Cuban and Haitian refugee education :

Material Information

Cuban and Haitian refugee education : hearings before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives; Ninety-sixth Congress, second session; on H.R. 7425 ...; hearings held in Miami, Fla., on June 23; Washington, D.C., on July 1, 1980
Alternate Title:
H.R. 7425, to amend the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act of 1976 to provide for assistance to educational agencies for services provided to Cuban and Haitian refugee children
Translated Title:
Educación de refugiados cubanos y haitianos : audiencias ante el Subcomité de Educación Primaria, Secundaria y Vocacional del Comité de Educación y Trabajo, Cámara de Representantes; 96º Congreso, segunda sesión; en H.R. 7425 ...; audiencias llevadas a cabo en Miami, Fla., el 23 de junio; Washington, D.C., el 1 de julio de 1980 ( spa )
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Education and Labor. -- Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education ( hearing body )
Place of Publication:
U.S. Government Printing Office
Copyright Date:
c 1980.
Physical Description:
1 online resource (iv, 160 pages). : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Refugee children -- Education -- Law and legislation -- United States ( lcsh )
Cubans -- Education -- Law and legislation -- United States ( lcsh )
Haitians -- Education -- Law and legislation -- United States ( lcsh )
Federal aid to education -- United States ( lcsh )
Cubans ( fast )
Educational law and legislation ( fast )
Haitians ( fast )
United States ( fast )
Cubanos ( qlsp )
Educación - Legislación ( bidex )
Haitianos ( qlsp )
federal government records ( aat )
Registros del gobierno federal

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Latin American Collections
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
035612211 ( ALEPH )
776009424 ( OCLC )
KF27 .E3364 1980g ( lcc )
344.73/07917/687291073|347.3047917687291073 ( ddc )
Y 4.Ed 8/1:C 89 ( sudocs )

Full Text
H.R. 7425
Printed for the use of the Committee on Education and Labor
0-2 O WASHINGTON: 1980
2? ,E3364


FR LA )hio
JOf Illinois
AU JR., Alabama
WI] ermont
PH Pennsylvania
JOk ahoma
WI' Missouri
IKI I ta
ED' is
MI( onsin
A U -1
CARL D. PERKINS, Kentucky, Chairman WILLIAM D. FORD, Michigan WILLIAM F. GOODLING, Pennsylvania
IKE ANDREWS, North Carolina JOHN H. BUCHANAN, JR., Alabama
AUSTIN J. MURPHY, Pennsylvania DANIEL B. CRANE, Illinois
PAT WILLIAMS, Montana (Ex Officio)

CARL D. PERKINS, Kentucky, Chairman



CARL D. PERKINS, Kentucky, Chairman WILLIAM D. FORD, Michigan WILLIAM F. GOODLING, Pennsylvania
IKE ANDREWS, North Carolina JOHN H. BUCHANAN, JR., Alabama
AUSTIN J. MURPHY, Pennsylvania DANIEL B. CRANE, Illinois
PAT WILLIAMS, Montana (Ex Officio)
AUGUSTUS F. HAWKINS, California MICHAEL 0. MYERS, Pennsylvania


Hearings held in: Page
Miami, Fla., on June 23, 1980............................................................1I
Washington, D.C., on July 1, 1980...................................................... 85
Text of H.R. 7425............................................................................... 2
Statement of:
Bakalis, Hon. Michael, Deputy Under Secretary for Intergovernmental
Affairs, U.S. Department of Education............................................. 87
Britton, Leonard, superintendent, Dade County Public Schools................ 17
Clark, Steve, mayor, Metropolitan Dade County.................................... 69
Costello, Dick, Broward Teachers Union.............................................. 62
Crawford, Vernon, administrative assistant for public information, Palm
Beach County school system.......................................................... 52
Ebel, Dr. Caroline, director of English as a second language, LancasterLebanon Intermediate Unit, Pennsylvania ....................................... 150
Forman, Howard, chairman, Broward County Commission..................... 71
Garcia, Eleanor M., director, bilingual education program, Monroe
County Public Schools.................................................................. 74
Gonzalez, Josue, director, bilingual education and minority languages
affairs, U.S. Department of Education.............................................. 93
Havrilesky, Cathryn, assistant commissioner of education, State of New
Jersey................................................................................... 100
Highton, Thomas, superintendent of schools, Union City, N.J................. 127
Kalan, Nancy, school system bilingual department, Broward County
schools...................................................................................... 50
Kanarick, Roberta, coordinator or bilingual education, Elizabeth, N.J ..... 128
Lehman, Hon. William, a Representative in Congress from the State of
Florida.................................................................................. 97
McCabe, Robert, president, Miami-Dade Community College................... 41
Menendey, Robert, secretary Union City, N.J., board of education ........... 115
Miller, Phyllis, chairperson, Dade County School Board ......................... 8
Pearson, Linda, classroom Teachers Association, accompanied by Kine
Barrowman, Florida Teaching Profession, National Education Association, and Arlene Tobias, executive director, Florida Teaching Profession ...................................................................................... 60
Portis, Richard G., executive director, Dade County OIC, Miami, Fla ...... 45 Raparelli, Carl, superintendent of schools, West New York, N.J .............. 121
Rolle, Roland, United Teachers of Dade .............................................. 64
Romano, Louis, secretary of business administration, West New York
school system............................................................................. 131
Scanlon, Robert, secretary of education, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 139
Tobias, Arlene, executive director, Florida Teaching Profession ............... 67
Tufts, Jean, president, National School Boards Association, Washington,
D.C............................................. *-7**" 153
Turlington, Ralph, commissioner of education, State of Florida ............... 34
Wright, Kathleen, vice chairperson Broward County School Board........... 47
Young, Walter, chairman, House Education Committee, Florida State
Legislature.............................................................................. 38
Zak, Marilyn, refugee officer, Department of State ............................... 23
Prepared statements, letters, supplemental material, et cetera:
Ashline, Nelson F., interim State superintendent of education, Illinois
State Board of Education, testimony subcommitted by ................. 5
Britton, Dr. Leonard M., superintendent of schools, Dade County Public 15
Schools, "Recap-Entrant Impact, July 16, 1980," report entitled .......... 21
Canavan, Bob, legislative specialist, National Education Association, prepared statement of...................................................................... 155


Prepared statements, letters, supplemental material, et cetera: -Continued
Crawford, Vernon A., administrative assistant, public information, on Pg
behalf of the school board, Palm Beach County, Fla., prepared state- Pg
ment submitted by...................................................................... 56
Friedman, Charlotte, legislative specialist, American Association of
School Administrators, Arlington, Va., letter to Chairman Perkins
dated July 10, 1980 ..................................................................... 159
Garcia, Eleanor M., director of the bilingual education program, Monroe
County Public Schools, prepared statement presented by..................... 76
Havrilesky, Cathryn, assistant commissioner of education, State of New
Jersey, supporting statement and data ............................................ 103
Hodes, Richard, appropriations subcommittee chairman on educational
funding, Florida House of Representatives, prepared testimony by ...... 80
Humphrey, Gregory A., director of legislation, American Federation of
Teachers, letter to Chairman Perkins, dated September 4, 1980............ 156
Lehman, Hon. William, a Representative in Congress from the State of
Florida, prepared statement of....................................................... 97
Menendez, Robert, secretary, Union City, N.J., attachment to the prepared statement......................................................................... 117
Miller, Phyllis, chairperson, Dade County School Board, "Impact: The
Influx of Refugees Into Dade County Public Schools," report entitled .... 11
Pepper, Hon. Claude, a Representative in Congress from the State of
Florida, prepared statement of....................................................... 99
Raparelli, Carl, superintendent of schools, West New York, N.J.:
Letter to Chairman Perkins, dated June 30, 1980, from Anthony M.
DeFino, mayor, West New York, N.J......................................... 125
Statement of .......................................................................... 122
Rolle, Roland, United Teachers of Dade, prepared statement of ............... 66
Scanlon, Robert, secretary of education, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania:.
Chart 1-Screening costs........................................................... 143
Chart 2-Cost per person........................................................... 144
Chart 3-For persons who have been resettled, cost to community or
school district .................... .............145
Chart 4-For persons remaining at gap......................................... 146
Zak, Marilyn, refugee officer, State Department, prepared statement of ... 24

