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Title:
Homicide in The Bahamas, 1991-2003 a descriptive research study
Creator:
Chaswell A. Hanna
Place of Publication:
Nassau, Bahamas
Publisher:
Royal Bahamas Police Force
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 89 p.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Homicide -- Bahamas -- History
Homicide investigations -- Bahamas -- History

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Chaswell A. Hanna

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Source Institution:
The University of The Bahamas Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
The University of The Bahamas Institutional Repository
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives License. This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to the author.
Resource Identifier:
70833829 ( OCLC )
Classification:
HV6535 N3 H36 2005

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H OMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 1991-2003 A Descriptive Research Study 2005 CHASWELL A. HANNA A A., B .Sc., M C J ch&swellhannaOhotmail.com Website: www.rbpf.org Email: copln39@gmail.com Phone: (242) 325-7601 or (242) 322-4444 Pax: (242) 328-2644

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MESSAGE THE COMMISSIONER OF POLICE MB. PAUL H. FARQUHARSON, QPM The crime of murder is one that citizens of a 11 nations have historically viewed as one of the most serious offenses that exist in society. This criminal offense continues to gain public notice and awareness as it ofte n dominates in media cove r age. At times, public perception ca n be warped as a result of un substa ntiat ed rum ors and anecdotes concerning the nature and inciden ce of this heinous felony. In the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the citizenry remains concerned of this illegal act as victims and offenders come from all segments and walks of life. The R oya l Bah amas Police Force is com mitted to providing clear-cut facts about this offense as well as other crimes and i ssues pertinent to the field of Law Enforcement to members of the public. I have therefore authorize d Detective Chaswell Hanna of the Central D etective Uni t to cond uct a compreh ens iv e analysis of murders that have occurred in The Bahama s over the past d ecade. This sc ientifi c research st udy, which meets scholarly standards, i s available to all members of public for consumption. I would like to express thanks to D etective Hanna for his professional quality work displayed in this study. It is endeavo red that it dispels or perhaps co nfirm s myths and differing o pini ons relative to thi s criminal offense. HOMlCID& !}I THE BAHAMAS I I

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MESSAGE ASST. COIDUSSIODJl CBDtl llJl. BIGIBALD FlllGUSOB, QPM The management of crime co ntinues to Ix-come a te-dious undertaking as the cri minal clement of today remains on t.he cutting edge o f technology a nd abreast of l aw enforce-ment tactics. It is then:fo re vital for the s u ccess of any organiz ation, la'' enforcement or o thetwi se, to invest in r esearc h which can increase agency effecti,eness and effic i e n cy and help greatl y in c h a rtin g tl1e forward. The offense of murde r a s is th e case \\lt.h all crimes, conti nu es to be a paramount co n cern to m embers of the Bahamian public in the wake o f the fear which is c reated The Roya l Police Force remain s co mmitt e d in it s e ffort to di sclose information concerni n g crime in gene ral to members of the public informa tion can be med not merely for publi c notice but as a preventative measure as well. This pioneering and time l y documentation of crime and th e c riminal clements in our soc i ety will contribute greatl y to the a lll:'viation of the fear of crime in our community. I would like to express g ratitud e to D c t ect i w Hanna who has completed a well-timed r esearch study in which its uses rangr from crim<.' preve ntion to polic y implications. It i s h o p ed that it s findin gs addresses concerns and qu es tion s that fellow Bahamian s may have and sene as an inspiration for s imilar work s in th e future. II HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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CIDBf SUPIBIBDllDBBT omCIB IR CBAllGB CDU llABVIR B. DAMIS, B.A. MESSAGE 1 The inwstigation of homi cides is a crime that requires the mos t inten se and a t times cumbersome a nention of detectins in order to );t'ld successfu l results. This accomplishment can onl y be realized with the assistance of all imestigatiw areas. In addition. suppo rt of the Cniformed B ranches and the gennal public adds in case soluti ons. Thr Homic id e Squad, offic i ally formed in 1 998, contin u es to accen tu
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR DITICTIVI CRASWELL A HANNA A.A., B.SC. (Hons) M C J D e t ec tive Corpora l # 2 66 6 Chaswell A H.mna a Degr ee in C riminaJJu stic e with a s p ecialization in La'' Enlorct:'ment f ro m the U niver sity or S o uth C arolina. Ht:' is a sef\ing p olice d e tt' CU\'e in The R oyal B a h a m as Policr Foret'. attalhed to the H o mi c id e Squad o r the C e ntral D e t ecti\'t l"nit in :\"e" Prll\idence. D e t cctiv<' Hanna has w orke d an lntern-lnn,tigato r for the C o lumbi a P olice D epa rtm e nt, Col umbia South Carolina. L"S:\. Durin g his inte rn s hip h e has had the opportunil' to work ''ith rnrio u s law e n force m ent age n c i es i ncl u ding the l"S St-u-et Sen-ice. I k has also serve d as a n Adjun ct Pro fr'"' If at the l" nhersity or So uth Car o lin a's Coll eg e o r Cri m inal Justill. prO\iding imtruction in C riminology. He h as auth o r e d ,arious \\Orlcs including Criminal I mest i ga t io n An E xami n at.io n of P o l ice Detecti't:' and Their E ff ectiven ess" and "Fos t e rin g a P ositi\ e Relat.ion,hip Bet'' een D e te c ti,es and U niform e d D etec tive H a nna a l so senes as a n Adjunu L:cturer at the C:ollt'ge or T ht:' Bah a ma s l.1ndcr thr Sch oo l or Socia l Sciences. he lectures in courses includin g C riminal Justice a nd Sociology. IvHOMICIDE IN THE BARA.MAS

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PREFACE Homicide in The Bahamas, 1991-2003, is a rigorous scientific research examination of a sample of 584 homicide incidents that occurred in the Commonwealth of The Bahamas during 1991 to 2003. Data was obtained from murder case files at the Central Detective Unit of the Royal Bahamas Police Force. Murder acijudication information was secured from the Office of the Attorney General. All of the points, conclusions and assertions mentioned are limited to the Commonwealth of The Bahamas between 1991 and 2003 and will be frequently referred to as the 'study period'. The terms 'murder' and 'homicide' are used interchangeably throughout the text. In addition, the terms 'clearance', 'detection' and 'solvency', defined by the cases being 'solved' are also used interchangeably. Complete definitions and explanations of all variables and their attributes are outlined in the Any additional terms and concepts will be explained in text. Note Graphs/tables displayed only reflect cases where the variable was able to be secured from the case file. V

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Appreciation is extended to the following persons whose significant input and assistance contributed greatly to the success of this venture: Superintendent Glenn Miller ASP Anthony Ferguson Inspector Cooper Inspector Bonaby Inspector Fernander Ms.Kemp Sergeant 106 Meronard Sergeant 785 Knowles WP/Corporal 1 867 Rolle WD/C 256 Dan-ies WD/C 2121 Dean O/C CDU, Grand Bahama & Northern Region O/C -Homicide Squad-CDU CDU -Homicide Crime Manger -Southern Division CDU -Armed Robbery Squad Senior Lecturer, Coll ege of the Bahamas. CDU -Homicide CDU -Homicide Police Room, Office of the Attorney General CDU Firearm Investigation Unit CDU -Quality Control Special thanks are given to the following p ivotal contributors to this project: Lorraine Rolle WO/Corporal 2491 Tess Newbold CDU -Civilian Personnel CDU -Quality Control Ch. Superintendent Marvin Dames & the Administration of CDU The Commissioner of Police Paul Farquharson and his Policy Team The Members of the Homicide Squad vi

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Key Facts at a Glance viii Suspert Ag<" n Su>p<"t'I Gend e r +a Foreword ix Su,peC'I :'\ationali1)-Cth niril\ +9 S11,1:>e< Rtsidcndal O i\ i s i on +'> Incidence of Homicide 2 Smp<"n :'.l .ui1al Status 50 The Dark Figurt> of Crimt" 3 StL,pt'n Emplo)1nrnt Stan" 50 :'.l urdtr l ncidt'nrt in Tht' Bahama-, 3 Suspt>cl Crimin.ii R l'rnrd .JI The H umicidt> Rall' + Homiciclt Sus pr_ Thl' B a h.1i1 1a, Ho111icidr Ra1..-5 Compari,on to 01hn C:nuntric' 6 Homicide Motives 53 llonm ick Ra1t'' 8 Grand B;ih.1111a & Famil) hl.md lo1in"> 57 Temporal Variances 11 Homicide lnv tstigation 5 9 :'.l11rd1 b\ 2\l11111h Crime C.:l 1arann 61 .\ l11rdt>r Oa\ of \\.l'l' k I C:ompa1i">11' to 01hn C:oun 1rit, 62 2\lurdrr of Da\' l.i l'lw High Ckarann Ratt The H un{ir i ck Clock .. IH Ii 1r \ lurdl'I' 1;:i l d.:nlil) at Crimt Seen.-Spatial Variances 21 & C.:rimt Clt'.1rancl' G+ ( ,J,md of :2'.? C.:lraram 1 Time (j(j l>i\ j,icmal LJCation 22 .\l o1iw & Cl.-aranrr Ra11 fit) .\na of .\lurclcr 2+ R.111k & C.:karamT R.111 tii \ \ .-apon R1cmef) 6i Homicide Weapons 27 su,pt'( l C:nnli'"i"n till CatN" uf l)t'ath 29 :'llurdrr \\'.-aprni-:rn Adjudication o f Homicide Cases 69 Tlw Humitirl1 F11111wl ofjlNin ii Vi c t:Unology 33 .\l urrll'r C::i,t" D1,poql & 1101111< ick \ iciinh jj C..11mw1ion R.111 7 + \ "inim ..,urn.1nw' :n & Puni,f1111r111 i+ \inntirm 73 \'iuim Rt'>idrnt idt ()j\i-:.iun. J8 Tlw Squad 7.i \inim .\l ari1.tl ..,1a1U' .N Dirl'l'li1111' liir Fu11m Rt,l'anh 7ti \ l
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KEY FACTS AT A GLANCE The Bahamas' murder rate was higher than the United States and about three times as much as Canada's. The Bahamas had a higher average clearance rate (detection) than the United States. Most murders occurred during the weekend between the hours of 4pm and 12am. The more popular murder locations were in homes and on the streets. Most murders occurred in the Southern Division. (see Appendix A) The 9 mm semi-automatic pistol was the weapon of choice for murderers. Most murder suspects were single, unemployed males between ages 16 and 24 years, with violent criminal records. Most murder victims were single, unemployed males between ages 16 and 24. 7 out of 10 murder victims knew their assailants. Most murders incidents stemmed from arguments. Almost 70% of murders during the time period were cleared (detected). About 37% of persons charged with murder were convicted of murder. VIU-

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FOREWORD For many n.nturies. murder has been regarded as a phenoml'non of intere s t to many persons. Across the world. murder has traditional!) been regarded to be onl' of the most sc riou crimes that an indi,idual ran perpetrate. The estranged \\iii:'. \\ ho kills ht'r hmband and children while asleep moml'llh before taking her mrn life and the disgruntled pos tal worker who goes on a murderous rampage throughout tht' office are a fe\\' recognizable e\ents that haw attracted an increasing amount of publi c attention. Crowds of remain at murder scenes for hours hopinc; to stea l a glimpse of the remmal of the bod, or the emotional rea(.'(ions of tht victim\ IO\cd one, .\'eedless to the general public to say the lea st. dews murdl'l' occurrences a" exceptionall) rapti, ating ewnts. Telt'\'i s ion producers arc ce rtainly aware of this continued curio,,it) and rarely bt'gin news broadcas t s without gruc-.onw details of the latest s laying. Printed and electronic media including the \\'oriel \\'ide \\'eb, C'agerl) anticipate headlining tht' next chfre-by shooting or nig'htdub stabbing death as they :,el'k incn'ased ratings. leaders, Sociologish. Psychologi s t s and Criminolog ist s analyze and attempt to dt'tnmine and implcmem viable methods to thi, !>Ocial ill. Thi, phenomenon ha s abo !{aincd the attention of ,cholar" who LI"} to explain it'> mTurrence '' i1h ,ast \arie til of factors. Thl Common\\'ealth of The Bahamas has mll been exdudl'd among counufr,, that nnht address this \'en heinou" act. Bahamia1h \\hoar(' alrcad\ com.idercd to be a rather inquisiti\t a0nd at time nose) peoplt', han s imilarh it a poin1 to gather as much 'go,sip murdrr incidents as possibk. '!'hr murder" of Sir Harn Oab, Dr. \le\t'r Ra,,,,in. Sister Clarl' Ha-,,,, the Honorablt' Chuck \ ir)..,ril and :'\\1r,f'.Joan Lunn. arc lmt a lc\1 lhe man) popular rasts that haw been cn,hrinl'ct as landmark hiswrical t, ents in the n1ind" or many Bahamiam. Oue to t"Xtemh c local media attention. many llH'mbcrs of the public remain cominccd and connrned or a constantly inrrca,ing-murder rate rec;ardles, of .lll) reduction s in ineidence or inrr!'asr in dcarann>. Comcqul'nlly. the a\'era .l{t' Bahamian citizl'n is lcli with a warped and at lime mi sleading perception ol' the nature and extent or this olltnst'. Tht:refore, it is a reasonal>ll' expectation l(1r la\\ l'lll(lJ'('('lll('nl otlicials to provide l'111pirical l'\'idenn COllCl't'llillg' tlw natur\' or homil'idt to of tht' public. Ix

