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Material Information

Title:
An Osteological Analysis of the Human Burials Recovered from Maisabel: An Early Ceramic Site on the North Coast of Puerto Rico
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Linda C. Budinoff ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

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Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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191827772 ( OCLC )

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A N 0STE0L0G1CA L ANALYSI S O F TH E HUMA N BURIAL S RECOVERE D FRO M MAISABEL : A N EARL Y CERAMI C SIT E O N TH E NORT H COAS T O F PUERT O RIC O Lind a C Budinof f Maisabel a Saladoid/Ostionoi d sit e o n th e nort h coas t o f Puert o Rico yielde d 3 4 huma n burial s durin g excavation s sponsore d b y th e Centr o d e Investigacione s Indigena s d e Puert o Rico A n osteologica l analysi s o f thes e skeleton s ha s bee n complete d (Budinof f 1986) an d it s result s ar e summarize d i n th e presen t paper I n addition demographi c inference s ar e offered rathe r tha n simpl y presentin g burial-by-buria l descriptions Certai n pathologie s ar e describe d i n detai l becaus e the y ar e importan t fo r understandin g genera l healt h condition s i n th e prehistori c settlement Finally cultura l modification s o f th e bone s an d statur e estimation s ar e discussed DEMOGRAPH Y Thirty-fou r individual s i s a smal l sampl e o f th e man y burial s tha t mus t exis t a t th e Maisabe l site Nevertheless i t i s probabl y a fairl y repre sentativ e sampl e sinc e man y ag e group s ar e presen t an d th e adul t se x rati o i s 1:1 Ther e ar e 1 4 male s an d 1 4 females Thes e 2 8 adult s rang e fro m ag e 2 0 t o ol d age Ther e ar e si x children rangin g fro m on e t o fiv e year s old Th e onl y ag e group s no t represente d ar e olde r childre n an d adolescents an d a s thes e ar e group s generall y wit h lo w mortalit y rates on e migh t no t expec t t o fin d man y i n a sampl e o f 34 Sinc e th e Maisabe l burial s dat e t o bot h Saladoi d an d Ostionoi d occupa tions th e sampl e canno t b e considere d a "mortuar y population. However certai n insight s an d genera l conclusion s ma y b e presente d a t thi s time Furthermore th e conclusion s reache d her e shoul d b e considere d a s hypo these s t o b e teste d usin g othe r wel l documente d skeleta l sample s recovere d fro m Caribbea n sites (1 ) Male s see m t o hav e live d longe r tha n females O f th e 1 4 males nin e live d t o b e abou t 4 5 year s o r older whil e o f th e 1 4 females onl y thre e survive d t o thi s age Mor e death s o f female s occurre d durin g thei r 20 s an d 30s th e childbearin g years Elevate d femal e mortalit y durin g th e adul t lifespa n i s typica l o f mos t skeleta l population s (Lovejo y e t al 1977 ) I f hig h level s o f warfar e ha d bee n common w e woul d expec t th e opposit e pattern : tha t is mal e mortalit y woul d hav e bee n elevated Tw o o f th e Maisabe l adul t male s sho w evidenc e o f violen t death burial s 4 an d 17 Buria l 4 die d whe n h e wa s 4 5 year s o r older Fo r thi s indivi dual th e evidenc e i s dramatic Apparently h e wa s kille d b y a stingra y spin e thrus t int o th e ches t (Fig 1) Evidenc e fo r th e violen t deat h o f buria l 1 7 (Fig 2 ) i s les s direct bu t stil l suggestive Thi s youn g male age d abou t 2 9 years almos t certainl y ha d hi s righ t ar m severed Th e righ t 11 7

