paralle l t o eac h othe r (th e so calle d parallelo-fronto-occipita l deformatio n o r tabul a obliqu a deforma tion ; Imbellon i 1930)

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14 2 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E Tabl e 6 Incidenc e o f vertebra l osteophytosis AG E A T DEAT H DISTRIBUTIO N PATTER N TH 7 mal e TH1 2 mal e TH1 3 mal e 49. 3 year s olde r tha n 2 0 year s 64. 7 year s TH1 4 femal e 23-4 0 year s cervical thoracic lumba r lumba r (cervica l an d thoraci c vertebra e absent ) lumba r (cervica l an d thoraci c vertebra e absent ) thoracic lumba r (cervica l vertebra e absent ) Harris' s line s (growt h arres t lines ) i n th e lon g bone s ca n provid e som e importan t evidenc e concernin g th e healt h history Thes e wer e visualize d roentgenographicall y a t th e roentge n departmen t o f th e Academi c Hospita l i n Paramaribo Anterior-posterio r radiogram s (66kV exposur e 16mAs distanc e 15 0 cm ) o f th e dista l par t o f th e tibi a wer e mad e i n si x individual s o f who m th e tibia e wer e available A tota l o f 2 2 line s wa s counte d (incidence : 4. 4 line s pe r dista l tibia) Al l individual s ha d line s an d th e individua l score s range d fro m 1 t o 7 Particularl y stron g lines typ e II I line s afte r Maat (1984) whic h might b e th e resul t o f a seriou s disturbanc e i n growth wer e identifie d i n 8 case s (incidence : 1. 3 line s pe r dista l tibia) Th e causa l event s o f th e disturbance s i n growt h ha d occurre d o n th e compute d age s of : TH 4 (male 1 8 years ) 12.0 13.0 13.5 TH 6 (male 23-2 4 years ) 0.3 10.2 11.6 12.4 13.4 14.4 14.6 TH 8 (se x not classifiable 3 0 years ) thre e lines TH1 0 (male 18-1 9 years ) 8.8 13.75 TH1 1 (male 6 5 years ) 12.7 12.85 13.7 5 14.0 14.75 16.0 TH14 (female 23-4 0 years ) 12.7 Th e underline d age s o f Harris' s lin e formatio n sugges t tha t the y develope d o n a mor e o r les s yearl y basis especiall y i n th e individual s TH 6 an d TH11 Th e absenc e o f line s a t a n earl y ag e i s probabl y th e resul t o f bon e remodelling Th e formatio n rat e o f Harris' s line s i n a populatio n i s th e tota l numbe r o f th e line s i n on e dista l tibi a o f al l individuals divide d b y th e tota l numbe r o f year s o f linea r bon e growt h o f th e sam e individuals Th e linea r bon e growt h i n ma n an d woma n i s respectivel y 1 8 an d 1 6 year s (Maa t 1984) Th e formatio n rat e calculate d fro m th e individual s wit h know n sexe s wa s 0.2 2 an d o f typ e II I line s wa s 0.0 6 line s pe r yea r o f linea r bon e growth

