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Contemporary storm water management

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Title:
Contemporary storm water management green roofs and walls
Creator:
Chen, Xiaoyu ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (62 pages) : illustrations ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
green roof -- green wall -- storm water management -- runoff -- sustainable design
Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture -- UF
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Electronic Thesis or Dissertation.
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

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Abstract:
Continuous urban development and rapid city construction have replaced a great deal of land with nonpermeable surfaces, such as roads and roofs. If coupled with an imperfect municipal drainage system, the lack of permeable surfaces can create a serious drainage problems during storms. Thus, the proper treatment of storm water has become an urgent issue worldwide. Adding plants to roofs and walls is one rapidly developing innovation in storm water management. A variety of practices have been developed to create green roofs and walls through roof-scale processes, heating reduction, energy saving, and durability. Only a few studies, however, have examined the impact of green roofs and walls on storm water retention. This thesis provides an overview of storm water management through the application of green roofs and walls. The paper discusses the components of urban storm water management and green infrastructures and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of different types of green roofs and walls. In addition, the origins and environmental impacts of green roofs and walls are explored. Through an examination of five representative cases in different regions, this study found the following: (1) The goals of storm water management infrastructure are to (a) reduce loss of storm water resources, (b) weaken storm water flows, and (c) reduce water runoff pollution. (2) In the study of storm water retention and storage, there are two applications based on the usage of rainwater and the positions of the storage facilities: one is the use of simple water tanks; the other includes special facilities that collect water for reuse. (3) Adding substrate soil is essential to retain water and reduce runoff pollution. The most successful natural or artificial materials for plant growth are clean and have small pores, high density, and erosion resistance. (4) The study
Abstract:
of comprehensive storm water utilization is necessary, especially in conjunction with the architectural landscape. The design of a successful green roof or wall must accord with the natural site and surroundings. (5) New technologies can have a significant impact on green infrastructure design. (6) When the expected increase in roof life is factored in, the analysis of green infrastructure construction costs reveal that urban areas will benefit greatly from green infrastructure that pays for itself over time. At the same time, such infrastructure improves the quality of urban environments by creating more open social spaces for residents.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Includes vita.
General Note:
Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) Program final field practicum report
Statement of Responsibility:
by Xiaoyu Chen.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
035646116 ( ALEPH )
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LD1780 2017 ( lcc )

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University of Florida Theses & Dissertations

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CONTEMPORARY STORM WATER MANAGEMENT: GREEN ROOFS AND WALLS B y XIAOYU CHEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE I N ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2017

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X iaoyu C hen

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my chair committee, namel y Professor Donna L. Cohen and co chair Michael Ives Volk, for tutoring me as I wrote my thesis and also for thei r patience and guidance throughout my time in the College of Design, Construction & Planning. Because English is not my first language, I truly appreciate the assistance provided by my boyfriend Dr. Wei Lai who corrected my writing mistakes word by word. I also would like to thank Dr. Michael Kung who has offered excellent suggestions for all my classes. Their efforts greatly enhanced my graduate student experience. I am grateful for the support love, and encouragement from my family and friend s withou t whom I could not have complete d my studies.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 3 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 6 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 9 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 11 Urban S torm W ater M anagement ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 Green I nfrastructure ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 11 Goals and O bjectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 12 2 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 13 Green B uilding ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 13 Urban R ainwater D rainage S ystem s ................................ ................................ ....................... 14 Green B uilding R ainwater D rainage S yste m S trategies ................................ ......................... 18 Green I nfrastructure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 18 Green B uilding I nfrastructure E lements ................................ ................................ .......... 19 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ .............................. 32 4 CASE STUD IES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 34 Stormwater Management Model and Low Impact Development in Bang bae dong, Seoul ... 34 Background and O bjectives ................................ ................................ ............................. 34 Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 35 Data A na l ysis and C onclusion ................................ ........................ Best Management Practices in t he H eadquarters of the American S ociety of Landscape Architects ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 38 Backg round and objectives ................................ ................................ .............................. 38 Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 39 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 42 2 Decentrali ze d Storm W ater Management at the In stitute of P hysics in Berlin Adlershof ..... 43 Background and O bjectives ................................ ................................ ............................. 43 Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 43 Results and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 44 Rooflite ¨ on U.S. Coast G u ard Headquarters, DHS St. Elizabeths Campus .......................... 45 Background a nd O bjectives ................................ ................................ ............................. 45

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5 Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 46 Results and C onclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 47 Rooflite ¨ o n Nashville Music City Center ................................ ................................ ............. 48 Background and O bjectives ................................ ................................ ............................. 48 Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 48 Results and C onclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 49 Comparative study ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 51 Project Funding ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 51 Limitation s of Analysis and Future Work ................................ ................................ ....... 53 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 54 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 57 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 62

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6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page Fig. 1 Total flow type rainwater usage system ................................ ................................ .............. 1 6 Fig. 2 The s ource p athway r eceptor system ................................ ................................ .................. 1 7 Fig. 3 D isconnected downspout system ................................ ................................ ......................... 2 0 Fig. 4 R ain barrel s ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 2 2 Fig. 5 A simple rain garden system ................................ ................................ ............................... 2 3 Fig. 6 E xtensive green roof types ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 2 6 Fig. 7 I ntensive green roof types ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 2 6 Fig. 8 Macallen Building c ondominiums ................................ ................................ ....................... 28 Fig. 9 Roof of Macallen Building c ondominiums ................................ ................................ ......... 29 Fig. 10 Classification of green walls according to their construction characteristics .................... 3 0 Fig. 11 Location of Bang b ae dong, Seoul ................................ ................................ ..................... 3 5 Fig. 12 SWMM model for Bang b ae dong, Seoul ................................ ................................ .......... 3 6 Fig. 13 Result s of SWMM analysis ................................ ................................ ............................... 3 7 Fig. 14 T he roof of the American Society of Landscape Archictects headquarters ...................... 38 Fig. 15 Components of ASLA 's green roof ................................ ................................ ................... 39 Fig. 1 6 Suspe nded metal grille ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 4 0 Fig. 1 7 G reen roof ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 4 0 Fig. 18 Components of ASLA 's green roof ................................ ................................ ................... 4 1 Fig. 1 9 T he green faade s of the Institute of Physics ................................ ................................ .... 4 3 Fig. 20 U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters ................................ ................................ ......................... 4 5 Fig. 2 1 Views of the new buildings at DHS St. Elizabeths campus ................................ .............. 4 6 Fig. 2 2 Nashville Music Center ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 49 Fig. 2 3 W aterproofing membrane ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 5 0

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7 Fig. 2 4 B ioretention soil ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 5 0

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8 LIST OF TABLE S Table page Table 1 Classification of g reen r oofs ................................ ................................ ............................. 3 4 Table 2 Result s of SWMM analysis ................................ ................................ .............................. 3 7 Table 3 Summary results of cost b enefit a nalysis ................................ ................................ ......... 38

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9 Abstr act o f Thesis Presented t o t he Graduate School o f t he University o f Florida i n Partial Fulfillment o f t he Requirements f or t he Degree o f Master o f Science i n Architectural Studies CONTEMPORARY STORM WATER MANAGEMENT: GREEN ROOFS AND WALLS By Xiaoyu Chen July 2017 Chair: Donna L. Cohen Co chair: Michael Ives Volk Major: Architecture C ontinuous urban development and r apid c ity construction have replaced a great deal of land with nonpermeab le surfaces, such as roads and roof s If coupled with an imperfect municipal drainage system, the lack of permeable surfaces can create a serious drainage problem s during storms. Thus, the proper treatment of storm water has become a n urgent issue worldwide Adding p lant s to roofs and walls is one rapidly developing inn ovation in storm water management. A variety of practices have been developed to create green roofs and walls through roof scale processes, heating reduction, energy saving and durability. Only a few studies, h owever, have examined the impact of green roo fs and walls on storm water retention. This thesis provide s an overview o f storm water management through the application of green roof s and wall s The paper discusses t he component s of urban storm water management and green infrastructures a nd assesses t he advantages and disadvantages of different types of green roofs and walls. In addition the origins and environmental impact s of green roofs and walls are explored Through an examination of f ive representative case s in different regions this study fou nd the following :

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10 (1) The goals of storm water management infrastructure are to (a) reduce loss of storm water resources (b) weaken storm water flows and (c) reduce water runoff pollution (2) In the s tudy o f storm water retention and storage, there ar e two applications based on the usage of rainwater and the positions of the storage facilities: one is the use of simple water tanks; the other includes special facilities that collect water for reuse (3) Adding substrate soil is essential to retain wate r and reduce runoff pollution. Th e most successful natural or artificial materials for plant growth are clean and have s mall pores, high density, and erosion resistance. (4) The s tudy o f comprehensive storm water utilization is necessary, especially in con junction with the architectural landscape. The design of a successful green roof or wall must accord with the natural site and surroundings. (5) New technologies can have a significant impact on green infrastructure design. (6) When the expected increase i n roof life is factored in, the a nalysis of green infrastructure construction cost s reveal that urban area s will benefit greatly from green infrastructure tha t pay s for itself over time. At the same time, such infrastructure improve s the quality of urban e nvironment s by creating more open social spaces for residents. Key words: green roof, green wall, storm water management, runoff, sustainable design

