Citation

Material Information

Title:
A Preliminary Inventory and Short Essay on Ceramic and Stone Artifacts from Recent Excavations on Grenada and in the Southern Grenadines
Series Title:
Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
Creator:
The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology (IACA) ( Sponsor )
Lesley A. Sutty ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Publisher:
Cultural Resource Solutions
Copyright Date:
1991
Language:
English
Spanish

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
West Indies -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Caribbean Area -- Antiquities -- Congresses
Antiquities
Indians of the West Indies -- Antiquities
West Indies.
Genre:
Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses

Notes

General Note:
Title from container insert. "1961 to 2005."
Statement of Responsibility:
Produced for IACA by Cultural Resource Solutions ; [Kelley Scudder, editor ; Daniel Hughes, assistant editor]

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item was contributed to the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) by the source institution listed in the metadata. This item may or may not be protected by copyright in the country where it was produced. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by applicable law, including any applicable international copyright treaty or fair use or fair dealing statutes, which dLOC partners have explicitly supported and endorsed. Any reuse of this item in excess of applicable copyright exceptions may require permission. dLOC would encourage users to contact the source institution directly or dloc@fiu.edu to request more information about copyright status or to provide additional information about the item.
Resource Identifier:
191827772 ( OCLC )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Digital Library of the Caribbean

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A PRELIMINAR Y INVENTOR Y AN D SHOR T ESSA Y O N CERAMI C AN D STON E ARTIFACT S FRO M RECEN T EXCAVATION S O N GRENAD A AN D I N TH E SOUTHER N GRENADINE S Lesle y A Sutt y INTRODUCTIO N Th e abundanc e o f cerami c style s presen t i n archaeologica l site s i n Grenad a an d th e Souther n Grenadines togethe r wit h ston e artifact s an d worke d shells ma y b e considere d th e sourc e o f materia l fo r extensiv e comparativ e studie s i n th e Souther n Caribbea n an d th e Lesse r Antilles Excavation s an d genera l fiel d researc h ove r a n extende d two-yea r perio d (1985/1986 ) hav e underline d wit h mor e precisio n th e allianc e an d exchang e syste m tha t mus t hav e existe d betwee n Saladero Barrancas Trinida d an d th e Guiana s togethe r wit h Brazi l toward s Grenada, th e Grenadines an d island s t o th e north Thi s patter n o f movemen t ha s bee n greatl y enlarge d an d confirme d b y recen t studie s an d researc h b y Rouse Allair e an d Boomert H Petitjea n Roget thi s author an d Zucch i wh o suggest s a retur n movement toward s th e Orinoco Th e profusio n o f cerami c style s i n th e island s her e studie d point s t o enormou s cultura l interchang e throughou t nearl y al l establishe d Horizo n marker s fro m th e pre-Christia n era Th e inventor y whic h i s bein g establishe d woul d b e mad e usefu l b y potter y temperin g sample s an d thei r analysis especiall y wher e ceramic s prov e t o b e importations wit h a photographi c referenc e catalogu e o f th e numerou s style s encountered DISCUSSIO N Man y artifact s i f not al l merit discussion bu t th e observation s wil l b e limite d here an d th e reade r referre d t o th e illustration s an d thei r accompanyin g remarks Th e tw o microlit h "zemis" o r three-cornere d "stones (Fig 1) bot h wit h mer e 19-m m base s ar e amongs t th e smalles t o f thei r kind ; bot h deriv e fro m th e sam e leve l an d context ; an d bot h hav e punctate d summits Th e gree n ston e artifac t ma y hav e bee n eithe r inspire d b y o r anterio r t o th e identica l Strombus gigas artifact althoug h th e contrar y cas e canno t b e disregarded Base s ar e bevelle d an d indicat e a n earl y tim e marke r betwee n 20 0 an d 40 0 A.D T o dat e n o othe r gree n ston e "zemis hav e bee n reporte d fro m thi s are a an d thos e fro m Grand e Terr e i n Guadeloup e (Cler c 1973:76 ) wer e i n thei r mos t diminutiv e form s (3 7 m m lon g an d 2 4 m m high ) I t ma y wel l b e con sidere d tha t n o smalle r suc h artifact s o f thi s kin d hav e bee n foun d i n th e Caribbean Thei r siz e provoke d th e followin g suggestio n fro m Dr Jacque s Petitjea n Roget tha t "thes e ma y wel l b e i n fac t a for m o f 'labret o r li p ornament. I t wa s note d a t th e tim e o f collectio n tha t thes e tw o "stones wer e belo w a crumblin g sepultur e area wher e bot h juvenil e an d adul t bone s 7 3