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G 14 3 DISCUSSIO N Th e "Verstee g Collection present s individual s o f bot h sexe s o f severa l ages fro m 3 year s t o abou t 6 5 year s o f age Althoug h w e nee d a greate r collectio n fo r a paleo-demographi c study w e stil l ca n dra w som e interest in g conclusions Th e peak-distributio n o f th e age s a t deat h seem s t o b e fro m 1 5 t o 3 5 years Mos t individual s die d befor e o r durin g th e prim e o f thei r lif e an d onl y fe w peopl e becam e old Suc h a n ag e distributio n i s ver y commo n fo r prehistori c Amerindia n population s (se e e.g. Ubelake r 1974) Th e unequa l se x rati o i n thi s stud y ( 9 male s an d 2 females ) wa s als o foun d i n th e "Geijske s Collection studie d b y Tacom a (1963) H e studie d twent y skull s o f whic h onl y thre e skull s coul d b e sexe d a s female Th e exces s o f males h e suggested coul d b e du e t o buria l rite s differin g accordin g t o th e se x o f th e deceased Traumati c injurie s wit h healin g wer e no t ver y commo n amon g thes e individuals Th e treponem a infectio n i n on e individua l demonstrate d tha t thi s diseas e existe d als o i n Surinam e durin g th e pre-Columbia n period lik e i n othe r countrie s o f Americ a (a s cite d i n Steinboc k 1976 ; Cockbur n 1983) I t strengthen s th e ide a o f pre-Columbia n presenc e o f Treponematosi s i n th e Ne w World Vertebra l osteophytosis a degenerativ e join t diseas e o f th e cartilagi nou s intervertebra l joints ma y develo p a t th e ag e o f thirt y year s an d i s frequen t ove r th e ag e o f sixt y year s (Steinboc k 1976) Th e fou r indivi dual s wit h vertebra l osteophytosi s wer e i n accordanc e wit h thi s genera l finding Shovel-shape d latera l maxillar y incisor s ar e characteristi c fo r Mongoloi d individuals Amerindian s include d (Turne r 1969) W e foun d i t i n th e onl y inciso r whic h coul d b e studie d i n ou r "Verstee g Collection" Tacom a (1963 ) als o note d i t i n th e "Geijske s Collection" Artificia l deformatio n o f th e head wit h th e ai m o f acquirin g a desire d headfor m fo r aestheti c reason s o r t o sho w socia l differences ha s bee n practise d fo r a lon g tim e i n nearl y ever y par t o f th e world Tacom a (1963 ) discovere d tha t th e tabul a obliqu a deformatio n o f th e hea d wa s widel y sprea d amon g th e origina l inhabitant s o f Suriname On e o f th e tw o recon structe d skull s o f th e "Verstee g Collection demonstrate d th e tabul a obliqu a deformation Harris' s line s (growt h arres t lines ) ar e transversall y orientate d line s appearin g i n th e lon g bone s durin g th e linea r growth The y ca n b e visu alize d roentgenologicall y a s line s o f increase d density Mostl y the y appea r i n th e dista l tibia Th e numbe r o f line s i n th e dista l tibi a correlate s wit h th e numbe r o f healt h insult s du e t o illnes s o r starvation Th e distanc e o f thes e line s fro m th e primar y ossificatio n cente r tell s u s abou t th e ag e a t whic h thes e line s wer e formed Du e t o bon e remodellin g line s als o disappear henc e specia l attentio n wil l b e pai d t o typ e II I lines stron g line s resultin g fro m seriou s healt h insult s (Maa t 1984)

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14 4 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E Th e numbe r o f line s i n th e dista l par t o f th e tibi a wa s 4. 4 o n the average an d 1. 3 i n cas e o f typ e II I lines I n th e bone s o f population s wit h well-know n lif e conditions fo r instanc e o f me n i n Medieva l Yor k an d o f Dutc h whaler s a t Spitsbergen th e average s wer e respectivel y 1.1 5 an d 2.4 an d i n cas e o f typ e II I line s 0. 4 an d 0.6 4 respectivel y (Dawe s an d Magilto n 1980 ; Maat 1981) Bot h population s ha d a moderat e o r les s degre e o f healt h i n time s o f primitiv e hygien e an d medicine Hence th e "Verstee g Collection reflect s a considerabl y wors e healt h situation Stil l mor e interestin g i s a compariso n wit h othe r Amerindia n dat a fro m Ting i Holo fro m th e so-calle d "Geijske s Collection (Maa t n.d.) Th e average s h e foun d wer e eve n 7.8 an d 3. 5 fo r typ e II I lines Bu t onl y a smal l sampl e o f fou r individual s coul d b e studied I n compariso n wit h othe r Sout h America n prehistori c populations suc h a s i n agricultural/coasta l Per u (averag e o f line s 2.2-5.0 ; datin g 20 0 B.C.-145 0 A.D.) th e averag e i n coasta l Surinam e fit s i n wit h th e regio n (Alliso n e t a l 1974) Anothe r featur e regardin g thes e Harris' s line s i s tha t a t leas t i n tw o individual s the y formatte d o n a mor e o r les s seasona l basis reflectin g yearl y starvatio n o r disease Maa t (n.d. ) describe d th e sam e phenomeno n i n th e "Geijske s Collection fro m Ting i Holo Cassid y (1980 ) wh o studie d th e nutritio n an d healt h o f tw o prehistori c Amerindia n populations agricu l turalist s (Hardi n Village Kentucky 95 0 A.D.-historic ) an d hunter gatherer s (India n Knoll Kentucky 3352-201 3 B.C.) observe d tha t growt h arres t i n India n Knol l wa s periodi c an d ver y frequen t (incidenc e 11.3 ; fe w stron g lines) I n Hardi n Villag e i t occurre d randoml y (incidenc e 4.1 ; man y stron g lines) Thus i n th e "Verstee g Collection fro m coasta l Surinam e th e genera l incidenc e tend s t o indicat e a n agricultura l culture whil e th e periodicit y tend s t o indicat e a hunter-gathere r culture Fro m Verstee g (1983 1985 ) w e kno w tha t bot h wa s probabl y true Most likely th e manioc-cultivatin g communit y mus t hav e ha d yearl y problem s i n procurin g anima l protei n a t th e en d o f th e lon g rain y seaso n du e t o floodin g o f th e are a surroundin g th e highe r ridges Th e dentitio n wa s inspecte d i n seve n individual s an d th e incidenc e o f carie s wa s 11.1 % o f th e inspecte d teeth Th e frequenc y o f cariou s teet h a t Hardi n Villag e an d India n Knol l wa s respectivel y 6.7 4 an d 0.7 3 pe r mouth Th e frequenc y i n th e "Verstee g Collection (1.3 ) resemble s tha t o f India n Knoll ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S W e woul d lik e t o than k Drs B Mitrasing h (Archaeologica l Servic e o f th e Ministr y o f Education Scienc e an d Culture ) fo r offerin g u s thi s collectio n o f skeleta l material ; Drs W Telle r (Offic e fo r Foreig n Affairs Universit y o f Leiden ) fo r hi s par t o f financia l support ; Mrs L Balde w an d Mrs E.A.H Bruyn-va n de r Staa y (secretaria l assistance) an d Mr R.F.H Willia m (photography)