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Urban S torm W ater M anagement The u rban environment is one of the most critical ele ments in people's daily li ves, and continuous urbanization has introduced many problem s For instance, rapid city construction has replaced large areas of land with non permeab le surfaces, such as roads and roof s Thus in cities with imperfect municipal drainage systems, storm waterlogging has become a severe concern In recent years, the proper treatment of storm water has become a critical issue worldwide. The t raditional drainage system has many disadvantages For instance, it increases the risk of fl ooding caused by run off which may contain contaminant s After heavy rain s the first flush is often highly pollut ed To moderate this issue, s ustainable d rainage techniques recently have been developed to collect, stor e and clean runoff before it i s rel ease d to the environment. The four general design options for sustainable drainage systems are filter strips and swales filter drains and permeable surfaces infiltration devices and basins and ponds ( Sharma, D. 2008). Green I nfrastructure U nlike gray i nfrastructure g reen infrastructure mimics natural storm water flows. Green infrastructure can reduce overland flow b y increasing pervious surface area s attenuating flow and creating storage, thus reducing the storm water load on combined sewer systems ( CSSs ; Gibler, M. R. 2015). A variety of green infrastructure system s such as rainwater harvesting, permeable pavement, rain gardens, and green roofs, have been incorporated into best management practices (BMPs) and used for urban storm water control (Vill arreal et al. 2004). As the standard s for cit y storm water management become stricter sustainable solutions are increasingly popular. For instance, Philadelphia increase d its water quality volume from 2.5

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12 to 3.8 cm (PWD 2015) Thus g reen infrastructure like green roofs are predicted t o become an integral part of mitigating storm water at the source (Zaremba, G. J., Traver, R. G., & Wadzuk, B. M. 2016). V ertical greenery systems, which incorporate t he greening of the faade of building walls ha ve yet t o be fully explored and exploited. Because o f the large number of building walls in any city the use of vertical greenery not only ha s great potential to mitigat e the UHI effect through evapotranspiration and shading but also offers a very effective way t o transform the urban landscape (Wong, N. H., Tan, A. Y. K., Chen, Y., Sekar, K., Tan, P. Y., Chan, D., & Wong, N. C. 2010). These benefits are important determin ants in the design of drainage system s and green building s V egetation and soil added to roof surfaces can mitigate storm water runoff from building surfaces by collecting and retaining precipitation, thereby reducing the volume of flow into storm water infrastructure and urban waterways (Oberndorfer, E., Lundholm, J., Bass, B., Coffman, R. R ., Doshi, H., Dunnett, N., & Rowe, B. 2007). Goals and O bjectives Architects have applied green roof and green wall technology worldwide, and policymakers and the public gradually have come to understand the benefits of these innovations Although these g reen surfaces are much more expensive compare d to traditional buildings they offer efficiency and sustainab ility over the ir lifespan s b y controlling water and saving energy The primary goal of this thesis i s to explore the advantag e s and challenges of implementing green roofs and walls through evaluation of storm water retention, water quality impact and other affiliated factors This paper also examined t he well discuss ed practice of comb in ing green drainage system s with green roo fs and walls. T he analysis conducted herein identified a compatible storm water management system for urban area s

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13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Green B uilding With Arcosanti, located outside of P hoenix, Arizona, Italian architect Paola Soleri first put f orward the concept of ecological architecture. Low energy buildings gradually developed a s a result of the W estern energy crisis of the 1970s, and throughout the following decades, u ntil the end of the 20th century, environmental degradation triggered peop le 's awareness of the importance of the living environment. In response, s ome W estern countries p roposed the concept of green building. Green buildings have many definitions. C. J. Kibert (2016) defined green building as "healthy facilities designed and bu ilt in a resource efficient manner, using ecologically based principles Robichaud and Anantatmula identified four pillars of green building : minimiz ing environmental impact, enhancing the health of occupants, providing return s on investment to developers and the local community, and considering the life cycle during the planning and development process (Zuo, J., & Zhao, Z. Y. 2014). Green buildings are de signed to minimize the human impact on environment. At the same time, the advantages of green building s such as enhanced water and air quality as well as high productivity and marketability benefit both the environment and the people residing in the city and also generate profit s According to the literature buildings in the United S tates are responsibl e for 40% of the primary energy use and 72% of the electricity consumption nationwide G reen buildings in comparison, can reduce energy use, water use, and solid waste generation by 24% 40% and 70% respectively There is a heightened deman d for green construction because such buildings offer improvements in sustainable materials and have an unprecedented level of support through government initiatives.

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14 In troduce d in Canada in 1996, the G reen B uilding C hallenge is an international movement w ith participation from 14 countries This challenge aims to encourage the development of unified performance parameters for a standardized global system for green building performance evaluation and authentication At present, g reen building rating systems vary across different regions and countries. For instance, the United States Green Build ing Council is a major leader. BREEAM was established in the UK in 1990 and its guidelines have been used around the world LEED, a successor to BREEAM, was establish ed in the U nited S tates in 1993 and looked beyond code requirement s for different types of building. In 2002, GREEN GLOB was adopted by the Green Building Initiatives in the U nited S tates as an alternative to LEED. Although these evaluation systems are not the same, their c ore objectives are similar: all aim to promot e the integration of green building design s Urban R ainwater D rainage S ystem s As open land is turned into residential, commercial and industrial properties to meet the demand for rabid urbani zation many problems with water quality, drainage, and pollution have occurred The need for transportation, living environment s, and other urban amenities often lead s to large scale construction of impervious surface s, which change the local hydrological cycle (Ando, A. W., & Freitas, L. P. 2011). Urbanization can lead to stream erosion, increased storm water flows, decreased base flow and even alter ations to sediment texture (Paul, M. J., & Meyer, J. L. 2001). Urban rainwater utilization system s can be divided into two categories according to their scale. T he first is a small scale, general installation in self contained apartments or residential building s that collects rainwater from roofs and stores it in ground level or underground reservoirs After simple treatment, this water can be used directly for tasks such as water ing lawns and flushing toilets The installation and use of th is equipment is very convenient and

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15 such systems have been used widely in countries such as Germany. The second category of rainwater utilization system is large scale and usually is installed on expansive impervious surface s, such as sizeable urban roof construction s During rainy season s these systems collect a great deal of rain water If the roof area is large, the volu me of collect ed rainwater is also high which means these systems have two effects: they can adjust radial flow and sav e water. Rainwater utilization in the United States improves the natural soil water infiltration capacity. In a highly urbanized U.S. ci ty, as much as 72% of the land area is impervious (Schueler, 2001); of the impervious surfaces, 40% are comprised of rooftops (Urbonas, 2001; Liptan, 2003) and 60% consist of car habitat s (Lang, S. B. 2010). Most American cities adher e to the traditional w ater conservancy facilities namely, rainwater storage in the suburbs channels in urban areas, and sewage moved through underground trench line s I n California, however, 80% of the land is extremely arid which has inspired local urban planners to imagine how cities can be turned into sponges to effectively absorb rainwater that can be reused as drinking water and irrigation water. The BASE architects r esponsible for the design and planning of Lepeole City, a so called sponge city in France, have stated tha t weakening the city and water boundaries will become an industry trend in which cold concrete embankment s and hydropower station s are replaced by e xquisite vegetation and large green belt s that are conducive not only to the natural circulation of water wi thin the city but also to environmental protection I n the final analysis, such designs work to achieve harmony between mankind and nature. Germany is one of the most advanced countr ies in terms of comprehensive use of rainwater. There is a tendency in mu nicipalities to split the charges for urban drainage in to consumption dependent amount s for wastewater and impervious surface area dependent amount s for storm water. In 1995, the nonprofit R ainwater P rofessional A ssociation (FBR) was founded

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16 This organiza tion created clear legal provisions for rainwater discharge: given that drainage expenses at the time were about 1.5 times the cost of tap water, when users appl ied rainwater technology, they c ould receive a discount A typical rainwater usage system insta lled in the building can provid e service water for toilet flushing and garden watering, whereas a rainwater use system installed in a private ho me can also suppl y the washing machine as shown in Fig ure 1 ( Herrmann, T., & Schmida, U. 2000). At the same tim e, all rainwater apertures for German city streets have sewage hanging basket s to intercept pollutants in rainwater runoff. Fig ure 1 Total flow type rainwater usage system Singapore in comparison, i s a tropical island and its annual rainfall has been rising continuously over the past 30 years Despite this increase very little urban waterlogging has happened. Singapore's drainage system s are separated into rainwater collection system s and water re use system s that include about 8,000 km of drains, rive rs and canals ( "Drainage" 2017 ) Because the nation frequently experiences unpredictable and extreme weather PUB uses the s ource p athway r eceptor model ( F igure 2 ) to protect against flooding on a wide urban scale. This model includes the drains and canal s (i.e., pathways) through which storm water travels the