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1 I INCIDENCE OF HOMICIDE THE DARK FIG URE OF CRIME One of th e major s hortcoming s of offi c ial police s tati s ti cs in g e nera l i s that they do n o t ac c ount for unreport e d or unid e nt ifie d c rim es Europ e an Crimin o logi s t s u sed th e phrase dark .figure o f cri m e t o refe r to th e numb e r criminal offen ses th a t h a d see min g l y escap e d publi c n o ti ce. Ir wa s therefore a ss um e d that for every1 offe n se th a t cam e t o th e att e ntion o f authorW e s th e r e wer e also a n un specifi e d numb e r of undi s clo se d cri m es crime collectio n methods. however see k to gain a more precise and accurace race or criminal offenses. The :\ational Crime \ i ctimization Surny (;\IC\' J rnll<'cted by the L"nited States' Bureau of jus tice Stati stics, for example, focuses its atlention on persons w h o have been of cri mi nal offenses but failed to report their vinimizations. Although mort' difficull in other categories of crime, an accurate figure as tu the incidence of murder pre se nts it s own unique intricacies. Tht exact amount of murder may be difficult to secur(' consideri n g the various cla ssifica tions of death. These categories include death, described as sudden', 'accidental' or 's uicidal'. The determination of official cla,siflcation is based on the of the initial crime sce ne inws tigation The crucial howewr, becomes just how many dcach s not as murders were in fart murders. It would be safe to conclucie that an answer of zero rannot bl reasonabl) assumed. Hence. 1he unit of analysis in this ''ill be limited w reported offirially classified as murder. MURDER INCIDENCE IN THE BAHAMAS The Rahama' had a rather sporadic year l y inc:ici('11c of reported homicide during the study pl'r i od. This sporadic trend can be best dl'scribtd as a 'see saw' pauern for the first eight years of the study period. In other worth, betwe<'n 1991 and J 998, a yea r or a lcl\\ t'r homicide incidl.'llCt' was follm\ cd by a higher incidence 3HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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for thr nexr From 1997, there has been a s ignificant incrt'asc in murder inridl'nh until thl' amou111 peaked in 2000. I n fact, bet\\C<'n 1997 and 2000. h o mi cide incidents increased by almost -t-0 o. As illu s t rated in Figur e 1.1, the year of 1991 was marked by the lowest amount o f r eportt'd homicidt during the study period in which twcnry-eight (28) cases were reported. In the year '.WOO. the h o m icide incirlenct' was at i b highe s t when it pcakt'd at seventy -four 17-l) cases. Figure I I Homicide Incidents by Year, 1991-2003 .. ._ 80 70 60 50 -r=-40 30 20 10 The Raham.1-, a\eraged apprmimatcly -t-8 hnmit ide incirlenh durin!?; the entin stud) period .\Ionrecent!): the last five years or thl' period ) icldcd an mcragc of .16 homicide incidents. \\"ith an awragr rt' ported murder incidcncl' or -1-9 b t' t\\"et'n 199-1and 1998. it appear-, that tlw homiridc incidmn has increa scp on anragc owr the last tell year.-. of the period. THE HOMICIDE RATE There arc mall) members or Lhl' Bahamian public \\"ho p1rcl'iw that The has far ton man) homicide' for it s relatiwly -.mall population. I n order to lind -.upport for this perception. a comparison or tlw incidt>nce of homicide in Tlw lhhama" and other countries llllhl be conclu1t1d. .for comparison 111 be made. a homicide rate be gc n crattd li>r The Bah;-ima-,. HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 4

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The homicide r..ite is a statist ical tool that re searchers utili.i:c to accurately compare and rnlllrast the in cidence of murder between various rnuntri es. This figure is difi e ren t from theamount of murdt>r incidt>nt s and is grnc-rated as a function of the population of the particular county or juris diction of inter est. Homic ide rates are typicall y quot ed as per I 00.000 population and are generated by th e following equation: Number of Homicides X 100 000 = Homicide Rate Population 1 Historical l ), The Bahamas has been \iewed as a country \\.ith an ext remel y h ig h murder rat<:. The I nternational Police Organization (Interpol) conducted a s tudy on homicide across the world during the late 1970s. As illustrated in Table 1.1, The Bahamas was ranked 2nd in the Top len \\'orst Countries for Though not directly applicable today, the rate of murder in The Bahamas in the past was of suffic i e nt significa nce to gain international atte ntion Table 1 1 Ten Worst Countries for Murder, (19 7 0 s) 1{: 1 ll' l 'I" 11111 000 I. L esotho 1 4 1 2 Bahamas 23 3. G u ya n a 22 4 Leban o n 20 5 Ne th erla n ds A ntill es 1 2 6 I raq 12 7. Sri Lanka 12 8 C)prus 11 9 Trinidad & Tobag o 1 0 I 0 Jamaica 10 J111m1atia11a l Crime Statisltcs. 1980. THE BAHAMAS' HOMICIDE RATE .\ccurding to the Bahamas Department of Statistics (DOSI thc population \ll" The Bahamas increa sed from 253.0-1-9 in 1990 to 303,li 11 in '.WOO. Durin g thl' imer-ccnsal pniod of 1990 to 2000, tlw total population of The Bahamas 1 9 o -1-8.562 persons '. This re s ultt d in an annual grmnh rate or 1.8 o DOS. 2002 5 HOMICID! IN TH! BAHAMAS

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---The aYerage annual population grow th fr o m 200 0 through 2003 was estimated to b e 1.9 u DOS, 20031. Hence, the t'st imatt>d population proje(tio n for 200 I t hrou g h 2003 based on th e a nnual gro\\'th rate of I .9 o brings th e population in 2003 a t approximately 320.918. Csing these population estimates. The B ahamas homi c ide rate for the I 3-yea r period ave raged 16.GG per I 00.000 inhabitants. \ s shown in Table 1.2, th e rate ne\er )idcl s below the I 0.00 mark. As the intensi ty of the rate correl a te s with the murder in cide n ce for each it is inceres tin g to note th at in the year '.2000, The Bahamas s urpassed the relatively high murd<:>r rate' which gained international a tt e nti o n in the 1970 s as hi gh lighted in Table l. l prc\1ously. Table 1.2 Bahamas' Honticid e Rate, 19 9 1 -2 0 03. Year Bahama' er I flfl 000 199 1 1 0.78 1992 15.52 1993 13.02 1994 19.02 1995 14.39 1996 18.05 1997 16.02 1 998 19.19 1999 20.25 2000 24.37 2001 13.89 2002 1 6.50 2003 15.58 COMPARISON OF THE BAHAMAS' MURDER RATE TO OTHER COUNTRIES UNITED STATES Ac cording to the FBI. murder in cide n ce in the Cnited States dropped 20%; fro m in 1993 to 19,645 in 1996 (U.S. i\"ews & \\'oriel Report, l 998l. It is HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 6

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intne,ting to lllllt' that Thl' Bahamas rcalizl'd a similar cleneasl' of 2li" o in thl' i11('ide11t't' of' homic idl' for the time period of 1991 to I 991i. The an:rage homicide rate for the L nitrd States during the wars 1991 21102 \\"as 7.40. In The Bahama, had an m erage homicide rate of' 16. 7.J lor the -;ame time period. 11 hich \\as 56 o more than the l nitccl Stall's .\direc t comparisun ll'ith the CS and The Bahama:-rewalr d that Thr Bahama-; homicide rate has surpJYf>d i t 's lml'l''t. Table 1 3 Baharnas & U S Hornicide Rates, 1991 2002. BAIH\IAS l 'ITED 'L\R 'E.\R STATES (per /00,000J (per /0(),(){)0J 1 99 1 1 0.78 1991 9 8 1992 1 8.52 1992 9.3 1993 13.02 1993 9.5 1 994 *19.02 1 994 9 0 1995 1 4.39 1995 8 2 1 996 *18.05 1996 7.4 1997 16.02 1997 6 8 1998 1 9 1 9 1 998 6 .3 1999 *20.25 1 999 5 7 2000 24.37 2000 5 5 2001 1 3.89 2001 5 6 2002 2002 5 6 FBI, Un.ifonn Crime Reporls 1991-2()()2. Y ears w here Baluuniall rate nwre than doubl e d US rate. CANADA The Canadian homicide rate has generally been decrea sing since the mid-I 970s. lollo\, in g in c reast s during the latf> 1960s and early 19 7 0s. \crnrding to Canadian 7 HOMI ClDI! IN THE BAHAMAS

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----Stali,Lics: Justin and Crime '..!lHJ'.3 in I Canada\ n11mh r rate \\"ih I. 7G per llHJ.()1)0 inhabitants. . '.200:3. The total numbl'r of murckr' in C:anar Canada \l'L'llt dmrn i p<"rc<"'1lt in 10 its lm\"l's t 11\rl in o\'CT 3.) yt'ar' Can;tclia11 Statisti('s:Ju stin' & Crime. '.2()()3. Cons1quenlly. Lhl' Bahamian n111rdt'r rate ,,.a, about 3 tinws a' m11d1 a s Canada. UNITED KINGDOM [uropt';u1 1m1rclrr raw-; are u s uall y l1l\\ n \\ hrn co mparl'd to \ \'e stnn :\at ions. :\crorcling to o lli('i a l figures. thl' l"K 1Tn1rd!'d 8.)0 murder., clu1-ing th(' year or '.2000. \\'lwn population anH>lllll' ,ere factored. the L K obsi r\' c d a murckr rail' or mrrcl y 0.0 I pt-r 100.000 population. I 11 othrr words. only one of Olll l'\'l'ry te n milli o n rl'sident, of thl' l K became a 1icti111 o r a homi('id1 Dodd. e t al. :.WO I 1 AUSTRALIA The :\" ational Homicidl' .\ lonirming Pm gram :\H;\ I P i j, all annual r eport rekas rcl flom the .\ustralian lnstittttc or During '..!00'..!-'.?00'.-l. a total or homicide imiclnll' ocntrrcd cluri ng tl w rt>porting p eriod in \w,1 ralia. The,t incident' rc,uhed in the dl'ath or people. a ratt or I ( i per I 00.00U of thf' population REGIONAL HOMICIDE RATES J amaica ha, bttn info.rnou ly kn own to han o m or thl' highes t murder rate' across tht' world '.\lorr than I. I 00 people ha\c been murdt'nd i11.Ja111aira during '.200 I an itJ< TC
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Table 1 4 Regional Homicide Rates, 1997 2003. Year I Barbados j Trinidad & Bahamas Tobago I 1997 -l.0 I 8.1 16.02 1998 7..3 7.8 19.19 1999 8...l 7.-l 10.15 2000 7.3 95 2-l .37 2001 9.1 12 1 3.89 2002 9.1 LU 16.50 2CX>3 12. l I 17.9 15.58 AVG. 8.2 10.8 19.97 bzterpol. 2005. It is int e r esting to note that the murder rate' of B a r bados and Trin ida d and Tobago has nmn than doubled owr the last ,e, en hilt the Bahama: has remained mildly rnnsistent 200 l with an a\-erage of l .J.8 bet\\Cen 200 I ;md 2003. lnHre,ting ly, .Ja m a ica ,,.a, the only regional countr: examined that a higher murder rate than The Bahama,. The world lt'.1der for murder according to l atest i s Columbia, South \me 1ica with South :\frica and Jamaica coming in al second a nd third respecti\'cly :\ation .\la..,ln. 2003-'.WO;)). The B ahamas. h o\\ t'\ L'r. has one of th e highc,l murder rate' in the region as ''ell as among many of the l s t \\ orld and laq:1;er nation,. 9 HOMJCIDE IN TI!E BAHAMA S