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11 8 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L humera l midshaf t ha s tw o set s o f cutmark s (Figs 3-5) : on e ver y dee p an d mad e wit h a bifacia l tool th e othe r se t fain t an d don e perhap s wit h a sharp smoother-edge d tool Interna l stria e withi n th e cutmar k groove s ar e evidenc e o f bifacia l too l use Th e cut s sho w n o sig n o f healing thu s probabl y wer e mad e immediatel y prio r t o death o r soo n after Durin g excavatio n n o righ t forear m o r righ t han d bone s wer e recovered whic h i s furthe r evidenc e tha t thes e bod y part s wer e severed Severin g o f bod y part s i n associatio n wit h violen t deat h i s a patter n archaeologist s hav e note d i n man y culture s an d tim e periods Tw o violen t death s ou t o f 1 4 adul t male s d o no t necessaril y sugges t hig h level s o f warfare On e mal e (buria l 4 ) wa s wel l int o middl e ag e an d cripple d wit h a n infectiou s bon e diseas e whe n h e died Th e othe r mal e (buria l 17 ) ma y hav e bee n torture d an d executed I f warfar e wa s endemic w e woul d no t expec t t o se e s o man y male s survivin g int o middl e age (2 ) Anothe r genera l demographi c conclusio n i s tha t fe w peopl e o f eithe r se x survive d t o ol d age Ver y fe w individual s exhibi t th e common inev i tabl e degenerativ e change s o f ol d ag e suc h a s advance d arthritis osteo phytosis an d osteoporosis Instead w e hav e evidenc e fo r infectiou s diseas e i n severa l individuals possibl e case s o f cancer an d suc h poo r ora l healt h that i n a t leas t on e case denta l abscessin g ma y hav e sprea d infectio n an d cause d death PATHOLOG Y Sinc e nearl y ever y adul t skeleto n exhibite d som e for m o f denta l pathology thes e wil l b e discusse d first I n on e o r tw o case s I suspec t tha t infection s w e observe d i n othe r part s o f th e skeleton s initiall y bega n i n th e mouth s o i t i s necessar y t o appreciat e firs t th e severit y o f som e o f thes e denta l pathologies Sever e denta l pathologie s wer e th e mos t commo n healt h problem s amon g th e Maisabe l inhabitants durin g bot h th e Saladoi d an d th e Ostionoi d occupations Man y o f th e site' s adul t dentition s ar e characterize d b y hig h carie s incidence sever e wear denta l calculus an d frequen t antemorte m chipping Sever e alveola r abscesse s an d antemorte m toot h los s ar e commo n i n som e o f th e olde r people Severa l agent s i n th e die t wer e responsibl e fo r thes e problems (1 ) Sand San d probabl y adhere d t o food s suc h a s drie d fish shell fish an d lan d crab Thi s abrasiv e cause s rapi d wear (2 ) Har d substances Lan d crab s wer e certainl y importan t i n th e Saladoi d die t an d frequentl y ma y hav e bee n eate n wit h shel l adherin g t o th e flesh Crackin g th e cra b shell s wit h th e teeth eithe r purposefull y o r accidently undoubtedl y cause d muc h o f th e chippin g presen t o n th e molars Crackin g anima l bone s wit h th e teet h probabl y ha d simila r effects Th e chippin g take s a variet y o f forms Sometime s i t i s jus t a smal l piec e o f th e crow n tha t ha s splintere d off but ofte n a sizeabl e corne r o f th e mola r ha s deepl y sheare d off exposin g a larg e are a o f dentin Tha t thes e chip s

