Citation

Material Information

Title:
Sampling for Site Structure and Spatial Organization in the Saladoid: A Case Study
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Peter E. Siegel ( Author, Primary )
David J. Bernstein ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

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Digital Library of the Caribbean

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SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E AN D SPATIA L ORGANIZATIO N I N TH E SALADOID : A CAS E STUD Y Pete r E Siege l an d Davi d J Bernstei n Sit e structure settlemen t organization an d samplin g ar e thre e interrelate d ye t ver y differen t things Archaeologist s us e samplin g method s t o hel p retriev e informatio n regardin g sit e structure Th e researcher ideally the n proceed s t o us e th e dat a o n sit e structur e a s a basi s fo r discussin g settlemen t organization Sit e structur e an d settle men t organizatio n ar e no t conceptua l synonym s (thi s distinctio n i s th e basi s fo r muc h o f Schiffer' s [1972 1976 1983 1987 ] writings ; se e als o th e work s i n Chan g [1968]) Archaeologist s excavat e "sites an d human s liv e i n "settlements. Thus th e characterizatio n o f sit e structur e i s no t a n entirel y satisfactor y goa l fo r a n archaeologica l investigation Whil e th e stud y o f sit e structur e wil l includ e suc h concern s a s spatia l relation ship s amon g features th e distributio n o f variou s artifac t classe s acros s space an d a consideratio n o f sit e siz e an d boundaries thes e dat a the n nee d t o b e use d t o generat e inference s abou t pas t lifeway s an d activit y patterns I n th e presen t study w e demonstrat e ho w samplin g procedure s ma y b e use d t o yiel d certai n type s o f informatio n regardin g sit e structure Man y archaeologist s ar e no w quit e accomplishe d i n thi s aspec t o f researc h (e.g. Hietal a 1984 ; Kent 1987) W e the n sho w ho w th e sit e structur e dat a infor m o n th e large r topi c o f settlemen t organization Thi s i s th e stag e tha t man y archaeologist s d o no t consider but whic h w e argu e i s th e logica l ste p t o tak e followin g th e elucidatio n o f a sit e structure Th e Maisabe l site a larg e earl y cerami c occupatio n o n th e nort h coas t o f Puert o Rico i s use d a s a cas e study RESEARC H BACKGROUN D Unti l recently Puert o Ric o archaeolog y specificall y an d Caribbea n archaeolog y i n genera l hav e addresse d issue s relate d primaril y t o chrono logy I n particular researcher s hav e bee n intereste d i n datin g th e arriva l o f on e o r mor e earl y cerami c style s t o variou s island s o f th e Antilles an d monitorin g thei r rate s o f dispersa l throughou t th e region Ove r th e las t fe w years th e concer n fo r chronologica l problem s ha s broadene d t o includ e th e stud y o f th e origin development an d sprea d o f earl y cerami c o r Saladoi d group s a s a cultura l phenomeno n an d not simpl y a cerami c style Importan t t o thi s discussio n ar e th e issue s o f subsistenc e stabilit y an d chang e (Jone s 1985) horticultura l intensificatio n (Roosevel t 1980 ; Keega n 1985) settlemen t organizatio n an d stabilit y ove r time an d th e processe s responsibl e fo r cultura l dispersa l (Rous e 1982 1985 1986 ; Keega n 1985 ) I t i s likel y tha t th e for m of an d change s in on e o r mor e o f thes e variable s ha s ha d importan t effect s o n th e othe r variable s i n th e cultura l system 8 7

