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Integration of recycled industrial wastes into pavement design and construction for a sustainable future

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Integration of recycled industrial wastes into pavement design and construction for a sustainable future
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Asutosh, Ashish Tripathy ( author )
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English
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1 online resource (79 pages) : illustrations ;

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Architecture research project, M.S.A.S
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
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Abstract:
Transportation Infrastructure has remained the key element for the economic and social development of a country. Especially in developing countries, the demand for new roads and maintenance of existing roads are very high as they depend on the overall development. This call for transforming the methods the roads are being laid. Recent studies have shown light in the background of making our transportation system greener and sustainable, which can be a fast track to achieving the goals of saving the planet from further critical conditions. One of the effective ways of addressing this issue is by the substitution or replacement of pavements layers using alternate materials which are not extracted from nature. Many experiments have been done in finding various alternate materials in road construction specifically using recycled wastes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the environmental significances and prove the use of alternate chosen materials such as waste plastics in road construction. This is addressed by comparing various parameters such global warming potential, carbon footprint, cost and other different environmental impact factors. The results from this comparison can prove the use of these materials in pavement construction and its respective constraints in using on a large scale. This will bring in revised pavement design and construction in a more efficient, economical and sustainable manner.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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terminal project
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by Ashish Tripathy Asutosh.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida Theses & Dissertations

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INTEGRATION OF RECYCLED INDUSTRIAL WASTES INTO PAVEMENT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE By ASHISH TRIPATHY ASUTOSH TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITEC T URAL STUDIES WITH A CONCENTRATION IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2016

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2016 ASHISH TRIPATHY ASUTOSH

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To MOM & DAD

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 5 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT 9 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 10 Sustainability and its need in transportation ................................ ........................... 11 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ 15 Pavement and types ................................ ................................ ......................... 15 Sustainability concepts and material considerations ................................ ............. 17 Transportation engineering ................................ ................................ .............. 17 Durable and sustainable road construction ................................ ............................. 18 Pavement design faults and possible solutions ................................ ................ 18 Recycled asphalt pavement ................................ ................................ ............ 18 Use of treated PVC ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 Industrial waste as virgin material ................................ ................................ ........... 20 Fly ash ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 21 Impact of applying ash in preliminary road design ................................ ............ 21 Scrap tires ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 22 WSDOT results on use of recycling of scrap tires ................................ ............ 23 Potential use of glass ................................ ................................ ....................... 24 Strength characteristics o f glass in pavement design ................................ ....... 25 World pollution by plastics ................................ ................................ ................ 26 Plastics & Bitumen ................................ ................................ ........................... 28 Advantage of bitumen plastic mixtures in road construction ............................ 29 Engineered Cementitious Composition ................................ ................................ .. 31 Cement ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 31 Use of ECC ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 32 Sustainable rating systems for roadway ................................ ................................ 34 Green Roads ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 34 Advantage of Green roads in sustainable road infrastructure ......................... 34 INVEST (FWA) ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 35 GREEN LITES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 Others types of rating systems ................................ ................................ ............... 36

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METHODOLOGY.......................................................................................................... 38 Purpose of Research.............................................................................................. 38 Methodology................................... ........................................................................ 38 RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS.......................................................................................................... 39 RECYCLED SCRAP 39 Embodied energy a n d carbon footprint 39 Recyclability of scrap tires ................................ ................................ ...................... 40 Cost analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 41 47 Embodied energy and carbon footprint ................................ ................................ 47 Recyclability of scrap tires ................................ ................................ ...................... 48 Cost analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 50 RECYCLED 53 Embodied energy and carbon footprint ................................ ................................ 54 Recyclability of scrap tires ................................ ................................ ...................... 55 Cost analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 58 60 Current challenges in adopting application of alternate materials in pavement design and construction ................................ ................................ .......................... 61 66 72 LIST OF F IGURE 78

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LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure.1 Flexible pavement 15 Figure.2 Rigid Pavement 16 Figure.3 Recycling rates of municipal wastes 21 Figure.4 Engineering properties of tire bales 23 Figure.5 Compressive strength of waste glass concrete mixes 25 Figure 6 Fresh densities of waste glass concrete mixes 25 Figure 7 Engineering properties of recycled glass 26 Figure 8 Different routes for plastic waste management 29 Figure 9 Results of SDBC Mix for Varying Percentages of LDPE 30 Figure 10 Comparison o f ECC material performance in uniaxial tension 31 Figure 11 Design Chart for ECC and Concrete overlay thickness 33 Figure 12 Framework of LCA 3 5 Figure 13 Difference in carbon dioxide equivalent between asphalt & recycled tire 41 Figure 14 Section of pavement using scrap tires 42 Figure 15 System of recycling tires 46 Figure 16 Recycling GHG Benefits Attributable to Energy Savings compared to landfilling 48 Figure 17 Difference in process energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials 49 Figure 18 Difference in transportation energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials 50 Figure 19 Mix design of rigid pavement for 8000 psi 52

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Figure 20 Price Difference in using replacing waste glass with sand 53 Figure 21 Difference in process energy in greenhouse gas emissions of virgin plastics and recycled plastics 55 Figure 22 Difference in process energy of virgin plastics and recycled plastics 56 Figure 23 Flow chart of a plastic waste management process 5 7 Figure 24 Energy Savings per S hort Ton of Recycled Material compared to landfilling 5 9 Figure 25 Solar roadways 64

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ACKNOW LEDGMENT I would like to extend much gratitude to my committee members for their insightful input and direction for which this thesis would no t be possible. Most especially my chair, Dr. Nawari and my co chair Professor Chini whose expertise and passion for the topic have been most inspiring. Also, to those who made my time at this pristine university such a great experience especially Dr. Mic hael Kung, Professor Ruth Steiner and my fellow graduates Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends who supported me through this entire journey constantly.

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9 the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies with a Concentration in Sustainable Design INTEGRATION OF RECYCLED INDUSTRIAL WASTES INTO PAVEMENT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE By Ashish Tripathy Asutosh July 2016 Chair: Nawari O. Nawari Co chair: Abdol R Chini Major: Master of Science in Architectural Studies with a Concentration in Sustainable Design Transportation Infrastructure has remained the key element for the economic and social development of a country. Especially in developing countries, the demand for new roads and maintenance of existing roads are very high as they depend on the overall development. This call for transforming the methods the roads are being laid. Recent studies have shown light in the background of making our transportation system greener and sustainable, which can be a fast tra ck to achieving the goals of saving the planet from further critical conditions. One of the effective ways of addressing this issue is by the substitution or replacement of pavements layers using alternate materials which are not

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10 extracted from nature. Man y experiments have been done in finding various alternate materials in road construction specifically using recycled wastes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the environmental significances and prove the use of alternate chosen materials such as was te plastics in road construction. This is addressed by comparing various parameters such global warming potential, carbon footprint, cost and other different environmental impact factors. The results from this comparison can prove the use of these materials in pavement construction and its respective constraints in using on a large scale. This will bring in revised pavement design and construction in a more efficient, economical and sustainable manner.

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11 INTRODUCTION With 7 billion people on the planet and another 1 billion expected, mankind and other living organisms are suffering from a man made disaster known as global warming: the need for taking strong actions has not been more serious and will not be in next cent ury. The health and wealth of Mother Nature depend on these times where people must change their tracks and their way of living their lifestyle Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the abilit y of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept of needs in particular, the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs." (The Brundtland Commission) report Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987). The world is running short of natural resources and over exploitation of these has created a manmade disaster which we commonly know as global warming and climate change.