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------HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 10-

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2 I TEMPORAL VARIANCES MURDER BY MONTH The homicide trend by month had 110 comistent gradual increase or decrease in occurrence O\'er the thirteen-year period. However, a sporadic 'up-down' patlern was obserwd o\cr the 'illldy period. In other words. a month of high murder incidents was followed by a month of rather low murder incidenrs .-\s in Figur<' 2.1, this sporadic crend injunt" and lQnlinurd through Dec1:mbcr. The most popular month for homicide\\ a., \\hi ch rcpresencld I 0 o of aJI reported rnses. The lease popular month for reponed homicide cases \\'as \\hich represented 6.5 o of all reponed l'a-c'. 2. 1 1'1onth Murder Reported, I 99 I 2003 Month Murder Reported \\'hik no s i g nifi1:ant pall<:rn existed for the last 11\e year-, of the pr1;od under examination. a d i lfrrcnt mo nt h l y crcnd Wr the time period. 13 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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I n e\amininl{ more recent yea 1-s in Figure 2.2. the least popular momh of reported homicide cases between 1999 and '.2000 was Februaf) tota lin g eightee n ( 13 1 Cil\l',. tht' month of :'\mt'mbcr onrc again yielded a rdatiH I } kl\\ amount of' rt'ported case\. H enct'. it i' accurate to say that the momh of :'\o\'!:mber tends to be tlw m o nth in whil'h the l eas t amoum of homicide l' hip ex i sts bet\H'l'n temperaLUre /se rhc ff / A theor). .\, initiall) formulated b ) Que1det 1 969. chi s theory 'uggesh chat hoc 1empera1ures lead to grt'aler disn1mfort \\'hirh in turn 1ist to more bt:'ha,ior. '.\lany h o ld chat most crim e i s commined during the sumnitr months. namt>ly i\lay through ,\ ugusl. '.\[ uch of the t'\idence f(ir tht' tempe raturt' I agg r ess i on theory consists s impl ) uf ,tudi es s hcl\\ing rorrdation s between tt'111peot11m and nime rate<, 1.-\ncler5un 1989. :WO I : The lll(>lltlb or '.\lay through Au g u s t reprcSl'nted 35 0 or all rep orted h omic idl' cases. H m\t'\'t' r J anuar) th ro u g h :\p1 i l yidcll'd l.J." o of repo rt ed cases a nd September throu gh D ('('t'lllbl'J' )il'lded 31 0 or reported S impl y put, the amount of rC'ported homicide cases du1in ,g-the summer remained similar when romparcd to the four prior to and followinl{ the summer months HOMI CID E I N THE BAHAM.AS -14-

PAGE 27

Hence. there was no significant variance between these tim e periods that supported this theory with respect to the crime homicide in The The T/ A theor) was exami ned using reported h omicide.., of more recent years ( 1999 2003 ) H owc\'cr there was no significant dilfcrcncc observed between the total amount of reported homicid e cases for th e m o nth s ::\lay through August when compa r ed to th e four m onths prior to and following the summer months. MURDER BY DAY OF WEEK The weekly p attern for r epo r ted homicide show<'d an interesting but well known trend As shO\\ n in 2.3, th e top thr ee popular days for reported homicides were Frid ay through Sundar These \\CCkcnd days accounted for nearl y hair +8 o l of all reported homicide cases with Saturday m easuri n g the highest. The lea.st popular day was Thursday. -c. ::s 0 0 Figure 2 3 Day Murder Reported, 1991 2003 90 80 70 60 50 Sm Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Day of Week Murder Reported \\'he n exami n e d for rhe l ast fi\'e years of the study, 1 999 to :l003, the pattern ge n erally 1.,imilar. As s hown in Figure 2.4, a s ignificant amount of homicide (45%) \\efl' reported O\Tr the weekend days of Friday through Sunday. l& BOMJCIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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bt't\\Ct'n tht of + :00 pm and 12:00 am. The I :00 .1m and 8:00 am had thl' least a111ou111( 26 or reponed hnmior reported homicide l:(} am. Fig"re 2.6 Time of Day .'Hurder 1999 2003 12em-e.n 328'!1. 17 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 4pm-12am 419%

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The rnriahlt's of time of day and day of \Hek \\Tre cross tabula t ed l(Jr the 1hirteen year period. Relatively higher amounts of reported cast's were l 2am 8am for tht' days of Saturday and Sunda). As highlig-htcd in Table 2.1, obsernition is at its hil{hest \\l1t"n compared to thr other days of !hl' \\eek. Table 2 1 Time of Da) & Day of Week Cross-tabulation, 1991 2003. Xam 4pm 4pm -12am 1 12am Ham I Total Sun 20 33 36 89 Mon 25 38 15 78 T u e 23 44 19 86 Wed 22 39 18 79 Thu 14 28 17 59 Fri 26 46 24 96 Sat 21 42 34 97 Total 151 270 163 584 I t must be noted that 12am Ham on Saturdays and Sundays can also be considered to bt' late Frida) and Saturday nighb. Thrrdorc, in rnn idt'ring initial observations of a high incidrnce of homici
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3 I SPATIAL VARIANCES ISLAND OF MURDER Homicides have been reported to occur in virtually all of the major inhabited islan ds of The Bahama s As illustrated in Table 3.1, the overwhelming majori(v (76 % ) of homi c ides occurred on the island New Providence w hi c h in cluded Paradi s e I sland. The r emain d er of cases occurred on Grand B ahama ( 16 % ) and the other Islands (8 %). Table 3 .1 lsla11d of Murder, 1991 2003 Island Frl'tl lll'llQ I I l'l'rl'l'lll New Providence 440 75. 3 Paradise lsland '.! 3 Grand Bahama 93 15. 9 Ab aco II 1.9 13 '.!.'.! Eleuthera/ 9 1.5 Harbour I sland Exuma 7 !.'.! Cat hland I 2 Long l
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Thl amount of homicide-. in :\l'\\ P ro\ idl'mT i, attributed to ib population \t'cilll{ that l\lr homicide c;M, ,hould corn:,pond to tlw ranl.. ordl'r or j,land popul.uion. ;\.-, 'hrnrn in T:.1blt-opinion \\a-; not rn1i-i,trnl lcu .ill islancb. J(ir c,ampk. 1 though thl' i'>land or \ ndro-. had thl' .-Hh population ,11110llg' all j,lancb.. it Im, tlw 3rd amount nr reported homicicfr,. < >thrr ,arianre' bet1He n thl'St' (\\() lllt'a'>llrn illl'IJhd the islands or .\baco and Ekuthna. Table J.2 Top Five Islands b;1 P o pttlatio1t & Homicide, 19912003. Island By Amount Population I :\e\\ Prm tdem.:e 210.832 Grand Bahama 46.994 3 Abaco IJ.170 4. Eleuthera 7.999 5. Andro 7.686 Island By Amount Homicide I. New Pro v iden ce I +u Grand Baham a 93 3. Andros 13 4. Abaco II 5 Elcuthera 9 DIVISIONAL LOCATION Thi attributt"' or tlw di1i,ional location 01 the mu rein" nc ,imilar to 1hm1 u-.cd by thl' al Bahama' Polin Force. Thi, da,sihration. \\ hid1 includt the Fam bland-. inH1hrs 1ariow; arl';h or :'\e-w Pni1idl'llt'l' being di\ idtd inro 'flt'Cilir g-rilb \\ h ich ro\'t 'I' t'rnl '1 i wc-11cie' and -;ub-di1i-,ion' \\ hethn n ,irln11 ial or othn'' i,t" Thr 1ariatin11 1\ith thl' RBPF di,i ,ion' i-. am\ thl' cla,,itication in this ,tudy \\
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).,land ])i, ision s \\Trt' scored one allributc and measured as onl' Famil y 1..,Ja11d Di, i s ion '. For a lis tin g of what constilllt'llC'it.., and ..,ub-rli,i sio n s are CO\Trcd in a particular di,ision. plea<,e rd(-r to Appendix A . \., illustrated in Fi gure 3.1, the hi g h est numhn of h o mi c ide, 28 o ) ocntrrccl \\'it hin the Southern Di\'i..,ion when compared tu all other di,i.,ional l oca tions. This \\'as l illlmwd by the Grand Bahama Di,+.,iun at 16 o ai1d the :'\onh-Eas tern Di,ision at 15 o. Figure 3 1 Divisional Location of Homicide (All Islands), 1991 -2003. 200 150 100 ...... c ::::> 0 (.) 50 0 Division of Murder The Southern Di,ision, which includes cons titu e n c i es surh as Bain Town. Grams fown Yello\\' E lder and the Gro\'C', also y ield e d s i g nificant number of murder s when compared to Grand Bal1ama and the Family I s land ,. In fact. th e Southern Di Y i sion alone ''a, the only di,isiun in which m o r e homicides octurrcd than Grand Bah a m a and all of the Family hlands rnmbincd. T he se figures abo rl'mained similar for t he 1 999 2003 timl' petiod. \\" hilt many a1trih11tc the high ratl' of murder in the Southern Di vision to high population dcmi ty in s u c h rurthcr empirica l r csranh that tak es popul ation 23 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

PAGE 35

ck11'i" in :111011111,!11111ld be nmd111wd to \,ilid.111 'urh .1n tht' " 111 rn I )i, i'io11 h.i' hl't'll redmnl in ,j,,. ll\ l11n11i11g tlw IH'\\ (;n1\1' J)i,i,ion'. I 1111\1' Ul\i,11111 110\\ im lud1' ti 1r1111 1 11lw111 ()j, j,ion 1 on,t11uen1 i1, -;uch a ) 1 1111\\ Eldn. thl' ( ;ro\l' and Rid!!d.1nd 1'.11!-.. \\ hl'n 1,a111ini11g di,j,j,,11, of :\c" Pr11,id.-nn .alo111. tlu ...,,,utlwrn ))j,i,i1111 l<"d '' ith 3 i"" of all h11111il'id1, 111ll< 1\\ t'(I I)\ 211"" in tlw .\11n h-Lt-ll'll Di\ i-io11 and :l"" in till' (:1.11 ])j, i,ion .. \, ,Ji1l\\ 11 in l'i!J;tir1 :l :l. tlH il"
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4 I HOMICIDE WEAPONS C AUSE OF DEATH Homicide victims have died as result of a \ ast variety of injuries and methods These procedures ranged from somewhat subtle melhod'i such as drowning and strangulation, to more violent rechniques including being shot in the head execlllion style' and decapitated. illu s t rate d in F igu r e 4.1, t h e mos t p o pular cause of death during th e entir e s tu d y p erio d was a res ult o f gu n s hot w o unds. This r a th e r impe r so n a l ac t acrnume d for m o re th a n half (52%) o f all causes o f death This was followed b y s t a b wo unds at 26 o a n d b lu nt -for ce t r a u ma at 13%. A s one can see by the \11St variety o f categories ass i gned to thi s v ari able. there were m a n y rath t-r b rut al pro cedures e mpl oye d b y kill e r s i ncludin g bt>in g c hopp e d a b o ut th e b ody and t he v i c tim's throat b e in g rut. Figure 4 1 Cause of Death, 1991 -2003. other undelem'lined --chopped about =L..---be-headed s ta b wound