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8 8 SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E Give n th e changin g focu s o f Caribbea n archaeology i t i s increasingl y importan t tha t ou r fiel d studie s b e carrie d ou t i n a manne r specificall y attune d t o addressin g thes e issues Th e Maisabe l researc h wa s designe d wit h thes e issue s i n min d an d provide s a n illustrativ e exampl e o f ho w communit y organizatio n ma y b e reconstructe d an d analyzed W e argu e tha t t o understan d suc h comple x processe s a s horticultura l intensificatio n an d overal l dietar y shift s throug h time i t i s necessar y t o examin e an d reconstruc t th e organizatio n o f th e communitie s i n whic h thes e change s occurred Th e chronologica l focu s o f muc h o f Caribbea n archaeolog y ha s dictate d th e type s o f samplin g design s employe d i n th e region Usually intensiv e excavation s ar e concentrate d i n th e thickes t midde n deposit s wher e ther e i s th e greates t likelihoo d o f a lon g tempora l sequenc e bein g represented Fo r earl y cerami c site s thi s mean s tha t wor k generall y ha s centere d o n larg e conspicuou s mound s an d th e testin g technique s employe d usuall y resembl e wha t Flanner y (1976:3-4 ) ha s terme d th e diggin g o f "telephon e booths and/o r "center-trenches" I n ligh t o f ou r interes t i n overal l settlemen t organizatio n i t become s necessary however t o investigat e mor e tha n th e mounds Specifically what i s th e spatia l exten t an d shap e o f th e prehistori c settlement ? Wha t i s th e distributio n o f cultura l remain s withi n th e settlement an d what i f an y evidenc e i s ther e fo r structura l remains ? PHYSICA L SETTIN G Th e Maisabe l sit e i s locate d o n a relativel y fla t coasta l plain whic h extend s t o th e sout h fo r roughl y 35 k m unti l i t meet s th e Cordiller a Centra l (Torres-Gonzle z an d Dia z 1984 ; Figs 1 an d 2) Borderin g th e sit e t o th e eas t i s a larg e mangrov e swamp whic h undoubtedl y wa s a productiv e sourc e o f lan d crab s (Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille Ucides cordatus, Epilobocera sinuatifrons, Gecarcinus ruricola, an d Gecarcinus lateralis), whos e remain s ar e ver y numerou s withi n th e Saladoi d deposit s a t Maisabel A pon d o f unknow n antiquit y define s th e southwes t edg e o f th e site I f thi s pon d wa s presen t durin g th e prehistori c time s i t woul d hav e bee n a sourc e o f numerou s specie s o f waterfowl Th e Ri o Cibuco 1 k m t o th e east provide s estuarin e resources a s wel l a s fres h water Maisabe l i s bounde d t o th e nort h b y th e Atlanti c Ocean Give n th e relativel y fla t t o undulatin g terrain th e grea t densit y o f artifact s know n t o b e i n th e cultura l mounds, an d th e lac k o f systemati c informatio n regardin g th e spatia l exten t o f earl y cerami c site s i n th e Caribbean w e believe d tha t Maisabe l coul d b e enormous A two-stag e samplin g progra m wa s designe d t o delimi t th e sit e boundarie s an d t o provid e usefu l informatio n fo r understandin g settlemen t organization SAMPLIN G DESIG N First i t wa s necessar y t o delimi t th e boundarie s o f th e sit e an d t o obtai n a genera l ide a o f th e variatio n i n artifac t distribution T o thi s end a serie s o f mechanicall y excavate d auge r pit s wa s deploye d a t a 3 0 m