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12 Excessive burning of fossil fuel and natural resources has brought us to a position where the planet is under maximum stress. This is the reason why susta inable development practices are at the pinnacle of our responsibilities. The topic of sustainable development is a concept which encompasses many factors like sustaining biodiversity, social sustainability, controlling climate change, etc. The major contr ibutor to this issue is our built environment. This is where we spend the maximum amount of resources and fossil fuels resulting excess carbon emissions and footprint The built environment consists of all the structures ranging from buildings, roads, brid ges and all other man made entities which support the human civilization. Progress has been made in many sectors to embed sustainability in our daily lives but it has miles to go down the line into achieving every aspect. These aspects relate to our Sust ainable which have been modified into Millennium development goals. These goals focus on sustaining health, wealth, economy and living conditions of every human being on the planet. This study will be an attempt to solve one of the development goals which consists one of the components of the built environment that is Transportation Infrastructure. Transportation Infrastructure has remained the key element for the economic and social development of a country. It impacts trade, p roduction and consumption, health and other

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13 factors. It is also a keen element in the job sector. The ways of transportation are land, air and water out of which the majority is roadways and the other two are dependent on it. In this time of war against gl obal warming and climate change, we are struggling to alter our ways of lifestyle in order to bring sustainability. Planning, design, construction and maintenance of roads have been nascent towards being sustainable whereas efforts are being made to innova network uses massive amounts of energy to construct and the materials used are highly unsustainable in nature. Similar to any civil structure, their elements such as asphalt or bitumen in road construction which is produced through fractional distillation involves burning of crude oil to which the world is striving to put an end. This sector produces the highest level of greenhouse gas, directly, through fossil energy used in mining, transpor tation, paving works and indirectly through the emissions coming from vehicles. Indeed, the constant increase in the number of road vehicles and therefore of World Highways, 2015. Transportation systems cause pollution and fragmentation among various habitats Besides, huge challenges await the road construction sector such as a cheaper and better production, construction and of course maintenance, all the more as raw mate rials are

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14 becoming scarce and the environmental laws are getting stricter regarding air pollution and noise disturbances. Like the rest of the sectors, the road construction sector needs to face the challenge of sustainability. These calls for transformin g the methods the roads are being laid. Recent studies have shown light in the background of making our transportation system greener and sustainable which can be a fast track to achieving the goals of saving the planet from further critical conditions. T he good news is many countries have taken initiatives but it has not been practiced as it should be. Especially in developing countries, the demand for new roads and maintenance of existing roads very high as they depend on the overall development. Therefo re, we shall look into examining and formulating techniques and strategies to design and construct sustainable road infrastructures. Let us take a step forward into looking the alternatives of the process and analyze the reasons what are the factors which play a role in changing our traditional routines.

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15 LITERATURE REVIEW PAVEMENTS AND ITS TYPES Flexible pavement can be defined as the type of pavement which consists of a mixture of asphalt or bituminous material, aggregates ( co a rse and fine) placed on a bed of compacted granular material of appropriate quality in layers over the subgrade. The course aggregates can be crushed stone and fine aggregates are generally sand. (Both engineered to required specification). The Bitumen is the derived from tar which is the final product of fractional distillation of natural oil. These pavements generally de s igned for low volume traffic loads as compared to rigid pavements. The stress distribution in these pavements is such that it gradually rec edes as the load is transmitted downwards from the surface by virtue of spreading over an increasingly larger area, by carrying it deep enough into the ground through successive layers. Figure 1 Road section of a f lexible p avement, 2011, Online manuals Texas Department of Transportation

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16 A rigid pavement can be defined as the type of pavement which consists of a plain or reinforced concrete as the surface course instead of asphalt. It also consists a base course which requires aggregates( co a rse and fine) with binder medium. The design of rigid pavement is based on providing a concrete slab of strength to resist heavier traffic loads .The rigid pavement has rigidity and high modulus of elasticity which distributes the load over a relatively wide area. Fig ure 2 Road section of a r igid pavement, 2011 Online manuals Texas Department of Transportation In a rigid pavement, the flexural strength of concrete is the major factor in the overall performance of the road. Due to this property of p avement, when the subgrade deflects at the beneath, the concrete slab is able to bridge over the localized failures and areas of inadequate support from subgrade because of slab action. (theconstructor.org)

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17 SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS "This one trend, climate change, affects all trends."(Barack Obama, Paris Climate Change conference 2015).A report by the US federal highway administration in 2015 unfolded the requirement of sustainability in road sectors. The two primary goals of any road are to meet the engineering requirements designed for a long term period on a particular site and to use smart environmentally safe materials and processes in order to preserve the ecosystem. Sustainability is a continuous effort where th e conventional practices are changed and refined to meet the current goals. This refers to solving issues as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, impacts on habitat, water quality, changes in the hydrologic cycle, air quality, mobility, acce ss, freight, community, depletion of non renewable resources, and economic development. The motivation for moving towards sustainable practices has been delivered by the most influence factor that is economics. Along with the urgent need to fight climate c hange and global warming, economics has proved to be of benefit in the long term to any organization which decides to walk on this side of the business. (World Green Building Trend, 2016).The materials used in the road are basically extracted from the surr ounding and modified to meet the necessary engineering requirements. For road sustainability, these are keen components. Factors that should be investigated when designing roads. These include lifecycle cycle analysis, carbon footprint Life cycle analysi

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18 cycle, from raw materials to final disposal of the product. It offers a cradle to grave approach to a product or process considering environmental aspects and potential impacts. (Will iams 2009)It is one of the best methods to analyze the amount of energy spent throughout its lifecycle. Carbon footprint is the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in a given time frame.( timeforchange 2016) This refers to fossil fuel consumption from the point of extraction to the place where the product is at any particular date. The use of alternate materials and recycled components must be an important decision to reach the sustainability goals in road infrastructure. DURABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ROAD CONSTRUCTION The proposed solutions for the construction of sustainable roads in developing countries are described by many studies The major changes needed for sustainability issues are to be made in the pavement design where the design is more important than other layers or road construction. The wheel and axial load variations and the interactions with the pavement life and durability are some of the important factors which affect the roads at extreme conditions. It is suggested that heavy vehicles such as trucks must be constantly checked for the inspections of axel and wheels. The quality of construction is also is also analyzed to a nd determined to be significant. (Molenaar, 2013) This claims by data analysis of triaxial

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19 tests, deformation patterns and resilient modulus results to imply the use of recycling construction and demolition waste and using RA(Recycled Asphalt) in hot mix as phalt. These are some of the effective measures in reducing the use of virgin materials. Reclaimed asphalt pavements have been very popular where the old sections of the road need to be re recycled for the construction and rehabilitation of other roads. In India, for example, researchers have concluded the benefit of high quality RA in design mixes. Experiments were carried out in making mixes proportion of RAP: VA aggregates: fly ash and finding a better mix for using on road construction. Tests of different proportions of these ingredients were conducted like Optimum Moisture Content, gradation curves Unconfined Compressive Test and California Bearing Ratio which were found to be satisfactory. (Sa ride, 2015). RAP and fly ash must be frequently used in large quantities for a sustainable approach to road construction. Application of waste PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), r ecycled PVC (2 4mm) in size in the bitumen mix for the base course of the pavement can be a technique to reduce the use of natural materials. The treated PVC can be used to prepare two blends of bitumen mixes 3% and 5% by weight. Extensive experiments such as penetration tests, rheology, retained stability, indirect tensile strength, rut de pth studies and beam fatigue tests it is inferred that use of PVC (treated) was found effective in approaching sustainable road construction. (Behl, 2014 )

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20 INDUSTRIAL WASTE AS VIRGIN MATERIAL In the case of road construction and rehabilitation, the majori ty of the problems we face are due to the materials. The conventional material system needs to be changed and new innovations must be made to make our roads greener and safer. Studies show potential alternate materials which have been identified and experi mented to be beneficial for roads to make resilient to the environment. These alternate materials are basically industrial waste which is toxic to the surrounding environment and has pot ential in serving similar purposes as virgin materials in other indust ries.