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BUDINOF F 11 9 wer e los t durin g lif e i s evidence d b y th e smoothin g o f th e edge s tha t occurre d late r durin g chewing Chippe d teet h wea r faste r tha n unchippe d teeth Compare d t o teet h fro m th e well-know n Libbe n sit e (Ottaw a County Ohio USA ) th e Maisabe l dent i tion s wor e faste r (Lovejo y 1985) Fo r instance i n th e Maisabe l dentitio n ther e i s considerabl y mor e wea r o n th e firs t mola r b y th e tim e th e secon d mola r ha s erupted compare d t o th e Libbe n firs t an d secon d mola r wea r patterns Muc h san d wa s ingeste d i n th e Libbe n diet bu t antemorte m chippin g i s no t nearl y a s frequen t a s wha t w e se e o n th e Maisabe l teeth I suspec t tha t th e chippin g i s responsibl e fo r th e faste r rat e o f wea r a t th e Maisabe l site (3 ) Carbohydrates Undoubtedly th e Maisabe l die t wa s hig h i n carbo hydrate s (suc h a s manioc ) an d thi s le d t o plaqu e formatio n o n th e bucca l an d lingua l surface s o f th e teeth Whe n plaqu e calcifie s i t i s calle d calculus an d thi s i s wha t preserve s o n skeleta l remains Calculu s deposit s wer e observe d o n bot h adul t an d chil d dentitions Plaqu e an d calculu s ar e irritants whic h ma y lea d t o periodonta l diseas e an d deca y a t th e neck s o f teeth Nearl y al l o f th e carie s i n th e Maisabe l teet h wer e radicula r (a t th e nec k o f th e tooth) ; occlusa l carie s wer e ver y rare Th e diagra m i n Figur e 6 illustrate s ho w th e effect s o f th e thre e dietar y element s o f sand har d substances an d carbohydrate s ca n aggravat e carie s formatio n an d caus e th e eventua l los s o f teeth Bot h heav y wea r fro m abrasive s an d chippin g fro m th e crushin g o f har d substance s frequentl y resul t i n th e exposur e o f th e pul p cavity thu s providin g a n eas y entr y poin t fo r bacteria Decay-causin g bacteri a thriv e i n plaque Th e denta l carie s an d plaqu e deposit s eventuall y resul t i n alveola r abscesse s (bot h periapica l an d periodontal ) causin g erosio n o f th e bon e tha t support s th e tooth Th e teet h loose n an d consequentl y fal l out Denta l chipping radicula r caries alveola r abscesses an d frequen t antemorte m toot h los s ar e commo n durin g bot h th e Saladoi d an d Ostionoi d occupation s a t Maisabel Thi s suggest s tha t th e kind s o f food s utilize d an d th e foo d preparatio n technique s responsibl e fo r thes e denta l patholo gie s wer e continuou s fro m on e cultur e serie s t o th e next Th e Maisabe l denta l chippin g patter n i s ver y interesting an d resemble s tha t describe d b y Turne r an d Cadie n (1969 ) fo r th e Eskimos The y us e th e ter m "pressure-chipping becaus e th e fracture s resembl e flak e scar s o n chippe d ston e artifacts Amon g th e Eskimos Turne r an d Cadie n (1969 ) fin d n o se x difference s i n chippin g frequency bu t tha t i t i s age-related The y conclud e tha t th e chip s primaril y ar e relate d t o th e die t (no t occupation ) an d tha t the y ar e cause d b y crushin g har d substance s suc h a s bone Likewise amon g th e Maisabe l individual s ther e ar e n o se x difference s i n chippin g frequency ; chippin g o f on e o r ofte n severa l teet h i s ver y commo n i n bot h sexe s afte r abou t ag e 25 Further chippin g i s absen t i n Maisabe l children althoug h the y d o exhibi t othe r denta l pathologie s suc h a s calculu s deposit s an d heav y wear Perhap s th e children' s diet s include d a relativel y hig h proportio n o f sof t foods an d onl y i n adulthoo d di d food s containin g har d substance s lik e invertebrat e har d part s an d bon e becom e important