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SIEGE L AN D BERNSTEI N 8 9 samplin g interva l (Fig 3) Second base d upo n th e result s o f thi s stag e th e sit e wa s stratifie d fo r intensiv e excavation Stag e On e Results : Sit e Surve y Stag e on e resulte d i n 25 6 machin e tes t pit s (Figs 4-6) Count s an d weight s wer e recorde d fo r te n artifac t categories--ceramic shell groun d stone chippe d stone cra b shell bone beads coral unmodifie d rocks miscellaneous--represente d i n th e tes t pits O f th e ten cerami c occur s wit h th e greates t abundanc e an d i s th e mos t continuousl y distribute d clas s o f artifacts Fo r thes e reasons cerami c frequenc y i s use d exclusivel y i n thi s discussio n o f initia l tes t results Usin g th e cerami c weigh t distribution a n isoba r ma p base d upo n 50 0 g contou r interval s wa s produce d (Fig 7) Cerami c weigh t rathe r tha n frequenc y reflect s a mor e accurat e distributio n o f th e pottery especiall y give n th e comminutio n facto r o f th e auge r bit Th e ma p display s severa l clea r paterns First th e sit e i s roughl y oblon g i n shap e an d measure s approximatel y 50 0 x 40 0 m wit h it s longes t dimensio n paralle l t o th e coastline Tw o mounde d midde n areas easil y discernibl e i n th e terrain sho w u p clearl y o n th e cerami c distributio n map Moun d 1 (nort h mound ) i s roun d wit h a roug h diamete r o f 7 0 m Moun d 2 (sout h mound ) i s oblon g an d approximatel y 10 0 m lon g b y 3 0 m wide Second withi n th e centra l portio n o f th e sit e ar e locate d tw o larg e area s o f lo w cerami c weigh t (les s tha n 50 0 g pe r machin e auge r pit) Are a 1 (eas t area ) i s roughl y rectangula r i n shap e an d i s abou t 9 0 x 7 0 m Are a 2 (wes t area ) i s amoebi c t o ova l i n for m an d i s approximatel y 11 0 x 9 0 m Furthermore th e lo w cerami c weigh t are a completel y encircle s th e site Finally separatin g th e mound s fro m th e area s o f lo w cerami c weigh t i s a 500-100 0 g contou r interval Thi s zon e roughl y encircle s th e centra l portio n o f th e sit e i n additio n t o crisscrossin g i t i n narro w (c a 1 5 m wide ) bands Stratificatio n Schem e Usin g th e cerami c distributio n map th e sit e wa s stratifie d int o thre e zone s fo r intensiv e excavatio n (Fig 8) Stratu m 1 i s represente d b y th e lo w cerami c weigh t are a (les s tha n 50 0 g ) an d i s 13.39 3 h a i n area I f Maisabe l structurall y correspond s i n an y wa y t o mos t relativel y sedentary lowlan d Sout h Amerindia n village s the n thi s portio n o f th e sit e shoul d yiel d architectura l an d residentia l remains Th e Sout h Amerindia n contex t i s use d a s a roug h ethnographi c analogu e becaus e o f th e similarit y i n lifeway s an d activit y pattern s o f thes e group s wit h thos e recorde d i n earl y ethnohistori c account s fro m th e Caribbean Further ethnographi c descrip tion s an d previou s archaeologica l excavation s amon g fores t societie s sugges t tha t th e village s o f sedentar y group s ar e organize d aroun d an d withi n a matri x o f cleare d plaz a space

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9 0 SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E Stratu m 2 i s compose d o f th e 500-150 0 g contou r intervals Thi s i s th e zon e separatin g th e lo w cerami c weigh t area s (stratu m 1 ) fro m th e mounde d midde n area s discusse d earlie r an d i s 3.20 2 h a i n area Th e thir d stratu m i s define d b y th e cerami c weight contour s o f greate r tha n 150 0 g Thes e area s ar e represente d essentiall y b y mound s 1 an d 2 ye t ther e ar e smal l pocket s o f thi s stratu m locate d i n thre e othe r portion s o f th e sit e (eas t center nort h northeast an d nort h northwest) Thi s i s th e smalles t o f th e thre e samplin g zones a t 0.63 3 ha I t i s interestin g t o not e tha t i f w e examin e th e cerami c "hotspots i n tota l ther e i s roughl y a circula r patter n t o thei r distribution Thi s i s reminiscen t o f th e Montserrat e sit e patter n reporte d man y year s ag o b y Raine y (1940:77 ) an d recentl y b y Ro e (Ro e e t al 1985:2) Stag e Tw o Results : Intensiv e Excavation s A s discusse d above th e thre e samplin g zone s var y considerabl y i n are a (Fig 9) O f th e tota l 28 0 m 2 excavate d a t Maisabel 19 0 m 2 ar e i n stratu m 1 4 0 m 2 ar e i n stratu m 2 an d 5 0 m 2 ar e i n stratu m 3 Th e fractio n o f eac h stratu m excavate d i s quit e smal l (Fig 9) wit h th e greates t propor tiona l attentio n bein g pai d t o stratu m 3 Excavatio n unit s measurin g 2 x 2 m wer e place d systematicall y acros s stratu m 1 A s predicted thi s zon e yielde d considerabl e informatio n regardin g sit e structur e an d settlemen t organization I n ever y 2 x 2 m squar e tha t wa s place d i n th e larg e easter n lo w cerami c weigh t are a o f stratu m 1 a t leas t on e huma n buria l wa s encountered I n man y case s a buria l extende d int o a wal l o f a unit thu s necessitatin g a n extensio n o r a n adjacen t uni t t o b e excavated I n thes e cases additiona l burial s wer e usuall y encountered I n total 2 3 burial s wer e recovere d fro m thi s part o f th e site Earl y durin g thi s stag e o f fieldwork a post-mol d wa s foun d i n a 2 x 2 m squar e place d betwee n mound s 1 an d 2 I n orde r t o searc h fo r structura l remain s an d relate d features considerabl e attentio n wa s therefor e pai d t o thi s portio n o f th e site Excavatio n i n thi s are a eventuall y resulte d i n 3 2 2 x 2 m squares producin g wha t ha s bee n terme d th e "macroblock" A considerabl e numbe r o f feature s wer e foun d i n th e macroblock consistin g o f post-molds hearths pits tras h areas an d burial s (Fig 10) Th e most intriguin g featur e (F#101 ) locate d i n th e macrobloc k i s a lon g (roughl y 2 2 m ) narro w (8 0 c m wide) curvin g deposi t o f debri s containin g al l o f th e artifac t classe s foun d a t Maisabel wit h th e excep tio n o f cra b shel l (Figs 1 1 13) Give n tha t mos t o f th e post-molds hearths pits an d burial s i n thi s portio n o f th e sit e ar e locate d withi n th e ar c o f thi s feature i t appear s tha t w e hav e th e remain s o f a larg e structur e surrounde d b y a rin g o f refuse I n contras t t o th e mound s mentione d previously thi s refus e clearl y i s deposite d withi n a ditch Again drawin g o n analogie s wit h lowlan d Sout h Amerindia n groups i t appear s tha t thi s featur e i s a drainag e ditc h surroundin g a residentia l