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21 Figure 3 Recycling rate of municipal wastes, 2015, Wall Street Journal ASH Common Industrial wastes such as Ash (Fly Ash, Bottom Ash, Pond Ash, Magnetherm Slag ) are being used in road and building construction and have gained popularity since many years When coal is burnt in the furnace of the power stations, it results in around 80% of ash. This part gets carried along with flue gasses and is collected by using either electrostatic or cyclone precipitator which is called fly ash. The remaining ash sinters and falls down at the bottom of the furnace, known as bottom ash. Fly ash may be disposed of in dry form or through water slurry in a pond. When fly ash and bottom ash are mixed an d disposed of in the form of water slurry to ash ponds, it is called pond ash. Fly ash can cause environmental degradation creating health hazards and requires large areas of landfill. Countries such as India have already formulated guidelines to use ash i n road construction. It can be used in the lightweight embankment to reduce settlement. Also, ferry bumpers, composting and safety barriers have been used as additive to the pavement to increase strength and improve drainage characteristics. (IRC SP 58, 20 01)

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22 TIRES The use of scrap tires is proven efficient in building and rehabilitating roads. ( David ,1992) Typical uses are wet and dry processes where the scrap tires are used as a binder in the asphalt mixture or used with aggregate mixtures respectivel y. Experiments were carried by Washington State Department Of Transportation such as SAM(stress absorbing membrane), SAMI(stress absorbing membrane interlayer) and other types which also proved beneficial to the concept of recycled use of scrap tires but n ot cost effective in that period of time. The rubber asphalt paving material has still a potential space for improvement to use on a massive scale. (WSDOT, 1992).In addition, a distinct experimentally study verified the use of tires in taking various pavem ents design layers. The design sections consisted of different proportions of soil, scrap tires chips, and geotextiles which were constructed and tested in real time. It was successful in getting the desired parameters wit h minor challenges. (Neil, 1992) Chip size (inches) Friction angle (degrees) Cohesion (psi) Lateral earth pressure at rest(K 0) ratio Elastic Modulus (Psi)

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23 Figure 4 Engineering properties of tire bales, Encore Systems Inc ( Texas Department of Transportation) GLASS Use of domestic waste glass also was studied for road construction for the US environmental Protection Agency. It was found that asphalt does not adhere to glass surfaces as it does with aggregate. It could only be used 15% of the total aggregate volume using glass finer than 3/8 inch sieve. To reduce the adhesion problem few additives like hydrated lime was introduced and the results seemed promising. Many other anti stripping agents were discovered to solve the adhesion for the glass and asphalt. This result in the use of waste glass on low volume roads with the help of binders. The alkali silica reaction between glass and concrete is a widespread problem. The reaction causes a gel like product formation that absorbs moisture, expands and finally leads to the disintegration of 2 21 1.12 .41 .28 164 3 19 1.67 .26 .20 163 2 25 1.25 .47 .32 112

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24 the concrete. (University Of Missouri, 1975) Glass can be a very efficient substitute in rigid pavements where concrete is the main element of the roadway. According to an experiment at University If Baghdad, the 28 day compressive strength value of 45.9 MPa was obtained from the concrete mix made of 20% waste glass fine aggregate, which represents an increase in the compressive strength of up to 4.23% as compared to the control mix. Figure 5 Compressive strength of waste glass concrete mixes (Ismail, 2008). The pozzolanic effect of waste glass in concrete is more obvious at the later age of 28 days. The optimum percentage of waste glass that gives the maximum values of compressive and flexural strengths is 20%. And Using finely ground waste glass in preference to fine aggregate could produce promising results, assuming that the geometry will be less heterogeneous.(Ismail,2008) % waste glass 0 10 15 20 Fresh Density 2467.90 2445.70 2428.30 2420.90

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25 Figure 6 Fresh densities of waste glass concrete mixes (I smail,2008) Recycled glass is a very good source for using in road construction .It has shown specific gravity values were found to be approximately 10% lower than the values to natural aggregate reported by (Das, 2007). A study at the Swi nburne University of Technology experimented samples of recycled glass for their strength and geotechnical characteristics which delivered satisfactory results compared to being treated as materials for pavement design. Three recycled glass sample were tak en and named Fine Recycled Glass (FRG) ,Medium Recycled Glass (MRG) and Coarse Recycled Glass (CRG) The maximum particle size of these samples was 4.75 mm 9.5 mm and19 mm respectively. The main differe nce between these samples w as their gradation curve which influenced the geotechnical Properties The FRG and MRG samples were found more suitable for replacement. ( Disfani, 2011). Test Fine recycled glass Medium recycled glass Specific Gravity 2.48 2.5 Flakiness Index -85.4 Organic content(%) 1.3 0.5

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26 pH Value 9.9 10.1 Standard Proctor(kN/m3 ) 16.7 18.0 Modified proctor(kN/m3) 17.5 19.5 LA Abrasion Value 24.8 25.4 Figure 7 Engineering properties of recycled glass, ( Disfani, 2011) Glass can not only be used in flexible pavements but also in rigid pavements. There is great potential for the utilization of waste glass in concrete in several forms, including fine aggregate, coarse aggregate.(Ahmed ,2011). Use of fine waste glass can also act as an additive to fine aggregate which could produce promising results.(Ismail, 2008) PLASTICS Polyethylene is one of a kind of polymers which was investigated for the potential to enhance asphalt mixture properties. Two types of polyethylene were added to coat the aggregate High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). The results indicated that ground HDPE polyethylene modifier provides better engineering properties. The recommended proportion of the modifier is 12% by the weight of bitumen

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27 content. I t was found to increase the stability, reduce the density and slightly increase the air voids and the voids of mineral aggregate. (Mohammad, 2007) 192 coastal countr ies in 2010.It may appear staggeringly high, in reality, the quantity would be many times more than that amount. Besides estimating the total quantity, a paper published recently in the journal of Science has identified the top 20 countries that have dumped the most plastic waste into the oceans. At the twelfth position, India is one of the worst performers. It has dumped up to 0.24 million tons of plastic into the ocean every year; the amount of mismanaged plastic waste per year is 0.6 million tons is a report showing the urgency to find solutions to fight against this hazardous waste being responsible in polluting water, land and air at an exponential rate. One of the best remedies is to direct these waste plastics into using for several purposes, for example, construction of roads. This demands to understand the feasibility of usage of this category of wastes into the construction of roads. It has been also discovered that recycled plastics can be used in the construction of bituminous or asphalt roads. The polymer in plastics and the bitumen mixture can withstand high temperatures and can resist the action of water. The sound proofing properties of plastics cause the roads to reduce noise pollution and no toxic gasses are produced.(

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28 Swami, 2012). This has been practically implemented in the roads of Himachal Pradesh, India and proved to be very efficient ( DNA India 2010).But there are many steps involved from the collection of waste plastics to finally using in the construction. The plastics should be recycled and prepared for usage in the mix designs. This consists of several economic and technological constraints such as the requirement of chemical modification to recover the base chemical constituents.( Rebeiz, 1995). There is a need for proper regulations and resources to use these wastes into the construction process. There are many properties of bitumen which is unsuitable for pavements and can cause distress to the t raffic. First, bitumen is the result of the burning of fossil fuels which is an environmental disaster. At high temperature, bleeding of road prevails reducing the performance of surface courses. Due to the chemical reactions for instance oxidation, bitume n may crack. Bitumen strips off from the aggregate forming pothole on roads as being water repellent material in action with water which reduces the life of roads. Plastic due to its chemical composition it acts a good binder to bitumen. It Softens at arou nd 260 degrees Fahrenheit and there is no effervesces of any gasses in the temperature range of 260 350 degree Fahrenheit .Have a binding property to enhance their binding

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29 property.(Gawande,2012) Figure 8 Different routes for plastic waste management,(Panda,2009) Another study from Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology experimentally proved that using wastes plastics can improve the design quality of the pavement as well as reduce the use of bitu men. The experiment consisted of designing a Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) mix which was prepared using Marshall Method of bituminous mix design. This SDBC was prepared with conventional 60/70 grade bitumen, 60/70 grade bitumen added with varying percentages of LDPE and were studied for various parameters .From the table below it can be observed that the Marshall Stability Values and Bulk Density increased with the percentage increase in the modifier (LDPE).