MONDAY, JUNE 23, 1980
The subcommittee met pursuant to notice, at 8 a.m., at the Lindsey Hopkins Education Center, 410 NE Second Avenue, Miami, Fla., Hon. Carl D. Perkins (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.
Members present: Representatives Perkins, Erdahl, and Stack. Staff present: John F. Jennings, counsel; William Clohan, minority counsel for education. [The complete text of H.R. 7425 follows:]


To amend the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act of 1976 to provide for
assistance to educational agencies for services provided to Cuban and Haitian
refugee children.
Mr. STACK introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Education and Labor
To amend the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act of
1976 to provide for assistance to educational agencies for services provided to Cuban and Haitian refugee children. 1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa2 ties of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 3 That title II of the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance
4 Act of 1976 is amended5 (1) in section 201(b), by inserting "(A)" immedi6 ately after "(3)" and by inserting at the end of para7 graph (3) the following new subparagraph:

1"(B) The term 'Caribbean refugee children' means chl2 dren from alien families who (i) because of persecution or fear 3 of persecution on account of race, religion, or political opin4 ion, fled from Cuba or Haiti, (ii) cannot return there because 5 of fear of such persecution, (iii) are in urgent need of assist6 ance, and (iv) are paroled into the United States by the At7 torney General pursuant to section 212(d) of the Immigration
8 and Naturalization Act on or after January 1, 1979.";
9 (2) in section 202(b)(1), by inserting "the sum of"
10 immediately before "the number" and by inserting im11 mediately after "inclusive" the following: "and the
12 number of Caribbean refugee children of such ages,";
13 and
14 (3) by inserting "and Caribbean refugee children"
15 immediately after "Indochina refugee children" each 16 place it appears in sections 202(e), 203, and 205(a)(3),
17 and (6)(i).


Chairman PERKINS. Ladies and gentlemen, the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the House Education and Labor Committee is conducting a hearing this morning on H.R. 7425. Congressman Stack has requested that we come here and look closely at the Cuban refugee problem. I think we all realize that as long as the Cubans and Haitians are on our shores, and in our midst, that America, especially the Federal Government, has an obligation to deal with these people and make every contribution that we possibly can, instead of leaving all the responsibility on the local government. I know there are more refugees here than was ever anticipated, and for that reason we are here. We feel that you have a real dilemma in this whole area and other sections of the country, because of the Haitians and the Cuban refugees, and we want to make every contribution possible to deal with them in the most economically feasible way. Mr. Stack, I am delighted to be here with you. I know that we do not have a greater individual in the Congress in trying to serve the people than yourself. Congressman Erdahl likewise agrees with me and he is delighted to be here this morning with us. I am delighted to be in Miami and I hope this will be a productive hearing.
I understand that the school districts in this area are confronting a serious and urgent problem. Daily we in Congress hear news reports of the most recent developments with regard to the hundreds of thousands of Cubans and Haitian refugees entering the country. Everyone is greatly concerned about the immediate problem of placing, housing and employing the refugees, but too infrequently do we stop to think about the impending crisis the school districts face in absorbing the refugee children at a time when local resources are already scarce. I would like to commend Congressman Stack for initiating this hearing. Congressman Stack is representing you well through his prompt introduction of legislation to remedy this situation.
I noted with interest on Friday that the President has decided to bypass the provisions of the Refugee Act of 1980 and create a special category for dealing legislatively with the Cuban and Haitian refugees. As I understand it, the President will give these refugees an indefinite parole, allowing them to stay in this country for about a year. In addition, the admission proposal calls for benefits to these refugees to be shared by Federal, State, and local governments. This means that the Cuban and Haitian refugees will get about half as much Federal assistance as the full reimbursements set by the Refugee Act of 1980. I would appreciate hearing any comments from my colleagues before we hear the witnesses. I would like to thank all of the witnesses this morning for appearing.
I would like to introduce the lady on my right, Ms. Maxienne Dargans Fleming, who served with us in Congress as chief clerk of our committee and other important positions for approximately 35 years. She was one of my chief aides for many years, some 15 or 20 years, and she retired about a year ago and moved to Florida. I am delighted to see her on this occasion. She is getting along well. She

from you. I know you have some opening remarks, both you and Congressman Erdahl. I call on Congressman Stack at this time.
Mr. STACK. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. First may I say that I want to thank you very sincerely for coming here today. I know it was not an easy thing for you to do. We live close by, I might say I live close by, and I come home every weekend, but to have a man of your great stature and leadership in the Congress, the chairman of one of the most prestigious committees in the House, the House Committee on Education and Labor, take upon himself the burden of coming here today because of his great interest in equity is truly an honor. Where we have created a problem for local school districts, Mr. Perkins readily joined with me when I explained to him my interest in trying to put something together here, as he might help do equity to those who are involved. The problem that we want to deal with today is basically one that has been caused by the Federal Government, in the sense that it is the immigration policies of the Government, in its open-hands and open-heart policies, with which certainly I do not intend to imply disagreement, .that have caused the problem. We have had a huge influx since April 19 of Cuban refugees, Haitian refugees, Nicaraguan refugees, and what I am attempting to do with this proposed legislation is to reimburse the local school districts, to the extent possible, for their added costs in paying for the education of the children of these refugees.
Now of course I refer to costs that are involved in educating any child who is enrolled in our school system. In Dade County, and throughout the country, the per pupil cost runs approximately $2,000. Under the circumstances here there will also be special costs involved in bringing these children into a situation where they can fit in the regular classroom, gain acceptance and enter into the learning process. This is so desperately needed to make them good citizens. And, as has been the case with others who came to this country, including my parents as immigrants, they will take their place, become productive citizens, and produce taxes that will pay the costs of sending other people to school.
In the interim there is a very serious local problem, and I have modeled a tentative bill upon the Indochinese Refugee Children Assistance Act of 1976, which of course was adopted because of the entrance into this country of 130,000 Indochinese refugees in the year 1975. At that time the House Education and Labor Committee did consider a bill to reimburse local schools for some of the costs, but at the present time the amounts being paid under this Act to local school districts is very inadequate. I think what we need to do today is to develop the facts concerning the financial impact on the school boards affected throughout the country. South Florida is the area most seriously affected, particularly Dade County. Dade County, Brow'ard County, the county from which I come, Palm Beach and Monroe County are all to an extent seriously affected. Also there are other counties throughout the country where the school districts will have a problem of grave financial import. I