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G 14 5 REFERENCE S CITE D Acsd i G. an d J Nemeskr i 197 0 Histor y o f huma n lif e spa n an d mortality Akadmemia i Kiad Budapest Allison M.J 1974 Bass W.M 197 9 D Mendoza an d A Pezzi a A radiographi c approac h t o childhoo d illnes s i n precolombia n inhabitant s o f souther n Peru America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropolog y 40:409-416 Development s i n th e identificatio n o f huma n skeleta l materia l (1968-1978) America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropolog y 51:555-562 Boomert A 197 7 Prehistorie I n Encyclopedi e va n Surinam e (C.F.A Bruynin g an d J Voorhoeve eds.) pp 506-515 Amsterdam/Brussels Brothwell D.R 198 1 Diggin g u p bone s (3r d d.) Oxfor d Universit y Press Oxford Cassidy CM 198 0 Nutritio n an d healt h i n agriculturalist s an d hunter gatherers I n Nutritiona l Anthropolog y (N.W Jerome R.F Kande l an d G.H Pelto eds.) pp 117-145 Redgrav e Press Pleasantville NY Cockburn 198 3 Th e Treponematoses Th e evolutio n an d eradicatio n o f infectiou s disease A n internationa l symposium pp 152-174 Greenwoo d Press Westport CT Dawes J.D. an d J.R Magilto n 198 0 The cemeter y o f St Helen-on-the-Walls Th e Ebo r Press Aldwark York Genovs S 196 7 Proportionalit y o f long-bone s an d thei r relatio n t o statur e amon g Mesoamericans America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropo log y 26:67-78 Imbelloni J 193 0 Gent i e cultur e indigen e dell'America I n L e razz i e i Popul i deli d Terr a (R Biasutti d.) pp 307-351 Tori nese Cite d fro m Tacom a (1963)