PAGE 39

\Iorl' rerend). the top thrl't' of death rankine;s remaint'd chr ,anw for rhe last fi,e a5 well the initial eight years of the study period. It is interesting to note that dtath to stab b) 4-3 o het\\een 2002 to 2003. h al.;o be highlightrd that in homiridr thr t}))C' of" \\'OUnd that actually auributed co the death may not haw bern tht' fir-a or final wound admini,tend. In ,onw instances. post-mortem wound, suc h a\ decapitation and burning follm,ed initial fatal ans of gunshot and 'tab ,,ouncb. MURDER WEAPONS From tdepho1w cords and pillows. to hammers and hatchets. homicide ,;ctims ha\"t been killed b) the of everyday items as wdl as. in mhn cast's ratllt'r unusual objects. Table 4.1 illustrares the distribution of murder ''eaporh for thr st ud} period. Firearm, were by far the mo't common type of weapon used by killer' accounting filr OHT half ( 53 o of all murder ,,capom. Table 4 1 Murder Weapons, 1991-2003 WEAPON FREQllENl" Y PERCENT Blunt Obiect 69 11.8 Weapon 11 1.9 Knife 134 22.9 C ut las-,/ Axe 12 2.1 Vehi c le 3 5 Fi r e 1-t 2.4 Firearm 306 52.5 Other 12 2.1 U nknown 13 3.9 Total 584 IOO Knins and blum objects followed in murder weapon popularity <1c-cmmting for 23 o and l 2 n It is to nn1c that the ti-I' of knins has incrl'asl'd dramatically in rl'tTnt years. In fact. the uf a knill a' murder Wt'apon increased by 39 o between :.?00:.? and :.?003 alum. FIREARMS in The Bahamas han a rdati,clv ad\'
PAGE 40

thl'ir As shm,n in -J..2. '' hid1 n-prl'st'nts all known firearm types. 8!1" ll ur tht \\l'l"l' semi-automatic pistob. Thi-, means that ii llll'IT 11 o of all known handgt11h usl'd by murderers \\el"l' tlw 'outdated' renilnrs. Figure 4.2 Murder Weapon of Cho ice, 1991 200 3 1 20 100 eo 0 .221. 25 9'nn 45 Shotgun Revolvers 380 AO Rifle Fu lly Aulo Type of Firearm The n I pistol. ,, hid1 al'C'ourned for 51" o of' all known murder Ii rearms was not the mmt popular linarm, but alsn the most popular murder weapon mnall. The shot.gun also appeared to bl' attrartin in tht' minds of' killers and rt'prtsenlt'd approximattly 1 .')<' o of all knmrn lirearms. murderer'> ha\'t' kept up tu date and haw c hangl'd tht'ir weapons to tht latt s t models and higher calibe rs tht' years. For example. i n I I. only the historical rl'\'oh-er and shotgun \\l'l'e med for all kno\\'n types of . \ s thl' I 990s the trans ition to \arious sc111i-automat.ic pistob and fully a utomati c ''<'apons \\as made. This included the introduction of tht and .380 pistols in I q92 .. \round th e turn of this century the mid I 990-;, there was a transition 10 higher calibe r firearms including the .-J.O wmi-automatic pistol. which made its dt'blll as a murder weapon in 2000. 3 1 HOMJCID E Ill THE BAHAMAS

PAGE 41

HOMICIDE IN THE 8AHAMA8 32

PAGE 44

5 I VICTIMOLOGY HOMICIDE VICTIMS Vic timology, the study o f c rim e v i c tim s has g ain e d c onsid e rable att e nti o n in th e field of policing in r ece nt years Whe r e a s traditional c rim e fig htin g t ec hniqu es foc use d primaril y o n the p e rp e trator and th e ir c apture, lat es t c rim e fightin g m etho d s ce nt e r o n the natur e o f the v i c tim Thi s rapidl y e m e rgin g paradi g m of crime preve ntion e m b arks o n a new c rim e fig htin g phi l osoph,1: By identifying patterns, characteristics and beha\iors that are common among significant amounts of cnme victims, the most likely crime target may be identified. \\'ith this knowledge, the public can be educated on lifestyles and conduct which may in crease their lik e l ihood of becoming the victim or a crime. Homicide victims are not confined to any specific age group. gender. race, nationality or socio-eco nomic status. All t>ve s of persons, whether notorious drug lord s or Catholic .:\Tuns, have fallen prey to killers in The Bahamas. \\' ht'n a closer l ook at the variety of homicidc victims was made, some interesting patterns emerged. VICTIM SURNAMES Some murder \ ictims have newr been identified offi< ially for including ad\anccd dcn>mposition and undocumented immigrants 11ithin the Bahamas. However tht name' of the \ictims that were idemificd were examined in thi s s tud> : Even though the names of homicide \ictims bear littk or no correlation 10 their dtmisc. it was interesting to note that the m ost popular Bahamian of homicide 1ictims. popular were the: Rolle: 's. followed by the Johnso n sand Ferguson's. Although these: arl' simply mmc: or th<' more common Bahamian s urnanws, other well known s uch as the Smith's. \\'illiam anrl K nowlc:s were n ot obsened \\ith :;imilar frequency the others mentione
PAGE 45

VICTIM AGE Per>011' han: been murdered at all age,, whether they" e1-e one day or on..ninety year-. of .1ge. In fact. in -.ome ins tan ces, ne\\ born infant;," ere murdl'red monl('nh alier birth. These cxcrcme age ranges. however.only ,1cTount<'d lc>r a small number I 0 o of all homicide ca,cs during the ... tudy period. Typical homicide \ictims can be considere d to be rdati, el) youn!{ per'>oth A s illmrratl d in Figure 5.1. \ictims that fell in the I() '.H age range were most common. accouming for 3()0 ,, of all homicide victim:-.. nearly hair 1+3 o \ or homicide iuims \\(0ft under agt' 25. 5.1 Victim A,t:e, 1991 2003 200 HiO 1 00 () Age Range o f Victi m This ranl{t' ""'followed the 26-35 ranl{l which rcprc:-.cntcd 30 o or \ictim-. if one comidcrs a per,on le,.., than 3.) years to be young. the tot.II amount of ymmg murder ,;nims ''mild lw 73 o. This is higher rnr persons in this
PAGE 46

lll :\, sho\\ n in 5.2 represented O\'Cr 84 0 or all lwmicide \ictims. Fig11re 5.2 Victim Ge11der 1991-200 3 female 1 5. 8 % male 84. 2% This was an interl'sting phenomenon c:onsidl'ring the fau that distribution of gender in Thi' Baha1m1> wa!> in fa.\'Or of thl' li : mall'. In fact. bl'tW<"en 1991 and 2003. nrnlt>s \\'t'r<" fi\'t' times more likdy to he a victim of a homicide than !lmale.;. VICTIM NATIONALITY/ETHNICITY l'ititl'll\ and re,idenh or Tlw Bahamas haw annstf) i11o\'l'r77 dilknH l'thnicitil'' and nationalitil'' DOS. '.lOOO immil(ration of nfogees from 1ll'il(hboring c:ountril', add, LO thl' increase or dinrse cultuns and h t:ritages in Thl' Hahamas. Thl' Bahama,, being orn of tht' lt>adin g tourist destinatiom. has also attrartt'd citizens or othl'I' ('0Ul1lrics to re,ide throughout the island,, Ht'nCL ', al a n y i.,ri\'t'n point and as a resu lt of difli:rent circumstances. Thl' Bahamas is filled "ith a \'a't of ethnic who. art' all pott'ntial targets ti tr killer,. Somt' or till' 111111'(' ('Olllmon ethnic ,group, and nationalitit, r l'siding in Thl' Bahama' indud!' \mericans. Haitian' and Jamairnm. \ s shrnrn in Tal>lt .J.3. thl'.'>l' groups. a' \\l'll as other,. haw lwn>n lt' \irtims of homiridc durinl( the pniod. 37 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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Tabl e 5.3 Victim N ationality/Ethn icity 1 991-2 00 3 '\ \I Ill' \I II \ I-n :qm: m l'crnnt Bahamian 48 1 82.4 Haitian 67 11.5 Jamaican 5 9 American 7 1.2 C anadian 2 3 European 5 9 German 3 5 C uban/Hispanic 3 5 Other 2 3 U nknown 9 1.5 1 otal :;x.i I flfJ \\"hile Bahamian, accounted for the ast m
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5.3 Victim Reside11tial Location 1991-2003 Central Division North-Eastern Divisi Southern Division Western Division Carmichael Division "'O South Eastern Divisi iii Q) 0::: Eastern Division E :u GB Division 5 c: family Island Disbi 0 iii :;: i5 Outside Bahamas 0 50 100 150 200 Count The observations of patterns and rankings for this vatiabk are undeniably simila r to the 'divi sion of murder' va riable. H ence. most homicide victims are kille d in the same division where they resided. VICTIM MARITAL STATUS The marital status of the victim has always been or particu lar intere s t to crimino l ogi s t s because of its s ignificant varia n ce when compared to other va riables. There are few demographics where marked difference s are obs cl'ed wit h perso n s who are in wed l ock. As illu s trated in Figure S.4, the or h omicide victims (76%) were sin gle p erso ns, whereas onl y 22 o or cri m e victims wt"re married. Perso n s who were i n co mmon-law relation s hips ( i.e. marriages ) wcrt" a l so measured as being married 39 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

PAGE 49

llanied Figure 5 4 Vzctini Marital Status, 1991-2003 / VICTIM EMPLOYMENT STATUS Bivariat e analysis confirms a common finding from chc licerac urc thac adolescent employment is associated ''ith increa sed risk of in\'o l veme nt in c riminal activity. (Bramr. Bu s hw ay & R obert, 20041 They turn to the probl e m of a ssess ingwhecher association i s se n s itive to plausible as s umption s about the impact of other vari a ble s both a nd unobserwd) on both empl oym e nt and crime. This a ssess m ent rewaled that both the sign and magnitude of the maximum likelih ood e s timate of the employment elfect are quitr sensitiw to th ese assumpt ions. The r mploymcnt status of crime \i.ctims is one that comes into question for a variety of reaso n s . most of which center around the dis clo s ure of a possible motive. As in Figure 5.5.just over one half of murder v i ctims were without a joh while approximately 36% were gainfully employed. HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 40

PAGE 50

Figure 5.5 Victim Employment Status, 1991-2003 Self Employed 13. 8 % Unemployed It is necessary to note that a significant amount of victims meas u red in catcgoq; including construction workers, painters and auto-mechanics, haw been out of work for quite sometime before and at the time of their death. H ence, a more accurate amo u nt of unemp l oyed homicide \ictims would probabl y reach jus t O\"l'r 60 o when the 's elf-employed' category i s further examined. VICTIM CRIMINAL RECORD rnriabl e measure s and criminal activity prior to t h e incidem as r eflected in official police recor ds. As illu s trated in Figure 5.6, nearly om thi r d of h omicide victims had a crimina l recor9 of form. I t mus t be noted that traffic offenses were no t considered criminal for the pur poses of this exami n atio u about -l5% of h omicide \;ctim s \\ith crim in al record s had a h i s tory of \iolence. l n fact, approxima t e l y 5% of victims had a prior reco r d of murder arrest and charges. O n e may ask. 'why wfrf these p ersons ou t i f they were charged with murckr?' The howt"ver, is that these persons were e i ther our on bail or acqu i tted or their cases d i s missed. 41 HOMICIDEINTHEBAHAMAS

PAGE 51

Figure 5 6 VictiTn Prior Record, 1991 2003 HOMICIDE VICTIM PROFILE PR-Vderloe 1 2 3% PR-Murder 1 4 % Bet\\ ecn 19!'11 and 2003 in the the most likdy pl't'son to bt' a victim of a homicide wa-. a single. unemployed. Bahamian male. betwt'l'll the age' or I G 25, who resided in tlw Southern Di,ision. VICTIM OFFENDER RELATIONSHIP The of homicide ,ietims kne\\ tlwir a"ailanh. 7 1 o of homicidl' ,;uims \\Crt' acquainted \\ith their kill1rs in sonw 111 other words sn en out of It'll murder ,ictims knt'\\ their killl'r. \\' hen kno" n acquaintantT'> \\l'rt' further broken clown. the l(11ln\\ing results \\t't't' noted and illustrated in figun 3.G. The mm.t L'OllllllOll relatilln,hip bl't\\l'l'll ,ir1i1m and ollrnder ... \\as simpk arquaimances. Thi-; which .ll'l'Ollllll'cl li1r 33.+0 ti or all cast's ranl('l'd from ca,ual acquaintances to dose fricnc\.., and nei ,l('h bors. HO MICIDE IN THE BAHAM.AS 42-

PAGE 52

Figure 5 6 Victim-Offender Relationship, 1991-2003 I Aqu11ntances Cowotl
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HOMICIDE IN THE BAHA.MAB 44

PAGE 56

6 I HOMICIDE SUSPECTS Homicide suspects were likewise not limited to any age. gender, socio-eco nomic slants or condition. Whether the y were the hearing impaired or a w[fe and moth e r oj/0111; homicid e s uspects continue t o be o interesting group to study. All of the examination con ducted in this chapter relates to known homicid e suspects persons who have been charged with murder. SUSPECT NAME As observed with murder victims, the most popular surname for homi c id e suspects were the Rolle 's, but followed closely by the Brown s who were not similarly ranked as \1Ctims. In a ddition, the Johnson s Smith's and William s all tied for third place. SUSPECT AGE There were s ignificant difference s in the range of ages for homi c ide s u s pe c ts. As illu s trated in Figure 6.1, over half (54%) of all homicide s uspects fell within the 16-25 age bracket. The 46-65 age bracket was observed to be the lea st among murder s u spec t s accoun tin g for a mere 2% of all cases. 6.1 Stlspect Age Range, 1991-2003 aeo aoo 150 100 0 Age Range of Su1pect 47 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