cost of these increased enrollments, the quality of education generally will suffer. Those of us who are interested in education, believe that education has impact on all of our social and economic problems. We certainly would not be on this committee if we did not feel that way.
We realize that lack of educational opportunity and poor educational quality is a major cause of crime. It is a case beyond that of impairment of the quality of the lifestyle of the child, which will persist throughout his lifetime. It is loss of human dignity and ability that we cannot tolerate as a nation. This goes much beyond the question of money. Money is important. We have got to have it, but we are talking about something that is basic to the system of government in this country, the system of free public education, and it is not fair to deny to the, children who are already enrolled in the school system the education to which they are entitled, because to the extent we do not get the funds that we are talking about, classroom size will have to increase. There will not be sufficient books to go around. Other supplies will not be available. The entire quality of education in the existing school systems affected will be diminished, and the consequence is one that I know that we are not willing on this committee to accept.
Again I want to thank Chairman Perkins. This is a great thing that he is doing for us here and for his country, and he is a great public servant and certainly a great chairman of a great and important House Committee. I would be derelict if I did not also thank Congressman Erdahl, who so effectively represents his district in Minnesota, and of course the national concerns which we address in'the Congress. He is a very pleasant man with whom it is indeed a pleasure to work, and I would like to yield now to him if I may. Thank you again, sir.
Mr. ERDAHL.Mr. Chairman and Mr. Stack, thank you very much for yielding to me. It is a pleasure for me to be here in Miami. It is my first visit to this part of the country. We are here obviously because as Members of Congress and of this committee I think we recognize this new influx of refugees from Cuba and Haiti and other parts of the Caribbean is not only a local problem. It is a State problem. It is a national problem. Frankly, it is an international problem, and just how we deal with it in the weeks ahead is going to be crucial. One of the concerns that I have had is that the administration has not seemed to have a concise and a clear proposal on this matter, and yet we have seen some shifting proposals. We are here today, to see if we cannot come up with some consistency in an ongoing proposal to deal with the problems that you people here face as members of the school board, as people concerned about education, as Americans concerned about how do we treat those who flee to our shores. And so, it is a real privilege for me to be here today to listen and to learn, and I trust from this meeting today and other meetings that we will be having in Washington, we will be able to come up with a reasonable proposal and hopefully a solution to this problem.

lenses we face in the 96th Congress. I am a new Member of Congress, and yet I think what we spend wisely for education is the best investment we can make. It is a social investment that pays dividends, but I think also it is an economic investment that over a period of time will pay back good dividends. It is incumbent upon us to listen, and to learn, to act wisely, and to see that we represent the people not only from our districts but from this country, to deal with what has been thrust upon us as a problem most of us did not anticipate when this new year began. Mr. Chairman, I want to commend you again for bringing this hearing out to the people, so to speak, and both of us I know are very pleased to be with our distinguished colleague who represents his people so well, Mr. Stack. Thank you, Mr. Pel-kins.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you very much, Mr. Erdahl and Mr. Stack. I notice that we have several witnesses on this list. As it happens the House Committee on Education and Labor has a very important bill on the House floor today, and we did not know that would be the case until after these hearings were set. In fact, we did not know until last Friday. That was my reason for wanting to get the hearing started at 7 o'clock if possible, but regardless we will have several hours here this morning. I will have to leave about 11:30 to catch the 12:10 airplane, but Mr. Stack will be in charge of the hearings. I hope thai when we get back to Washington and we conduct some other hearings that we can soon report out a bill to give the schools some relief. Only last week we gave the President in the supplemental appropriation bill $100 million to deal with the refugee problem that could be expended in any way he wants to, but I doubt that much of that will go for education. I am going to call around the first panel this morning, and in order to conserve time we will withhold our questions until we hear from the entire panel. First, Ms. Phyllis Miller, chairperson, Dade County School Board. Mr. Leonard Britton, superintendent, Dade County Public School Board, and Ms. Marilyn Zak, refugee officer, Department of State. Come around, Ms. Miller. We will start right with you. Then we will hear from Mr. Britton and Ms. Zak. Can you get seats together there some way so we can question you. It will save a lot. of time if we could hear from each one of you. Then we can direct questions.
Mr. ERDAHL. If you might yield at this point, Mr. Chairman, some of you have submitted written statements, and as the chairman has indicated, we are under pressure to leave I think about 12 0 1 clock to get back to Washington for a very important hearing. I know the chairman would agree if the witnesses wish, we do accept some areas of their statements and of course we have the rest to read and they will all go into the record. Chairman PERKINS. Without objection all the prepared statements will be inserted and made a part of the record. Go ahead.

MS. MILLER. Good morning. On behalf of the Dade County School Board, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Congressman Perkins, Congressman Erdahl, for your interest in this situation currently facing the Dade County school system and its community.
I would also like to express, on behalf of all the board members, my appreciation to Congressman Stack for his proposed measure requesting the Federal Government reimburse school districts for the costs incurred in educating the children of Caribbean refugees.
Our Dade County school system is committed to meeting the needs of refugees arriving on our shores. Our efforts have consistently gone beyond those minimally required by law and we have a very proud history of providing educational programs that respond to the specific needs of these groups. In fact, our efforts have been extremely successful and have earned national recognition. They are efforts made possible through the combined work of our community and our school system with support from the national level. Never before in the history of our refugee influx have those efforts been as vitally needed as they are now.
Since 1961, when the first real massive influx of Cuban refugees hit us, we have provided the kinds of special programs that have enabled not only the refugees, but our citizens in general, to develop an awareness of the different cultures that comprise our south Florida society. The record speaks clearly of the many achievements and success stories of our refugees. We have been extremely successful in providing them with the necessary skills to become productive members of our society.
We can be proud of what we have done while recognizing that there still is much more to do.
We realize that we cannot take the credit alone for what has been accomplished thus far. Much of the credit is due to the past responsiveness of Congress which, in the 1960's, acted with expediency and provided the financial support we needed to do the job. Without congressional action, our best efforts would have been unfruitful.
We are again faced with a situation similar to that of the sixties, but one that is far more complex because we are dealing with an even greater diversity of languages and cultures, a much more sensitive environment, and a host of Federal laws and court opinions governing the scope of programs and services we must provide

.We must increase our existing programs for the Spanish language students and also initiate similar programs for the Haitian refugees, and for refugees from still other countries. We must conform with State and Federal education program requirements. We must keep our community together and we must insure that our refugees obtain the language and other skills that will enable them to productively join our community.
As of this date, we have Russians, Nicaraguans, Vietnamese, and Haitians enrolling in our school system. The Haitians are second only to the Cubans in numbers. The figure as of Thursday, June 19, was 435. We must hire teachers, provide instructional materials
Chairman PERKINS. Just how long have those 435 been here, to your knowledge?
MS. MILLER. They are recent, since April 28.
Chairman PERKINS. Since April 28?
Chairman PERKINS. Go ahead. Excuse me.
MS. MILLER. We must hire teachers, provide instructional materials, equipment and supplies, and space for our new influx of Cuban refugees and, now that legal status for the Haitians has been established, we must prepare for significant increases in these refugees.
We must find Haitian personnel to handle the whole spectrum of instruction and support services.
We must identify and begin to train some of our personnel to handle some of the services for which qualified Haitian people cannot be found.
We must begin to develop curriculum materials for the basic skills, social studies, and sciences in the Haitian Creole languagea language which is basically verbal, not written.
We must focus also on the sociocultural adjustment and the acculturation of these newest refugees.
And in time we must begin training in the cultural differences for our teachers so that we reduce the chances of clashes between the various cultures which comprise our community.
We must address the need to raise the academic level of many of these children to that which is consistent with our own standards.
We must plan and generate all the activities associated with establishing vocational training programs for the Haitians so that they, too, can be productive and beneficial members of our community.
At the same time we must expand existing vocational programs to accommodate the continuous influx of the Cuban refugees to Dade County.
We know from past experiences, that no matter where most Cuban refugees are relocated, they eventually will migrate back to Dade County, to the place where they feel most at home. We must be prepared to serve these people so that our community can beneit0romitsdivrseculue.