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12 0 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L Figur e 7 show s a mandibl e fragmen t displayin g denta l calculus radicu la r caries an d chipping Thes e teet h belonge d t o a woma n age d betwee n 3 5 an d 4 0 years Th e die t o f th e Maisabe l inhabitant s create d tw o set s o f problems First sinc e th e peopl e wer e horticulturalists th e die t wa s hig h i n carbohydrate s an d therefor e cariogenic resultin g i n a hig h frequenc y o f denta l decay Second th e heav y relianc e upo n lan d crab s an d shellfis h require d thei r teet h t o crus h har d substance s wit h th e sam e destructiv e result s tha t Eskimo s achiev e b y chewin g bones I t i s n o wonde r tha t man y o f th e olde r individual s los t nearl y al l o f thei r teet h an d severa l individual s displa y multipl e alveola r abscesses Whe n denta l diseas e i s sever e th e infectio n ca n sprea d t o othe r part s o f th e body A possibl e exampl e o f thi s i s see n i n buria l 4 a n adul t male Periostea l reactiv e bon e i s presen t o n nearl y al l o f th e longbone s includin g femora tibiae fibulae patellae ar m bones an d th e sterna l end s o f th e clavicle s (Figs 8-9) Thi s reveal s a disseminate d inflam mator y condition Infectio n ha s entere d th e bloodstrea m an d ha s bee n carrie d throughou t th e body Thi s conditio n i s know n a s hematogenou s osteomyeliti s an d wa s no t uncommo n i n th e preantibioti c er a (Ortne r an d Putscha r 1985:121-123) I t i s quit e likel y tha t th e deca y o r abscessin g see n i n th e jaw s o f buria l 4 wa s th e initia l focu s o f th e infectiou s organism Othe r commo n source s o f infectio n i n adult s ar e ski n festering s suc h a s boils a s wel l a s ope n fracture s an d wounds Mos t hematogenou s osteomyeliti s patient s ar e infecte d b y th e Staphlococcus aureus bacteriu m (Hoepric h 1983:1318) I n buria l 4 th e diseas e wa s a chronic painfu l conditio n tha t persiste d fo r a n extensiv e perio d o f tim e without causin g death A s mentione d above thi s ma n ultimatel y wa s kille d b y a stingra y spin e pushe d int o th e ches t cavity Anothe r possibl e cas e o f hematogenou s osteomyeliti s i s observe d i n th e crania l vaul t o f buria l 3 0 (Fig 10) Alon g bot h branche s o f th e middl e meningea l arter y ar e activ e osteolyti c lesion s erodin g int o th e diploe Ea r infection s sprea d easil y int o th e meninges thu s implicatin g thi s sit e a s th e primar y focu s o f infection Alternatively thes e lesion s coul d b e evidenc e o f hemangiomas whic h ar e tumor s o f th e bon e occurrin g adjacen t t o bloo d vessels The y ar e common rarel y caus e symptoms an d principall y ar e see n i n th e skul l an d vertebra l bodie s (Boy d 1970:1340) A les s likel y consideratio n i s tha t th e lesion s wer e cause d b y meningiomas o r tumor s o f th e meninges Meningiomas however ten d t o appea r adjacen t t o majo r venou s sinuse s (Anderso n 1985:21 60) no t alon g th e meningea l arterie s a s exhibite d i n thi s specimen I n buria l 5 w e hav e definit e evidenc e fo r a chroni c middl e ea r infec tion wit h lyti c lesion s tha t eventuall y worke d thei r wa y throug h th e petrou s portio n o f th e tempora l bon e int o th e middl e crania l fossa Thi s infectiou s sprea d certainl y coul d hav e bee n th e caus e o f death Further ther e i s a n infectio n i n th e temporomandibula r join t space wit h a fistu lou s perforatio n o f th e media l hal f openin g int o th e epidura l cavit y o f th e middl e crania l fossa W e d o no t kno w wh y a n infectio n woul d occu r i n th e temporomandibula r joint Possibl y i t wa s a cance r tha t metastasize d ther e fro m anothe r par t o f th e body