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SIEGE L AN D BERNSTEI N 9 1 structure Wit h th e hig h precipitatio n i n th e tropica l rai n forest wate r wil l rapidl y floo d a hous e i n th e absenc e o f on e o f thes e ditches : Th e nort h coas t o f Puert o Ric o i s tropica l an d th e Amerindian s her e woul d hav e ha d t o dea l wit h th e sam e problem s o f wate r contro l a s thei r Sout h America n counterparts Unfortunately du e t o tim e constraints w e coul d no t completel y delimi t thi s feature However base d o n it s spatia l relationshi p t o othe r feature s i n th e macroblock i t i s apparen t tha t th e structur e originall y wa s quit e large A larg e post-mol d (F#186 ) roughl y 6 0 c m i n diamete r an d 1 m i n depth foun d withi n th e ar c o f th e ditc h i s interprete d a s on e o f a serie s o f centra l post s fo r a larg e structure Assumin g thi s post-mol d define s th e cente r o f a structur e surrounde d b y a drainag e ditch i t i s reasonabl e t o conclud e tha t th e structur e wa s originall y oblon g i n shap e an d approx i matel y 2 5 x 1 5 m i n area Thes e dimension s ca n onl y b e considere d roug h approximation s unti l th e area s betwee n th e drainag e ditc h an d th e larg e post-mol d an d th e easter n an d souther n portion s o f th e "house ar e exca vated DISCUSSIO N Combinin g th e result s o f th e auge r testin g an d th e intensiv e excava tion s suggest s tha t a considerabl e degre e o f continuit y i n settlemen t structur e i s maintaine d ove r th e perio d tha t th e Maisabe l sit e wa s occu pied Th e earlies t Saladoi d occupant s o f Maisabe l provide d th e basi c villag e groundplan Th e initia l elliptoi d for m o f th e villag e wa s estab lishe d durin g thi s occupation a phenomeno n emphasize d b y th e mounds whic h contai n material s datin g exclusivel y t o thi s tim e (represente d b y Haciend a Grand e an d Cueva s styles) Th e hous e area describe d above whic h wa s studie d wit h ou r horizonta l excavations date s t o th e subsequen t earl y Ostionoi d occupatio n an d share s th e sam e basi c elliptoi d pattern Th e larg e easter n lo w cerami c weigh t are a o f th e sit e i s th e locatio n fo r th e majorit y o f ou r huma n burials Thes e remain s spa n th e Saladoi d an d Ostionoi d occupations indicatin g a lac k o f chang e i n spac e assigne d fo r disposa l o f th e dead Thi s overal l patter n o f tempora l continuit y ha s importan t implication s fo r ou r understandin g o f earl y cerami c lifeway s an d adaptiv e strategie s i n th e Caribbean I t allow s u s t o addres s th e long-standin g issu e o f popula tio n an d cultura l dispersa l throug h th e Antille s afte r th e initia l settle men t b y Saladoi d populations I t i s generall y accepte d tha t Saladoi d people s move d graduall y fro m th e Orinoc o Valle y regio n o f Sout h Americ a throug h th e Lesse r Antille s (Rous e 1986) bu t subsequen t change s i n cerami c technology diet an d settlemen t pattern s hav e bee n th e focu s o f muc h debate Som e investigator s hav e suggeste d tha t thes e shift s ar e dramati c an d thu s reflec t th e arriva l o f a differen t cultura l grou p fro m th e Sout h America n mainlan d (e.g. Velo z Maggiol o e t al 1981) I n Puert o Rico thi s ne w migratio n i s sai d t o b e represente d b y th e Ostionoi d occupations Other s hav e argue d tha t th e cultura l change s d o no t reflec t a replacemen t o f on e grou p b y another bu t instea d ar e i n sit u development s witnesse d b y th e origina l Saladoi d inhabitant s (Rous e 1986)