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17 areas that generat e storm water runoff (i.e., s ource s ) and the areas where floods may occur (i.e., r eceptor s ). Receptor s are key considerations in infrastructure design, and strategies for handling floodwater include setting minimum platform s and crest levels and placing barriers to prevent floodwater from entering buildings. Fig ure 2 The s ource p athway r eceptor system Adapted from https://www.pub.gov.sg /PublishingImages/source pathway receptor .png With the increasing concern for environment conservation and protection, the issue of management in areas such as water supply, water distribution and effluent disposal is becoming more and more p ressing (Krebs, P., & Larsen, A. 1997). Low impact de velopment (LID) of urban storm water drainage systems can be one of the most popular method s to reduc e the adverse hydrologic effects of urbanization (Elliott, A. H., & Trowsdale, S. A. 2007). LID emphasizes that rainwater resources are not useless and th a t direct emissions along with the development of the project are not interdicted R ainwater resource s should protect water source

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18 site s and maintain natural hydrological function s effectively alleviat ing many of the negative influence s of impervious under lying surface s Other storm water management systems include s ustainable urban drainage systems, water sensitive urban design s BMPs and low impact urban design and development ( a concept used in New Zealand). Researchers have beg u n to use true 3D modelin g to manage and present geographic information for drainage systems ; graphic interface features such as GIS (Geographic Information System) also have been used in storm water modeling systems (Wang, X. 2005). Nevertheless, t here remains considerable scope to improv e the capabilities of the models by, for example, enhancing runoff generation and groundwater components; extending the range of contaminants; incorporati ng more contaminant biochemical and physical processes; integrating more receiving water and ecosystem effects models; incorporati ng more non structural storm water control measures; adding more linkage to calibration techniques; testing model predictions against field data; and investigati ng methods for and suitability of spatial and temporal agg regation (Elliott, A. H., & Trowsdale, S. A. 2007). Green B uilding R ainwater D rainage S ystem S trategies Green I nfrastructure Green infrastructure is defined by the U S Environmental Protection Agency as a cost effective, resilient approach to managing we t weather impacts that provides many community benefits ( "Green Infrastructure" 2015). Such infrastructure mov es urban storm water on different scales and reduces and treats storm water at its source while delivering environmental, social, and economic ben efits. Green infrastructure uses vegetation, soils, and other elements and practices to restore some of the natural processes required to manage water and create healthier urban environments. On the local level, green infrastructure incorporates a patchwor k of natural features, including rain gardens, permeable pavement, green roofs, infiltration planters, trees and

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19 tree boxes, and rainwater harvesting systems that mimic the natural processes of rainwater absorption At a larg er scale, the preservation and restoration of natural landscapes (such as forests, floodplains and wetlands) can provide natural habitat s and a cleaner environment ( "What Is Green Infrastructure?" 2015). Green B uilding I nfrastructure E lements Green infrastructure can occur on differe nt scale s from small scale features integrated into a particular site to large scale elements that span entire watersheds Components of green infrastructure can include the following: downspout disconnection, rainwater harvesting, rain gardens, planter b oxes, bioswales, permeable pavement, green streets and alleys, green parking, green roof s urban tree canop ies, and land conservation. Downspout disconnection D ownspout disconnection (Figure 3) can enable the storage of storm water through soil infiltrat ion and is especially beneficial in cities with combined sewer systems. ( "Green Infrastructure" 2015 ) The runoff collected in the eaves trough flows to ground level via one or more downspouts ( Downspout D isconnection Final Report" 2009). Redirecting one' s downspout s can reduce the demand for non potable water for irrigation, car washing and other activities Through this system, h omeowners can save money on their water bills by conserving water in this manner, and public water systems will experience low er peak water demand s and reduced pressure on local water supplies. In addition this approach helps decrease the chance of flooded basements, beach closures and environmental damage. The Combined Sewer Overflow Reduction P rogram implemented in Bremerton, Washington focus e s on the design of the city's wastewater and storm water utilities. Th is program ha s two main objectives: (1) educating residents, city officials, and business and property owners about c ombined s ewer o verflow s (CSOs) and nonpoint source pollution and (2)

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20 facilitating the separation of private property storm water from the sanitary sewer system. In 2014, the City of Bremerton complied with CSO reduction requirements at all 15 sites which r educed both overflow volume and the frequency of events by 99% The city c ontinued its public education and assistance program to involve citizens with CSO r eduction and provided education on water pollution prevention ( C ity of Bremerton Department of Public Works and Utilities" 201 5 ) Fig ure 3 D isco nnected downspout system ( Maintaining H ome S tormwater S ystems 2009). Rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting systems could be used to stor e water rather than allowing it to run off. In this system a catchment area for the water is directly linked to cisterns, tanks and reservoirs. This approach is particularly effective for collecting limited water in arid regions Water harvested through t hese systems can be used for gardens, livestock, irrigation, and domestic use with proper treatment. The harvest ed water also can be used for drinking water, longer term storage, and other purposes such as groundwater recharge. Rainwater harvesting is one of the simplest and oldest methods for households t o self supply water ; such systems are generally financed by the user ( "Accelerating Self Supply" 2016 )

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21 In arid regions, rainwater harvesting can provide an independent water supply ; in some developed countries, it i s often used as the main water supply. This practice allows residents to better utilize water resour ces through simple technology. It also helps homeowners reduc e utilit y bill s by providing collected water for non drinking functions. Finally, rainwater harvesting is beneficial to the environment because it not only reduce s the burden of soil erosion from irrigation but also reduce s the demand for groundwater and flooding by collecting water in large, well designed storage tanks ( "What Is Rainwater Harvesting?" 2016). In India, Tamil Nadu was the first state to make rainwater harvesting compulsory for ever y building to avoid groundwater depletion. The scheme was launched in 2001 and has been implemented in all rural areas of Tamil Nadu. Posters all over the state increase awareness about harvesting rainwater and offer a link to the region's government web si te. This strategy produced excellent results within five years, and slowly every state in India has followed suit. Since its implementation of rainwater harvesting the city of Chennai in India has experienced a 50% rise in its water level over the course of five years and its water quality has improved significantly ( Tamil Nadu P raised as R ole M odel for R ainwater H arvesting 2011 ) In Thailand a sizeable portion of the rural population (currently around 40%) rel ies on rainwater harvesting (JMP 2016). Ra inwater harvesting was promoted heavily by Thailand's government in the 1980s a nd i n the 1990s, after government funding for the collection tanks ran out, the private sector stepped in and provided several million tanks to private households ; many of thes e tanks are still in use (Saladin, M 2016). This is one of the most effective examples of self suppl ies water worldwide.

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22 The Department of Environmental Protection's Rain Barrel Giveaway Program (Figure 4) is part of New York City's Green Infrastructure Plan which aims to capture storm water before it enter s the sewer system The goal is to reduce combined sewer overflows into local waterways ( Rain Barrel Giveaway Program 2011 ) Fig ure 4 R ain barrel s. Rain gardens A rainwater garden is also known as a biological detention area and refers to a low lying area with trees or shrubs in a garden green space that is covered by bark or ground plants. The goal of the rain garden is to reduce runoff pollution by adding water to the groundwater and reducing the p eak flow of surface runoff during rainstorms These gardens can also purify rainwater through adsorption, degradation, ion exchange and volatilization. Rain gardens ( see Figure 5) present flexible options because they can be installed in almost any unpave d space such as a building's roof. This practice mimics natural hydrology to protect natural habitats and reduce storm water runoff F urthermore, it improves homes and neighborhood s and save s money involved in water pollution cleanup and massive construct ion projects ( Rain G ardens 101 2015 )

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23 Fig ure 5 A simple rain garden system ( "R ain G ardens 2013). Rain garden s are very good option s for decreasing the impact of impervious surfaces. Moreover, rain gardens offer numerous benefits including flood pro tection, runoff pollution control, habitat creation, water clean ing, and simple enjoyment of the garden ( "Benefits of Planting R ain G arden s" 2015). Rain garden s are valuable tool s that allow municipalities and homeowners to incorporate natural process es in to flood and pollution control, and the implementation of rain gardens is becoming an international sustainable green trend ( Rain G arden D esign 2015) R ain garden s consists of the following features: an inflow structure such as a downspout that direc ts storm water to the garden; a ponding area which is a basin that collects storm water from the garden's surface; a thin layer of mulch that filters out many pollutants and protect the physical structure of the underlying soil ( Rain G arden D esign and C o nstruction 2005); and native plants. The rain garden is usually located near the building s rooftop drainpipe. Most rain gardens are the end of a drainage system that filters incoming water through a series of layers of soil or gravel below the surface ( Rain Garden" 2017 ) The selection of local well adapted

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24 plants for rain gardens is extremely important to ensure survival in the surrounding water conditions, soils, and climates A public initiative in Kansas City, Missouri, known as 10,000 Rain Gardens aims to install 10,000 rain gardens, vegetated swales, and rain barrels in the city's greater metropolitan area. B y 2008, the organization had registered 303 rain gardens on its website. P rivate individuals and businesses alike had implement ed their own rain gardens. The report on the project provide d a detailed discussion of rain garden s and their value as well as the goals of the initiative. This report also provide d technical information on BMPs green roofs and native plant varieties (Kansas City 10, 000 Rain Garden Initia ti ve) A similar initiative, known as the Healthy Waterways Raingardens Program was implemented in Australia to promote a simple and effective form of storm water treatment and raise peoples' awareness about how good storm water mana gement can contribute to healthy waterways. The program encourage d people to build rain gardens at home and achieved its target of seeing 10,000 rain gardens built across Melbourne by 2013 ( Raingardens 2013). Green roofs The g reen roof is a new way to i mprove urban area s. This concept refers to roofs that have been covered with growing media and vegetation that enable rainfall infiltration and evapotranspiration of stored water ( Green I nfrastructure 2015). The first and simplest green roof is the slope roof which appeared in the 18th century in wooden buildings in northern Scandinavia. Until the mid 19th century, green roof s were used widely in this region ( Sod R oof 2017 ) Later on, with the development of heating technology, the slope roof gradually became less popular In the 20th century, green roofs again caught designers' attention. R esearch into green roofs and their design and application emerged first in Germany and gradually spread