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7 4 INVENTOR Y O F ARTIFACT S FRO M TH E GRENADINE S AN D GRENAD A ha d bee n observed an d tha t suc h smal l item s might possibl y hav e bee n destine d a s protectiv e cul t object s fo r th e smalle r being s o f th e tribe Als o fro m thi s cultura l contex t i s a ver y finel y worke d bel t ornamen t o r othe r adornmen t mad e o f shell mos t probabl y S. gigas measurin g 4 0 m m (Fig 2) Thi s artifac t an d th e rar e vomitin g spatul a fro m Mis s Pierr e o n Unio n Island mad e fro m th e dorsa l mai n whor l o f a Charonia variegata (Fig 3) ar e uniqu e shel l element s fro m thi s area W e hav e littl e evidenc e o f th e us e o f hallucinogen s i n th e Grenadines apar t fro m portion s o f nostri l bowl s an d a n earl y cerami c effig y bottl e foun d a t th e Chatha m Sit e o n Unio n Islan d (Sutt y 1985) Thu s thi s spatul a provide s stron g proo f tha t narcotic s wer e use d an d wer e par t o f th e life-way s o f th e Grenadin e cultures Anothe r shel l artifact mad e o f Strombus gigas an d measurin g 4 8 mm appear s t o b e a n incrustatio n (Fig 4) thu s suggestin g th e earl y presenc e o f woo d carving s i n thi s area Afte r carefu l stud y o f numerou s jadeit e an d shel l artifacts i t becam e increasingl y eviden t tha t man y other s als o wer e incrustations althoug h non e wer e o f th e dimensio n o f th e on e figured I t i s suspecte d that fo r th e mos t part the y wer e incorporate d int o carving s a s ey e pieces Th e ceramic s show n her e (Figs 5-29 ) ar e fro m Blac k Ba y an d Gran d Ba y o n Carriacou Pearl s Airpor t o n Grenada ; an d Mis s Pierr e o n Unio n Island On e particula r piec e fro m Gran d Ba y (Fig 20 ) althoug h reminiscen t o f spout s o r bottl e neck s foun d o n rar e occasion s throughou t th e mainland resemble s ver y closel y a pip e fro m th e E l Palit o phase Estad o Carabob o i n Venezuel a (Sanoj a 1982:178 Plat e 88) Th e interio r wall s o f thi s cerami c ar e indee d blackened an d thi s "pipe ma y wel l b e a n exchang e object brough t fro m th e mainlan d t o th e Grenadin e islan d o f Carriacou Th e burnishin g an d colouratio n o f th e potter y i s itsel f unique wit h a mauv e ting e t o i t tha t i s uncommo n i n Gran d Ba y ceramics A numbe r o f ceramic s figure d ar e fro m th e Pearl s Airport sit e wher e huma n an d anima l representation s ar e profuse Bot h Insula r Saladoid Saladoi d an d Barrancoid an d i n som e case s Guapoi d cultura l influenc e i s present Th e Pearl s midde n togethe r wit h th e livin g are a a t th e mout h o f th e rive r i s situate d o n th e abandone d Airpor t sit e o f thi s name an d ha s no w becom e subjec t t o dail y clandestin e disturbance Th e residua l artifact s ar e densel y packe d int o dar k eart h ove r thi s vast settlemen t whic h goe s bac k inlan d an d u p int o th e hills Thi s ancien t encampmen t offer s undeniabl y th e mos t origina l example s o f pre-Columbia n cerami c ar t an d technology Th e Pearl s Airpor t sit e shoul d b e considere d a s on e o f th e mos t importan t source s o f documentatio n fo r th e archaeolo gist Whe n studyin g thes e differen t ar t forms i n th e majorit y o f case s i t wa s observe d tha t th e divinitie s wer e no t monstrou s o r aggressiv e i n thei r attitudes o r eve n particularl y provocative Indeed the y wer e rathe r pleasing whic h woul d indicat e th e artist' s temperament Bu t wha t i s s o astonishin g i n th e cultura l conten t o f thi s settlemen t i s th e grea t abundanc e o f s o man y differen t cerami c huma n an d anima l representations