PAGE 57

It is interesting to note that there were se\"eral cases in whirh the suspect was under age 15 years during the time of the murder. is an age that many consider to be that of a rhild as "ell as when mental capacit) becomes an issue. There was also no suspect who was owr the age of 65 years. which was not the case for murder victims. \\'hen the percentages or under the age or 35 years totaled 89%, it is safr to conclude that the ,ast majority or h omicides are committed at the hands of relatively young persons. SUSPECT GENDER The int e n s it y of the variance between male and female murder suspects was mildly higher when compared to homicide victims. As shown in Figure 6.2. the vast majorit) (92%) of murder suspects were male. The percentage of female killers was lower than female vinims, a decrease of approximately 8 o. H ence, women tended not commit murdn as much as they tended to be homicide 'ictirm. :\!ale s showed higher amounts in their roles as murder suspects by about 8 o. F((Ure 6 .2 Ssupect
PAGE 58

SUSPECT NATIONALITY /ETHNICITY In ,ariabk, there not mu c h div ersity in th e homicide s u s pect \ ethni city or nationality ,,hen compared to h omicide A s illu s trat e d in Table 6.1 B ahamians comprised the ,ast majority 1 92 0 ) of homi c id e followed by H aitian nati o nal). a t a b o ut 7''.to. Table 6.1 Suspect Ethnicity/Nationality, 199 i -2003. Frequency Percent Bahamian 372 92.3 Haitian 26 6 5 Jamaican 2 .5 American 2 5 Other I 2 Total -l03 100 0 SUSPECT RESIDENTIAL DIVISION A s shown in Figur e 6.3, homicide sus p ec t s re sided in the Southern Di v i s i o n more than any other divi s ion. h i s interestin g to highlig ht an obvio u s trend co n cerning thi s partirnlar diYisi on. homi c ides occurred in the Southern Divi s ion, which i s "here mo st homi c ide victims re s id ed, which i s also where most homicide s u s pect s resided. Fi,s:ure 6.3 Suspect Division, 1991-2003 'i :2 s: South e-.. [);v. a: l ::I en Family Island"' 0 Count 49 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 20 40 eo BO 100 120 140

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Figure fi. 5 Suspect Employment Status, 1991 200 3 Thl' attrilnue ol' 1hi, \ari.1lilt \\,1, li.1r1lwr t'\.amirH'd .md rt',1th1d ill a 'llllil,11' trt ncJ (II lhal or Jio111icidc \it'tilll,. Ji \\:I' llllll'd lh,tt t'l'h llH"a,urcd in thi, h:1d hl'<'ll 11111 or \\Ork li>r quite "1111tinw prior and leading up 10 and the 1i111t' of lhl' 11111rcln. Htme, a 1rn>rl' pnl'i,I' ll ll 'a,11 rc11 w111 of' 'lh(>l'Cl u111mplm 11w111 \\'nu lei ))llU 1 HI 7 3 SUSPECT CRIMINAL RECORD Tlw nimt' or murdt'J: a' \tatl'd pn,iou,h_ is \ it'\\('d [II h<' ('Olllllliltt'd by the mmt rlarin!{ and rdentl1,, indi,idual' ''ho po"es' littl1 or no fill' hum.111 Iii('. In dw la11 l'nliirnnwnt \\'orld. h11micid1 .m \il'wel'l't'l'ptiorh \\l'I'\' supported by a t'anlirl ('X.llllination or the criminal hi,tory or Pl'l'SOlh \\ho han been chan!l'O \\ ith murdtr, in Thl' Bah.lllla\. It mm( bt' IHlll'd !hat lratlic Ofli.0l1'l'S \\l'n' llllt 11lt';\SUl"l'cl ,,, l'ri111in,tl for d1t ]llll'pO-;(', or this p.ll'tit ular txamination . \, illthtratcd in l "igmT 6.ti. 11hen the of 11011-\iol<'nl and \'iolent ollencln arc 01111bine
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NoReoord -45 2 % Prev Murder 2 5 % Fig11re 6.6 Suspect Prior Rec:ord 1991 2003 NonVIOlent 15 6% VIOient 36 7 % \\'hen 'll'P<'tl' "ith niminal hi,toril'' arc t"xamitud :?B" o h.1d criminal rcn>rds that ill\ olnd llon-\ioknt o!lC.'tl\('' im (uding JlOS\l'SSiOll of" dattgcmu ... drug-. .md 'tcaling. Ho\\('\t'r. a lOl1'ickrabk a11Jt1lllll /'l.0 0 or l111t11i1t pre\ iou-,1) charg1d in as n1uch a ... llmr 'l'IJ.iraLt' rnurdn inciclcnh. HOMICIDE SUSPECT PROFILE Bt't\\CL ll 1 !l!l I and 'l.003. tlw mos t nmrn1011 charart
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7 I HOMICIDE MOTIVES All of the issues discussed up to this point sought to address the questions of "who 'what'. 'when', 'where', and 'how' as it related to reported murders However, one of the most d[fficult and at times incommodious questions that in many cases remain unanswered is the question of 'why . \ look a t thi question may in thl lypiral indi,idual concluding lhat .,urh ,1 could 1101 ,,arrant much effort or .,kjlJ, in tht' anual moti\aUoll a pap1trator wht'n [() take the Iii( or ano1he1: H mn\ er. the r e a is lhat the l''tablishmcnt of mntin ha, hren. l iw many yt'ars. an a\\1.,0111e ta'k fiir la\\" 1:nforcement \HJrld\\"idt'. In fau. tlwrl' a r e numtTou ras1s of 'oh eel and un,oh-ed murders committt'd ago, lhal up co day nmain niid or a clear aJh\\lT to s uch a r('a .,on., for the complexity in accuratt'l y m<'asurinp; thi s \ariabk lend l o lTnln around the or lht' lllllrder \"ictim. A s pn,iously noted. a sig nifi ca nt amotllll or homic id t' dctim' an: no s1ra11gers to the law and u s ually lead livcs or danger and denption in their circles. Thi.., 11wa11s lhat the se p ersons are im uhnl in .'>O many s ini ste r ani,itil'' that numerous group of pote111ial s u s pet:l s may des ire th e ir ckmbc for an aITa) of dillcrem rca,ons. It mu;t be stressed. howcHr. that a moti\'e may not Ix correct ) dassitied by nwrc \'irnw of tht nalure of the homicide \ ictim \ lili:styk alone. F o r example. e\en though a no101iou' druglord may haw been killl'd. their demise may not necc,saril) be a' a direu rc3uh of thei r in\'oh-cment of their prohibited prof t-ssio n. Hrnce. in th e ab-.e nc e of any empirical fans or information discl
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It i, therl'fon inn1mlwnt on homicidl' clettTti\C's. a, \\t'IJ ,1, rriminal im1,tit(" or imtinn, !:di ,(lllrl or accurately aclclnssing thi, intriratl' The ddinition lJf motiw b romlllonly mi,con,tnwd as bein1.1; thl' rdati111hhip 1 hat the oOlndn and ,inim 'han t'\t'n thou.gh a significant dilfrrelll'l' l'Xist' b1t\H't'll thl' (\\ '(), 1"1r thl' p11rp1N'S of' thj, Study, thl' \'ariahlc lllUlin allelllpll'cl lO l ,lpllllT thl' l'"t'lllT of the cirl'UlllStancl's that lead lo tht" death or the \ictim. This\ ari.1bk had 1hnn murually exrlusin that bore similarity to international 'tandard,. The da"ilication or .1 murdt'r bring 'd111nc,tiC'' i-; a ti Till that has bt'l'll tlm)\\ 11 annmrl '' ithmll a dt'ar and conci'l' de,niption in thl' 111inds or nH 11 .111d practitionns. ti 1r C'xample. '111111 prr,om ddine thi tcr111 a' argum<'nh lwt" 1 \\ hik othtr, lwli1, 1 it de,cribes fighh altercation' bet\\ 1 ,jbling ,, The adjeeti\T clome,tic'. \\'hid1 c'semially llll'an' mall!'!'' rclatin,g lo the and hou.;chold affair,. l'.lll bt' an broacl grouping. H encl'. thl' la.,1 \\'ht'rl' l\\'o brothers \\ere arguing o\'l'r \\ho 'hould han thl' re111011 control .ind a 111arri1d coupl<' fighting m n inticldity could acntratdy fall into the clonH ''tit.: catl'gory l'\ t>n though l''l:!l't'lllrly factor' \\ t'n al ,, ork. a further catt'gorizatiun of tlJj, grouping is In thi .. stucly. do111C'stic homiricks wcrl' brnken clown into thrt't' niain The Donw,tic : \' ca,n imuh eel altl'rcation' arising frolll i"ue' conc<'rning th l' home. Iii(: ancl family mt'mbcr,. Domntir Ir rdl-rred to ca'e' \\her<'" dis1)l1ll'' and argunwnts centered amund imimatc relationships. '' hrthl'r it emailed marit.d m simple courtship. Dollll'Stic c rt'krrecl to caSl'' \\'hen altercation an"t out or altnnatin lili:-stylc' .. u c h a ho111osexualiry. ,,.a, acknm1lt'cll.(l'd a' it b1llh of argu111tts and fight ... This catt"gory, which accQuntl'cl fc11 26 o the cases. usually itl\'nl\'l'cl alttrcations at parties. bars. nightclub ancl on the 'ln:<:t 1road rage1. Coming in a 'lTond with 22 o \\'ere murders as a r esult of a robbery or atlemptt'd robbery. Somt' robberies imuh-ed situatio n s where 1ictims refust"d to mec1 thl' robbt'r\ demands while olht'r' invoked culprits who stemingly killed unmTt"ssarily. Third \\as the Domtstir B' catt'gory. \\'hich accounted for I 0 o of cases. cm1ccrnt'd i111imate partner

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160 140 120 100 80 60 40 'E 520 u 0 Figure 7.1 Murder Motives, 1991-2003 Motive For Murder \\.h<:'n examined for the last n\e years of the study, all rank ings remained s imil a r t'xcept for th(" motin of rc\enge/reta l iation', which ranked third in popul ari ty. Thi' catee;ory imnh-t"d rases in which a person was killed for prior actions ra n gi n g from Wt" spl"('ading of n("e;ativt" rumors toward the s u s pect or a respon se t o the courting a suspect's lover It i s to mt"nlion that drug related h omicide s have increa se d by 56% on awrage during 1113 whm compared to 1994 1998. I n addition. murde r s arising from intimate partner relatio n s hip s haw increased by I 0 o on over th e sa me timt" period:. GRAXD :SAHAMA MOTIVES & Y ISLAND MOTIVES The rakings for motiv e rt"main ,imiJ.:ir .md co ntained no remarkab l e ari ance for the island of Grand BalMmJ. nd me ft"lllainde r of the fami l y islands. Hom"Vt'r it is inter est ing to not e that the r.lte for the Domestic B' motive was s i g n i fica ntl y 57-HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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higher in the Family I s land s when compared to PrO\idencc. and Grand Bahama. Hence, s igni ficant amounb of murder occurring on out islands were as a of relationship violence. HOMlClDE IN THB BAHAMAS 58