can interrelate in an atmosphere where no particular group will feel neglected or disadvantaged and therefore strike out in anger.
We live in a sensitive environment and we must stay tuned to that situation and work to keep the environment safe for all our residents.
We feel grateful to the subcommittee for considering providing us with $450 per pupil to offset the cost in excess of $1,000 that we know it will take to provide the supplemental services these refugee students will need and that the Federal Government wants us to provide. We appreciate the request for $450 per student, but we respectfully suggest that this amount will not be sufficient to offset our expenditures. The figure of $1,000 is far more realistic. We do not believe that any single community or any one State should be called upon to provide that excess. It will take some $21.5 million in Federal assistance to adequately serve the thousands of refugees who will be in our schools by this September.
Ours is a national problem brought on by a national policy-a policy which we are more than willing to carry out but one that we cannot handle alone. We simply do not have the resources.
We urge you to do as much in the 1980's as you did in the 1960's in meeting the American tradition of assisting those who come here to realize their dream of freedom. Thank you. [The information submitted by Phyllis Miller follows:]



June 19, 1980
Refugee** Student Enrollment in Dade County Public Schools (DCPS)
11,214 Refugee students entered DCPS between July 1, 1979 and June 19,
7,981 Refugee students entered DCPS between Monday, April 28, 1980 (the
first day Mariel students were enrol- d in DCPS) through Thursday, June 19, 1980.
t 18,700 Cuban refugee students will have entered the DCPS between April
28, 1980 and September 2, when schools open for 1980-81.
9,652 Cuban refugee students entered the DCPS between July 1, 1979
June 19, 1980.
27 Cuban refugee students (equivalent to 1 classroom)
entered the DCPS on the first day refugees from Mariel enrolled.
127 Cuban refugee students (equivalent to 4 classrooms)
entered the DCPS on the 18th school day after Mariel
refugees reached U. S.
341 Cuban refugee students (equivalent to 11 classrooms)
entered the DCPS on the 23rd school day after Mariel refugees reached U.S. (The average number of entrants
for each week day in June was 350 students. )
6,850 Cuban refugee students (equivalent to 7 elementary
schools) have entered the DCPS during the 53 days from Monday, April 28, 1980 through Thursday, June 19, 1980.
* These analyses will be refined as additional data
are available. Detailed analyses of each figure
reported are available from the Office of the Assistant
Superintendent for Administration.
**"Refugee" is used as a descriptive term not as a legal


5,000 Cuban refugee school-aged youth, who may have arrived
in Dade County since April 27, 1980 when the first boatload arrived from Mariel, have not as yet enrolled in
7,500 Additional refugee school-aged youth are expected to
resettle in Dade County prior to the opening of school
on September 2, 1980.
For every refugee student who has enrolled in the DCPS, it is estimated there is at least one additional schoolaged youth who has not registered because 48,000 refugees are still being processed by federal authorities, or they are waiting to enroll in school for the
next school year.
435 Haitian refugee students entered DCPS between July 1, 1979
and June 19, 1980.
99 Haitian refugee students entered DCPS since April 28,
1980, when the Federal government granted them legal
status equal to Cuban refugees.
1,000 Haitian refugee school-aged youth may be residing in
Dade County who have not as yet enrolled in school.
The granting of political asylum to Haitian refugees could result in significant increases in the current
rate of their enrollment (50 per month) in the DCPS.
1127 Refugees (other than Cuban and Haitian) have entered
DCPS between July 1, 1979 and June 19, 1980 as follows:
97 Nicaraguan refugee students entered DCPS between
Monday, April 28, 1980 through Thursday,
June 19, 1980.

67-162 0 80 2

Excess Costs for Supplemental Services Above Those Provided All Students
$1,000 Is required by the DCPS in excess costs above average per pupil expenditure to provide instructional programs, services, and facilities for each refugee student who will enter the DCPS for
the 1980-81 school year.
$400 In excess costs is required to provide classroom space,
transportation, and support services for each refugee student.
$600 In excess costs is required for supplemental services
and indirect costs for each limited-English proficiency student who enters DCPS from a Spanish speaking country. More funds are required for materials development for students from other language backgrounds.
$ 200 Is required for each student who enrolls in the proposed Sumner
Immersion Program for refugee students.
... Refugee students entering the DCPS after mid-October but before
mid-February generate only 1/2 year's Florida Education Finance
Program (FEFF) state financial support for basic-services.
... Refugee students entering the DCPS after mid-February generate no
state support (FEFP) for basic services.
... No federal funds are currently available for supplemental services required by the office for Civil Rights (OCR).
Proj ections
7,500 Refugee students who entered the U. S. after April 27, 1980 (60%
of those eligible) are expected to enroll in the DCPS sumner
program which begins July 1, 1980.
25,000 Refugee school-aged youth may be eligible for DCPS enrollment by
mid-October, 1980 if the present rate of resettlement is maintained during the sumner of 1980.
General Information
... There is no effective national program or policy currently in
effect which disperses Cuban and Haitian refugees outside of
South Florida.
... There are no additional federal funds appropriated to provide
educational services for the newly arrived refugee students for
the school year which begins September, 1980.


A refugee student population equivalent to that of one new elementary school is enrolling in the DOPS every two days. Based on current construction costs, from $6,000 to $7,000 per student is required to build new facilities. At the local, state and national levels, only one specific piece of legislation has been introduced which would provide funding for educational services for refugee students--the Stack (Representative, 12th District, Broward County, Florida) Amendment to
the Indochinese Refugee Children Act of 1976.
APRIL 28, 1980 THURSDAY, JUNE 19, 1980
Monday, April 28, 1980 27 27
Tuesday, April 29, 1980 28 55
Wednesday, April 30, 1980 45 100
Thursday, May 1, 1980 36 136
Friday, May 2, 1980 23 159
Monday, May 5, 1980 56 215
Tuesday, May 6, 1980 54 269
Wednesday, May 7, 1980 60 329
Thursday, May 8, 1980 50 379
Friday, May 9, 1980 61 440
Monday, May 12, 1980 54. 494
Tuesday, May 13, 1980 106 600
Wednesday, May 14, 1980 114 714
Thursday, May 15, 1980 86 800
Friday, May 16, 1980 118 918
Wednesday, May 21, 1980 48 966
Thursday, May 22, 1980 122 1088
Friday, May 23, 1980 127 1215
Tuesday, May 27, 1980 182 1397
Wednesday, May 28, 1980 197 1594
Thursday, May 29, 1980 184 1778
Friday, May 30, 1980 179 1957
Office of Assistant Superintendent for Administration May, 1980

Monday, June 2, 1980 341 2298
Tuesday, June 3, 1980 199 2497
Wednesday, June 4, 1980 213 2710
Thursday, June 5, 1980 340 3050
Friday, June 6. 1980 405 3455
Saturday, June 7, 1980 239 3694
Monday, June 9, 1980 381 4075
Tuesday, June 10, 1980 375 4450
Wednesday, June 11, 1980 305 4755
Thursday, June 12, 1980 368 5123
Friday, June 13, 1980 382 5505
Monday, June 16, 1980 356 5861
Tuesday, June 17, 1980 361 6222
Wednesday, June 18, 1980 318 6540
Thursday, June 19, 1980 310 6850
Office of Assistant Superintendent for Administration June, 1980