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30 Sl No LDPE (%) BITUMEN (%) MARSHAL STABILITY (Kg) FLOW VALUE (mm) BULK DENSITY (GM/CC) AIR VOIDS% Vv VOIDS IN MINERAL AGGREG ATE(VMA ) % VOIDS FILLED WITH BITUMEN (VFB) 1 3 5 1050 3.10 2.24 3.86 15.04 74.12 2 6 5 1120 3.88 2.25 3.43 14.66 76.23 3 9 5 1185 3.91 2.25 3.21 14.48 77.18 Figure 9 Results of SDBC Mix for Varying Percentages of LDPE (Rokade,2012) ENGINEERED CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITION Cement is the mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials with at a given proportion. Cement industry alone contributes 5% of the global carbon dioxide production ----Cement acts as a binder substance used in construction that can bind other materials together. The most important types of cement are used as a component in the production of mortar in masonry a nd concrete .Cement Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water in a specific proportion to form a strong building material Cement production is growing b y 2.5% annually and is expected to rise up to

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31 4.4 billion tons by 2050(Madeleine, 2012).Due to the rising traffic in the world, the demand for concrete pavement roads has also magnified. This causes the use of more cement which is a danger to the natural ecosystem. Figure 10 Comparison on ECC material performance in uniaxial tension ( Lepech,2010) Use of ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composition ) has been a good effort to reduce the cement content in the construction of rigid pavement ECC is a modified high performance fiber reinforced cementitious compositions which have similar ductility as metals and has tight crack width. It has a strain capacity more than 300 times than ordinary concrete. Several tests, for example, mechanical loading, performance, shrinkage, perme ability,abrasion,freeze thaw,strength,environmental tests, etc has proved that ECC is

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32 a better than conventional cement compositions to use in highways. 14 mixes were designed in which the ingredients of the ECC were from various industrial wastes such as fly ash thermoelectric industries, residue wastes from a metal casting, post consumer carpet fibers, cement kiln dust and expanded polystyrene beads from lost foam foundry operations. Use of ECC potentially can reduce about 70% use of virgin materials use d for rigid pavements. ( Michael 2010) Figure 11 Design Char t for ECC and Concrete overlay t hickness (Lepech,2010)

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33 SUSTAINABLE RATING SYSTEMS FOR ROADWAYS GREEN ROADS (GRI) Green roads International is a nonprofit organization which has taken initiatives in devising suitable guidelines for making roads greener. A "Green road" is a transportation project that is designed and constructed to a level of sustainability substantially higher than current commo n practice. Green roads provide environmental, economic and social benefits. The GRI provided focuses on projects efficiently use resources and renewable materials; help reduces emissions, manage waste, enable multimodal transport. The organization has fo rmulated guidelines for accessing the sustainability criteria of the road construction through studying life cycle analysis. This includes setting up indicators for materials used in construction. Some of the indicators are global warming potential, acidif ication, human health, resource depletion, etc. (Greenroads,2016)

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34 Not only these indicators are most useful in identifying better materials for the construction and rehabilitation of transportation systems but also to justify the use of these alternate so urces to save the environment. Figure .12 Framework of LCA (Greenroads manual V1.5 ( consoli ,1993) INVEST (FWA) INVEST ( I nfrastructure V oluntary E valuation S ustainability T ool) is a web based self evaluation tool comprised of voluntary sustainability best practices, called criteria, which cover the full lifecycle of transportation services, including system planning, project planning, design, and construction, and continuing through operations and maintenance. ation developed this

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35 program for voluntary use by transportation agencies to analyze and elevate the sustainability of the projects. INVEST criteria are basically divided into four modules: (1)System Planning for States (2) System Planning for Regions (3) Project Development (4) Operations and Maintenance Each module is independent and is evaluated separately. The Project Development module consists of multiple scorecards designed to recognize the varying scope, scale, and context of projects across th e country.(Sustainablehighways,201 2 ) GREEN LITES Green LITES is a certification program developed by NYSDOT(New York State Department Of Transportation) in 2008. It is a self certification program that distinguishes transportation projects and opera tions based on the extent to which they incorporate sustainable

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36 choices. This is basically an internal management program for NYSDOT to measure performance, recognize suitable practices, and identify zones for improvement. NYSDOT project designs and opera tions are evaluated for sustainable practices and based on the total credits achieved. The rating system recognizes varying certification levels, with the highest level going to designs and operational groups that clearly advance the state of sustainable t ransportation solutions. The certification system has various programs depending on the type of project. They are Project Design Certification Program Operations Certification Program Green LITES Regions Local Projects Certification Program and Green LITES Planning There are 4 levels of awards ( certifications) in this rating system. They are Green LITES certif ied, Green LITES Silver, Green LITES Gold and Green LITES Evergreen. (New York State Department Of Transportation,2008) There are other types of rating systems such as I LAST: ( Infrastructure Voluntary Evaluation Sustainability Tool) by Illinois Department of Transportation ,2011 Green Guide for Roads: Alberta Green Pave: Ontario Ministry of Transportation Green Guide for Roads: Transportation Association of Canada E nvision ISI(Institute of sustainable infrastructure) (Asmar,2013)

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37 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study design was cross sectional in nature and a non experimental research .After studying the feasibility of the applications of alternate materials in road construction, data was collected about the properties of these materials. These The data was collected from secondary resources which included journals and company reviews. This included data about the carbon footprint, embodied energy, recyclability, present tradition, and cost. The research used these data to compare the environmental properties and their impacts. The results wo uld give a basic framework to analyze the differences in using virgin materials over recycled industrial wastes in pavement design & construction. The industrial wastes such as scrap tires, glass and plastics were chosen. Furthermore, this research aims at analyzing these results and making an effort to claim the use of these materials over virgin materials in road design and construction. This study also seeks to be a stepping stone into

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38 postulating new materials for the substitution of traditional pavemen t design which will require less use of natural resources and will be more sustainable. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS RECYCLE SCRAP TIRES EMBODIED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINT Several millions of tires roll around the earth and huge amount of natural resources are used to produce these .This creates tons of waste or scrap tires which are either discarded or incarnated once the life cycle is achieved. To find out the embodied energy in a tire, the energy spent on the process of raw material acquisition to transportation to the market is to be examined. Tire constitutes of rubber or elastomers, metals, textiles, additives carbon based materials and chemicals such as sulfur and zinc oxides. Steel cords run through the tire and other chemicals to make it more durable. The primary energy used is the burning of fossil fuels Each year 6162 trillion Btu of energy is spent in processing steel and other alloys (Design lifecycle).After the acquisition of raw materials, they are shipped to the

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39 factories where the final product is created. A case study conducted by Conservation Technology Inc examined a factory that produced 33,000 metric tons of tires per year and found that it used 22,47 4,000kWh of energy per year. The factory used 7540 tons of liquid petroleum used to generate 103,140 tons of steam using boilers. Millions of tires are discarded every year which is toxic in nature. Although there are environmental laws most of these tire s end up i n a landfill or are incinerated which is a hazard to the ecology. This is an opportunity of recycling the tires to its maximum potential be used in various industries especially in the construction environment the use is promising and saves natural resources such as trees and asphalt. A study done at the University of Wisconsin proved that mechanical scrap tires can be used in the construction of pavements using various techniques The experiment used testing different pav ements using various composition of scrap tires and soil and concluded to be feasible using tires in road construction with general maintenance There are other experiments carried out in other organizations which prove that it is a potential alternative t o constructing roads. Considering recycling of these tires, it cann ot be directly used. This requires proper recycling and converts them to final product for the road industry. ISRI (Institute of Scrap recycling Industries INC) experimented the carbon fo otprint of recycling tires The study was successful and it concluded that energy from recycled rubber has a lower carbon footprint than coal which is the main ingredient of energy production. The upstream carbon footprint

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40 for the production of asphalt is 840kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per metric ton whereas it Is 124 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent to recycle tires per metric ton. When used in pavements, recycled rubber had between 3 and 7 times lower carbon footprint than asphalt. Electricity is the l argest source of the carbo n footprint. Figure 13 Difference in carbon dioxide equivalent between asphalt & recycled tire, ISRI 2009 COST ANALYSIS If we take an example of using tires in the pavement we can derive various forms of layer thickness. Taking into consideration a section from the study done at University of and W Wiscon sin Department of transportation we can get an approximate volume of tires used in 0one mile of road. From the figure, if we estimate for 1 mile of road, 0 200 400 600 800 1000 ASPHALT RECYCLED TIRE Kg of CO2 equivalent Kg of CO2 equivalent

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41 265,320 cubic feet of scrap tires. Figure 14 Section of pavement using scrap tires (Eldin, ASCE 1992) Tire recycling is not a new business. Several firms focus on recycling tires into making the various products but it has not been on a massive scale. Starting from crumb rubber to TDF (tire derived fuel), it has many uses. But the scrap tires are still being stacked up in millions. It is estimated more than 50 million tires and discarded in the United States each year,(Guidelines ,1987). This reflects for technological advancement in the recycling of these tires and diverting them into the construction industry. The cost of recycling will decrease when their new plants are installed which would cater to the demands. Assuming a road being constructed in Gainesville, Florida let us take a step in analyzing the approximate costs which are incurred in using traditional material over industrial wastes.