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8 I HOMICIDE INVES'l'IGA'l'ION The task of conducting inquiries into criminal acts has traditionally been thought of as one aspect of police work that required highly developed skills and perhaps innate abilities to collect and eva luat e case facts (Glick & Riccio, 1979) By its vety nature, detective work is concerned with information acquisition and generation. The fir s t s mall detective unit was established in the London Police Department in l 8t2 ( Smith 1985 ) However the London polic e could not ignore the need for d e t ec tion ac tivitie s before that time. Consequently plainclothe s poli ce officers were u sed to catc h pickpocket s and attend e d union and politic al meeting s to gather any crime information. The e s tabli s hment o f the d e tective unit wa s justifit'd on the basis of the nt't'd to respond to murder, which was a crime that the p olice could n ot imt'stigate \\ith the assurance of public s upport. The inv estigation of a murder involve s a complex range of tedious and emotiona l tasks ranging from tht' death notification to te s tif y ing in Supreme Court. Few crimes warrant much time clfort s and investigative fortitude l\lurde r inquirie s though intri cate and at times overwhe lming, arc assigned to the elite individual s who mu s t carefully co n s true e a c h minute piece of information to m e et s uccess. CRIME CLEARANCE The mos t important measure of acco mpli shment for detectives has come to be the clearance rate conunonl y referred to as the s olvency rate ( Skolnick 1975). Hi g h crime clearances by or final case dis po s ition tend to be highl y re s p ec ted by p olice p e r so n nel and to the idea of th eir effectiveness. Tifft ( 197 5 ) s ugge s ted that inv estigator s appeared to be m os t influen ce d by production-evaluation contro l s pertainin g to their success in arrest and clearance percentage of assigned cases. In thi s r esea r c h clear a nc e wa' define d when p olice have idencjfied the p e r son respons ibl e for the murder and there was s ufficient evidence to lay a charge in connection with the in c id e nt Ba,<:d on thi s definition The Bahamas a v eraged a clearance rate of 69% during the study perio d H e n ce, well over two t hird s of murd ers were 'solved'. -elHOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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In 2003. chc murdtr clearance rate of The was chr highc\l it has t'\'t'r been in over a decade reaching a rt'\ord 77 o. In fact, the murder clearance rate has nr\er decreased since 1998 and an in cn. .. asc of I +0 o from 1998 to 2003. COMPARISONS OF THE BAHAMAS' CLEARANCE RATE TO OTHER COUNTRIES UNITED STATES \\'hen compared to the Cnitrd States, the dearancc rate's of The Bahanrn> tend to be higher. As shown in Table 8.1, chi: CS averaged a 65 o dt>arance rate bct\\ ec n 1991 and 2002, while che Bahamas realized a clearance rate of 68 o for the time pc1iod. In fact, che CS. clearance rate onlr surpassed Tht' Rahama\' in four of the twdw years measured. Table 8 1 US & Bahamas Clearance Rates, 1991-2002 I : CLEAi(,\:\( E i Cu:.\H,\'.\(' E VEAi( RAI E U.S. I Yb\H I f{,u1. B.\ II. 1991 67% 1991 54% 1992 65% 1992 65% 1993 66% 1993 74% 199.t 64 % 1994 76% 1995 65% 1995 76% 1996 67% 1996 70% 1997 66% 1997 65% 1998 69% 1998 63% 1999 69% 1999 65% 2000 63% 2000 65% 2001 62% 2001 72% 2002 64% 2002 74% FBI Uniform Cri1'1'1e Reports, 2003. HOMICIDI! IN THE BAHAMAS 62

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CANADA .\\"cordi n g w the Roya l Canadian :\l nunll'd P olin' :WO! Canada, murdn dearanre rat by a d1r tlw ,anu time periocl. UNITED KINGDOM In 2110 :2/0:.l. 1.0 deaths \\'\'IT in itially rt"tordl'd "' homiridl'. an innca't' or :.! l pn nn1 I 0 0 cxducl ing Shipman I 1111 the pre\ious Y!'at" Powy. 200-1:'. or thC'S(' 3B \\l'J"l' no longer recorded as homicidt, by 13 .'.\mlmbrr :.!()(U. H\'lll'e. tht' ollicial 1111mber of murdl'r tr I H'.) inims, no ,ll,JX'rts had been identilitd. Thi, yicld<"d a dt'a1-;.mn : ratt ol' 8:.!11 o for 'lllllUll.) 1 '1011-1-1. AUSTRALIA In .\u,tnili<1. thrrr \\'t'lT 311 identilied homicid<" otl(nclcrs in '1002 -03 Australian lt1'titlllt' or 2()(1..j.: .-\t till' time of data mlJection. ) ..j. )lt'I" ht-nding se 1iou s criminal 1Greenwood, 1970 1 Gree1rnoud timnd that the probabilit y of arn, t was highrr !ill" crimes agai n st pt-1"!.on rap... a'sault. and homi cide whilt' prope rt y cimcs -hurl(lary and 'h
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SUSPECT IDENTITY AT CRIME SCENE &! CRIME CLEARANCE Lmil recently, cri111i11al in\'l'stigatinns han l'l'lllainc-d n,i,tant 111 any .\lttmpts to p1utralt' rlwir 1 C:aplan. 1977:. :\lany n-.earchns han studil'd tlw l'riminal inw,tigttin prnl'l'SS and the role that dt'llT'tin, in thl' lTiminal,iuMic<" syste m Kirk.1%tUYHara.1970:Stone&DeLu('a. The,1-.a-.\\1 1la s c1thl'r works. ha\ l'Xaminl'cl thl' systt'matil pn>l'l'S' 111' niminal ;b w<"ll a-. th(' acti\'itie, .ind rnles or tht indi,idual dctl'cti\'l'. Thl' t t'ndt"ncy or drttTtin, to li>l'll' on ra't'' \\ith olJ,ious ,o]ution, has lll'cll an infi>rrnal pranicl' or long standin!.{ Conklin. I Saundl'rs. I C)77 Tlw Rand Corporation 111' Sama :\Jonica. C:alifi>rnia 1ductt"d 11111 of till' la1xl'st rt',l'art:h 'tudil concerning police dctr'l'tins and thl' l'riminal pn>tT'' or l.1rg1 police depart1mnh. In 197:t thl' R.111d Corporation undcnook a t\rnlong nation\\ id1 of the dli:ctiwm-ss of police im .. ;ti!.{ati\'l' prattict's. The :'\atinnal l11'li tt1ll' or Ll\I Enlcll'lTllll'llt and C:1imi11al Justitt. \\ hitl1 S('l'\'t'S a-. the rescarl'h ar111 111' thl' LI\\ Enli>nTllll'llt .\"i'tancc .\dministratinn LE .\. -\. a\\'ardl'd the contra1 t to the Rand Corporation. The corporation mduncd ih by Sllr\'ty>. and dirl'l'l obsur main The first 11 ;b rc > d1,cribt till' n11T'lll innstig<1tin ,mcl practices 011 a national Ind .. \ 'l'l'OIHI goal \\'as to di-.cnn tht' t'fl(:cti\'t:lll'" of Ill'\\' and systl'nb that II l'l'l' bling adopted to improw inwstigatiw perfimnance. Third. rt'st'arrlll'rs sought to di-.clo..e him in\'t'stigati\e 1ffrctiwntss \\'as rt'latecl to dilli.'nnn-. in organizational stalling and pro('c>durcs. fourth. and probably most important. tht' researchers s1t nut to tTaluate the contribution that police in\'e'itigation mack to tht' achiewnwnt of criminal jmrin goals Grrrnll'ond & Pctrrsilia. l 97.h Tht' Rand Corporation publislwd its findings in Ortobt-r 197 3. In to tlw ll'i<' of dttt'l'ti\'t's tinlt' the Rand researchers li>und that substantially more than half or all serious rt'pont'd crimes rcct'i,ecl no nwn than suplTficial allt'lllion from imest.igators. They al-;o timnd that 9:3'' o of the inw.-.tigatnr's time ll'as consumt'd by aclministratiw duties, sen-ices to the public. and othl'r acti, ities not immrdiatt'ly dircct<"d to cases :Greenwood & Prtcrsilia. 197 3\. One of tht' most unse ttling concerning the of by the Rand researchers ll'as that the singlt' most important determinant of \\'hether a ll'ould be so l\'l'd ll'as the information the victim supplied to the imnwdiatrly responding patrol ollicer. 'I 'hey furthered that only about 20 o of eriml's cleared by could be a11ribut<"d to in\'estigati\'t' \\'Ork 1Grcenwood & Pctcrsilia 1975). The Rand researchers induded \\'ith their re st'arc h \'atious r<"con11nrndations of of the criminal imestigatiw process that \\'ould lead to an increased HOMICIDE I N THE BAHAMAS 64

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numlwr of c rim e clearances .. .\mo ng the maj o r r e form s w a.., a r cducrion in foJlm, up imesti{{atio n s e x c ept for s eri o u s ofl e n ses and the o f generali s t inve s tig ators who '''ir elfc (riv en'"' Conklin & Bittner. But art' p olice managers a d o ption s of the s uggestions of the Rand researchers provin g t o b e beneficial? D o tht" findings of the Rand s tudy apply to the dynamic s of pre s e nt d a) c rimin..J m estig ation practic es? Arc tlw finding s out-of date and could variati o n o f me RJ.nd study be rt"pl icatt'd and yield s imilar results today? How many case' cleared b' J.rr e s t can be a ttributed to the unique s kills' of the d e tective ? And ,,ha t -if any is/ar e the d e t e rminin g factoris) in c rimes that are cleared by a rre s t ? One of the k e ) in dependent "J.riab les collt>ctcd in thi s S ludy addres sed the issue of suspect ide ntification at the crime .;cene. The majority of murder rnsc s (59%) involved a named perpetrator at c rime s c ene and hence supported the Rand's findings on fac e v ali di n in thb However in order to mcasurr h omicide detectives elfec ti,enes'. the o f the remai n i n g +1% of cases must be determi n ed. \\.ht>n calculated. on e half or 48% of murders where no information conC'crni ng me suspect's i d e ntify was pre s ent at the crimt> scene nt"vcrthekss re s ult ed in the c:i..-e bemz clearr d. This amount wa s more than twice the pnC'entag e indi cated R.u:d l't':
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CLEARANCE TIME The length o f a murder inquiry is of concern to nwml:wri. of the publi c. :\lore importanLI) relative s of murder s eek to uncover Lhl' likelihood of their loved one s assailam t s ) being brought to justice alier a particular length of time. Popular t elr\ision such as The Fir st .is aired on A&E. a factual account of the relationship that exists between murder clearance and l en)?;th of time. Approximatel ) 73 o of all homicid e cases that were cleared were solved \\ithin thl' first seve n days after the reported date. This suggested chat if a homi1..ide \HIS not cleared within the first s even days. the probabilit y of it ever being solvt'd were drastically rrduced. However, it i s commendable to note that there have been st'wral cleared murder imest igation s that rxtended mer a year. TY programs s uch as CBS\ Cold Case and A&E 's 'Cold Case File s illustrate the determination and resolve of investigators who themseh-es \'.ith cases where th e odds of clearance arc minimal. MOTIVE &e CLEARANCE RATE The identifi cation of circumstances that lead to the commission of a murder 1s not a mandatory component of th e inv es tigation in terms of clearance. Howe\er. the disclosure a fact has a s ignifica111 relationship \dth the case being cleared or 'so lved". In fact, only about I I % of murders have been so lvrd wht'rc no dear motive was established. A s pre\ious ly di cussed, the crime of murder has normally been one that y ield s the highes 1 clearance rate among all crimes, usually reac hin g into the 70th percentile. However, the typ e homicide that tends to fall in the un-clearcd' or 'open under imest igation' cat egory u s ually mirror lower rates of clearances of o d1er cri mes b ased on s imilar motives. In other words. some h o mi c ide s varied s ignificantl y on crime clearance as a function of or based on its particular motiva1ion Homicides of a domes tic nature tend to y ield the highe s t clearance percentages. The D o m esti c Pl category, which covers homicide s re s ultin g from altercations in and around th e home, )ield e d a clearance rate of 95 o. the hi ghest among all murder motives. In fact, from 1991 2003, the three categories of murders cla ss ified a s 'domestic' averaged a 90 o clearance rate. There arc also som e cla ss ification s of murders that remain c h a llenging to homicide in vestigators in terms of clearance. :\lurders that w ere classified a s 'drug related and robbery' y ielded the lowest clearan ce rates of 44% and 60% respectively. It is intere st in g to note that the crime of robbery commonly yield a relativ e ly low clearance rate u s uall y bordering the 30th percentile HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 66 I