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SUTT Y 7 5 seemin g withou t pai r i n thi s par t o f th e Caribbean I t i s a s thoug h migratin g mainlan d culture s o f th e differen t origin s mentione d abov e memorized ove r a spac e o f severa l hundre d years personalitie s tha t ha d profoundl y marke d the m mentall y an d morally an d whic h wer e religiou s and/o r mythica l symbols Man y o f thes e potterie s woul d hav e bee n grav e goods al l o f the m essentiall y hybri d i n aspect--moo n symbols fo r example associate d wit h toad s an d frogs turtles armadillos peccary manatee an d man y others Mos t settlement s studie d ar e a t rive r mouth s o r o n bluff s facin g th e ocea n an d fringin g reefs Th e us e o f shel l materia l i s importan t i n th e Grenadin e site s an d noticeabl y absen t i n Grenad a settlements wher e th e Indian s continue d fo r som e tim e inlan d huntin g o f th e fe w endemi c specie s there i.e. birds lizards opossu m an d th e no w extinc t armadillo ofte n t o b e see n a s cerami c decoration CONCLUSIO N Her e w e hav e perhap s a singl e divinit y wit h multipl e facets portrayin g wha t wa s visuall y see n b y th e artist combinin g differen t aspect s o f himself transformin g an d transplantin g persona l concepts a calligraphi c simultaneit y impressin g thought s an d desires Thi s differen t cerami c evidence figure d i n th e followin g pages i s i n itsel f a dictionary providin g a n elaborat e pictur e o f thes e cultures beliefs thei r personalitie s an d wa y o f life an d apparen t desir e t o mak e friend s an d allie s o f thei r benefactor s o r divinities b y sendin g the m message s vi a birds beast s o f th e lan d an d sea an d o f thei r making I t ha s no w becom e imperativ e tha t i t b e remembere d tha t becaus e th e Grenadine s an d Grenada du e t o th e ver y slo w demographi c populatio n explosio n i n th e are a i n moder n times ar e th e las t intac t proo f an d evidenc e o f 200 0 year s o f India n settlemen t (representin g no w extinc t cultures) ever y measur e shoul d b e take n t o protec t thes e site s an d limi t thei r disturbance Bullen i n hi s stud y o n th e archaeolog y o f Grenad a mor e tha n 2 0 year s ago estimate d tha t th e regio n wa s inhabite d o n a larg e scal e b y pre-Columbia n culture s fro m befor e th e tim e o f Christ an d Pearl s unti l 30 0 A.D However thes e date s applyin g t o th e Grenadine s ma y ultimatel y b e prove d mor e ancien t i n tim e b y ne w datin g methods REFERENCE S USE D Bullen,R P 196 4 Th e Archaeolog y o f Grenada Wes t Indies Contribution s o f th e Florid a Stat e Museum Socia l Science s II Gainesville 197 2 Archaeologica l Investigation s o n St Vincen t an d th e Grena dines Wes t Indies Th e Willia m Bryan t Foundatio n America n Studie s 8 Orlando