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42 According to the department of Florida transportation, construction of a 2 lane asphalt roadway of one center mile will cost $7,321,444 by LRE. Some of the costs de fined by Florida Department Of Transportation(FDOT) as per 2013 were Asphalt is projected around 100$ per 1 ton, Earthwork for $0.3 per cubic feet and Structural concrete (rigid pavements) to be $29.63 per cubic feet. Figure 14 Section of pavement using scrap tires (Eldin, ASCE 1992) Using the above pavement section using soil and scrap tires, it is estimated to have 265,320 ft 3 of tires which can be used as a replacement for 1mile of road subgrade. Now the cost of the road se ction can be computed as Compacted density of tires =40 lb/ft 3 For 1mile of road =40lb/ft 3 x 265,320 ft 3 =10612800lbs

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43 =5306.4 tons (1 ton =2000 lbs) Comparing with the price of sub base and subgrade which mainly consists of aggregates and binder material, Density of coarse aggregate (crushed stone) and sand =100lb/ft 3 (rfcafe ,2016) Cost of aggregates =$30/ton (Gravelshop,2016) For 265,320 f t 3 = [{(265,320 x 100) / 2000)} x 30 ] = $ 397,980 The hidden costs would be transporting the tires from the scrap tire factory to the recycling plant. In this case, it can be made sure the vehicles can be chosen which would run on sustainable fuels such as biodiesel and the recycling plant running on renewable energies. By spending $5000 for a mile of road by replacing scrap tires, an amount of approximately $ 390,000 can be saved. 1 tire barrel =1 ton which c ontains 100 tires wrapped together in a pile of 2.5x4.5x5 feet. 5306.4 tons=530640 tires which can be purchased from Tallahassee for $0.7 per barrel from a scrap tire company which equated to $3714.48(USA scrap tire network, 2016). This is the amount of mo ney a recycling plant can purchase for shredding and organizing. Then with a certain percentage of profit the company can sell the contractor for around $5000.The hidden costs would be transporting the tires from the scrap tire factory to the recycling pla nt.

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44 In this case, it can be made sure the vehicles can be chosen which would run on sustainable fuels such as biodiesel and the recycling plant running on renewable energies. By spending $5000 for a mile of road, equivalent amount of asphalt, fine aggregat e and co a rse aggregates. From the above breakdown of preliminary prices, we can observe that it is economically profitable to use scrap tires in pavements and is sustainable in nature. This also reduces the maintenance costs(pavement maintenance, roadsid e maintenance ,drainage ,vegetation, aesthetics, traffic services ,bridge, routine maintenance, miscellaneous routine maintenance and other maintenance functions)which traditionally costs more than 200 million dollars per annum.(DOT, Florida cost report,2 014).

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45 Figure 15 System of recycling tires, derived from ( IERE, Nov 2009) The use of tires in road construction is promising. It will require a series of enhancements. First, there is a need to formulate basic design guidelines. This innovation and technology have to be promoted all around the world. There must a clear economic chart which should be developed in order to convince the industries to use the maximum amount of tir es as it would be beneficial to them.

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46 RECYCLED INDUSTRIAL WASTE GLASS The g lass is a non crystalline amorphous solid that is produced by supercooling of a mixture consisting silica sand (SiO 2 ) and soda ash (sodium carbonate) to a rigid state. This supercooled material does not crystallize and retains the internal structure. The other constituents of the material consist of sodium oxide (Na 2 O), lime (CaO ), and several minor additives. These are used in the forms of bulbs, cathode ray tubes, bottles, glasses and for packaging. EMBODIED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINT Silica sand which is the main ingredient is mixed with lime and soda and is heated at aro und 1500 C using fossil fuels. The molten glass is passed over molten tin at 1000C and then cooled in a controlled manner to form a continuous sheet. This produces a substance known as Float glass whose thickness can range from 2 25 mm. Several other a dditives are added like (Mg and Al 2 O 3 ) to help the melting process, and other oxides are added for color The mining of silica sand which causes immense stress on the ecosystem. Fossil fuel is also used to excavate and transport the materials .The embodied energy of glass is approximately 15.9 MJ/Kg. (Andrew,2010)

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47 Although the recycling of glass is not new to many industries, still a large pile of the these end up in a landfill In many cases, certain recycled glass are not recyclable in the manufacturing of new glass bottles and jars or to make fiberglass. This may be because there is too much contaminates or they do not possess the required properties. The major difficulty could be the unavailability of recycling plant at a reasonable distance. Glass is 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without any loss in purity or quality. Over a ton of natural resources are saved for every ton of glass recycled. The Energy costs dr op about 2 3% for every 10% cullet used in the manufacturing process. Figure 16 Recycling GHG Benefits Attributable to Energy Savings compared to landfilling (WARM 13)

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48 The recycling of glass can be aggressively developed by using this in construction industries. The use of recycled glass in the pavement construction can drastically save energy as well as natural resources. When the waste glass is crushed to sand like particle sizes, similar to those of natural sand, it exhibits properties of an aggrega te material. Glass has been proven as an effective fine aggregate and as an additive in the concrete. It can be applied in both flexible and rigid pavements. Materials such as glass have more than 100 years durability and remain unaffected by moisture cont ent which is a required characteristic of good pavement. Studies have shown that use of recycled glass surges sound insulation. Figure 17 Difference in process energy ( Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials, EPA 2011 A study showed the amount of energy spent in recycling glass. A waste TV is collected in New York and taken to a local dismantling center. The Cathode ray tube is removed and was sent to Mexicali where it was split and had the coatings removed. The glass i s then 0 2 4 6 8 Virgin Materials Recycled Materials Process Energy in Mil(Btu) Process Energy in Mil(Btu)

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49 shipped to India for use in factory manufacturing the same tubes. The total distance in miles from New York to India was 13,770 miles. It consists of 2,770 miles of road, 11,000 miles by ship. The CO 2 emissions were calculated to be 2,004 pounds per ton. This number is not even close to justifying the recycling of glass. This should be an eye opener to promote local plants of recycling where it can be sent as raw materials to various factories and construction sites spending minimum amount of energy. Figure 18 -Difference in transportation energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials, EPA 2011 COST ANALYSIS Recycled waste glasses can be applied in both rigid and flexible pavements as replacements for aggregate. Assuming a rigid pavement, we can calculate the expenditure 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Virgin Materials Recycled Materials Transportation Process Energy Mil(Btu) Transportation Process Energy Mil(Btu)

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50 to replace the waste glass with concrete. Waste glass can be procured for $10 a ton.( kdhne ws ,2013). According to a study at the University of Baghdad(2008), it is possible to replace 20% of the pavement with recycled glass without any changes of the strength and performance of the rigid pavement. Let us assume a rigid pavement using US standard s in the southeast region of 8000psi which is M55.15806~M 55.16 grade concrete. Using this standard for 1 cubic yard of road, the materials are as follows, Compressive strength psi 8000 Portland cement lbs 900 fly ash lbs 255 Slag Cement lbs 44 Mixing Water lbs 350 Crushed Coarse Aggregate lbs 1133 Natural Coarse Aggregate lbs 231 Crushed Fine Aggregate lbs 226 Natural Fine Aggregate lbs 890 Air % oz 2% Air Entraining Admixture oz 0 Water Reducer oz 3 High Range Water Reducer oz 4

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51 accelerator oz 10 total weight lbs 4027 Figure 19 Mix design of rigid pavement for 8000 psi, 2014, Athena Sustainable Materials Institute. Total amount of fine aggregates =890+226 lbs =1116 lbs 20% of this amount =223.2 lbs For constructing in Gainesville, fine aggregate (sand) can be purchased at Alachua County for $30/ton. (Gravelshop,2016). For 2000 lbs the price of sand is $30.(1 ton= 2000lbs) For 223.3 lbs =(30/2000)x223.2 =$3.35 When we replace this amount by waste glass th e prices are as follows, 1 ton= $10 223.2 lbs = (10/2000)x223.2=$1.12 From above calculations, we can observe that the price of waste glass is $1.12 for 223.2 lbs where the price of sand for the same amount is $3.35.