ChairmanPERKINS. Thank you very much for excellent testimony. Now Mr. Britton, superintendent, Dade County Public Schools. Go right ahead.
Good morning, Congressmen. First of all, on behalf of the Dade County public school system, let me thank Congressman Perkins and the subcommittee for coming here today. Your presence lets us know that we are not alone. It gives us great reassurance that you will be able to help us and are interested in helping us in the future. I would also like to express our appreciation to Congressman Stack for considering the amendment to the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act of 1976 which would help provide the assistance we are asking for today. I want to thank him for the assistance he gave in arranging for this session here in Dade County.
Limited Federal assistance to meet the emergency caused by the recent influx of Caribbean refugee children was provided on June 139 1980, by the President through the Office of Education, when the school district was awarded a $1 million grant to provide an intensive summer program for some of the new refugee children. We certainly appreciate the administration's recognition of this problem and the assistance that they gave to us to help meet this need. However, the problem that we are facing right now in this county and in this State is one that is a problem that cannot be solved on the local and State level alone. It mandates Federal assistance. This school district and this community face a crisis of almost indescribable proportions-a crisis which can result in a disaster for Dade County and its institutions, and the words I am using are used advisedly. They are not meant to be catchy words to be shown in a newspaper or to be talked about, but they show the intense needs that we feel in this community at the present time.
Without the Federal aid that we are talking about, we will be in severe problems in this particular school system, and I point this out in my statement as I go through it today.
I am sure you already are aware that we in south Florida are not novices at handling influxes of refugees. We have had over two decades of experience working in this regard. The measure of success we have achieved thus far has been made possible to a large extent because since 1961 the Federal Government has been a full partner in this effort.
The situation here today is even more urgent than it ever has been in the past. As of June 20, this last Friday, more than 7,000 new Cuban refugee students have enrolled in this school system since Mariel began on April 21, 1980. Additionally, recent arrivals from Haiti, Nicaragua, Russia, Vietnam and elsewhere, increases this number by another 215 new refugees who need training in the English language, who need


We anticipate by September of this year, by the time we open school, when refugee families have had time to attend to more immediate problems of housing and employment and then turn their attention to the matter of school the enrollment figure will reach between 18,700 and 20,000 in Dade County alone, with still more entering the Broward and Palm Beach County schools to the north.
This school district must prepare for the opening of school in September. We estimate the number of new non-English speaking students who will enroll will be greater than the size of the vast majority of school districts in the United States. In essence, we will be absorbing the equivalent of a school district the size of that which serves Manatee County, Fla., a district with an operating budget in excess of $34 million. We are looking for a school system in Kentucky and Minnesota that we could give you representative figures.
ChairmanPERKINS. Since the Carter administration as I understand it over this past weekend announced that it would only pay for one-third to one-half of any cost associated with the refugees, in your opinion can the Dade County school system absorb the remaining one-half to two-thirds of the cost?
Mr. BRITTON. In no way. We are already in financial difficulty with the school system because of the shortfall of what our needs are and what our own State legislature which is now in session has been able to fund.
Mr. STACK. It is my understanding that you will have a shortfall of some $24 million in your funding? Is this correct?
Mr. BRITTON.Yes. It depends what figure the board finally elects. It can range anywhere from $13 million to $23-$24 million.
Mr. STACK. I have seen those suggested figures.
Mr. BRITTON. That is right. The extent of the programs that must be provided these new students represents a far greater commitment of resources than just a few communities can absorb.
As of now, Dade County public schools, with Federal assistance, is in full compliance with the Office for Civil Rights regulations, and we are providing an excellent program of transitional bilingual education for our students. We have been able to provide and show our consistent regard to provide these commitments over a number of years regardless of the child's language origin, but as we have been able to point out when we bring in over 300 students a day it becomes a financial impossibility for our school system to keep up with this. S/
This emergency situation largely concentrated in Dade, has been created by a decision made at the national level, to provide refuge and resources to those who seek asylum and freedom in the United States. We believe, therefore, it is a national problem.
Federal requirements obligate this school system to provide these students with supplemental services in both English and their home language, with special language instruction and with a bilingual curriculum, all of which is above and beyond that provided for


extensive adult education programs required if the adult refugees are to enter the job market and be successfully absorbed in the community. We estimate that to provide the special bilingual vocational training programs we are talking about could add another $2 million to our needs.
The excess cost, those over and above which we would normally spend on the student needed to provide the instructional services, classroom space, transportation and special support services is about $1,000 per pupil per year. Therefore, if we do see another 18,000 to 20,000 students enter by this fall, we are talking in the realm of $20 million needed to be able to operate the school system in a sound manner.
Mr. STACK. Excuse me, doctor. Regarding that figure, you get around 50 percent of your budget from the State and 11 percent from the Federal Government?
Mr. BRITTON. It is approximately that.
Mr. STACK. And around 39 to 40 percent comes from local taxes. Of that $1,000 figure, would the State ratio also hold? Would you get that money from the State? Do you get the rest of your budget?
Mr. BRITTON.What we would get for the additional students who come in would be the basic allocation to the State to any student who would be in the school system. For example, I think it is around $1,100.
Mr. STACK.Would there be special costs?
Mr. BRITTON. There would be nothing from the State to provide for the special costs. They would provide only that which is provided any student, but it has to be over and beyond that.
Mr. STACK. Thank you.
Mr. BRITTON. As I indicated just very briefly, our shortfall already ranges somewhere between $13 to $23 or $24 million dollars depending on what the board decides this fall in order to balance its 1980-81 budget as required by State law. The additional cost of supplementary services for the refugees would increase that budget shortfall to $33.3 to $43.3 million. If we do not have these funds, we would be required to extensively curtail the regular school program, and perhaps face massive layoffs of personnel in order to fund this which we would see as a supplemental program, and this school system cannot face that possibility. We cannot proceed in ,that manner. Our State has guaranteed to us that each new refugee child will receive the same base student cost for this year for these students but the State is also looking forward to the Federal Government to reimburse that unanticipated expense so that the taxpayers of one State are not required to pay the major cost of this national problem.
The invitation to these refugees was extended at the Federal level, and it is now a crisis situation which has been created and must be addressed at the Federal level. It is essential that the Federal Government make financial provisions for elementary, secondary, and adult education which would include reimbursement for the direct and supplemental personnel instructional costs we


each of the costs down to the last dollar. It is our contention that reimbursement to the State and to the local districts for costs of educating these refugees must be at the 100-percent level. An unacceptable alternative is to cut programs for our regular students.
We believe that the number we are talking about of 18,700 to 20,000 may well he a conservative figure, but whatever the final number, we in the school system want to be ready to accept the significant numbers of bilingual students, in our schools at all levels and commit ourselves to the expenditures of the money that would be necessary to achieve what is required.
If the integrity of this school system's educational program is to be maintained, if we are to prevent educational chaos and disruption and if we are to continue the tradition which created this Nation from a multitude of refugees in the first place, then Dade County public schools must receive adequate financial assistance, and by adequate I am talking of a minimum of $20 million to offset the estimated cost of $1,000 per pupil.
We know that by your very coming here today, you are aware of these tremendous needs. Again let me express the appreciation of our staff and our community for the time you are giving us and urge you to carry this message back to all members of Congress and to the President. Thank you.
[Information submitted by Leonard Britton follows:]



Population: CUBAN
Total Cuban Entrants In Dade County School Aged (22.85%) Potential Adult Ed/Voc.
(82,000 Less 6% pre-school;
5% over 65; and 23% inschool youth)
25% Adults to require services

July 16, 1980

115,000 82,000 10,737 54,120

Haitians in INS Haitians in Dade County (est.)
Haitians in Florida (est.) Est. School Aged -.20% (INS)

17,000 30,000 40,000 3,400*

Est. Potential Adult Ed. (INS) 13,600*
25% Adults to require services (INS) 3,400*