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BUDINOF F 12 1 Larg e quantitie s o f bacteri a ma y ente r th e bloo d strea m fro m periodon ta l abscesse s becaus e ther e i s grea t contac t wit h adjacen t vascula r an d lymphati c channel s i n th e jaw Lymphati c drainag e fro m th e gum s take s a fairl y direc t rout e t o th e hear t (Woodburn e 1983:166) I f th e bacteri a settl e i n th e hear t o r it s pericardium deat h ca n resul t quickl y fro m acut e bacteria l endocarditi s (lesion s i n th e valves) o r fro m pericarditi s (distentio n o f th e heart' s sac whic h the n seriousl y interfere s wit h it s action ) (Boy d 1970:531 570) Buria l 7 display s exceptionall y larg e alveola r abscesse s o n bot h side s o f th e mandible eve n alon g th e ascendin g ramu s o f th e lef t sid e (Fig 11) Thi s dangerou s conditio n coul d hav e bee n th e caus e o f death b y providin g a n entr y poin t fo r a n infectio n int o th e circulator y system T o summariz e th e pathologies ver y fe w peopl e i n th e Maisabe l skeleta l sampl e reache d ol d age Mos t die d befor e th e degenerativ e disease s o f ol d ag e becam e manifest However man y o f th e jaw s appea r a s i f the y belon g t o 7 0 o r 8 0 yea r ol d individual s ; tha t i s nearl y edentulous wit h th e fe w remainin g teet h wor n t o pegs an d muc h o f th e sustainin g alveolu s resorbed Ye t thes e jaw s belon g t o peopl e onl y i n middle-age I t i s probabl e tha t mos t o f thes e peopl e wer e dyin g fro m bot h chroni c an d acut e infectiou s diseases I n som e case s I hav e note d tha t a diseas e originate d a s a denta l pathology thereupo n spreadin g t o othe r region s o f th e body No t onl y wer e disease s o f ol d ag e uncommon bu t bon e fracture s wer e rare Onl y on e cas e wa s diagnosed-a well-heale d ulna r fractur e fro m buria l 10 Thi s make s sense however becaus e th e incidenc e o f fracture s i s relativel y lo w amon g sedentary horticultura l groups Compare d t o hunter-gathere r societies horticulturalist s ten d t o b e i n fewe r situation s resultin g i n physica l traumas excep t o f cours e fo r systemati c warfare CULTURA L MODIFICATION S Severa l individual s displa y uppe r incisor s wor n a t a stee p angl e o n th e labia l sides Unusua l occlusio n resultin g fro m alveola r prognathis m generall y wa s responsibl e fo r th e stee p wear Alveola r prognathis m i s a geneticall y derive d characteristic thu s i n thes e case s I woul d no t ascrib e cultura l practice s a s a causativ e factor However ther e i s on e individua l (buria l 9) a 3 0 yea r ol d male whos e lef t maxillar y incisors canine an d firs t premola r exhibi t unusuall y stee p wea r (Fig 12) Thi s seem s t o hav e bee n cause d b y pullin g a materia l downwar d an d ou t throug h th e lef t sid e o f th e mouth Th e stee p wea r i s no t presen t o n th e righ t maxillar y teeth Thi s individua l als o i s unusua l becaus e th e bucca l an d lingua l surface s o f th e teet h ar e staine d b y a rust y re d color Further ther e ar e n o carie s o r antemorte m chippin g o n th e teeth whic h i s unusua l fo r a 3 0 yea r ol d individua l fro m thi s sample I t i s difficul t t o sa y wha t cause d th e re d staining On e othe r perso n fro m th e sampl e ha s th e denta l stains Thi s i s a 3 0 yea r ol d woma n represente d b y buria l 19A Th e root s o f he r teet h ar e staine d mor e noticeabl y tha n th e enamel Fronto-occipita l crania l deformatio n i s apparen t o n severa l individual s an d fro m eac h occupatio n represente d a t Maisabel Thre e goo d contex t Saladoi d burial s (number s 2 4 [Fig 1 ] an d 1 7 [Fig 2]) on e Saladoid / Ostionoi d transitiona l buria l (numbe r 7) an d on e goo d contex t Ostionoi d