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52 Figure 20 Price Difference in using replacing waste glass with sand, 2016. INDUSTRIAL RECYCLED PLASTICS A plastic is a type of synthetic or man made polymer; similar in many ways to natural resins found in trees and other plants. Webster's Dictionary defines polymers as any of various complex organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded, extruded, cast into various shapes and films, or drawn into filaments a nd then used as textile fibers. This is one of the most important pollutants in the world c ontributing to climate change. Oil and natural gas are the major raw materials used to manufacture plastics. The plastics production process often begins by treating components of crude oil or natural gas in a $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $4.00 Sand Waste Glass Price Price

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53 "cracking process." This process results in the conversion of these components into hydrocarbon monomers such as ethylene and propylene. Further processing leads to a wider range of monomers such as styrene, vinyl chloride, ethylene glycol, terephthalic acid and many others. These monomers are then chemically bonded into chains called polymers. For more than 50 years, global production and consumption of plastics have continued to rise. An estimated 299 million tons of plastics were produced in 2013, representing a 4 percent increase over 2012, and confirming and upward trend over the past years.( Worldwatch Institute January 2015 ) In 2008, our global plastic consumption worldwide has been estimated at 260 million tons and, according to a 2012 report by Global Industry Analysts, plastic consumption is to reach 297.5 million tons by the end of 2015. EMBODIED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINT The average embodied the energy of generating plastics is estimated at 90MJ/Kg. 2 The carbon footprint of plastic (LDPE or PET, polyethylene) is about 6 kg CO2 per kg of plastic The production of 1 kg of polyethylene (PET or LDPE) requires the equivalent of 2 kg of oil for energy and raw material. Polyethylene PE is the most commonly used plastic for plastic

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54 bags. Another study showed that burning 1 kg of oil creates about 3 kg of carbon dioxide). In other words: Per kg of plastic, about 6 kg carbon dioxide is created during production and incineration. The p lastic bag has a weight in the range of about 8 g to 60 g depending on size and thickness. For the further calculation, it de pends on the weight of a plastic bag to be used. The main factors are the weight of the plastic bag and whether the gr a y energy (energy used for production and disposal) is taken into account. Figure 21 Difference in process energy in greenhouse gas emissions of virgin plastics and recycled plastics(MTCO 2 E/Ton), EPA 2009 Recycling of plastic saves on average about 2.5 kg CO2 per kg of plastic. Thus recycled plastic produces about 3.5 kg CO2 c ompared to 6 kg of CO2 for new plastic (production and incineration).About 6% of the worldwide oil consumption is used for the production of plastic (with increasing tendency). The use of waste plastics in road construction has been 0 1 2 3 HDPE LDPE PET Process Energy GHG Emissions Process Energy GHG Emissions RECYCLED PLASTICS

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55 experimentally proved t o be suitable in road industry and promises to the reduced use of bitumen or asphalt(Jafar,2015). The availability of waste plastics is abundant in the world but needs more technical plants to able to recycle for various applications. Figure 22 Difference in process energy of virgin plastics and recycled plastics, EPA 2009 0 10 20 30 40 HDPE LDPE PET Process Energy(Mil Btu) Process Energy(Mil Btu) RECYCLED PLASTICS

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56 Figure 23 Flow chart of a plastic waste management p rocess,(Rebeiz, 1995)

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57 With a well designed program and the right technology, recycling can be more efficient in terms of energy, money, and natural resources when compared to a system that manufactures everything from virgin materials and sends it all to landfills when consumers discard it. Reuse, recycling, and even landfills have materials for which they are the least wasteful disposal method, but as technology finds new ways to sort and recycle waste, the fraction of waste going to landfills can certain ly be reduced. Rapid utilization of these engineered wastes plastics can be a step closer to sustainable development. COST ANALYSIS In the case of plastics, it can be used in two processes which are dry and wet processes. According to the study in CET( 2012), it is possible to use around 15% of recycled plastic in a dry process and 8% in the wet process without any changes of the strength and performance of the bitumen. Taking 1 mile of two lane roadway, the amount of bitumen used is approximately 150 M etric Tons. 15% of this amount =22.5 Metric Tons of recycled plastics =49604 lbs(1 MT=1000kg, 1kg=2.2lbs)

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58 The total amount of recycled plastics can be purchased in the state of Florida for around $0.3 per pound which equated to $14,881 or the equivalent of $15,000. By traditional means, the 22.5 Metric tons of pure bitumen costs approximately $3 per gallon which results in a total amount of $19,677.312.It proves that it is economically viable to use recycled plastics over pure nonrenewable fossil fuels. Figure 24 Energy Savings per Short Ton of Recycled Material compared to landfilling, (WARM 13) 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Bitumen plastic Price Price

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59 CONCLUSION The manufacturing and production of various products in our day to day lives cannot be put to an end rather we can revise the process of doing so. There are several ways to build our built environment causing minimum damage to the environment. Sustainable transportation is a step not only for the environmental safety but also for human well being and better economic stability. From this study, it can be concluded that there are strong possibilities of achieving required standards for pavement construction using specific recycled industrial wastes such as glass, tires, plastics, asphalt and ash. The major amount of materials for pavement design is extracted from nonrenewable resources and replacing them with materials which are available in plethora will de finitely be a big step in sustainable infrastructure. Furthermore, the amount of energy in (extraction, processing and transporting) application of traditional materials which is commonly known as embodied energy is significantly lower than suggested alter nate materials. In terms of economics, there can be significant profits in adopting sustainable pavement design and construction process than in traditional methods.

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60 When taken a case of pavement cons tructed over 1 mile in Gainesville Florida using of recycled scrap tires can save thousands of dollars which include the price of fine and coarse aggregates a binder material, machiner y and equipment etc. Secondly in using recycled plastics in flexible pavements over $4600 can be saved And finally in using recycled glass over a rigid pavement about $2.2 can be saved for every cubic yard. Overall, there is the fulfillment of a social responsibility in maintaining healthy surrounding by reduc ing reuse and recycle in the built environment CURRENT CHALLENGES IN ADOPTING APPLICATION OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN PAVEMENT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Abundant and readily availability of traditional materials in the vicinity of any project site. The matter of revising the alternate materials are not sensitized in the local and regional scale that the availability of these traditional materials will be reduce d with increase in price in the due course of time. The alternate materials such as recycle d industrial waste are not available at convenient distances which make it difficult for the application

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61 Imposition of stringent rules and regulations for introducing sustainability are not encouraged by the governing bodies. No compulsory guidelines on a dopting any of green rating systems in all the projects (new construction, operation, maintenance and renovation). Very Limited research and development in innovation and experimentation of alternate materials on proving better pavement performance. Lack o f sufficient data on the engineering and strength parameters of the recycled industrial wastes in pavement applications. Lack of data on the feasibility of application of each and every alternate replacement of traditional sources according to country wise location. Under development in efficient and greener off site (ex Ready mix plants) and on site (ex rollers and excavators ) construction machiner y Without transportation a modern society cannot function on its own. A product or service will come ac ross transportation before it comes to the consumer. Since many decades the way of building our transportation infrastructure in the world has swayed through a small degree for which we are facing, transportation represents one of the major challenges on t he planet. Although it is not the sole reason for global warming and climate change but transportation infrastructure it is one of the chief pieces in the built environment. If we make