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9 2 SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E Th e dat a fro m th e Maisabe l sit e suppor t thi s latte r scenario Eve n wit h th e lon g an d continuou s occupatio n o f th e site whic h produce d spatiall y overlappin g artifac t assemblages a relativel y clea r an d persis ten t settlemen t structur e i s observe d (Fig 8) W e woul d expec t tha t i f a ne w cultura l grou p move d int o th e are a possessin g a markedl y differen t adaptiv e strateg y an d worl d view the n archaeologicall y th e sit e structur e shoul d appea r les s wel l articulate d betwee n th e differen t occupationa l component s tha n wha t i s th e case Th e evidenc e collecte d t o dat e argue s fo r continuity A furthe r tantalizin g conclusio n emergin g fro m ou r consideratio n o f th e preliminar y finding s a t th e Maisabe l sit e i s tha t th e mounde d midde n area s ma y represen t mor e tha n simpl e processe s o f refus e disposal Th e regula r spacin g o f th e mound s an d th e relativel y hig h densit y o f well-mad e an d decorate d cerami c ware s foun d withi n the m ma y indicat e tha t ceremonia l o r ritua l activitie s wer e associate d wit h thes e features Th e mound s ar e prominentl y displaye d i n th e cente r o f th e sit e an d woul d provid e a visua l foca l poin t fo r th e occupant s o f Maisabel Whil e th e socia l and/o r cosmologica l significanc e o f thes e mound s i s a n issu e to o comple x t o b e deal t wit h here w e woul d lik e t o sugges t th e possibilit y tha t the y ha d importan t conceptua l meanin g t o th e inhabitant s o f th e site an d thu s wer e centra l element s withi n a highl y structure d villag e design SUMMAR Y AN D CONCLUSION S Th e preliminar y result s o f th e ongoin g Maisabe l project provid e importan t informatio n fo r ou r understandin g o f earl y cerami c perio d villag e organizatio n i n th e Caribbean Thes e dat a sugges t tha t th e Saladoi d occupant s i n th e Caribbea n provide d th e basi c organizationa l structure withi n whic h i n sit u cultura l an d adaptiv e strategie s wer e elaborate d upon modified an d evolved Change s observabl e i n diet ceremonia l life an d technolog y al l probabl y occurre d i n th e absenc e o f externa l stimuli Thi s stud y als o serve s t o demonstrat e th e relationshi p amon g samplin g design observation s o f sit e structure an d th e reconstructio n o f settle ment organization Samplin g programs suc h a s thos e describe d here ar e institute d t o provid e informatio n concernin g sit e structure I n th e Maisabe l case systematicall y place d machin e auge r pit s provid e a goo d vie w o f th e overal l artifac t distributio n a t th e site Thes e dat a als o provid e a n excellen t basi s fo r stratifyin g th e sit e fo r intensiv e excavation Whe n considere d together th e result s o f th e tw o stage s allo w fo r th e evaluatio n o f sit e structure Thi s las t step however i s no t an d shoul d no t b e th e ultimat e goa l o f researc h o n villag e life I t i s imperativ e tha t th e observation s o n sit e structur e b e broadene d int o statement s o f ho w a prehistori c settlemen t (no t site ) wa s organized I n orde r t o justif y ou r fiel d efforts w e must b e willin g t o tak e th e fina l ste p an d interpre t ou r finding s i n cultura l an d behaviora l terms