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25 to Europe, America and some other countries. N ow, nearly 10% of building roof s in German y have been designed as or renovated into green roof s ( Green R oof 2017 ) I n the United States research into and application o f green roof s are expanding rapidly From top to bottom, g reen roof layers are as follows: vegetatio n, substrate, filter, drainage, separation of sliding, waterproof ing material thermal insulation, and roof panel and roof support structure s The se roofs are particularly cost effective in dense urban areas where land price s are very high and on large ind ustrial or office buildings where storm water management costs are also steep ( "Green Infrastructure" 2015) Choosing the perfect soil for green roof projects is important Rooflite ¨ i s regarded as the only green roof media company to offer an innovat ive a nd complete soil system for rooftop trees ( "R oof top Trees Soil System" 2016). G reen roofs can be divided into two types according to the depth of the cultivation matrix and the complexity of the landscape The first type, e xtensive r oofs, also known as ope n green roof s can be single course or multi course ( see Figure 6 ). In extensive roofs, the p lant cultivation matrix is shallow and comprises low, shallow root ed drought resistant plant s This is a relatively simple form of plant landscape configuration t hat can be maintained through the simple road system and generally is not used in complex field functions in roof design s Owing to the s mall size of the plants and the s hallow ness of their root structures, these roofs can be less expensive and more practi cal in application. C onstruction types include built in place and modular planted roofs ( "System O verview: Extensive P lanted R oofs 2013).

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26 Fig ure 6 E xtensive green roof types (" The Benefits and Challenges of Green Roofs on Public and Commercial Buildi ngs 2011). The second category of green roofs i ntensive r oofs, also known as deep green roofs have greater plant diversity and require more frequent irrigation compare d to extensive roofs. Th is type of roof can be further divided as semi intensive and intensive ( see Figure 7) Intensive roofs include herbs, flower shrubs small trees and other rich plant s. Such roofs provide a complicated form of plant landscape and can have a variety of functions with comfortable and convenient conditions of the road system. Intensive roofs offer a diverse habitat t hat strength ens the urban green space and its biodiversity ("System Overview: Intensive Planted Roofs 2013) Fig ure 7 I ntensive green roof types (" The Benefits and Challenges of Green Roofs on Public and Commercial Buildings 2011).

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27 G reen roof s have extensive functions They can sharply reduce urban rainwater runoff as the plants intercept and evaporat e rainwater The artificial planting soil also help s to retain rainwater. In addition, g reen roofs can c ut peak flow rate s during storm s These attributes are advantageous in urban flood control and drainage and c an decrease the corresponding issue of waterlogging. Moreover, as the area of roof greening increas es water lo ss decreases, which adjusts t he bala nce between rain and natural circulation. These roofs a lso offer benefits in terms of building roof properties and temperature s Green roofs reflect more sunlight than traditional cement roofing. B ecause of the evaporation and transpiration of plants, the latent heat of digestion is greater for green roofs than non green roof s The green roof takes on less heat from the air, so it reduces both the thermal effect and the heat island effect in the city Green roofs also increase environmental humidity in the city through the transpiration of plants. As for reducing pollution, g reen roofs serve to control air pollution by reducing wind speed and adsorption, which decreases atmospheric dust. Green roofs also absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide through photosynthes is. In addition greening roofs can help to c ontrol the rainwater pollution load in three ways : by intercepting pollutants in rainwater at the roof greening layer where those pollutants are accumulated in plants and artificial soil and broken down through microbial degradation ; by purifying rainwater of its pollutants through soil permeation; and by e liminat ing the potential for pollution in runoff from roofing materials such as asphalt. Roof greening is a current trend in sustainable design. For instance, as early as 1959, the American Kaiser C enter sported a roof garden of 1.2 ha that was a pioneer ing example of modern green roofs. As a leader in the field of green architecture Germany developed the first

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28 roof greening guidelines. In 1999 Japan began to provide low interest loans to building owners who wanted to construct green roofs. The department that manages Tokyo city construction stipulates that for area s larger than 1000 square meters, roof plant coverage must be greater than or equal to 20%. Maca llen Building c ondominiums (Figure s 8 and 9) present a more recent example of green technology. Construction and landscaping for this 14 story apartment complex on Dorchester Avenue ( Boston, Massachusetts) were completed in the fall of 2007. This project i ntegrated green designs and ecolog ical concerns, and i n 2008, it received LEED Gold certification The apartment complex is a hallmark of Office dA's experience in advancing and promoting sustainability. The most important design ideas in this building are the implementation of g reen roofs and storm water management Fig ure 8 Macallen Building c ondominiums (Horner, J. 2016).

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29 Fig ure 9 Roof of Macallen Building c ondominiums (Horner, J. 2016). Green walls G reen walls represent another surfac e area available for greening but different from roofs in that they require vertical green systems. G reen walls have greater potential than green roof s b ecause they take into account the level of greening in the city center and the footprint s of buildings on the ground ( Kšhler M. 2008 ) T hese walls use green plants instead of brick, stone or reinforced concrete and become a living and therefore self regenerating cladding system. Green wall s can be used as passive design solution s that can promote energy s avings and therefore, the sustainability of buildings (Perez, G., Rincon, L., Vila, A., Gonzalez, J. M., & Cabeza, L. F. 2011) The traditional green wall method first appeared in Babylon and in the empire s of Greece and Rome. In Mediterranean regions v ines we re often used to cover pergolas and building s to provide cool ing envelopes in the summer (Landschaftsentwicklung, F. 2008). Since the 17th and 18th centuries, climbing plants in the UK and central Europe have proliferated (Newton J Gedge D Ear ly P & Wilson S. 2007). Modern wall greening use s climb ing plants supported by steel cables or trellis es that are more likely to hold the plants away from the wall surface compare d to traditional wall greening methods (Dunnett, N., & Kingsbury, N. 2008 ).

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30 In Brazil, green wall s are built with hollow brick s and brick on the wall and are fertilize d and planted with seed s where the climate is suitable for growing grass. Brazilian cities also build external wall s using special biological brick that, when wa ter ed proper ly can support plants that are green al l year round and continuously absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere In Bras ’ lia green space s have been incorporated into the hundreds of square meters per capita, which makes the city a world leader in green building practices. This capital city, built in 1960s, is regard ed as human cultural heritage by t he United Nations for its role in highlighting urban greening and i t has bec o me the model of a modern city. Green walls can be categorized as green faade s and living walls ( see Figure 10). The climbing plants on green faade s grow along and cover the wall. In contrast, living walls are more complicated because they include the materials and technology to support a wider variety of plants and are a m ore uniform system (Manso, M., & Castro Gomes, J. 2015). Fig ure 10 Classification of green walls according to their construction characteristics Green faade s can be either direct or indirect. The t raditional green faade employs a direct greening sy stem using self clin g ing climbers that are rooted in the g round. Indirect

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31 greening systems include continuous and modular solutions. The major difference between these solutions is the structure for guiding plant development: continuous solutions provide s ingle support structure s wh ereas modular trellises have vessels for plant rooting (Laurenz J Paricio I Alvarez J & Ruiz F. 2005). One major benefit of green faade s is that they shade the walls from the sun, thereby reducing the building's maxim um internal temperature. Climbers make the building cooler through shading, evapotranspiration and other plant processe s. Moreover, these green faade s can control pollutant s, trap dust, and hold water during heavy rainfalls thereby protecting the buildi ng surface. T hese faade s also improve biodiversity by creating habitats for wildlife. Living walls are a n innovati ve approach to wall cladding. Living wall systems (LWS s ) can be classified as continuous or modular. Lightweight screens are considered conti nuous LWS s through inserted plans (Corradi L. 2009). Modular LWSs, in contrast, have different elements and plant frames and can be in the form of trays, vessels, planter tiles and flexible bags. Modular trays are made of lightweight interlocking materia ls such as plastic or metal sheets. Trays and vessels include back ing components, such as hooks or mounting brackets that attach to the vertical surface (Koumoudis S. 2011) Planter tiles usually have flat back s that are af fixed to the building surface w ith inserted plants. F lexible bags are composed of flexible polymeric materials (Fukuzumi Y. 1996) Despite the differences in the types of materials used, the sustainability and the life cycle of LWS s, as well as their capacity for water consumption, dur ability, and recycling potential can have a significant positive impact on the environmental burden by reducing energy demand and improv ing drainage (Perini K & Magliocco A. 2012 )

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32 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The literature review explored prev ious research on green infrastructure. C ompar ed to traditional buildings green roofs and walls enable better storm water management provide net flow and are easy to use. It is therefore important to analyze the costs and benefits of different green in frastructures with regard to their efficacy in terms of water management. The present study employed a qualitative design to achieve the research objectives. T his chapter compare s green infrastructure programs in different regions for a better understand in g of successful design strategies. Chapter 4 discusses five representative cases from Germany, the United States, and Korea to develop profound insights into green roof and wall design s and enable the identification of a real design method. T he researcher selected several comparable factors in the se five case studies and analyz ed the impact of these green designs on water retention and runoff pollution Next, this paper presents the major distinctions between the case studies as well as the benefits and cha llenges of each design. Chapter 5 presents the conclusion. Focusing on a single building with specified conditions is insufficient to illustrate the overall effect of multiple green roofs in an urban environment. Thus, the case studies s elected for this t hesis are on different scales ranging f rom a single building to a n entire neighborhood ; nevertheless, these projects all contained similar components, which provide points of comparison T h is approach enables the researcher to conduct a comprehensive analy sis of the strategies for green infrastructure design The paper first presents background information on the green structures and an objective analy sis Next, the main method s o f water management are discussed; then, the paper offers different data analys e s and explores conclusion s The final part is a comparison of the different green infrastructure factors in water management programs in

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33 Germany, the United States, and Korea. Ultimately, this study aims to arrive at the perfect design for storm water man agement.