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12 2 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L buria l (numbe r 26 ) displa y thi s typ e o f skul l deformation Thi s variet y o f deformatio n i s a n intentiona l modificatio n o f th e hea d shape an d i s not acquire d passivel y b y lyin g o n a cradleboard Th e most commo n metho d i s tigh t wrappin g wit h clot h band s an d tyin g smal l board s o r othe r fla t object s agains t th e fronta l an d occipita l bone s (Ubelake r 1978:71) STATUR E Statur e wa s estimate d b y fittin g th e maximu m length s o f th e longbone s int o regressio n equation s publishe d b y Trotte r an d Glese r (1958) Excep t fo r buria l 23 estimate s wer e attempte d usin g onl y skeleton s wit h entirel y intac t longbone s suc h a s femur fibula tibia humerus an d radius However curiosit y abou t th e remarkabl y smal l longbon e shaft s o f buria l 23 a n ol d woman le d m e t o reconstruc t he r nearl y complet e humerus i n orde r t o estimat e roughl y he r height Sh e wa s a tin y person probabl y abou t 4 fee t 9 inches Excep t fo r thi s smal l ol d woman stature s fo r th e othe r individual s ar e clos e t o averag e height s o f suc h Nort h America n aborigina l group s a s India n Knoll Peco s Pueblo Libben an d th e Haid a (Tagu e 1986) Maisabe l female s rang e fro m approximatel y 4 fee t 9 inche s (144. 8 cm ; th e tin y woman ) t o 5 fee t 2. 5 inche s (158. 8 cm) whil e th e male s rang e fro m 5 fee t 4 inche s (162. 6 cm ) t o 5 fee t 7. 5 inche s (171. 5 cm) Buria l 1 6 i s a well-preserve d fou r yea r ol d child' s skeleto n (Fig 13) Severa l o f it s maxima l diaphysea l length s wer e measure d an d compare d wit h thos e publishe d fo r Arikar a childre n (Nort h America n Plain s Indians ) (Ubelake r 1978) Th e Maisabe l childre n matche d th e Arikar a o f th e sam e denta l age ; hence again thi s Caribbea n populatio n seem s t o fal l withi n th e norma l heigh t range s o f Nort h America n aboriginals SUMMAR Y AN D CONCLUSION S I wil l no w itemiz e th e majo r finding s o f th e osteologica l study 1 Male s live d longe r tha n females Thi s i s th e typica l patter n o f most skeleta l populations give n lo w level s o f warfare Man y female s wer e dyin g durin g th e childbearin g years 2 Fe w peopl e o f eithe r se x live d wel l int o ol d age Advance d degenerativ e change s o n th e postcrani a wer e observe d amon g onl y severa l burials 3 Th e die t o f th e Maisabe l sit e inhabitant s throughou t th e Saladoi d an d Ostionoi d occupation s resulte d i n severa l denta l pathologies San d adherin g t o foods exoskeleto n an d shel l adherin g t o invertebrates an d hig h percentage s o f carbohydrate s al l conspire d t o destro y th e teeth Man y middle-age d peopl e ha d th e mouth s yo u woul d expec t o n ver y ol d people 4 Infectiou s diseas e wa s common an d sometime s ma y hav e bee n a consequenc e o f (secondar y to ) denta l infection

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BUDINOF F 12 3 5 Interestin g continuitie s betwee n Saladoi d an d Ostionoi d occupation s ar e apparent Althoug h ther e wer e shift s undoubtedl y i n dietar y pattern s followin g th e Saladoi d occupation s (Siege l an d Bernstei n 1987) th e us e o f certai n ke y foo d group s mus t hav e remaine d constant Evidenc e fo r thi s i s th e seemingl y identica l pattern s o f denta l patholog y i n th e tw o cultura l series a s represente d i n th e Maisabe l skeleta l sample Anothe r continuit y i s tha t fronto-occipita l crania l deformatio n wa s practice d durin g th e Saladoid termina l Saladoid an d Ostionoi d occupa tions I t i s no t presen t o n al l skull s durin g an y on e tim e period ye t i t i s clearl y a cultura l practic e throughou t th e occupationa l spa n o f th e site Further a t th e Maisabe l sit e th e deforme d skull s ar e predominantl y male Inference s base d upo n denta l pathologie s an d artificia l crania l deformation s observe d i n th e Maisabe l skeleta l sampl e suppor t th e notio n tha t ther e wa s a n i n situ cultura l developmen t fro m th e Saladoi d t o th e Ostionoi d occupation s i n Puert o Rico Importantly thi s stud y ha s provide d independen t physica l anthropologica l evidenc e t o compar e an d contras t wit h linguisti c an d archaeologica l evidenc e (se e Rous e [1986:126 ] fo r a discus sio n o f thi s point ) synthesize d earlie r b y Rous e (1986) ACKNOWLEDGMENT S I wis h t o than k th e Centr o d e Investigacione s Indgena s d e Puert o Rico Inc fo r sponsorin g m y analysi s o f th e Maisabe l skeleta l materials an d Ros a Garci a an d Pete r Siege l fo r thei r hospitalit y durin g m y sta y i n Puert o Rico Alle n Hirsc h photographe d th e bone s i n th e lab fo r whic h I a m grateful I als o than k Drs Steve n War d an d Owe n Lovejo y fo r thei r diagnose s o f severa l bon e pathologies an d Pete r Siege l fo r hi s comment s o n thi s paper REFERENCE S CITE D Anderson J.R (editor ) 198 5 Muir' s Textboo k o f Pathology Twelft h Edition Edwar d Arnol d Publishers Ltd. London Boyd W 197 0 A Textboo k o f Pathology : Structur e an d Functio n i n Disease Eight h Edition Le a an d Febiger Philadelphia Budinoff L.C 198 6 Maisabe l skeleta l study Manuscrip t o n file Centr o d e Investigacione s Indgena s d e Puert o Rico Inc Hoeprich P.D (editor ) 198 3 Infectiou s Diseases Harpe r an d Ro w Publishers Philadelphia