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SIEGE L AN D BERNSTEI N 9 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT S Th e Maisabe l Archaeologica l Projec t ha s bee n funde d entirel y b y th e Centr o d e Investigacione s Indgena s d e Puert o Rico Inc W e than k Albert Dekin Pete r Roe Irvin g Rouse Michae l Schiffer an d Vinca s Steponaiti s fo r constructiv e inpu t int o th e researc h and/o r comment s o n th e paper. Ros a Garci a di d (an d i s stil l doing ) a n excellen t job a s La b Director i n maintainin g a n impeccabl y organize d lab ofte n unde r advers e conditions Finally w e woul d lik e t o than k Migue l Roc a fo r hi s mora l (an d other ) suppor t durin g al l phase s o f th e project REFERENCE S CITE D Chang Kwang-chi h (editor ) 196 8 Settlemen t Archaeology Nationa l Pres s Books Pal o Alto Flannery Kent V 197 6 Researc h Strateg y an d Formativ e Mesoamerica I n Th e Earl y Mesoamerica n Villag e (Ken t V Flannery d.) pp 1-11 Academi c Press Ne w York Hietala Harol d (editor ) 198 4 Intrasit e Spatia l Analysi s i n Archaeology Cambridg e Universit y Press Ne w York Jones Alic k R 198 5 Dietar y Chang e an d Huma n Populatio n a t India n Creek Antigua. America n Antiquit y 50:518-536 Keegan Willia m F 198 5 Dynami c Horticulturalists : Populatio n Expansio n i n th e Prehistori c Bahamas Ph.D dissertation Universit y o f Californi a a t Lo s Angeles Universit y Microfilms An n Arbor Kent Susa n (editor ) 198 7 Metho d an d Theor y fo r Activit y Are a Research : A n Ethno archaeologica l Approach Columbi a Universit y Press Ne w York Rainey Froelic h G 194 0 Port o Rica n Archaeology Ne w Yor k Academ y o f Sciences Scientifi c Surve y o f Port o Ric o an d th e Virgi n Islands Vol 18 Par t 1 Ne w York Roe Pete r G. Agamemno n G Pantel an d Margare t B Hamilto n 198 5 Monserrat e restudied : Th e 197 8 Centr o fiel d seaso n a t Luquill o Beach : Excavatio n overvie w an d physica l anthropo logica l remains Pape r presente d a t th e 11t h Congres s o f th e Internationa l Associatio n fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Sa n Juan)

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9 4 SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E Roosevelt Ann a C 198 0 Parmana : Prehistori c Maiz e an d Manio c Subsistenc e alon g th e Amazo n an d Orinoco Academi c Press Ne w York Rouse Irvin g 198 2 Cerami c an d Religiou s Developmen t i n th e Greate r Antilles Journa l o f Ne w Worl d Archaeolog y 5(2):45-55 198 5 Arawaka n Phylogeny Caribbea n Chronology an d thei r Implica tion s fo r th e Stud y o f Populatio n Movement I n L a Esfer a d e Interacci n d e l a Cuenc a de l Orinoco : Festschrif t a Marshal l Durbin Institut o Venezolan a d e Investigacione s Cientficas Caracas 198 6 Migration s i n Prehistory : Inferrin g Populatio n Movemen t fro m Cultura l Remains Yal e Universit y Press Ne w Haven Schiffer Michae l B 197 2 Archaeologica l contex t an d systemi c context America n Antiquit y 37:156-165 197 6 Behaviora l Archeology Academi c Press Ne w York 198 3 Towar d th e identificatio n o f formatio n processes America n Antiquit y 48:675-706 198 7 Formatio n Processe s o f th e Archaeologica l Record Universit y o f Ne w Mexic o Press Albuquerque Torres-Gonzlez Arturo an d Jos R Da z 198 4 Wate r Resource s o f th e Saban a Sec a t o Veg a Baj a Area Puert o Rico U.S Geologica l Survey Wate r Investigation s Repor t 82-4115 Velo z Maggiolo Marcio Elpidi o Ortega an d Ange l Cab a Fuente s 198 1 Lo s Modo s d e Vid a Meillacoide s y su s Posible s Origines Muse o de l Hombr e Dominicano Sant o Domingo

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tre a Pt a 'o_ Cerr o Gord o ^ Sa n Jua n 65 3 0 ATLANTI C OCEA N PUERT O AK^ B t ^Caj a d e Muerto s o s o Figur e 1 Ma p o f Puert o Ric o showin g th e locatio n o f Maisabel nort h o f Veg a Baja