School Enrollments: TOTAL K-12
Cuban 18,737
Haitian l,400**
Total 20,137
Program Costs : COSTS K-12 1980-81
20,137 X $1030

Cuban 13,500
Haitian 3,400**
Total 16,930
(7,619 FTE)
16,930 X $70 = $1,185,100

VOCATIONAL/TECHNICAL (20% of basic) Cuban 2,706
Haitian 630**
Total 3,386
(1,524 FTE)
3,386 X $860 = $2,915,100 Total Adult/Voc. = $4,100,200

To Remove "Entrant" Double Sessions 20,137 @ 500 = $10,068,500
*Increase by 76% for est. number of Haitians which includes those not in INS processing
**To enroll if legal status is resolved (over)




- 20,137 @ $606
- 20,137 @ $113

Total Instructional Support
1980-81 Emergency ,
1981-82 To Prevent
Double Sessions
Total Facilities


20,137 @ $311 20,137 0 $500 20,137 0 $811

- 16,930 @ $70
- 3,386 @ $860

Total Adult/Vocational


$12,203,022 $ 2,275,481 $14,478,503
$ 6,262,607 $10,068,500 $16,331,107 $ 1,185,100 $ 2,915,100 $ 4,100,200

Chairman PERKINS. Thank you very much.
Ms. Zak, refugee officer, Department of State. We will be delighted to hear from Ms. Zak.
Ms. ZAK. On behalf of the State Department I wish to acknowledge the subcommittee's most important work to determine the impact that the Cuban refugee children will have on the local school districts. I have provided the subcommittee as my statement the available statistics we have on refugees.
Chairman PERKINS. Without objection, we would like to have the statement in the record showing the breakdown of children by age in all the various counties, Dade, Monroe, and Palm Beach, the whole thing. If you do not mind we will insert that in the record at this point.
[The prepared statement of Marilyn Zak follows:]


Children by Age per County


3 2 4 3 7 8 0 6 5 6

514 599 626 550 526
473 495 535 590 336 347 394 410 6,842

Grand Total for counties

8 7 6 9 9
6 4 2 6 5 5 4 3

Dade Monroe Broward Palm Beach

9 4 7 5 9
6 6 6 2 3 6 5 3

64 85 85 7,076

June 19,1980


10 11
12 13 14 15 16

17 18 TOTAL


Region IV 1375 Peachtree Street, NE Atlanta, Georgia 30309
PALM BEACH........123
Total Refugees 29,339
5 to 18 7,539
or 25.7%
went to four Florida counties 7,076
or 24%


FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY Region IV 1375 Peachtree Street, NE Atlanta, Georgia 30309

6-10 11-15 16-20

68 302

79 56 94

160 124 396




4-10 11-20


51 92





( 2,402)


5-9 10-14

325 269 1,470

GRAND TOTAL ......... .................................... 5,643
3,2v1/ "I


Region IV 1375 Peachtree Street, NE Atlanta, Georgia 30309


4-10 11-20





4,040 497
CHILDREN................................. 12%

INDIAN TOWN G.A.P ....................................... 2,402
.56 V S





2F134 4,624 4,268

4.2% 9,1%



MS. ZAK. My statement basically consists of the statistics, and I will gladly answer any of the questions.
Chairman PERKINS. Go ahead.
MS. ZAK. The information is not complete, and so if you have any questions.
Chairman PERKINS. Go ahead, Mr. Stack.
Mr. STACK. Yes. I would like to know this. I have not had a chance to look at the figures yet. You have 7,076 students?
MS. ZAK. Right.
Mr. STACK. May I ask you this? Have you made any projection to the time when the children are likely to enroll in the school system? It will be some time in the future. As both Ms. Miller and Dr. Britton have suggested, there are needs that will be presented, housing and other matters, before they begin to enroll their children, and indeed the figure that I have heard for Dade County alone ranged from somewhere between 18,000 to 20,000 children in the category I am referring to. I am speaking now of Cubans and Haitians, and you have said nothing about Nicaraguans, I believe.
MS. ZAK. The information is just on Cubans.
Mr. STACK. The bill that I am suggesting would refer to Caribbean refugees, and I do not believe that we cannot include Nicaraguan children because they are substantial in number. I believe in Dade you have already around 1,000 Nicaraguan children so we have to consider those children.
The question I really have is this. Your figure of 7,000 is up to a particular date. Can this number be projected into the future?
MS. ZAK. Let me just go over the statistics.
Mr. STACK. All right, sure.
MS. ZAK. As of June 19 there were 51,465 refugees processed from Miami. We have final settlement figures on only 29,000. On those 29,000, it is 339; 7,076 are residing in the four counties, Dade, Monroe, Broward and Palm Beach.
Mr. STACK. Say that again, please. You have a figure of 29 000-MS. ZAK. Of the 51,000 who have actually been processed in southern Florida, we have final destination data on only 29,000. The computers are still working on the remaining up to the 51,000, so we know of the 29,000 who have already been processed and are in the community, that there are 7,076 children in these four counties, so the 6,842 in Dade represents only the amount based on the 29,000.
Mr. STACK. Of these people who were processed in Dade, do you have any indication whether or not a large proportion, of the 29,000 already settled, will in fact settle there? Do you have any indications on that?
MS. ZAK. Not from the camps, but we know if you assume 24 percent, the 7,000 figure on the 29,000, that is 24 percent came to southern Florida, children. If you assume that same percent on the 51,000 you get 12,352, and I made some estimate using that same


MS. ZAK. Right. This is now those that have been processed through Miami, today we have all the concrete data by age. There is additional information of those that have been processed out of the camps, but we do not have destination data available, and the information on the ages is not as complete.
Chairman PERKINS. Can you give us an idea as to the best of your judgment how many you have in the whole State of Florida, children within school age, 5 to 18?
MS. ZAK. I would have to go back and get that data for those who have been processed. They are still working on the information.
Chairman PERKINS. Would you estimate about 100,000 to 150,000?
MS. ZAK, I do not know, and we have no indication from the camps it is the total, where is the final destination of the refugees when they are processed from the camps.
Mr. STACK. If the Chairman will yield.
Chairman PERKINS. Go ahead. I am sorry.
Mr. STACK. Do we not have an estimate that 114,000 Cubans alone have arrived since April 19?
MS. ZAK. There are 114,000 arrivals.
Mr. STACK. Of which you say-MS. ZAK. Have been processed through Miami.
Mr. STACK. The question I1 would like to direct is this. You may want to check this out and later submitMS. ZAK. Additional information?
Mr. STACK. Yes. Of course I understand you cannot furnish it right now. But based on our experience in the Cuban airlift that is still going on at present, having been interrupted for a time, but now allowing, I believe, one plane a week to come in here, an effort was made to take the Cubans who arrived here in Miami, and resettle them in other parts of the country. What they did in large measure regardless of where they went initially, is to gravitate toward Dade County. What I am suggesting to you is this. Even though 51,000 of the 114,000 who have come here in total, that were processed here, we have to work on an assumption for Dade County, Broward, Palm Beach and Monroe County school boards that a disproportionately large number of those 114,000 are going to in fact settle in south Florida, most of them in Dade County. The fact is this. What we would need to know, to make any sort of accurate projections on the costs, is, of the 114,000, how many are children of school age that will be going into schools, throughout the country. Though the probability is that they will come here to south Florida, but not necessarily, it would not necessarily also affect what we are trying to do, because my intention now, and my colleagues will join me in this, is to reimburse school districts wherever these people may be located. But we need to know of these people who are processed, as the school year very rapidly approaches-the start of the school year in Dade County is some time late in August I believe, Doctor-what is the date?