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7 6 INVENTOR Y O F ARTIFACT S FRO M TH E GRENADINE S AN D GRENAD A Brochado 198 4 J P A n ecologica l mode l o f th e sprea d o f potter y an d agricultur e int o easter n Sout h America Unpublishe d Ph.D dissertation Departmen t o f Anthropology Universit y o f Illinois Urbana Clerc E 197 3 Lavalle D 197 0 Le s Troi s Pointe s de s Site s Prcolumbien s d e l a Ct e Nord-Es t d e l a Grand e Terr e d e l a Guadeloupe Proceeding s o f th e Fourt h Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (St Luci a 1971) pp 73-81 Le s reprsentation s animale s dan s l a cramiqu e Mochica Mmoire s d e l'Institu t d'Ethnologi e IV Mus e d e l'Homme Paris Mattioni M. an d R P Bulle n 197 0 A Chronologica l Char t fo r th e Lesse r Antilles Proceeding s o f th e Thir d Internationa l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Grenad a 1969) pp 1-3 Petitjea n Roget H 197 7 Chronologi e Culturell e de s Petite s Antilles tribuer Not e dis Rouse I. L Allaire an d A Boomer t 198 5 Easter n Venezuela th e Guianas an d th e Wes t Indies I n Chronologie s i n Sout h America n Archaeolog y (Clemen t W Meighan, d.) Universit y o f California Lo s Angeles Sanoj a Obediente M 197 9 La s Cultura s Formativa s d e Orient e Naciona l d e Historia Caracas Venezuela Academi a 198 2 D e l a Recolecci n a l a Agricultura Histori a Genera l d e Americ a 3 (Guillerm o Moron d.) Caracas : Academi a Naciona l d e l a Histori a d e Venezuela Sutty L 198 3 1985 a Liaiso n Arawak-Caliviny-Cari b betwee n Grenad a an d St Vincent Lesse r Antilles Proceeding s o f th e Nint h Interna tiona l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Sant o Doming o 1981) pp 145-153 A listin g o f Amerindia n settlemen t o f th e islan d o f Carriaco u i n th e Souther n Grenadine s an d a repor t o n th e most importan t o f these--Gran d Bay Pape r presente d t o th e Elevent h Internationa l Congres s fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Sa n Juan)

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SUTT Y 7 7 1985 b A n Earl y Cerami c Effig y Bottl e fro m Chatha m Pasture Unio n Islan d i n th e Grenadines Proceeding s o f th e Tent h Interna tiona l Congres s fo r th e Stud y o f th e Pre-Columbia n Culture s o f th e Lesse r Antille s (Martiniqu e 1983) pp 401-407 Zucchi A 198 8 E l Negro-Casiquiare-Alt o Orinoc o com o rut a conectiv e entr e e l Amazona s y e l nort e d e Suramerica Proceeding s o f th e Twelft h Congres s o f th e Internationa l Associatio n fo r Caribbea n Archaeolog y (Cayenn e 1987) pp 1-34 Figur e 1 Identica l 3-cornere d "stones" Th e microlit h "zemi (top ) i s o f greenstone probabl y importe d fro m th e mainland ; th e shel l artifac t (bottom ) i s th e mai n dorsa l spin e o f a Strombus gigas. Base s ar e beveled summit s hollow Bot h measur e 1 9 m m a t thei r base s an d ar e 1 2 m m high (Gran d Bay Carriacou ) Figur e 2 Shel l ornaments Th e centra l element measurin g 4 0 mm probabl y i s a uniqu e bel t buckle (Gran d Bay Carriacou )