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34 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUD IES Storm W ater Management Model and Low Impact Development in Bangbae dong, Seoul Background and O bjectives In Korea, many green roofs can be found o n public buildings which provide s more green space for residents and visito rs. Table 1 indicate s the different types of green roof s in Korea. Shin e t al (2011) reported that some possible causes of flooding in Seoul relate to the high density of the population Koh and Lee (2012) pointed out that urban areas experienc e devastati ng flood damage because of the concentrat ions of population s and assets at specific points. Table 1. Classification of green roofs. Note: Adapted from Korean Green Roof and Infrastructure Association (year). Current ly, urban flood control and mitigation s olutions to a large extent depend on structure s such as drainage, rainwater pumping station s, and rainwater detention facilities ; h owever, ongoing urbanization has made it difficult to find extra space for these facilities. In light of this situation, Kor ean cities are investigating d ifferent methods of mitigating urban flooding that place less pressure on the environment. Owing to the extensive urbanization and large proportion of impervious surface areas in Bangbae dong, the district has experienced dis astrous floods for many years and has been

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35 recognized as a flood area in Seoul since the 1980s. The study site discussed in this section is located in Seocho gu, Seoul ( see Figure 11 ) and encompasses an area of approximately 4.7 km 2 The l ocation and the geographical f eatures of this area are thought to be the reason for the flooding. The statistical data show that flood damage mainly occurs in the central part of the study area. The objectives of this case study are to examine the effect of green roofs on storm water runoff reduction and to evaluate the economic feasibility of a green roof system. Fig ure 11 Location of Bang b ae dong, Seoul Method This study employs three sets of scenarios to evaluate the effects of green roofs. In Scenario A no green r oofs are installed in this area; in Scenario B the area contains a green roof with flat suitable construction; Scenario C assumes that all buildings have flat rooftops that could b e transformed into green roofs. For the purposes of this research the stu dy area was simplified to 37 sub water catchment s 139 conduits and 278 junctions (Figure 1 2 ) based on their properties. The researcher collected data through two model s: SWMM (storm water management model) and BCA (benefit cost analysis). Using SWMM at t he study site allowed

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36 the researcher to model an urban catchment consisting of an artificial drainage system with fewer limitations than other similar models. Moreover, SWMM5 can be used to model LID controls for green infrastructures especially green roo fs. BCA can be regarded as an auxiliary tool that provides criteria for the decision making process and was used to estimate values to identify economically viable alternatives (Kim, 2012). Fig ure 12 SWMM model for Bangb ae dong, Seoul Data Analysis an d Conclusion The results of the SWMM analysis showed that for a single event, Scenario B reduces runoff by 14.7% runoff reduction, wh ereas in Scenario C runoff was reduced by 25.6% ( see

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37 Table 2 and Figure 1 3 ). I n Scenario C a time delay of about 10 minut es occurred before peak runoff was reduced Table 2. Results of SWMM analysis. Fig ure 1 3 Result s of SWMM analysis The result s for the BCA appl y to Scenario s B and C ; A is the d o n othing a lternative. Scenario s B and C have respective net benefit s of K RW 21.7 billion and KRW 89.3 billion. Both have benefit cost ratios that barely exceed 1.0 ( see Table 3)

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38 Table 3. Summary of results of benefit cost analysis. This case study demonstrates that green roofs can be used to reduc e storm water runof f in urban areas and can provide economic benefits. However, the rainwater runoff problem cannot be solved by the construction of green roofs alone, so the various effects of green roof s and their mechanisms must be understand more comprehensively. Best Ma nagement Practices in t he H eadquarters of the American S ociety of Landscape Architects Background and O bjectives To develop a deeper understanding of universal green roof effects, research into new well designed, and visible technolog ies is needed. Landsc ape architects in particular are well suited to join the trend toward green roof development because they have a basic understanding of the science behind landscape design, including site analysis and storm water management. Fig ure 14 T he roof of the Ame rican Society of Landscape Architects headquarters (" ASLA G reen R oof 2015).

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39 In the United States, one example of green design can be found at t he Maryland h ead qu arters of the American Society of Landscape Archite c ts (A SLA ) This building was designed b y the prestigious landscape architecture firm Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates. The objective of this building was to improve the organization between landscape architecture and green roofs. ASLA 's green roof design received the 2007 New York ASLA Design Honor Award. Fig ure 1 5 Components of ASLA 's green roof ("ASLA Green Roof" 2015). Method Through the careful design of accessible spaces, plant selections were showcas ed at v arious depths and the roof could be monitor ed for storm water retention and heat load reduction.

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40 The barrel shaped mounds at the north and south end s of the roof ( see Figure 15) create d new horizons for visitors, clearing the immediate urban foreground and focusing views on the more distant Washington skyline. There are two different types of green roof design s in this project: extensive and semi intensive green roof s On one hand, the extensive green roof s require minimal soil depth s and include low growing plants; on the other hand, the semi intensive green roof contain s different s i zes of plants such as taller plants that require a deeper soil base. Fig ure 1 6 Suspended metal grille ("ASLA Green Roof" 2015). Fig ure 17 G reen roof ( "ASLA Green Roof" 2015). The south mound has a five inch plant ing system planted with sedums. The mound is constructed of Styrofoam, and the planting soil is threaded with ribbons of nonbiodegradable plastic to prevent erosion and sliding. T he north mound has a six inch planting system planted with sedums ( "ASLA Head quarters" 2016 ). Th is mound is constructed of Styrofoam, and the planting soil is threaded with ribbons of nonbiodegradable plastic to prevent erosion and sliding.

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41 To balance ecological benefit s with social needs, the main central walking surface is a meta l grille suspended above a layer of living plants (Figure s 1 6 and 1 7 ). The Green Roof Water Quality and Quantity Monitoring project was designed to address the need s of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, ASLA, and the District of Columbia s Water. The governm ent's task is to use BMP s to greatly reduce the transport of pollution from storm water runoff. In 2006, t his project transformed an existing 3,000 square foot roof into an expressive display of green roof technology that creates more open and social space s ( see Figure 1 8 ). To achieve the objective of reduced runoff contamina tion ETEC coordinated with ASLA and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation to determine a schedule for sample collection and monitoring during five rain events in the fall of 2006 and the sprin g of 2007. Through this project, 27,500 gallons of storm water and 77% of all precipitation hitting the roof w ere prevented. Fig ure 18 Components of ASLA 's green roof Th e quantitative measure ment of total rain flow showed that during the five sample ev ents, which occurred over the course of 10 months nearly 75% of the estimated rainfall did

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42 not pass through the green roof Moreover, the roof reduced the amount of nitrogen entering the watershed and played an important role in decreasing building temper ature s and energy use Conclusion The A S LA green roof exemplifies the integration of functions possible in such green structures The plant palette present on ASLA's roof is more ecologically and environmentally varied than the sedum monoculture that is t ypical of many green roofs. Each plant species has been monitored to i ncrease the diversity of the palette of plant s that c an survive on an urban rooftop without active maintenance after the fi r st several years of establishment. Sedum can be used to replac e plants that need less water. The BMPs for storm water management aim to reduce peak flow and water volume and improve water quality. During the period of monitoring, there was no runoff from ASLA's green roof for the majority of the precipitation events (50 of 65 or 77%). T he total volume of runoff leaving the roof was reduced by 74% ( from 37,237 gallons to 9,725 gallons ). Monitoring and recording elements track ed the absorption of water and the rooftop temperature s; however, these d ata need to be examine d carefully because the scope of monitoring is limited and the number of samples is small (Glass, C. C. 2007). To produce runoff from green roofs, storms generally have to put down more than 1 inch of precipitation in a 24 hour period and should occur in quick succession. The ASLA green roof retained nearly three quarters of the precipitation volume during the monitoring period, but the results show that the greatest impact of the green roof i t s ability to help the pipeline system achieve peak attenuation and volume reduction.