that you can come up with. These are hard facts that you can develop, that is, how many of these 114,000 are in fact children of school age.
MS. ZAK. All right.
Mr. STACK. Thank you.
MS. ZAK. I will ask the Department to gather the further information. We do have it on two of the four camps if you would like to have that now. On Fort Chaffee there is approximately 1,812 children from the ages of 4 to 20. We do not have any further breakdown on that, and from Fort Chaffee we have 2,402 that are school age, and I do not have the information on the other two camps. I simply have the numbers that have been processed.
Fort Eglin there has been 608 processed to date, and from Fort McCoy 2,064, so I will obtain the other data on the other two camps.
Mr. ERDAHL. Mr. Chairman.
Chairman PERKINS. Go ahead, Mr. Erdahi. We can come back to Mr. Stack.
Mr. ERDAHL. If I may question briefly. The figures you have given show that about one-fourth, 24 percent, of the emigrees or refugees, those seeking asylum, are school age children. One of our major questions in the Congress and the administration is what is the proper definition or designation of these people, and later on I would like to make a brief statement about this.
Availability of Federal funds, welfare funds, and educational funds makes a rather dramatic impact on the way these people are processed. But is it safe to assume, and I am not trying to lead you, that about one-fourth of these people probably are school-age children?
MS. ZAK. One-fourth that are processed through Miami. In looking at the number at the other camps, it is 12 and 15 percent at the two that we have information on, so 12 percent of the camp at Fort Chaffee were children and 15 percent-Mr. ERDAHL. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman PERKINS. Mr. Stack, any further questions?
Mr. STACK. None at this time. Thank you.
Chairman PERKINS. Do you have any questions to ask Mr. Britton?
Mr. STACK. I would like to just make a general observation directed to both Dr. Britton and Ms. Miller. You are pretty close together in your figures. Ms. Miller is $21 million, Dr. Britton being more conservative obviously said $20 million. I will split the difference.
MS. MILLER. That includes adult education.
Mr. STACK. That is one thing we have to consider here indeed. Adult education is a very important matter. You see in your figures, of course, you are including Haitians and Nicaraguans, whereas the Department of State official, Ms. Zak, is considering only Cuban refugees. I do not think that is a fair basis for us to make assumptions of the financial impact on the various school


processed, and if you are going to take a figure of, you said in the range of 10 to 12 percent.
MS. ZAK. Of the camps, yes.
Mr. STACK. Then indeed we are looking at I would say a minimum of 6,000 children. We come up with a figure pretty close to 20,000 just in the case of Cubans. In addition to that we certainly have to include the Haitians which number probably at this time runs pretty close to 20,000. 1 have seen figures ranging from 15 to 20,000, and the figures for Nicaraguans have now gained in numbers since I last saw them.
The observation I would make is that I think you are pretty much on target, Ms. Miller and Dr. Britton. I think that is the kind of money we are looking at.
I would like to say this. In regard to our approach, how we are going about it, the initial bill, H.R. 6897, which appeared before the House Committee on Education and Labor back in 1976, proposed entitlements of 2 years, payments for the average per pupil expenditure in the State for the first year. That to me would be the whole ball of wax. Let us say your per pupil cost would come to $2,000, and the special cost which you will have to develop accurately of course, we cannot use figures that you pick out of a hat, and you would not do that I am sure. But that would seem to be a fair approach. Then the bill provides 50 percent of the amount the second year, which seems reasonable, because you will not have special costs to a large extent in the second year.
I would like to have a target figure in drafting legislation, not just from you, of course, but from all areas affected. As the chairman stated earlier, we will be holding hearings in Washington, where we will get information from around the country on this, but I would think that despite what the House Education and Labor Committee did last time, there were 10 dissenting votes at that time, perhaps we can get unanimous approval this time if our case is equitable, and take it to the House floor. Unfortunately the bill did not pass. We need to pass it this time, and in order to do this we need your accurate projections. We have to have figures that are hard, that we can go to our colleagues with. I would urge you to give us estimates as close to reality as you can possibly make them, and then we will try to do the right thing by you.
MS. MILLER. Thank you. We are not claiming any of our figures
Mr. STACK. You are not really quite sure what they are going to be. As they develop keep in touch with us as to what happens.
Mr. ERDAHL.Mr. Chairman, just a brief comment. First of all, to thank Dr. Britton and Ms. Miller I think for some excellent testimony and good background material that we need to have for ourselves and for the record for our colleagues. A question comes to mind that perhaps you should be asking us as Members of Congress who are present, "When is this flood of refugees going to subside?" If you would care to comment as to your personal opinion, because we are dealing with Proiections, and I think with some


any Cuban refugees in my district in Minnesota, and yet I get hundreds of letters about it. People are concerned, they are alarmed. I think it is something that has affected our entire country, and as we have said before, is an international situation. This is not only a county or local school district problem.
Mr. BRITTON. That is exactly our premise, that because of the national policies confronting the President and the Congress per*mitting these refugees to come into this part of the country, we are dramatically affected by this influx. As Congressman Stack pointed out, those who are relocated elsewhere the first frost, the first heavy snowfall north of Illinois, why they are on the next plane back to Miami, because of their friends, their relatives, culture, closeness to home, the climate. It is a natural area, a natural response for them to come back, and all we are suggesting is we would like to be able to, once they are here, to be able to work with them and provide them the services we believe they do require.
MS. MILLER. I would like to respond to that. It appears unless there is another shift in Federal direction, it appears as if the Cuban influx has been practically stopped. The last boats apparently have discharged, and at this point any boats that go out are being picked up. The Haitian influx will continue, because that is a sporadic kind of emigration where individual boatloads arrive, many of them up in Palm Beach and Broward Counties. Many of these people do not-nobody meets them, and I do not even know that immigration knows that many of these people exist. They come into the school system and some will not even admit that they are Haitian, so that I think that we could anticipate a continuing trickle of Haitian students coming on.
Chairman PERKINS. Will the gentleman yield at this point?
Mr. ERDAHL.Yes, of course, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman PERKINS. These witnesses have been excellent. They have given us the number of Cuban refugees who came here since April. I wonder if you can give us the figure on the Haitian refugees that have come since April, approximately, and Nicaraguans and the others, all of them.
Mr. BRITTON. Yes, we have the figures on all of these. The Haitians since last July are 450 or so, and since April, 99, but we already have in the school system over 2,000, since last year. We already had 2,000 Haitian children, so in addition to those 2,000, we probably have since the beginning of the year 500, around 2,500 Haitian refugee children right now, about 1,200 of whom require very expensive language development programs.
Mr. STACK. If the Chairman will yield.
Chairman PERKINS. Yes.
Mr. STACK. I do have in my stack of materials documentation supplied I believe by Ms. Miller giving those facts, but I think again it needs to be updated.
Mr. BRITTON. Yes, the document that we passed out, and probably it would have been better if we walked through this itself, it contains all of the data down to the last students and our -proiec-