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Atlanti c Ocea n i i i l Crr o \ •-. Sr.' r .' Figur e 2 Detai l o f Maisabe l setting Th e Ca o Cab o Caribe Ca o La s Pozos an d th e lowe r locate d withi n a mangrov e swamp Contou r interval s ar e i n meters

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„ I y A • • • ft • • , ( • j ¡ftii f # ft • • • • ft 4 ft [{#-/. • ft ft ft ft ft ft • • r ft ft ft ft ##•••••••• • | < i ft * •.•_•• • ftft 1 ft ft ft ft ft • • • • / V • f t ft* ft • • ft • ftift ft • */ ft ft ft ft ft ft • • ft ft • • • ; • / ft ft ft ft ft ft ft • • • • • */ S / : / ft ft • ft ft ft • • • • ft • ft • / ', ft ft ft ft ft ft i • • • I • ft / :' ft ft ft ft ft *•*•• • ft,' 1 ft ft -s \ • t > • ft • ft ft ft ft ft * • / • ft ft ft # AHCHA£OL'.""-tCA StRtf./ M A ISABE L ARCHAEOLOGICA L PROJEC T 1985-198 7 CENTR O D L INVESTIGACIONE S INPlGFNA S D E PUERT O RIC O IN C -SA N JUA N .PUERT O RIC O PFT£ R e SIEGF. L ARCMAfULOCS T LHi S ROC A a ASSO C ARCHITECT S FNGiNFR S PM : R 0 M U E V n w A H 0 V F G A E AJ A P u FRT RIC O Figur e 3 Fiel d i n whic h th e Maisabe l sit e i s located showin g th e auge r pi t dist r deploye d o n a 30—i n interval resultin g i n 25 6 soundings

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9 8 SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E • s i ; 4J 0 3 1) r1 O d j a B 41 •il C u c d 0) c 3 O o 3 li 41 C D 11 • H 41 I X O ) c c a ft W I o ; 'a : • H O ll 0 ) 0 0 3 n j < u 41 0 ) 4J C O > C O O X O ) / i O 0 ) C D 3 O 3 i H C D 11 3 M • H ta • 11 0 ) b O 3 C O

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SIEGE L AN D BERNSTEI N 9 9 •mu W •-" 3 ?8¡?t •M' 2&^T • • v : : i&fStr, StTiK'.. <#•'" ' ai* f / ^ '* j i • .", C O • H 41 c d u M 3 b O t u

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10 0 SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E • I Figur e 6 Detai l o f auge r bit. Th e resultin g hol e i s uniforml y 5 5 c m i n diameter an d w e consistentl y obtaine d a dept h o f 2 m

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LEGEN D 0 0 o ISOi j II IXCA L |rt((T Y L I ARCHAEOLOGICA L SERIE S 1 • i t: s i E r t : L A <~. •M A .985-198 7 • J ; H f. S Figur e 7 Densit y distributio n o f th e cerami c artifact s recovere d i n th e machin e auge r p i interva l i s 50 0 grams Notic e tha t th e sit e i s roughl y circula r t o horsesho e i n shape T h densit y area s correspon d t o mounde d midde n areas

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: V LEGE N IS S • • m ARCHAEOLOGICA L SERIE S MA' ISABE L ARCHAEOLOGICA L PROJEC T 198 5 198 7 CENTR O D E INVESTIGACIONE S INDGENA S D E PUERT O RIC O IN C -SA M I I J A N P U ERT t RIC O PETE R SIEGE L ARCHAEOLOGIS T LUI S ROC A a ASSO C ARCHITECT S ?M'3i-NEER S PUERT O NUEV O WAR D VEG A BAJ A PUERT O RIC O Figur e 8 Cerami c densit y distributio n collapse d t o thre e groups Th e large.s t are a b y auge r pit s containin g les s tha n 50 0 gram s o f pottery Th e intermediat e are a (col o th e map ) i s th e zon e wher e eac h auge r pi t produce d potter y weighin g 500-150 0 grams zone correspondin g t o mounde d midde n areas generate d potter y i n exces s o f 150 0 gra m pit Th e spatia l distributio n o f thes e mound s produce s a roug h circula r patter n i n t h th e site