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62 strategic sustainable changes to our current or future infrastructures and systems we can achieve the desired beneficial environment goals. Roads are constructed by using cement, bitumen, aggregates, soil, water and other engineered additives. These ingredients take an enormous amount of energies and use of natural resources. From the above study, we can observe that It is experimentally proven that materials such as industrial wastes do have similar engineering properties as the traditional road building materials. This study aims to investigate alternate sustainable materials for road construction and determine factors that depict environmental advantages of using these alternate materials When we compare parameters such as embodied energy, it can be observed that using a mat erial which satisfies the purpose (transportation) can have less expenditure in energy and environmentally safe would beat the idea of using traditional materials which contribute to ecological imbalance. Secondly, discoveries and inventions come into acti on when there is a desperate need to achieve any goals. For example, recently in 2014 the market came across a startup company by Scott and Julie Brusaw which focused on solar roadways was an amazing invention to generate electricity as well as solve the t ransportation The idea was to collect the maximum solar energy which would hit the surface and serve dual purpose: modern infrastructure + smart power grid Here the pavement sections were made by hexagonal panels with specific wattage and LED integrated i nto it

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63 Figu re 25 Sola r roadways, Resources. Gale, 2010 It is true that there are many challenges to shift the processes of design and construction. But is the only way where our built environment can remain independent of nature. One of the biggest challenges is the awareness of why there is a need for a shift in design and construction of our transportation systems. We need new guidelines which have to be compatible and consistent with the alternative sustainable materials and me thods of construction.

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64 When people who are in this particular industries demand these changes, the market will start responding these demands in creating better technologies and deliver their needs which in this case are recycled engineered indus trial wastes. Finally, this study will also open doors to encourage respective authorities to build roadways using industrial wastes in third world countries especially in India, China and Africa where there would be a great chance of promoting jobs as we ll as contributing to growing economy.

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65 RESOURCES: Initial framework of research derived from course assignments ( ARC 6913 Capstone Project Proposal Spring 2016 & ARC6911: Research Design in Sustainability, Fall 2015 University Of Florida ) Ashish Tripathy Asutosh IRC (SP) 58, Guidelines for Use of Fly Ash in Road Embankments Indian Roads Congress Retrieved from https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/ irc / irc .gov.in.sp.058.1999.pdf Reclamation of Usable Materials, Beneficial Reuse/ Recycling of Dangerous Waste, 2015, Department of Ecology State Of Washington retrieved from http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/hwtr/manage_waste/exemptions_dw_recycling.html Anubha Shukla, Feb 2 2013, One World South Asia Making India's roads low carbon and sustainable retrieved from http://southasia.oneworld.net/news you can use/media p artnerships/dsds 2013/articles/making indias roads low carbon and sustainable#.VmXw 3arTIX

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66 Prithvi Singh Kandhal (prof.) March 2011, Advances in Bituminous Road Construction retrieved from http://nbmcw.com/articles/roads pavements/21914 advances in bituminous road construction.html ADRIENNE MONGAN, 200 7, Paving the Way to Recycled Roa ds, Darmouth Engineering Magazine retrieved from http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/magazine/paving the way to recycled roads/ Ashley Stevenson Sustainable roads initiative, Aurecongroup, retrieved from http://www.aurecongroup.com/en/thinking/current articles/sustainable roads initiative.aspx ,( Grasscrete, Sustainable paving systems LLC ,retrieved fro m http://www.sustainablepavingsystems.com/products/grasscrete/ Recycle material resource Centre, RMRC 3G retrieved from http://rmrc.wisc.ed u/

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6 7 The menace of plastic waste (editorial) Feb 17 2017, The Hindu Newspaper retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/editorial the menace of plastic waste/article6902381.ece Ajay Bharadwaj, 16 May 2010, Eco friendly plastic roads in Hima chal Pradesh retrieved from http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report eco friendly plastic roads in himachal pradesh 1383591 The authority of sustainab le building, 2015 retrieved from www.level.org.nz Carbon footprint of glass to glass recycling, 2015, Nulifeglass retrieved from www.nulifeglass.com Claire Le Guern Lytle, April 2016, WHEN THE MERMAIDS CRY: THE PLASTIC TIDE, Coastal Care retrieved from http://plastic pollution.org/

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68 Geoff Milne, 2013, Embodied energy, Yourhome sustainable homes) retrieved from http://www.yourhome.gov.au/materials/embodied energy What is Plastic Pollution? 2015, Conserve energy Future retrieved from http://www.conserve energy future.com/causes effects solutions of plastic pollution.php Prices of recycled tires ,Scrap Tire Disposal and Recycling,2016 retrieved from http://www.recycle.net/ Prices of recycled tires ,USA scrap tire network, 2016 retrieved from http://www.scraptire.net/cgi bin/rexview.cgi?rex=000245&wsc=01 1301 rieved from http://www.recycle.net/exchange/index.html Use of Waste Plastic in Construction of Flexible Pavement Dr. Aslam, Professor & Head, Er. Shahan ur Rahman Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Integral University, Lucknow, retrieved from http://www.nbmcw.com/articles/roads p avements/930 use of waste plastic in construction of flexible pavement.html Recycling, Florida Department of environmental protection 2016 retrieved from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/recycling/

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69 Plastics Recycling ,North American Plastic Recycling Network ,2016 retrieved from http://www.recyclingplasticwaste.com/cgi bin/rexview.cgi?rex=000083&wsc=13 0507 PET recycling Recycler's Exchange Index, 2016 retrieved from http://www.recycle.net/Plastic/PET/xv100100.html Fuel and bituminous price index,Florida Department of Transportation,2014, retrived from http://www.dot.state.fl.us/construction/fuel&bit/fuel&bit.shtm Prices of recycled glass, Is recycling glass worth the cost? Brandon Janes,June 20 retrieved from http://kdhnews.com/news/is recycling glass worth the cost/article_8e2dd0e6 d956 11e2 ab95 0019bb30f31a.html Solar roadways,Kathy Wil son Peacock 2010 retrieved from http://resources.gale.com/gettingtogreenr/current issues/solar roadways wave of the future or money sucking vortex/ Prices of sand, 2016, Alachua county prices retrieved by http://www.gravelshop.com/florida 48/alachua county 799/32603 gainesville/

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70 Pavement design for 8000psi, October 2014, Dr. Lindita Bushi and Grant Finlayson retrieved from The Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA) athenaasmi.org. Density of common building materials, 2016 retr ieved from http://www.rfcafe.com/references/general/density building materials.htm Price of crushed stone, 2016, Barrestone retrieved from http://www.barrestone.com/price.asp Price of crushed stone 2016 Improvenet retrieved from http://www.improvenet.com/r/costs and prices/crushed stone INVEST ( I nfrastructure V oluntary E valuation S ustainability T ool), 2012, US Department of Transportation(Federal Highway Administration), retrieved from https://www.sustainablehighways.org/ Green LITES, 2008, New York Department of Transportation, retrieved from https://www.dot.ny.gov/programs/greenlites Sustainable Construction Practices, Mounir El Asmar (Ph.D. Assistant Professor, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Co Director, The National Center of