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43 Decentrali z ed Storm W ater Management at the Institute of P hysics in Berlin Adlershof Background and O bjectives The Institute of Physics ( see Figure 1 9 ) at Humboldt University Berlin is an exceptional ecological urban development pr oject featuring various innovations for sustainable construction This building was completed in 2003 and was designed to manage rainwater d istribution follow the principles of green building and sav e energy through cooling ventilation elements. Rainwate r is collected from some of its green roofs and used to pour 150 plantations on five sides. In this project, irrigation is well controlled and monitored through an Internet assisted computer system. Fig ure 1 9 T he green faade s of the Institute of Physics Method One of the main objectives of scattered rainwater management for th e Institute of Physics i s the retention and re evaporation of rainwater. The building is not connected to rainwater sewers; rather, ra inwater is stored in five tanks located off th e two courtyards of the building and is used mainly for irrigation adiabatic cooling of the faade greening system and

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44 evaporating and cooling for air conditioning. Heavy r ain is managed by overflow into a courtyard pond, where water can evaporate or fal l into the ground. T o protect groundwater from contamination, this drainage can only occur through the surface area s planted with vegetation. Results and Conclusion In the Institute of Physics, 16 climbing plants were planted in 150 plant box es on nine diffe rent building faade s and three floors. I solation layers are provided in some planting enclosures to compensate for large changes in temperature and protect against extremely low winter temperatures. In summer, the plants provide shade whereas in winter, the sun s rays can pass through the glass in front. External wall greening is closely related to efforts to optimize building energy efficiency and relies on evapotranspiration to improve the microclimate inside and around the building. A research project called "Technical University of Berlin, Humboldt University and the University of Applied Science Neubrandenburg Green Roof Center" was undertaken to evaluate this building and its design over several years Through this project, the Berlin City Government collect ed data includ ing the evapotranspiration and cooling potential s of the different climber materials. To date, Wisteria sinensis is the most effective climber ; from July through September each well developed Wisteria plant consumed a maximum of 420 l iters /day ( 11 0 U S gal lons /day) and had a cooling value of 280 kWh per day (Schmidt 2006, Schmidt n.d) Rainwater is used in eight air conditioners being sprayed on the building's exhaust air whereby fresh air entering the building is cooled through a he at exchanger. The use of rainwater can reduce demands for both drinking water and wastewater.

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45 Rooflite ¨ on U.S. Coast G u ard Headquarters, DHS St. Elizabeths Campus Background and O bjectives In Washington, D C green roofs have become popular infrastructur e components The General Services Administration briefed us on the restoration of the U S Coast Guard headquarters at St. Elizabeth s Hospital in the southeastern part of Washington D C The $646 million project is the first in a series that will enable the transformation of the spiritual shelter established by social reformer Dorothea Dix in mid 19th century into the new headquarters for the Department of Homeland Security with primary facilities for the Coast Guard. The goal of the new facility is to improve operational efficiency by bringing together all homeland security leaders, said a representative from ASLA, which is the National Design Director for Landscape Design at the G eneral S ervices A dministration Fig ure 20 U.S. Coast Guard h eadquart ers (" Green Design at the US Coast Guard h eadquarter 2017). The leaders of the department will occupy the converted asylum buildings, which once housed the likes of the modern poet Ezra P ound. At the same time, he added that the new Environmental Protect ion Agency requirement s mean that 95% of the rain must be captured in the field. The design team estimates that the entire system can reduce the efficiency of on site rainwater.

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46 Method This building is the first addition to the new DHS St. Elizabeth s cam pus. It is under construction and follows several construction and operational measures in accordance with its proposed LEED v 2.2 Gold Certification. To achieve th is goal, designers are designating more than 400,000 square feet of green roof s pace for rai nwater management and energy efficiency. Rainwater management systems, including wet pools, biot a, and a pool of steps, handle rainwater runoff throughout the campus. B A B Fig ure 2 1 Views of the new buildings at DHS St. Elisabeth s campus. A) U pper courtyard and B) constructed pond The main design in this project is a gravity based system of green roof terraces that move s water from higher terraces to lower ones and then into the pond, according to designer Thomas Amoroso. Water moves off the buildings, onto roofs and courtyards, and through diverse regions, f rom the "Blue Ridge and rocky barrens of Piedmont to the coastal plains." The native mixed shrubs, grasses and trees planted in these terraces create good habitat s for wild life. T here green roof also contains some gravel pockets where small birds can nest Once the water

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47 travels from the upper courtyard (Figure 2 1 A ) to the lowe r ones the storm water is conveyed to a huge constructed pond (Figure 2 1 B ). After that, the sto r m water can be reused for the green roo f and recycled for the campus ( A R are Look at the New U.S Coast Guard Headqua r ters 2015) The project includes an 11 story office building with an area of 1.2 million square feet that houses 3,860 employees, a separ ate central utility plant and two 7 story parking garages. The whole project is built into a hillside and the elevation changes by 120 feet on the 176 acre site ( U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, DHS St. Elizabeths Campus 2017). Two aquifers are located a bove the grade and run through the hill. The other nine levels are built into and extend out of the landscape, cascading down the hill almost as if Frank Lloyd Wright had transposed Fallingwater into a million square foot government facility. The building consists of linked quadrangles clad in brick, schist stone, glass, and metal that follow the site s natural change s in elevation and cascade toward the Anacostia River ( Green Design at the US Coast Guard Headquarter 2017 ) AIArchitect (2014) described th e structure as follows: Each green roof and courtyard is both a literal and abstract expression of five local eco regions, from the Piedmont uplands down to the coastal plain. There are 200,000 plants, more than 300 native trees, and about 100 varieties o f sedum. One courtyard even features a "dry river bed" that mimics the actual bends of the Potomac as it stretches up toward Washington from the Chesapeake Bay. Results and C onclusion The design team for the U.S. Coast Guard headquarters earned the Gold Certification in December 2013. The structure has bo th extensive and intensive types of roofing at a 2% slope with more than half a million square feet of green roof area at a campus that was once a contaminated brownfield ( "Sod Roof, Turf Roof, Green Roof 2017) The buildings and landscaping are both integrated into the hillside as an extension of the land. The upper levels look over the Anacostia River just before it s juncture with the Potomac River. Th e approach of

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48 integrating man made architecture with the natural environment reflects Frank Lloyd Wright s notion of organic architecture (Kim A. T 2014). Th e guiding principles for th is project are specific to the site. Specifications for the growing media (Rooflite ¨ ) were adjusted in order to reduce th e loads to within the structural tolerances for the roof structure. The Rooflite ¨ was either crane hoisted to the roofs or blown onto the surfaces with large pneumatic hoses. Hardy s edum mats are planted around the perimeter of most of the roofs, sa id T odd Skopic. The effect of the s edum mats at the roof perimeter provides a neat and tidy edge to the wilder grasses and shrubs in the mounded areas in the middle. Rooflite ¨ on the Nashville Music City Center Background and O bjectives The Nashville Music C ity Center is a 1.2 million square foot conference center and a public space built in 2012 on Broadway South in Nashville, Tennessee. The five stor y building has three separate green wave roofs that resemble hills. The design of the music city center focus es on sustainable environmentally friendly development and is certified by the U S Green Building Council as LEED Gold Standard ( Nashville Music City Center 2016 ) Method Design ed to mimic the rolling hills of Tennessee, the roof spans more than four acres and is currently the largest green roof in the southeast ( Music City Center Green Roof" 2013). The green roof has an area of 191,000 square f eet and is design ed for rainwater retention ; the design also has the following objectives: [It] reduce s the urban heat island. It is crucial that this iconic architecture embodies the essence of the Music City, USA, so green roof design concerns the design of the roof volume symbolizes the Tennessee hills. From a performance perspective, the system is built to handle a 2.6 million gal l on stormwater management offset. We carefully selected the most heat resistant and drought tolerant plants, we also mixed and install bioretention

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49 and structure of green roof soil. Slated to accept national organization award, G reen Roofs of Healthy City, the project on behalf of the final blend aesthetics and design ability (Greenrise technology ; Music City Center Green Roof" 2013 ) A B F igure 22. Nashville Music City Center. A) Aerial view of the center and B) the center's green roof. T h e structure of the building consists of 13,000 tons and 110,000 cubic yards of concrete steel. The area of the green roof is 191,000 square feet and consists of three different parts : R ooflite ¨ soils, 14 different types of vegetation and a waterproofing membrane. The slope of the green roof is between 16% and 25% which is within the range required for stable media. Owing to t he roof's shallow soil depth, pre vegetated sedum mats are necessary The Optigreen¨ and Anti Slip System Type N sills with net s are important elements t hat hold the R ooflite ¨ Extensive MCL substrate and sedum mats in place Architectures designed a 360,00 0 gallon rainwater collection tank and added 845 solar panels on the roof to improve water retention and energy efficiency. Results and C onclusion The Music City Center's roof was designed to retain rainwater and reduce the urban heat island effect This green roof can capture 2.6 million gallons of rain a year. Green roofs such as this one are important for meeting sustainable development goals to help roof reservoirs and tanks maintain rainwater. Rooflite¨ soil concrete mixes were used to adjust the Mus ic City