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STRATU M EXCAVATE D ARE A (m 2 ) ARE A EXCAVATE D (m 2 ) STRATU M ARE A EXCAVATED(% ) % O F TH E TOTA L EXCAVATE D ARE A VOLUM E EXCAVATE D (m 3 ) 133,93 0 19 0 .1 4 67.8 5 144.15 5 32,02 0 4 0 ,1 2 14.2 8 53.33 7 6,33 0 5 0 17.8 5 70.61 7 TOTA L 172,28 0 28 0 1 6 99.9 8 268.10 9 Figur e 9 Strat a areas excavate d area/stratum percentag e o f strat a area s percentag e o f tota l excavate d are a b y stratum volum e excavated / stratum an d p e tota l excavate d volum e b y stratum

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-n—^ A* „ ^¡ b r • Figur e 10 Ma p o f th e macroblock Th e ditc h featur e (F101 ) i s see n clearl y i n th e north e macroblock extendin g i n a n east-wes t orientatio n an d curvin g t o th e sout h a t th e eas t en d area Th e ver y larg e post-mol d (possibl e centerpost:F186 ) i s bisecte d b y th e nort h wal l o size d excavatio n uni t see n i n th e southeas t sectio n o f thi s map

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Figur e 11 Stai n o f ditc h featur e (FlOl ) clearl y see n i n on e o f th e 2 X 2 m excava t th e norther n sectio n o f th e macroblock Notic e th e linea r aspec t o f th e feature a n tratio n o f artifact s withi n th e featur e fill Th e featur e fil l consist s o f a dar k silt wherea s th e surroundin g matrix i s a brown-mottle d orang e clay A t thi s dept h groun d surface ) th e cla y matrix i s culturall y sterile

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10 6 SAMPLIN G FO R SIT E STRUCTUR E 0 ) V X • u v 4i L -;.^ B£j••.* •, KI-J. ^ ta a^P^ i $ |L"^J-S B r '' r 'rt : gW^V j ^ > o ( 0 41 • ll t 3 t O •rl 4 J et ) > C O O X C U e C M X C M 0 1 IBp i x "J **-> o / o 5 -•;# ^ •-•• • • ? s c > II u c d • 2 u c a ) QJ C O c o • H C U I 3 4 J tf l 0 1 m X u 41 • H X I C U X 41 v 0 ) u 0 ) M • C M i— 1 C U V J 3 M • H f n >. X ) u C 0 ) ll c d a a t o C U ii 0 e t o • II 0 1 u 3 41 c d a i m C U X 41 /— s X c o 3 It X 41 C • H c d a i— i iH c d e C O C U X 41 X 41 • H J S 41 X M • H U C U X 41 0 41 41 • H c 3 C U X 4 J c M • M O o I— 1 X o u u c o e 1 • H 41 41 • H X ) C O • II 41 • H > c d II o c u 1 S O S i— i •iI 0 t o t C U X ) X ) • H S 6 0 .i C c d li O c u X 4 J 6 0 c • H X C J c d c u ll o 41 Sl o • II ll PL • c • ll t o 4 J C D i— 1 •iI O c o C U X 4J >, X e t O X 41 t o • ll 41 3 X • H ll 4J 0 3 • H X ) 41 O c d 41 • H 41 ii c d c u X 4J c d li C U t c u 6 0 6 0 t •iI X I t 3 0 li li 3 c o c u X 4) e o ll 41 i— 1 •• H O C D c u ll 3 4 J tf l C U 41 C U X 41 41 O t • ll c d 41 t o C U X 4 J X c o •il 3 6 0 t • H 4 J C D • H X I o 41 41 i— l 3 o X • H U 4 J t d E 6 0 t •iI X ) t 3 0 li li 3 C D C U X 4 J O 41 X I c u C D O C L o o C D c o c u ii 3 41 c d c u 41 c u X 4 J t • ll X 41 • ll s C D 41 C U O U t d 3 41 4 J • H c d 41 C U ll 41 t o X 41 C J O 4 J •rl t X ) O • •i c u 41 X t d 4 J ll 41 41 t O c u O ll t O O 4 J o c d X -.I 6 0 X ) • H £ 2 X -.i C U X ) X O 41 O 6 0 s U c d c u > c o C U -iI

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SIEGE L AN D BERNSTEI N 10 7 % -tifo $0m*mm ~-~ ;* ^\>~3^ ? •,. Figur e 13 A vie w o f th e ditc h featur e extendin g acros s a numbe r o f excavatio n unit s withi n th e macroblock

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10 8