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12 4 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L Lov e j oy CO 198 5 Lov e j oy CO D Kottin g 197 7 Denta l wea r i n th e Libbe n population : it s functiona l patter n an d rol e i n th e determinatio n o f adul t skeleta l ag e a t death America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropolog y 68:47-56 R.S Meindl T.R Pryzbeck T.S Barton K.G Heiple an d Paleodemograph y o f th e Libbe n site Ottaw a County Ohio Scienc e 198:291-293 Ortner D.J. an d W.G.J Putscha r 198 5 Identificatio n o f Pathologica l Condition s i n Huma n Skeleta l Remains Reprin t editio n o f Smithsonia n Contribution s t o Anthropolog y 28 Rouse I 198 6 Migration s i n Prehistory : Inferrin g Populatio n Movemen t fro m Cultura l Remains Yal e Universit y Press Ne w Haven Siegel P.E. an d D.J Bernstei n 198 7 Sit e structure settlemen t organization an d sampling : a cas e stud y fro m th e nort h coas t o f Puert o Rico Pape r presente d a t th e 52n d Annua l Meetin g o f th e Societ y fo r America n Archaeolog y (Toronto) Tague R.G 198 6 Obstetri c Adaptation s o f th e Huma n Bon y Pelvis Unpublishe d Ph.D dissertation Departmen t o f Biology Kent Stat e University Trotter M. an d G. C Glese r 195 8 A pre-evaluatio n o f estimatio n o f statur e base d o n measure ment s o f statur e take n durin g lif e an d o f lon g bone s afte r death America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropolog y 16:79-123 Turner C.G. II andJ.D Cadie n 196 9 Denta l chippin g i n Aleuts Eskimo s an d Indians America n Journa l o f Physica l Anthropolog y 31:303-310 Ubelaker D.H 197 8 Huma n Skeleta l Remains : Excavation Analysis Interpretation Aldin e Publishin g Company Chicago Woodburne R.T 198 3 Essential s o f Huma n Anatomy Sevent h Edition Universit y Press Ne w York Oxfor d

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BUDINOF F 12 5 -v"" *... ; : ,,;.• • ._ w'; ^ & asJBsaaaSKBHffiRHifl M Figur e l Buria l 4 a s i t wa s recovere d i n th e field Thi s individua l i s i n a flexe d feta l position Notic e th e stingra y spin e projectil e poin t paralle l wit h th e ribs • 2 r I^M Figur e 2 Buria l 1 7 a s i t wa s recovere d i n th e field Thi s individua l i s i n a flexe d seate d position Mos t o f th e bone s o f thi s individua l wer e present excep t fo r th e lowe r righ t arm