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50 Center roof several times to ensure proper mixing space. Because of th e large area of the roof, R ooflite ¨ soil was blown to the roof in a simple smooth installation process. The waterproofing membrane shown in Figure 23 extends the service life of the roof and protects against rain wind and ultraviolet rays, thereby reducing the amount of storm runoff. This green roof also help s to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Vegetation on roofs provide s natural habitat s for p lants, insects and wildlife that might have limited space s in the urban environment. Fig ure 23. W aterproofing membrane Fig ure 2 4. B ioretention soil

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51 Comparative S tudy Project c omparatives These five case studies illustrated different approaches to designing green roofs and walls for storm water management. The first case located in Korea shows th at green roofs in the Bangbae dong neighborhood play an important role in allowing rainwater runoff to infiltrate the ground. A de sign that combin es the SWMM and LID approaches permits the examination of the effect of green roofs on storm water runoff reduction and enables the evaluat ion of the economic feasibility of different types of green roof system s. T he SWMM is suitable for th e long term assessment of water runoff quantity and quality necessary to help design water drainage systems that utilize green roofs, walls and other infrastructure in urban area s The second case was much smaller in scale than the first and comprises the rooftop of a single building. The ASLA green roof was a renewal project that convert ed the existing 3,000 square foot roof in to a new green roof to improve the green technology in the building and create more social spaces This project is famous for its combination of two different types of green roofs and its plant selections. Both the extensive roof structure and the intensive roof structure make this project suitable for testing the application of different soil bases. T he BMP s used in this project pro vide good method s to measure quantitatively t he roof's storm water retention capacity and the runoff pollution. The green roof reduce s the amount of nitrogen entering the watershed and play s an important role in lowering temperature s and decreasing energy consumption T his is an experimental roof garden that presents a practical case study of diverse vegetation ; h owever, the ASLA structure is not a typical vegetated green roof. Germany can be regarded as a pioneer in green roof design research. In the world of scientific research and technological achievements with regard to building large areas of vegetation ," about 90% of patents belong to German designers Thus, the researcher selected the

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52 Institute of Physics in Berlin, Germany as a case study represen tative of German green infrastructure The Institute of Physics is special because its d ecentralized r ainwater m anagement system, comprising 150 planter boxes on green walls, uses cost effective solutions with low environment al impact. This simple method a llows the water to evaporate or drain into the ground thus protect ing runoff from pollution. T he plant boxes also serve as a recycl ing system : the collected rainwater is reused in air condition ing, which reduces wastewater and saves drinking water. This k ind of storm water management system collects, stores, and cleans water before introducing it slowly back into the environment and is effective for processing polluted surface storm water runoff ( Concept of D ecentralized S tormwater M anagement 2007) The fo u rth and fifth structures examined in the case studies both used Rooflite ¨ media. The f ormer is an architectural complex located in southeast Washington, D C. The design team created more than 400,000 square feet of green roof space and developed a grav ity based system of green roof terraces to improve storm water management and energy efficiency. Developing s everal green roof levels can slow the flow of storm water from the upper site to the well located on lower ground. The buildings and landscaping bo th were integrated into the hillside as an extension of the land and a beautiful landmark o n the campus. T he growing media (Rooflite ¨ ) were adjusted to reduce the loads to within the structural tolerances of the roof. The fifth case study was a 1,200,000 s quare foot convention center in Nashville, Tennessee This building received a Gold S tandard in LEED certification. In c ompar ison to the fourth building, the Nashville convention center was structured differently: the multi level green roofs were designed to resemble rolling hills. T h e shape of this roof was much bold er and more creative. This green roof was 191,000 square f eet in area and was designed to retain storm water and reduce urban heat This roof can handle 2.6 million gallon s of storm water a yea r. Th e roof

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53 comprises three distinct sections : R ooflite ¨ soil, 14 different types of vegetation and a waterproofing membrane. The R ooflite ¨ substrate and the sedum mats are important elements of improving the rainwater collection. This project is a good e xample of a combined system of R ooflite ¨ soil and water tanks designed to reduce storm runoff. Rooflite ¨ soil has significant water retention properties such as porosity and drainage capacity, and not only enhance s storm water retention but also supports biodiversity ( "Rooftop Trees Soil System" 2016) Limitation s of Analysis and Future Research The original object of this project was to quali f y the strategies for storm water management practice d in different regions. Thus, t his study supports the design of future green infrastructure and storm water management. However, the true cost s of storm water management practices w ere not discussed in this paper The ASLA green roof, as a n experimental project, was more expensive than most such designs. I t involve d building new structures and incorporate d a wide variety of plants and features. At the same time, i t offers reduced operation al costs when the expected increase in roof life is factored in. Indeed the green roof will more than pay for itself over time ( "ASLA Headquarters Green Roof" 2008 )

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54 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Green roof s and green wall s are two important elements of green infrastructure that can help to reduce storm water drainage, regulate indoor temperature s, and cool hot cities. In this paper, a ll the characteristics and advantages of these two infrastructure elements in terms of water management we re summariz ed b ased on previous research A mong them storm water retention and runoff pollution reduction are the most important benefits. This paper i dentified t he objectives of compatible storm water management systems in urban area t hrough a comprehensive analysis and presented f ive case s of successful green infrastructure implementation for comparison Based on the analyses presented above, the follo wing d esign s uggest ion s for cooperation with other landscape systems and selection of plants and substrate s were developed : (1) Storm water management infrastructure has three objectives : ( a ) weaken ing storm water flow through sustainable method s and minim iz ing urban waterlogging; ( b ) reduc ing water runoff pollution through green infrastructure and subsequent ly collecting water underground ; and ( c ) reduc ing the loss of storm water resources by adjust ing the natural cycle and balance of rain water (2) S to rm water retention and storage systems can be divided into two types based on their usage of rainwater and their locations The f irst type includes storage tanks for water retention At the Institute of Physics in Berlin, for example the inclusion of simp le storage tanks on walls is highly useful. The s econd type includes special facilities for water collect i o n. For instance, at the new U.S. Coast Guard h eadquarters a g ravity based system replaces water pipes and collect s and transport s rain water to the s torage pond or to green spaces in lower layers

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55 (3) Analysis of the substrate used for planting is essential for water retention The R ooflite ¨ soil discussed previously can improve water retention, porosity drainage and plant growth. The soil s used in green infrastructure need to store storm water void volume and provide nutrients for plant s In terms of applications for runoff pollution reduction, the vegetated soil on ASLA 's green roof reduced the amount of nitrogen entering the watershed. Thus, one function of green infrastructure is absorb ing water through vegetated layer s and degrad ing accumulated pollutants through plant processes and artificial soil s A nother method i nvolve s us ing the substrate soil to reduce water infiltration and improve the p urifying process. To promote plant growth, it is preferable to choo se a mixed matrix soil that has good purifying abilities. Thus, when choosing the materials, designers should select soils with s mall pores, high density, and erosion resistance that are co mposed of clean natural or artificial materials. A soil m ixture of volcanic stones, zeolites, cinders original soil, or other special media is particularly popular. (4) The s tudy o f the comprehensive utilization of storm water is necessary, especially in terms of cooperation with the architectural landscape. The hilly green roof shapes on the Nashville Music City Center not only help to control storm water but also echo the rolling hills and distant mountains of the surround landscape T he stepped green ro ofs of the U.S Coast G u ard h eadquarters in comparison, can be regard ed as a comprehensive water cycle system Th is system of water use also benefit s the outdoor waterscape and supplements groundwater. Thus, successful green roof s and walls must be in har mony with the natural site and the surroundings. (5) Study o f related science s and technologies can have a large impact on green infrastructure design. For example, t he waterproofing membrane used in the Nashville Music

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56 City Center absorbed rain and wind, not only reducing storm runoff but also extend ing t he roof's life and protect ing it from harmful solar radiation. G reen infrastructure should not simply be a green layer on top of a building Implementing t echnologies such as proofing membrane s and solar panels can encourage more sustainable water and energy use (6) Analysis of the construction costs of green infrastructure showed that green construction is more expensive than other similar projects because i t involve s building new structures and incorpor at ing a wide variety of plants and features. Nevertheless, green infrastructure can reduce a building's operati ng costs and ex tend the service life of the roof thereby mitigating the additional expense over time In addition, green infrastructure improves the quality of the urban environment by creating more open social spaces for residents. Overall, t he benefits of green infrastructure thus exceed the costs in urban areas