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71 Excellence on SMART Innovations Senior Sustainability Scientist, Global Institute of Sustainability)& Shane Underwood Assistant Pro fessor( School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Co Director, The National Center of Excellence on SMART Innovations), November 2013 retrieved from http://pavement.engineering.asu.edu/wordpress/wp content/uploads/2013/12/Sustainable Highway Construction Practices Underwood and El Asmar.pdf CITATIONS Lepech, M. D., & Li, V. C. (2010). Sustainable pavement overlays using engineered cementitious composites. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 3(5), 241. Chakravarty, S., Ghosh, S. K., Suresh, C. P., Dey, A. N., & Shukla, G. (2012). Deforestation: c auses, effects and control strategies. Global perspectives on sustainable forest management 1 1 26. David L Swearingen, Newton C Jackson, Keith W Anderson(1992),Use of Recycled materials in highway construction,retrieved from Washington State Department Of Transportation.( http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/252.1.pdf ) Molenaar, A. A. A. (2013). Durable and sustainable road con structions for developing countries. Procedia Engineering, 54 69 81

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72 Saride S., Avirneni, D., & Javvadi, S. C. P. (2015). Utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavements in Indian low volume roads. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 4015107 Behl, A., S harma, G., & Kumar, G. (2014). A sustainable approach: Utilization of waste PVC in asphalting of roads. Construction and Building Materials, 54 113 117. Swami, V., Jirge, A., Patil, K., Patil, S., Patil, S., & Salokhe K. (2012). Use of waste plastic in the construction of the bituminous road. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 4 (5), 2351 2351. Rebeiz, K. S., & Craft, A. P. (1995). Plastic waste management in construction: technological and in stitutional issues. Resources, conservation and recycling 15 (3), 245 257. Consoli, N. C., Montardo, J. P., Prietto, P. D. M., & Pasa, G. S. (2002). Engineering behavior of a sand reinforced with plastic waste. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 128 (6), 462 472. Owen, K. C. (1999). Scrap tires: a pricing strategy for a recycling industry. Corporate environmental strategy 5 (2), 42 50.

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73 Consoli, N. C., Montardo, J. P., Prietto, P. D. M., & Pasa, G. S. (2002). Engineering behavior of a sand reinforced with plastic waste. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 128 (6), 462 472. Panda, A. K., Singh, R. K., & Mishra, D. K. (2010). Thermolysis of waste plastics to liquid fuel: A suitable method for plastic wa ste management and manufacture of value added products A world prospective Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (1), 233 248. Gawande, A., Zamare, G., Renge, V. C., Tayde, S., & Bharsakale, G. (2012). An overview on waste plastic utilization in asp halting of roads. Journal of Engineering Research and Studies 3 (2), 1 5. Jafar, J. J. (2016). Utili z ation of waste plastic in the bituminous mix for improved performance of roads. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 20 (1), 243 249. Rokade S. (2012). Use of waste plastic and waste rubber t i res in flexible highway pavements. In International conference on future environment and energy, IPCBEE (Vol. 28). Huang, Y., Bird, R. N., & Heidrich, O. (2007). A review of the use of recycled solid was te materials in asphalt pavements. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52 (1), 58 73.

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74 Vasudevan, R., Sekar, A. R. C., Sundarakannan, B., & Velkennedy, R. (2012). A technique to dispose waste plastics in an ecofriendly way Application in construction of f lexible pavements. Construction and Building Materials 28 (1), 311 320. Ismail, Z. Z., & Al Hashmi, E. A. (2009). Recycling of waste glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete. Waste management 29 (2), 655 659. Disfani, M. M., Arulrajah A., Bo, M. W., & Hankour, R. (2011). Recycled crushed glass in road work applications. Waste Management 31 (11), 2341 2351. Azanov, B. K. (2014). Recommendations on the Use of Industrial Wastes in Road Construction. Metallurgist 58 (1 2), 91. Shayan, A., & Xu, A. (2004). Value added utilisation of waste glass in concrete. Cement and concrete research 34 (1), 81 89. Corbu, O., Chira, N., Szilagyi, H., & Constantinescu, H. (2013). ECOLOGICAL CONCRETE BY USE OF WASTE GLASS. International Multidisciplinary Sc ientific GeoConference: SGEM: Surveying Geology & mining Ecology Management 411.

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75 Nathman, R., McNeil, S., & Van Dam, T. (2009). Integrating environmental perspectives into pavement management: Adding the pavement life cycle assessment tool for environm ental and economic effects to the decision making toolbox. Transportation research record: journal of the transportation research board (2093), 40 49. Eldin, N. N., & Senouci, A. B. (1992). Use of scrap tires in road construction. Journal of Construction E ngineering and Management 118 (3), 561 576. GREEN ROADS MANUAL V1.5 Williams, A. S. (2009). Life cycle analysis: A step by step approach Champaign, IL: Illinois Sustainable Technology Center. Collins, K. J., Jensen, A. C., Mallinson, J. J., Roenelle, V., & Smith, I. P. (2002). Environmental impact assessment of a scrap tyre artificial reef. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 59 (suppl), S243 S249. Aurangzeb, Q. (2014). Impact of reclaimed asphalt pavements on pavement sustainability (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign).

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76 Huang, Y., Bird, R., & Heidrich, O. (2009). Development of a life cycle assessment tool for construction and maintenance of asphalt pavements. Journal of Cleaner Production 17 (2), 283 296 Yang, R., Ozer, H., Kang, S., & Al Qadi, I. L. (2014, October). Environmental Impacts of Producing Asphalt Mixtures with Varying Degrees of Recycled Asphalt Materials. In International Symposium on Pavement Life Cycle Assessment, Conference Papers, Davis CA Angelone, S., Casaux, M. C., Borghi, M., & Martinez, F. O. (2016). Green pavements: reuse of plastic waste in asphalt mixtures. Materials and Structures 49 (5), 1655 1665. 2 J. Andrew Alcorn, 2010. (Alcorn, J. Andrew, Global Sustainability and the New Zealand House a thesis submitted to Victoria University of Wellington

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77 LIST OF FIGURE REFFRENCE Figure 1 Road section of a f lexible pavement, 2011, retrieved from http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/pdm/pavement_types.htm Figure 2 Road section of a r igid pavement, 2011, retrieved from http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/pdm/pavement_types.htm Figure 3 Recycling rate of municipal wastes, 2015, Wall Street Journal retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/high costs put cracks in glass recycling programs 1429695003 Figure 4 Engineering properties of tire bales, Encore Systems Inc. retrieved from ftp://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot info/gsd/pdf/stbguide.pdf Figure 5 Compressive strength of waste glass concrete mixes(Ismail,2008). Figure 6 Fresh densities of waste glass concrete mixes (Ismail,2008) Figure 7 Engineering properties of recycled glass, ( Disfani, 2011) Figure 8 Different routes for plastic waste management,(Panda,2009) Figure 9 Results of SDBC Mix for Varying Percentages of LDPE (Rokade,2012) Figure 10 Comparison on ECC material performance in uniaxial tension (Lepech,2010) Figure 11 Design Chart for ECC and Concrete overlay thickness (Lepech,2010) Figure.12 Framework of LCA (Greenroads manual V1.5 ( consoli ,1993)

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78 Figure 13 Difference in carbon dioxide e quivalent between asphalt & recycled tire, ISRI 2009 Figure 14 Section of pavement using scrap tires (Eldin, ASCE 1992) Figure 15 System of recycling tires, derived from ( IERE, Nov 2009) Figure 16 Recycling GHG Benefits Attributable to Energy Savings compared to landfilling (WARM 13) Figure 17 Difference in process energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials, EPA 2011 Figure 19 Mix design of rigid pavement for 8000 psi, 2014, Athena Sustainable Materials Institute. Figure 18 -Difference in transportation energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials, EPA 2011 Figure 20 Price Difference in using replacing waste glass with sand, 2016. Figure 21 Difference in process energy in greenhouse gas emissions of virgin plastics and recycled plastics, EPA 2009 Figure 22 Difference in process energy of virgin plastics and recycled plastics, EPA 2009 Figure 23 Flow chart of a plastic waste management process,(Rebeiz, 1995) Figure 24 Energy Savings per Short Ton of Recycled Materi al compared to landfilling,(WARM 1

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79 Figure 25, Solar roadways, 2010 retrieved from http://resources.gale.com/gettingtogreenr/ current issues/solar roadways wave of the future or money sucking vortex/