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12 6 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L t^ V ; • 2 3 2 4 C M |r/ C M I ; < N E~ ~ C M o oo =—0 ) T = o r r ||-< o 3 i n 0 ^ in 0 2 1 Figur e 3 Righ t humeru s o f buria l 17 displayin g on e se t o f paralle l cutmark s i n th e mi d t o uppe r shaf t regio n o f th e bone

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BUDINOF F 12 7 Figur e 4 Cutmark s o n th e latera l sid e o f th e mi d t o uppe r portio n o f th e righ t humera l shaf t (buria l 17) Thes e cutmark s exten d fro m th e cente r o f th e latera l surfac e t o th e posterio r aspec t o f th e bone

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12 8 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L •
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San d o n food s Har d substance s suc h a s landcra b shell s Heav y wea r Chippin g Exposur e o f toot h pul p Carie s Periapic ? abscesse : Carbohy d Plaqu e & Calculu s Gu m dis e subsequ e Periodo n V A n temo r t toot h l o Figur e 6 Majo r destructiv e agent s i n th e Maisabe l die t whos e effect s combin e t o caus e de n antemorte m toot h loss an d othe r pathologies

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13 0 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L i= — < M C M = O — C M • V & V \ c o Figur e 7 Mandibl e fragmen t fro m buria l 2 5 displayin g denta l calculus radicula r caries an d chipping •-v i •• • v : 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 s J V O L JJ-3>l3le l o t i"^ g g L g g , g I •"• lwyiiiii-iiiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii'MiljiiiiiiiiJiiilii.iiiiMiiiiiliixiJiiJ^liiiiiii M Figur e 8 Longbon e fragment s fro m buria l 4 exhibitin g periostea l react i bone revealin g a disseminate d inflammator y condition iv e

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BUDINOF F 13 1 -' • ^B —XT -* MA V r. x 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 | •, 0 l XL3MDIC 1 g g g 9 ? E 2 ,,. i ¡.hi.hl.ij.iJ-u.iii.i i iiddikii b L1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I.1.I1I1I11J 1 LuliiLiti i itidiiJ.iJiijLiilaitiiiiii.iiiiiHJ.iiiiiii.iii.iJiiiiiiirdiihlibliijliiiiiiiii*iiiiitiiiLitiiiiiiiltiilrfiliiii i u u Figur e 9 Periostea l reactiv e bon e fro m buria l 4 J§ .. r 40 | .-T''-'''-' m 9 f i^m, ;i V m mmi 5. •¡/'•-J'*' p¡.i.i u mij l 'i|¡!ii|(ir. p [|iiii|im|iiimiBjin[|iiii|iiiiii:ii[iiii|iiiip;i[j : ii|nniiH|Hnmii]iinTinipm[[ii(|nii|iiii|iiii|iiri|iiii¡iiriiiiii|iiii|iii!|ii i i ,i , V 6 ? 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 6 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 8 l 9 9 e Z "' [MliliUiliMililili.l'l'liliiiLlilil'LliliMilil.lil.l..l'lilJiiliIil.l.iilJi l li ] JiliUli f itiljililililihl i hli d iiliJilitil i lilit>U< i lililild i l i l.litilililili l i j i l.l i t h< i 1 1 l.l < I i Figur e 10 Crania l vaul t o f buria l 30 Notic e th e osteolyti c lesion s alon g bot h branche s o f th e middl e meningea l artery Thi s i s a possibl e cas e o f hematogenou s osteomyelitis

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13 2 OSTEOLOGICA L ANALYSI S O F BURIAL S FRO M MAISABE L § Figur e 11 Mandibl e fro m buria l 7 Larg e alveola r abscesse s ar e presen t o n bot h side s o f th e mandible Notice also th e absces s extendin g alon g th e lef t ascendin g ramus f v i I I I 1,1 1 0 8 1 1 1 2 1 3 Z 1 4 1 5 9 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 Figur e 12 Fragmen t o f lef t maxill a fro m buria l 9 o f th e incisors canine an d firs t premolar Notic e th e stee p wea r

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BUDINOF F 13 3 fc; Figur e 13 Buria l 1 6 a s recovere d i n th e field fou r yea r ol d child' s skeleton Thi s i s a well-preserve d

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13 4