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57 LIST OF REFERENCES Accelerating s elf supply (2016, October 5). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from Rural Water Supply Network: www.rural water supply.net/en/self supply. Ando, A. W., & Freitas, L. P. (2011). Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels. Water Resources Resea rch, 47 (12). A rare l ook at the New U.S Coast Guard Headqua r ters. (2015, September 6). Retrieved July 7, 2017, from U niting the B uilt & N atural E nvironments: https://dirt.asla.org/2015/06/09/a rare look at the new u s coast guard headquarters/ A SLA headqu arters green roof. (2008, June 12). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from L andscape P erformance S eries: https://landscapeperformance.org/case study briefs/asla headquarters green roof#/cost comparison A SLA green roof. (2015, June 30). Retrieved June 17, 2017, from Michael V an V alkenburgh A ssociates I nc : http://www.mvvainc.com/project.php?id=16 ASLA h eadquarters. (2016, September 1). Retrieved June 17, 2017, from G reen R oofs: http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=158 Benefits of p lanting r ain g ardens. (20 15, April 26). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Rain Garden N etwork: http://www.raingardennetwork.com/benefits of planting rain gardens/ City of Bremerton D epartment of P ublic W orks and U tilities combined sewer overflow annual report for 2014. (2015, May 30). Retrieved June 16, 2017, from Washington D epartment of E cology: http://www.ci.bremerton.wa.us/DocumentCenter/View/2510 Concept of decentralized stormwater management. (2007, April 11). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from the S tormwater E xperts: http://www.sieke r.de/en/fachinformationen/dealing with rainwater/article/konzept der dezentralen regenwasser bewirtschaftung 76.html Corradi, L. (2010). Hydroponic growing system. U.S. Patent No. 7,832,144. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Downspout disco nnection final report. (2009, June 21). Retrieved June 16, 2017, from Southwest F lorida W ater M anagement D istrict: https://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/files/database/social_research/Downspout_Disconnection _Final_Report.pdf Drainage. (2017, May 8). Retrieved Jun e 14, 2017, from Singapore's N ational W ater A gency: https://www.pub.gov.sg/drainage Dunnett, N., & Kingsbury, N. (2008). Planting green roofs and living walls. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

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58 Elliott, A. H., & Trowsdale, S. A. (2007). A review of models for lo w impact urban stormwater drainage. Environmental M odelling & S oftware, 22 (3), 394 405. System overview: Extensive planted roofs (2013, April 2). Retrieved July 7, 2017, from G eneral S ervices A dministration: https://sftool.gov/explore/green building/secti on/76/planted roof/system overview#planted roof/extensive planted roofs Fukuzumi, Y. (1996). Plant growing method for greening wall surfaces. U.S. Patent No. 5,579,603. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Gibler, M. R. (2015). Comprehensive b enefits of green roofs. In World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2015 (pp. 2244 2251). Glass, C. C. (2007). Green roof water quality and quantity monitoring. Unpublished report dated July 26 2007 Green d esign at the US Coast Guard h eadquarter. (2017, January 28). Retrieved June 27, 2017, from ThoughtCo:https://www.thoughtco.com/green design us coast guard headquarter 177974 Green roof (2017, June 23). Retrieved July 7, 2017, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_roof Green infra structure. (2015, April 10). Retrieved June 16, 2017, from U S E nvironmental P rotection A gency: https://www.epa.gov/green infrastructure/what green infrastructure Herrmann, T., & Schmida, U. (2000). Rainwater utilisation in Germany: E fficiency, dimensioni ng, hydraulic and environmental aspects. Urban W ater, 1 (4), 307 316. Horner, J. (2016, May 11). McAllen B uilding condominiums. Retrieved June 27, 2017, from ArchDaily: http://www.archdaily.com/41703/macallen building condominiums office da/5011f47428ba0d5f 4c0006a0 macallen building condominiums office da photo How to build the sponge city. (2016, July 28). Retrieved June 14, 2017, from CNPW: http://www.cn pw.cn/plus/view.php?aid=287. Kibert, C. J. (2016). Sustainable construction: G reen building design and delivery. John Wiley & Sons. Krebs, P., & Larsen, T. A. (1997). Guiding the development of urban drainage systems by sustainability criteria. Water Science and Technology, 35 (9), 89 98. Koumoudis, S. (2011). Green wall planting module, support structure an d irrigation control system. U.S. Patent No. 7,926,224. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Kšhler, M. (2008). Green facades a view back and some visions. Urban Ecosystems, 11 (4), 423.

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59 Lang, S. B. (2010). Green roofs as an urban stormwater be st management practice for water quantity and quality in Florida and Virginia. University of Florida. Laurenz, J., Paricio, I., Alvarez, J., & Ruiz, F. (2005). Natural envelope : The green element as a boundary limit. SB05Tokyo. In The 2005 World Sustainabl e Building Conference, Tokyo. Landschaftsentwicklung, F. (2008). Guidelines for the planning, construction and maintenance of green roofing: Green roofing guideline. Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwick l ung Landschaftsbau. Maintaining home stormwater systems. (2009, May 10). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from Environmental S ervices C ity of Portland: https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/article/343724 Manso, M., & Castro Gomes, J. (2015). Green wall systems: A review of their characteristics. Renewable and Sus tainable Energy Reviews, 41 863 871. Music City Center g reen r oof (2013, May 11). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from Nashville M usic C ity C enter: http://www.nashvillemusiccitycenter.com/about/sustainability/green roof Nashville Music City Center (2016, Septem ber 1). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from G reen R oofs: http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=1405 Newton, J. (2007). Building greener: G uidance on the use of green roofs, green walls and complementary features on buildings. CIRIA. Oberndorfer, E., Lu ndholm, J., Bass, B., Coffman, R. R., Doshi, H., Dunnett, N., & Rowe, B. (2007). Green roofs as urban ecosystems: E cological structures, functions, and services. BioScience, 57 (10), 823 833. Paul, M. J., & Meyer, J. L. (2001). Streams in the urban la ndscape. Annual R eview of Ecology and Systematics, 32 (1), 333 365. Perez, G., Rincon, L., Vila, A., Gonzalez, J. M., & Cabeza, L. F. (2011). Green vertical systems for buildings as passive systems for energy savings. Applied E nergy, 88 (12), 4854 4859. Peri ni, K., & Magliocco, A. (2012). The integration of vegetation in architecture, vertical and horizontal greened surfaces. International Journal of Biology, 4 (2), 79. Rain Barrel Giveaway Program. (2011, June 29). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from NYC E nvironmen tal P rotection: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/stormwater/rainbarrel.shtml Rain g ardens 101. (2015, July 29). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Rain Gardens: http://www.12000raingardens.org/about rain gardens/ Rain g ardens. (2013, May 9). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from B etter G round: http://www.betterground.org/rain gardens/

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60 Rain g arden d esign. (2015, January 11). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from U S D epartment of A griculture: https://www.blogs.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download/ Rain g arden d esign an d c onstruction (2005, May, 11). Retrieved June 25, 2017, from Fairfax County, Virginia: http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/nvswcd/raingardenbk.pdf Rain g arden (2017, July 7). Retrieved June 25, 2017, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rain_garden Ra ingardens (2013, August 1). Retrieved June 25, 2017, from Melbourne Water: https://www.melbournewater.com.au/raingardens Rooftop trees soil system (2016, May 23). Retrieved July 7, 2017, from R ooflite: http://www.rooflitesoil.com/ Saladin, M. (2016). Rai nwater h arvesting in Thailand learning from the w orld c hampions. Rural W ater S upply. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from Rural Water Supply: http://www.rural water supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/1 759 55 1464085609.pdf Sharma, D. (2008). Sustainable dr ainage system (SuDs) for stormwater management: A technological and policy intervention to combat diffuse pollution. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, UK (Vol. 31, p. 10). Sod roof (2017, June 30). Retrieved July 5, 2017, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sod_roof Sod roof, turf roof, green roof (2017, July 7). Retrieved July 8, 2017, from ThoughtCo: https://www.thoughtco.com/green roof basics 177958 Tamil Nadu praised as role model for rainwater harvesting. (2011, September 29). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from The Hindu: http://www.thehindu.com/todays paper/tp national/tp tamilnadu/tamil nadu praised for its good rainwater harvesting model/article2495647.ece The b enefits and c hallenges of g reen r oo fs on p ublic and c ommercial b uildings (2011, May 1). Retrieved July 7, 2017, from U .S. General Services Administration: https://www.gsa.gov/portal/mediaId/158783/fileName/The_Benefits_and_Challenges_of _Green_Roofs_on_Public_and_Commercial_Buildings.action U.S. Coast Guard h eadquarters, DHS St. Elizabeths c ampus. (2017, September 1). Retrieved June 17, 2017, from G reen R oofs: http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=1385 Wang, X. (2005). Integrating GIS, simulation models, and visualization in traffi c impact analysis. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 29 (4), 471 496.

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61 What is green infrastructure ? (2015, September 21). Retrieved June 16, 2017, from American R ivers: https://www.americanrivers.org/threats solutions/clean water/green infrastructur e/what is green infrastructure/ What is r ainwater h arvesting ? ( 2016, May 15). Retrieved May 18, 2017, from Conserve E nergy F uture:http://www.conserve energy future.com/advantages_disadvantages_rainwater_harvesting.php Wong, N. H., Tan, A. Y. K., Chen, Y., Sekar, K., Tan, P. Y., Chan, D., & Wong, N. C. (2010). Thermal evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls. Building and E nvironment, 45 (3), 663 672. Zaremba, G. J., Traver, R. G., & Wadzuk, B. M. (2016). Impact of drainage on green r oof evapotranspiration. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 142 (7), 04016022. Zuo, J., & Zhao, Z. Y. (2014). Green building research current status and future agenda: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30 271 281.

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62 BIOGRAPHIC AL SKETCH Chen Xiaoyu was born in Wuhan, Hubei P rovince, China. She lived in Hubei until 2016. She earned her b achelor 's de gree in a rt d esign at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST ) and was accepted to the graduate program at HUST. She attended an interdisciplinary program in sustainable design at the University of Florida from 2016 to 2017. She is pursu ing her interest in earning a Master of Science i n A rchitecture at the University of Florida.