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RANK & CLEARANCE RATE unifiirml'd olfo:crs and dl'tcctins around the \\'!>rid haw had the ;me sonw responsibility to lead a homicide in\'estigation. Tht'Sl' inws tigating nlllcers all bring to the lield \arying ll'\ds of experiern:e. expertisl' and insight utiliz1d in l'fforts to identif \ and arrest persons for taking the life of another. ln the l3.1hamas Polin' Force. t hese inws tigating officers haw ranged from thl' rank' of C:othtable to Superintendent. Approximately, H.'J0 of the case s l'xamittl'cl \\l'tT assi.e;ned to Constables. Corporals and Srrgeants. The rank of Sergeant "as the me"' popular itl\'estigati\'e rank tiir murdtT conducting-about 3l.i'' o mttrcllr imTstig-ations. It is to note. hmveyer, the relationship that exists bdwetn imestigator rank and ckarance. For the entire study period. Inspectors had the highest dcara1we rate .1mong .111 ranks. lla,ing successfullv cleared approximately 78" o of cases they inwstigated. HO\\ c\'er. the second highest dcarance rank was the Cotbtahle. ,,ho deared approximately 7'2 u or rnses they imcstigated. enoue;h. tht Constable rank. which is thl' initial entry levl'I for all police had a dear.inn rate that surpassed the highn ranks or Corporal and Sergeant. \\hose rate were 67 o and 70 0 respectively [n fact, Lhc constable dearance rate supnceded the senior rank of ChiC'f Inspector \\'hose clearance ratl' awrag-ed at approximately 6+0 o. WEAPON RECOVERY The securing of the murder weapon is of particular interest to homicide investigator,. a' they tend to all awnues for its rerowry. Ewn though may not be for the p<'rson 1s) responsible in all cases, the weapon reCO\lTY ne\erthe!ess remains pi\'otal to a murcltr imcs tigatiun. This however i s quite .111 a\\ csomc undcrtakine; considering the reluctance of murder e\tn in cases of confession. Hence, one of the mos t popular respon s e s for a murder ,,uspect when asked about the location of a weapon is' ... I threw it in the canal ... Consequently. homicidi: detectives were able to recover about 30% of known murder \\'eapons. It is aJ,o 'eccssary to point out that only some of these recoverie s made at the crime scene, by way of investigative procedures, or a rl'sult of the assistance of the ,uspect. I n fact, many murder weapons have either been found or retrie,ed frnm persons during other criminal offenses. I n some cases, the murder weapon '' recovere
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SUSPECT CONFESSION \ \"lwn .t 'uspl'l"l j, taken into custody and ,uflicilnt nidt'tll"l' to 'upport ,1 charg-e of murder ha' hec11 'crured. homicide innstil{ator' tend to pnl\idc the indi,idual \\ ith a11 opportunit) lo 'n1111e dlan' and nhall) daim n,pwbibilit) fiir tht'ir act'. Ewn l hou,gh a s u spt'c l \ ad111is\io11 is IH 11_ a compulson part of .111 or nquind to stTun a comiction. confi:ssiom an 'ctn as a final uiumph li1r ,ulJ-,cqu 11ith dw crime 'll'IH' P.ul HUI% Figure 8.1 Suspect Confession, 1991 2003 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 68

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For example. in onr precise ear-to-e.i..r ,J.!!-h table knife in the direro -account more: a It i s interesting to n11te were secured re,uht"d in .. by negligem 'e. l11n; sr
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HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 70-

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9 I ADJUDICATIO HOMICIDE CAS The police are conside red to be th e 'gare-kn;, justice sys t e m since th ey control the amen r.: the arrest stage. Consequently, operat ions major impacts on judiciaries across rhe felons th e police arrest. the greater the and the mure o,ercrow d e d the prisons. The Homiude Funnel of Justice displayed in at:coum of tht" adjudication of murder ca.,,e, in Th of c.1......-, chat emer the funnel represen!S thilit" and exdudN mattrr> '' omcome are 'tiU jj0 0 clearame 11r soh"t."ncy race suggested m of tho't" exdudt'd la.'t'' that han been deared 9.1 The Homicide F1mllfJ I-IS Reported C224 ClearrJ noted in figurt 9 1. deared the muns. The d1iTcrtni:r 73 HOMICIDE IN THlt

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tl10se homicides in which tht: suspen may haw takm their life at the rrimt' scene murder-suicide ) or may have otherwise died prior to being charged. In addition. some of tht'sc cases represented matter where the suspect, though identified. a lugiriw. MURDER CASE DISPOSAL&> CONVICTION RATE The funnd dlsO illustrates that approximately 53 u or where person bt"en charged with murder resulted in a convinion. These convictio n s indudt"d murder, manslaughter and manslaughter by mgligencc. Approximately 63 o of persons who have been charged with murder received a conviction of manslaughter or manslaughter by nt'gligenrc. This suggests that about 37% of persons charged ''ith murder get convicted of murder. This \aries significan tly \\'ith the 6+0 o rnnviC'tion rate of the L'S Bureau of Jus tice Statistics. 200:.!J In th e remaining -I, 7 o of cases where persons wcrC' not convicted. approximatdy 27 o were dismi:-.st'd. Case dismissab ranged from the grounds of insunicirnt e\idence to the prosecution \\ithdrawing and entering a pica of nollc prosequi. Juries tcndc-d to comict in the ya,t majority of ca.,es that were not or ,,;t hdrawn H ence, juries returned a wrdict of not guilry' in only 19 o of SENTENCING&> PUNISHMENT Retribution, incapacitation. deterrence and rehabilitation are thr four principal justification oflc:r<'d for punishmem. Thes<' sentencing philosophies diller in important \\'ays. Somr foC'us on past be ha\ iot: \\'hcreas others arc future micntrd. Som<' that the punishment s hould lit tht' crime while others emphasize that punishment -,!10uld fit the criminal. Tlw,c and many other inHlltnce contemporary about sen t encing. ln th e Cormnon\\'eahh of The tlw penalty or a person comicted is death by Hu\\'ever, com'inions of manslaughter and manslaughter by negligence Glll vary. Hence. persons who haH' bten chargtd \\'ith murder but eomictcd on manslaughter ha\'( recei\ed ranging from to t\, o year' imprisonment to dlath. Granted that each case had its m' n specific fac1' and c-ircumstancc-s, howc\'er, some interesting pattlrrb emerge. It must be sated at the out set that all pcrsom found guilt) of murdt'r haw bcrn sentenccd to death. Howe\'l'r, only a mne S0' o or two of these indi,iduals ha,< been actually ('Xt'l'\lted 10 death Olli of a total of I() \\'here a St'lltCl1l'l' of death was levied. HOMlCIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 74 II

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CONCLUSION HOMIC I D E Criminal jus ti ce h e ld that homu:. from police s upp ression adoption of community and and asso c iat e d programs Jec.._.,.._,,.,= rais e d qu es t io n s abom \\ ha1 r e xp ec t e d t o accomplish. T he Bureau of J ustice .-\sSL
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cases is conducted by a special group nf dctecti\'cs typically relerrcd 10 as. the Homicidt l"nit or the Squad. The members of these units. ''hich are normally staffed with an a\rragc of" about 20 detectives. are the most experienced officers who are highly trained in ad,ann-d im"Cstigalive procedures. Though not cm;cd by ,ome colleagues, homicide inns tigator s remain re spected for the arduous tasks they arc mandatt'd tu carry out. These whose working hours can ncH'r be predicted or limited. arc -;omctime s ,iewcd as outrnsts by fellow detectives. I n The Bahamas, the Royal B a hama!. Police Force i s outfitttd with a Homicide Squad undrr the Central DetectiYe l" nit headquartered in Pro,;denre. Although re s pon s ibility for murder im cstiga tion s a s giwn to the Serious Crime Squad. the Homicide Squad wa s oiliciall) formed in 1998 in a response to the s la)fog of two tourists visirin11: Paradise Island. The Squad encompasses a variety of ollicns with spelial inwsligativc knowledge in areas. These range from intellig;ence gathe1;ng and interviewing skills to tertial) education in computer information systems and analysis and cr;mina l justice. Officers of squad are the only front line detective s who are required to attend murder at any hour C'\en if situa ted on a family island. Sine<' it s inception, the Humicide Squad h as pro\'L'n its efficiency and dft'ctiwness to organizational goals. As noted in stud}; The Bahamas clearance or 'dt' tcction' rate for murder has never dropped s in ce 1998. In fact, the clearance rate of 77% obserwd in 2003 was the highest ever ncorded in Wl'll owr a decade. Preliminary figures for 200-l indicate unofficial clear;rnce rate of nearly 85%, the highe s t ever rerorded in The Uahamas. The benefits of the existence of thi s squad are certainly unequivocal. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The unfeasibility of collecting data on the socio-economic from older files was regrettable. This demographic is one that has been hi s torically correlated with c rime and criminal offcnders. It \\ould be interesting to note any support for thi s phenomenon within The Bahamas. Efforts to commence the collection of such demographics are underway in more ren: nt incidents. As previously stated. the most popular murder moti\"e for ytars ha s been surrounding fights and arguments. Hence. a closer t'xamination and possihlc a further catt'gorization of the subjects of these rnnfrontatiom warranted. HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 76

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APPENDICIES APPENDIX A DIVISIONAL WCATIONS Thes e are thr outlined by the Rm al .._.____ and will i11dud e all of the Famil y I s land.... Thi p a rticular di\'i s i on in which the homi r i dt' i' allt'1Z"C'd Attributes: I. Central Oi \'ision B-!. 85. B 2. :'forth E astern Di\isio n B 2. 3. Southern Di v i sio n Bl. BP. {. \ \ 'eqern Divi ... ion 89.Blll.B: 5. Airport Di,;s ion Bl8 6. C armic hael Di,;s ion BJ 2. I313 7. S o uth Eas t ern Di,;sion Bl-!. BI.:> 8. Eastern D i ,-i s ion Bl. Bib. Bi-9. Grand Bahama Di\'i s ion 10 Fami l y I sland Di s tri c t s 77 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS I

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APPENDIX B Operatioualization of Variables l. RANK This will be the rank of the investigating officer lor chief investigati n g officer of the particular murder case. Attributes iuclude: 1. co n stable 2. corporal 3. sergeant 4. inspector 5. chief inspector 6. assistant superintendent 7. deputy superintendent 8. superintendent 9. chief superimendent 4. YEAR This will be noted as the 1ear of occurrence that the homicide would ha,e been reported. 5. TIME OF DAY This will be the time of the day when mos t murders are reported. may or may not be the time of day when the murder occurred. Attributes: 1. 8 am -+pm 2. 4 pm 12 am 3. 12 am 8 am 6. DAY OF WEEK This captures the day of the \ \'eek that the murder was reported. Attributes: l. Sunday 2. :\londay APPENDICES 3. Tuesday +. \ \'ednesday 5. Thursday 6. Friday 7 Saturday 7. MONTH OF OCCURRENCE This illustrat es the month that the murder was reported. The a11ributc s include: Attn"butes: l. Januar: 2. February 3. :\larch 4. April 5. :\lay 6. June 7. July 8 August 9. September 10. O ctobe r 11. :\member 12. December 8 ISLAND This rnriable \\ill include the i sland of the Bahamas in whi c h the murdrr occurred. The auributes will include : Attributes: I. :\ew Providence 2. Paradise hland 3. Grand Rahama -t. Abaco 5. Andros 6. Eleuthera/ Harbor I sland 7. Exuma/Ragged I sland 8. Cat Island 9. Long JO. Bimini/Berr: /Great Harbor Cay 11. Inagua HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 78I

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APPENDICIES I '2 .\layguana 13. Ru111 Cay/San S;tlvador J.+ . \ ck lin s/C:rooked 1 -.land 9. AREAOFMURDER lit is \ ariablc \\ill dl''>l'rilw thl' type or plal'l' or location \\'htTl' the body \\"as di-.crn rrt'd. This \'ariabk may or may not indirntc tht> or place that tlw 111urdrr transpired. Attributes: I Residential In clude-. imide homr. just outside the hoU'>l'. thl' yard. but )UtToundin,g the anual pmpt>rty and not l'Xtendin g lt> thl' road. 2. Business lndud1s imide thl' l'stablishment just out side, its parking lot. but only tlw surrounding area or the establishments. and not extending lo the r11ad. 3. Bus h y Area Bu-.he-. off of track roads. in the just outside of a re s idential or business 4. Road ruad or din/track road. Body mu-.1 he in the road or tan be just on the side of the mad or side walk but not imo an act ual bushy art'a. 5. W a t e r I n a cesspit, lake. beach. \\ashed up on shur<'. pool, bathtub filled \\'ith water' or in th<> gent'ra l an:a of a large body of \\'ater 6. Vehicle 79 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS J n th l' whide car just around the \'Chidl'. 7 Night Club This s ptrial calr:! f'\ popular nigh1,poi_and locatirnith akoholic benrage--. indudt a residemi.il 8. Other \bandrnlld h1>mt' s('hoolyards. park._, dot's not saris!\ the golf Clllll'W IO.CAUSE OF DEATH 1 \ an,1blt "1i. LJ<. sa..:..::J patholoi.,ri-.t report. Attrib11tes : I. (;1111 \\.ound 2. Stab 3. Asphyxia 4-. Hurn \\'ound, Bur.5. 6. Blunt Fofl'r T rawn.l 7. Throat Cut 8. Be-hn1ck-d 9. Chopped about the 10. Undctcrminl'd Du Decomposition 11. Other T} pc uf \\ tapur. Attributes: I. Blu nt object n 2. Pl'r-.onal \\'eapon 3. Knife +. e