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7 8 INVENTOR Y O F ARTIFACT S FRO M TH E GRENADINE S AN D GRENAD A Figur e 3 Vomitin g spatula Mad e fro m th e dorsa l regio n o f a Charonia variegata, thi s artifac t i s uniqu e i n th e souther n Caribbean (Mis s Pierre Unio n Island ) Figur e 4 Incrustation Mad e fro m Strombus gigas an d measurin g 4 8 mm thi s artifac t suggest s th e presenc e o f woo d carving s prehistorically (Mis s Pierre Unio n Island ) Figur e 5 Saladoi d adorned Ey e decoratio n suggest s representatio n o f a turtle (Pearl s Airport Grenada)

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SUTT Y 7 9 Figur e 6 Uniqu e armadill o divinity (Pearls Grenada ) Figur e 7 Uniqu e anima l divinities exhibitin g Barrancoi d influence (Pearls Grenada ) Figur e 8 Anima l divinity showin g Barrancoi d influence c a 40 0 A.D (Pearl s Airport Grenada )

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8 0 INVENTOR Y O F ARTIFACT S FRO M TH E GRENADINE S AN D GRENAD A Figur e 9 Uniqu e parro t divinity (Pearls Grenada ) Figur e 10 Ba t divinity showin g Guap o i d influenc e an d havin g mainlan d cerami c composition (Pearls Grenada ) • L i^> p^. ^^m Figur e 11 Hybri d anima l divinities 100-40 0 A.D (Pearls Grenada ) Figur e 12 Uniqu e Barrancoi d influ ence d anima l divinity c a 40 0 A.D (Pearl s Airport Grenada )

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SUTT Y 8 1 Figur e 13 Uniqu e Barrancoi d influ ence d anima l divinity c a 40 0 A.D (Pearl s Airport Grenada ) Figur e 14 Uniqu e hybri d anima l divinity c a 40 0 A.D (Pearl s Airport Grenada ) Figure s 1 5 an d 1 6 (lef t t o right) Huma n divinities Apparent mainlan d characteristic s provid e a n exampl e o f th e influenc e o f migratin g cultures c a 0-20 0 A.D (Pearl s Airport Grenada )

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8 2 INVENTOR Y O F ARTIFACT S FRO M TH E GRENADINE S AN D GRENAD A % S Figur e 17 Huma n divinity showin g Barrancoi d influence (Pearl s Air port Grenada ) Figur e 18 Huma n divinity showin g Barrancoi d influence (Pearl s Air port Grenada ) Figur e 19 Grenada ) Uniqu e hybri d anima l divinity c a 40 0 A.D (Pearl s Airport

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SUTT Y 8 3 — * r ^ g • Ja J Wj.. : :^m v ^fl | • v \ &j j S £ ^Pa,I^B I A t A H 1 jk ^ Figur e 20 Uniqu e red-burnished bottle-necke d vessel possibl y a "pipe" (Gran d Bay Carriacou ) ^ Figur e 21 Calivignoi d adorne d vesse l o f th e "chimney-top styl e define d b y E Kirby Figur e 22 Uniqu e Calivignoi d geo metrically-incise d divinity (Gran d Carriacou ) Figur e 23 Uniqu e lat e Calivignoid mouthless biomorphi c representaBay tion

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8 4 INVENTOR Y O F ARTIFACT S FRO M TH E GRENADINE S AN D GRENAD A V /.. ,:.f e Figur e 24 Suaze y loomweight (Mis s Pierre Unio n Island ) Figur e 25 Suazey/Calivignoi d anthropomorphi c representation (Blac k Bay Carriacou ) Figur e 26 Termina l stag e o f Amerindian o r Suazey/Carib ar t i n th e Grenadines (Gran d Bay Carriacou )

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SUTT Y 8 5 Figur e 27 Termina l stag e o f Amerindian o r Suazey/Carib ar t i n th e Grenadines (Gran d Bay Carriacou ) Figur e 28 Calivignoi d casuela (Gran d Bay Carriacou ) Figur e 29 Th e Grenadin e marsupia l "manicou" Thi s nocturna l animal a mai n foo d source i s unprotecte d b y la w an d rarel y see n today

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8 6