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14 6 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E Maat G.J.R 198 1 Huma n remain s a t th e Dutc h whalin g station s o n Spitsbergen A physica l anthropologica l study I n Earl y Europea n exploi tatio n o f th e Norther n Atlanti c 800-170 0 (A.G.F va n Hoik H.K s'Jaco b an d A.A.H.J Temmingh eds.) pp 153-201 Arcti c Centre Groningen 198 4 Datin g an d ratin g o f Harris' s lines America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropolog y 63:291-299 n.d (i n preparation ) Investigatin g th e presenc e o f radiographi c "growt h arres t lines i n th e dista l tibi a o f prehistori c Amerindian s o f th e "Geijske s Collection" Novotny V 197 5 Diskriminanzanalys e de r Geschlechtsmerkmal e au f de m O s coxa e bei m Menschen XII I Czechoslovakia n Anthropologica l Congres s (Brn o 1972) Roeleveld W. an d A.J Va n Loo n 197 9 Th e Holocen e developmen t o f th e Youn g Coasta l Plai n o f Suriname Geologi e e n Mijnbou w 58.21-28 Sjovold T 197 5 Table s o f th e combine d metho d fo r determinatio n o f ag e a t deat h give n b y Nemeskri Harsny i an d Acsdi Anthrop Koez l 19:9-22 Steinbock R.T 197 6 Paleopathologica l diagnosi s an d interpretation Ch.C Thomas Springfield Tacoma J 196 3 America n Indian s fro m Suriname A physica l anthropologica l study Thesis, Univesit y o f Utrecht Turner Chr G 196 9 Micr o evolutionar y interpretation s fro m th e dentition America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropolog y 30:421-426 Ubelaker D.H 197 4 Reconstructio n o f demographi c profile s fro m Oouar y skeleta l samples A cas e stud y fro m th e tidewate r Potomac Smith sonia n Contribution s t o Anthropolog y 18 Versteeg A.H 198 0 C-1 4 dating s fro m archeologica l site s i n Suriname Med Sur Museu m 32:38-56 198 3 Recen t archeologica l investigation s i n Suriname Suralc o Magazin e 15:1-5

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G 14 7 198 5 Th e prehistor y o f th e Youn g Coasta l Plai n o f Wes t Suriname Thesis Universit y o f Leiden Vogel J.C. an d J.C Lerma n 196 9 Groninge n radiocarbo n date s VIII Radiocarbo n 11:351-390 Worksho p o f Europea n Anthropologist s 198 0 Recommendation s fo r ag e an d se x diagnosi s o f skeletons Journa l o f Huma n Evolutio n 9:517-549

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14 8 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E 5 k m =3 lossta "^g j """""V-t.. .¡g£^ H N& e •"^S ^ '"fe.. Figur e 1 Ma p o f th e coasta l are a o f centra l Suriname : Atlanti c Ocea n (1) ; Rive r Surinam e (2) ; Paramarib o (3) ; Kwatt a Ting i Hol o sit e (4) U D 1 _____ a ——_—_ u S F I J 1 1 1 M 3 F Bc D B 1 0 D ^ 20 m CENTRA L PE N |sHe o j "" > I Figur e 2 Kwatt a Ting i Hol o site showin g th e basi c measurin g line s east wes t (X ) an d north-sout h (Y ) ; excavatio n pit s (A-M) ; skeleta l find s (S ) outsid e pit s A-M ; pi t wes t a t 249.0 5 m wes t o f centra l pe n (XX) ; sand y an d shell y chernier betwee n (a ) an d (b ) ; swamp y terrain nort h o f (a ) an d sout h o f (b) Drawin g b y A.H Versteeg

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G 14 9 > C > * >a ? ,-:< Figur e 3 Buria l pi t du g b y th e Kwatt a Indian s throug h th e sand y an d shell y layer s o f th e subsoil >-' ? S:' tsytit ; ¡•-• > .X i ¡* S M *z &&t~>P mrffamm&ma, •M-: >t m * 'Uf e ~ I •^ f f9 H H ^ H _>;;•# § rd i •5V f fe 5' ¡t,7 llpl i I'SI f tgl $ "S j Si.:' W riS % Figur e 4 Mos t individual s ha d bee n burie d i n a flexe d position

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15 0 PHYSICA L ANTHROPOLOGICA L REMAIN S FRO M SURINAM E Figur e 5 X-ra y photograp h wit h supernumerar y teet h i n th e maxill a betwee n th e media l incisors m^t b*m m\\m V' ? r Figur e 6 Fistul a fro m th e roo t o f th e lef t secon d mandibula r incisor

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KHUDABUX MAA T AN D VERSTEE G Figur e 7 Fusifor m expandin g o f th e lef t dista l femu r shaft lef t dista l humeru s shaf t an d th e lef t radiu s wit h osteo-periostitis Figur e 8 Posterio r vie w o f th e pelvi s o f a 24-2 5 year-ol d India n mal e fro m Ting i Hol o wit h latera l inclinatio n o f th e lef t o s coxa e an d spin a bifid a o f firs t sacra l vertebra

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15 2