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}. Rernl\'n ti. 7. 8. 9 111111 Pi,tol .Hl Pi-,tul 9. 10. KiAl 11. .\utomati1 \ \ <'apon l\Iac-10 L'zi 'frc h 9 etc ) 12 \ehide l 3. Fire victim burned -up I.+. Firearm t not identified 15. Otht 1 : eg \\'atcr. I ti. C nkno\\ n 12.WEAPON FOUND This va 1iabl r capturt>s "hether or n o t the murder "capon was found and secured by In cases of fire. thi s \'ari a hlc \\ill bl' rated in the pusi tiw. Attn"butes: l R ecove red 2. Outstanding 13.MOTIVE The l'Ssence of the circumstances that resulted in th e death o f the \ictim Attributes : 1. Domestic A Altercations concerning and ansmg out of fami l y issues, in and around the h o m e, but not including s ignifican t oth ers. 2. Domestic B Arguments, disputes and altercations con cerning 11111matc relati o n ships (husbanci/wift>, boyfriend/girlliiend, sweet-hearting, or beliewd to be) 3. Domestic C APPENDICES :\rg-uments. disputes and ('oncerning .t hernati, e indudi ne; 4. Robbery alten: ation' l illstdes Killl'd during the rnu1 w of a or auempttd 5. Sexual Assault Killed eluting; the l'llltrse or a rape or attempted rap<'. or a s a re s ult of othn s 1xuall y io ll'n t si t uat iom. 6. Argument/Fight Persotb "ho or 111ay not be ml'rl' arguing O\'lT not co\ crl'd in t h l' other bar fighh. etc . 7. Gang Related \ \ 'arring over turf and other !{angs focal 8. Drug Related The sal e, di stribution or t r afficki n g of drugs. 9. Revenge/Retaliation For prior confrontatio ns, or crime and other i ss ue<.. 10. Undetermined r\o clear motivat ion id e ntifi e d I I .Other Other moti\ation not CO\'Cred 111 pre,ious classificat ions 14 SUSPECT IDENTIFICATION It whether or not the identit y of th e s u 5pect tperson where the r e suflic icnt e\ id c ncr to thargt' the person HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 80

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APPENDICIES rcsponsible 1 \'a' known at the rnme '.2. Significam Otha -scl'ne. buyliiend/girlliicnJ 3. Pannts/Childrrn Aitribute.11: 1. :\o 2. Y('s JS. SOLVING TIME Tlii, 1 ai iabk "ill distfost' the Ieng-th of tillll' it took 10 soln lllOt 11<.'C<.'ssarily .lll incli\ idual 11 ith a murde1: -1-. Gays/ 5. Ernploycr /Emplo\1t C -6. \cquaintl'd 7. Strangers 8. l "11k11m111 AUribut11s: VICTIM 1. 0-7 day-. 2. 1-2 \\'l'l'b 3. 2-\\'l'l'ks -1-. 1-2 rnon1h-, 5. 2--1-momhs G. mon llh 7. 6 month' 1 2 111onths 8. o\'l'I" I year 9. open unda in\'C'stigation 16.ACQ.UAINTANCE This ariablc an'\'c:-rs the ques tion: \\'as the \'inim and the suspect known to each other? Attributes: I Yes 2 :\o 3. Cnknmm 17 RELATION This 1 ariablc aucmpts to capture the specific 1inim/olll-ndtr relationship :if any! and further examines 1ariablc #17. Attribute s : 1. Rda1i11 -brothers, aunt. unrks, cousins (not including husband and wili1 81 HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS Full na111e of the homic:> f)(' rcrordcd. 19.AGE RANGE -\ 1 I. () l.i 2. I() 2.'i 3. 2() 35 -1-. :lG -1-5 5. ..j.() G.'i 6. G6 ()\'(')' 7. l' n known 20. GENDER VICTI M I. '.2. Female 3. l'nknown 21 EMPLOYME.''T VICTIM I. Unrmploy<'d :2. Self-employed 3. Employrd -1-. Cnknm1 n :n: 22. NATIONALITI THX -VICTIM I. Bahami .m

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2. Haitian 3. Jamaican +. Amt'riran 5. Canadian 6. Europt'an 7. German 8. Cuban/Hispanic 9. Other I 0. C'nknmrn 23.MARITAL STATUS VICTIM I. Single 2. 3. L"nknm'n 24. VICTIM RESIDENTIAL LOCATION 1. Central Di,1 sio n I PI, downtown fish fry. etc 2. '.\orth Ea tern Division Palmdale, CcnterviUe, Kemp Road, Culm er5\iille ) 3. Southern Di,ision ( Bain & Grants Town, Gron', Yellow Elder, Heights) +. \\'cstern (Cablt' Beach Gambier \ illage. etc)5. Airport Division INIAl ti. Carmichael Di,is ion Carmichael Rd. Sunshinc Park, etc ) 7. South Eastern Di,ision South Beach, Pint'wood :'\assau \'illagc, Sta Breeze 8. Eastern Division ( \\"inton. Sans Susie, Eater Estates, etc ) 9. GB Division 10. Family I sland Districts 11. Outside Bahamas 12. t: nknown APPENDICES 25 PRIOR REC ORD VICTIM Captures the crimina l history )if any) of the victim l. Prior Re cord not including fixed penalty) 2. PrimRecord of \ iolence 3. Prior Record of +. '.\o Prior Record SUSPECT INFORMATION 26 NAME SUSPECT Full name of the homicide suspect. 27 .AGE RANGE S U SPECT I. 0-15 2. 16-25 3. 26 -35 +. 36 -!5 5. .J.G-65 6. 66 on:r 7. Cnknown 28. GENDER SUSPECT l. 2. Female 3. C nknown 29 EMPLOYMENT STATUS SUSPECT l. Unemployed 2. Self-employed 3. Employed 4. L'nknown 30. NATIONALITY (ETHNICITY) -SUSPECT I. Bahamian HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 62 I

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APPENDICIES '2. H.1itian :t .Jamai can -!-. UlllTil ,111 5. Canadian 6. European 7. German 8. Cuhan/lfopanic 9. Other I 0. L nk1w" n JI.MARITAL STATUS SUSPECT I. Sing-le '1. '.\lan iccl l 11k11m' n 32. SUSPECT DIVISIONAL LOCATION l. C:l'ntra l Di, ision 2. .'.'\orth Eastcrn Divi s ion 3. Southt'rn D i vision -1-. \\" cstcrn Divi s ion 5. Airport Di,ision 6. Carmirhad Di,is ion 7. S outh Ea s t ern Divi s ion 8. Eastern Divi sio n 9. GB Oivi s i on 10. F amil) Island Oisuicis 11. Outside Bahamas 12. L'nknown 33.PRIOR RECORD SUSPECT l. Yes 2. ;\o 3. L'nknown 34. CRIME CLEARANCE Polirt' haw ickmifil'd the person responsible for tht' murder and there \\as s ulli cic nt e\'ide n ce to lay a chargC" in conn ect i o n with the incidem. 83 HOMlCIDE IN THE BAHAMAS Attributes: I 2. L 11' >hl'
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went tn Corners Court ctr 37 SENTENCING A ttn'butes I. Death 2. Lile Imprisonment 3. 20 years or more +. 10-20 years 5. 5 10 years 6. 0 n\'c years 7. :\o Prison Timr/Probatinn 8. 9. Othrr 10. :\ot :\pplirable or murder suicide. and \\'here arc at largc, or wlwre no charges were filed. not etc 38. EXECUTED I. Y es 2. :":o (where sente nce s \\'Cre commuted to life for appeal time rea so ns or if the person killed themsel\'es while in custody, or awaiting execution etc). 3. :'\ot Applicable cases of murder suicide, amt where suspects arc at large, or not sentenced to execution, Cle 39. CONFESSION I. Full the suspect tells the entire story and his information corroborates with the crime scene investigation. 2. Partial -the suspect ;dmits to killing the .,;etim, puts him self at the crime scene, howe ,er, what he/ she says does nm corroborate with the crime scent.'. 3. -the s uspect denies all knowledge of the crime and pro\'idc APPENDICES an alibi. + Applicable no person s usperl died prior to intcnie\\'. e tc HOMI C IDE IN T HE BAHAMAS 84-

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BIBLIOGRAPHY .\w,tralian I n s t itute of C1i111inolog: & The C1iminology Research Council. Annual rep o rt. 2003 :WO+. B cnmu. \\:. & He-,s. K. 1 981 Criminal St. Paul: \\'est Publishing Co. Canadian statistil"s; justice & crime, 2003. Caplan, G. ( 197/J Fon: \rnrd, in Law Enforrcmrnt Assistance :\dmini\ tration. The crimina l ime st igation process: A dialogue:on r esearch finding s \\'ashington. DC: CS. GoHTnment Printing Office. :\ational In s titu te of Lll\\. Enfon-cmelll and CriminalJ11stict>. Conklin. J. ( 1972). Robbery and thl' criminal justice S\'stem. Philacklphia: I .ippincott. Conklin .J.. & Bittner. E. (19731. Burglary in a Criminology. Dodd. T. :\icholas. S. D. & :\. 200 h Crim e in En .l{land and \\'ale, 2003/200+. Home O!Tice Bulletin. Gates, n, & Knowles, L. (1976). An C\'aluation of till' Rand Corporation\ analysis of the crimi nal inwstigation process. Thl' Police Chief: Glick, B., & Riccio L. ( 1979). Productidty of detertins: A stu dy of the inwstigati,e function of police juwnile units. Journal of Police Science and Administration Greenwood, P. ( 1970). An analysis of the apprehension activities of the Kew York city police department. The York Institute. Greenwood, P, & Pctcr silia.J. (1975). The c riminal in\'estigation proless. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporati on. Hagan, Frank E. (2002) Introdu ctio n t o criminology, Thcmies. methods and criminal beha\"ior. Fifih Edition. W adsworth Group. Kirk, ( I 960). Crime investigation. :\'cw Y ork: I nter-Sc ience Publish ers. Kuykendall. J. ( 1982) The criminal inwstigati\'e process: T oward a conceptual framework.Journal of CriminalJustice. '.\ouzos, .J. & Segra\'e, :\1. 1 200+ ) Homicide in Australia: 2002 2003 :r\ational 85HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Homicide .\Ionitoring :'\H.\lP annual report. Research and puhlir policy no. 55 . \ustralian Imtitute of Canberra. ion 200:3-200.J http:/ /\rnw.nationrnastcr.rnm/ graph-Tl cri_mur_ rap Sl'ptcmber. 200-l. O'Hara, C:. t 19701. Fundamcntab or criminal imestigarion. Springfield. IL: C. Thomas. Penketh. C 1 20021. Jamaica murrler rate BBC :'\ews I January, 2002. D. 12004-" Crime in England and "'ab 200:U200:3: Supplementary \'olunlt' I: H omicide and Gun Crime. Rt>port of tht' 2000 Census of Popul ation & Housing. Commonwealth of The Bahani.i> Dcpanme11t of Statistirs. 2002. Saunders, \ \ ( 1977 1 Detectiw work. :'\ew York: Free Press. Skolnirk,J. (1975). Justice without trial: Law enforcement in a democratic society t:?nd ed.). York: John \\'iley and Sons. Smith. P ( 1985 ) Poli('ing \ 'ictorian London: \\'cstport. CX Greenwood Press. Snyder, L. 119731. Homicirlc inwstigation. Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas. Stone, \., & Deluca, S 1980 1 Imestigating crimes: An introduction. Bust0n: Houghton-.\Iifllin. The Bahamas in figures 2002. The Department of The Fine P rin t 2003. Tifft L. (1975) Control systt>ms, social bases of power and power cxt>rcise in police organizations.Journal of Police Science and Administration. Cnifonn C.:rimt> Report;. F'edt>ral Bureau of Investigation t 2003J. HOMICIDE IN THE BAHAMAS 86-

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