important question of course. We do not know about the future. Unlike the past we are uncertain and we have no ready answer. My bill rests upon not an improbability but a fact, or let us say a principle very dear to our hearts and that is equity. We know the impact that the local school districts have had because of the problem of a Federal immigration policy, a Federal immigration policy that caused the influx, resulted in the unflux, gave you the problem with which you must contend as a local school board, and therefore it is only equitable that the Federal Government pay the cost, not just a small portion of the cost, but in my view the entire cost. Certainly at least 100 percent for the first year as an entitlement, and if we care to drop it down to let us say 50 percent the second year, that is another matter. But I think that when we come to present the bill to the House for markup, we are going to need these figures. Mr. Chairman, I would like to thank these w itnesses, because they have brought us the basic information we need, and with the update I suggest I think we can do something in this regard.
Chairman PERKINS. I want to concur with that. It has been a pleasure to meet with you on educational hearings. I was here some 4 or 5 years ago, and I expect to come back again in the future some time. Mr. Erdahl.
Mr. ERDAHL. Mr. Chairman, just a quick question in response to the one that I had asked before about when might- this flood of refugees or emigrees end. My assistant here handed me a note that one of our colleagues in the Congress suggested yesterday that the United States openly welcome 10 million Cuban emigrees to embarrass Fidel Castro. I am not sure if he spoke facetiously or not but a question I have, other than the new emigree or refugee children, what has been the general school population increase or decrease in Dade County? Has your county followed what has been a national trend of decreased enrollments other than the Haitian and Cuban refugees?
Mr. BRITTON. Yes, we were starting to decine for 2 or 3 years there but as of last year we have begun to climb again. We are now a very large elementary population and smaller secondary but we did decrease and we are now starting to increase once again, rather rapidly.
Mr. ERDAHL. Thank you very much. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman PERKINS. Let me thank all of you. Since we are here with Mr. Stack and this is his territory, Mr. Stack, will you call the witnesses.
Mr. STACK. He is a close neighbor. I do see the distinguished commissioner of education for the State of Florida is here, and I know the constraints on his time. The chairman has given me permission to call panel 5 next. Mr. Turlington will you come forward, Richard Hodes come forward if you are here, and also Dr. Robert McCabe, a friend of mine, president of Miami Dade Community College. Mr. Young is here. Before you start, I want to say this. You have got so much money, you have a surplus and because


County, Broward County, Palm Beach, and other counties to meet this problem. We thank you for coming with those money bags.
Mr. TURLINGTON. Thank you, Congressman. We will be very glad to trade you. You take our situation and give us the mint.
I would like to first welcome Congressman Stack here particularly to express our appreciation to you and Chairman Perkins, and Congressman Erdahl of Minnesota for your appearance. We are very grateful, Congressmen. Let me first say as Commissioner of Education we in Florida appreciate very much the fact that we have a strong voice on this committee, and we appreciate the fact of the support that you have given for education, not only in Florida but to the Nation as well. I am pleased to have the opportunity to appear before this committee today, to discuss the impact of refugees on our State, because it is continuing to be most significant, and we greatly appreciate your strong interest and your willingness to come to Miami, Fla., for a firsthand look at the problems facing us at the State and local levels, problems for which we feel there is a very strong Federal support.
We are also glad that the whole committee is showing an interest in this, and we are grateful particularly to Congressman Stack for the amendment that he has offered to Federal legislation to enable some funding to assist us in our problems.
Chairman Perkins and members of the committee, to put the current crisis in south Florida in proper perspective I would like to review our policies for educating citizens of all ages. First of all the State government through the State board policies, the legislature, my office and the Florida education finance program, has assumed the primary responsibility for financing education in Florida. During the 1979-80 school year, school expenditures from State sources for public education in Florida amounted to some 61 percent. This includes school districts, community colleges and universities. The percent of State support for school programs, that is for district school programs, was some 52 percent. Federal sources contributed approximately 11 percent, and the cost of these programs with the remainder financed by local tax sources.
Since 1973 we have financed education in accordance with our Florida education finance program, the intent of which is stated in our law. It reads as follows:
To guarantee to each student in the Florida Public School system the availability of programs and services appropriate to their educational needs which are substantially equal to those available to any similar student, notwithstanding geographic
diferece an vayig1lca'ecnomc9actrs


differences in per student cost for equivalent educational programs due'to sparsity and dispersion of student population, and then four we have a required local effort.
Funds for State support to school districts are provided primaril y by legislative appropriations. In addition to the basic Florida education finance program, funds are provided for categorical programs and five special allocations, with funds for environmental education programs, for instructional materials for the visually handicapped, for adult community instructional services, for school volunteer programs and for compensatory education programs. In the latter Florida has made a very special effort over these past several years.
The point I am making is that any shift in the student population in any one of our 67 school districts affects the availabilty of State funds for all of the other school districts. The impact of any large group of refugees is therefore evident.
Another important policy that I think is worth mentioning here is our State policy of school-based management. While we have a centralized system for equitably financing education throughout the State some 92 percent of our funds being equalized, it is also our policy that education decisionmaking should be as close to the classroom as possible and individual schools should be the principal planning units.
To give further impetus to this goal, the State provides grants for planning, developing and implementing programs of school-based management. Thus, the State department of education serves primarily as a services agency with only limited regulatory powers and enforcement authority, beyond insuring that State policy is implemented properly and effectively at the district and school level.
Thus, with regard to a massive influx of refugees who have arrived in south Florida this spring, we are sensitive not only to the fiscal impact statewide of these people, who are in immediate need of educational services, but also to the programmatic, policy and management impact at the local level. We know that you too are sensitive to the educational impact of refugee children, as have been the U.S. Department of Education officials with whom we have been working.
What I want to make clear, however, is that it is our feeling at the State level that while we will be ultimately responsible for educating all of the children who settle in Florida, whether they have arrived from Cuba, Haiti, or any of the 50 States, the Federal Government has a clear responsibility for these refugees, whether we call them refugees or not, and at the very least has a responsibility for the immediate impact on State and local resources.
Now what has been a good State overview is our State's response to the influx of refugees.
First our Florida cabinet, the Governor and the six elected officials passed a resolution on June 3, 1980, calling for Federal support as being appropriate in this case.


this is the State allocation-$1,101.38 would require State funding of $18,723,460 additional dollars to accommodate refugee children. These figures 1 think are substantiated. I looked at the documents that you were earlier examining, and I think our figures closely coincide. If anything, it appears that the projections have been conservative. The only thing that I can see out of the figures that make them in these projections is the realization of the mix of population that went to the camps like Camp Chaffee or Indian Head the proportion of children appears to be significantly less, but I am satisfied after examining those figures that this figure of some 17,000 additional students in Dade County in southeast Florida, is a very conservative figure, so that these dollar funds that I am speaking about I think are most realistic.
Taking the most recent known expense per student figure-197778-and factoring in inflation over the intervening period, projects an estimated per pupil expense for this school year of about $1,980.77, for a projected total of such a number of 17,000 students of $33,673,090. This leaves a gap in funds of $14,949,630 to provide services to 17,000 refugee students expected in Florida schools this year.
Now in addition to that, and taking into account the special needs of refugee children, and if we do not meet those special needs, our social problems, our societal problems down the road are going to be still further multiplied. A stitch in time saves nine. The summer school program that I will allude to a bit later, that we are doing now, because we know that money and that effort made now is going to pay off. If we do not make the effort for these refugee children now, our problems are going to be compounded in what it is going to mean to the society in this country, more not less, so when we say we are taking a precautionary investment in these children, we are taking an ounce of prevention, that is basically what we are doing here, and that is why it is very important for us to start off as rapidly as possible and to be underway, if at all possible, in meeting responsibly the needs of these children with the beginning of this coming school year, and I am very proud of the fact that the Dade County leadership has shown the initiative in working with the Department of Education in getting the summer school program. I think that that is going to affect about 7,000 children, and will have a profound effect in helping to ease our problems, but as you can see, that is only scratching the surface.
What I am mentioning here is that in addition to the 1980 per pupil of expense that we basically have on the average child, we have an additional expense of probably about another $1,000 because of the nature of the children and what services they actually require, and that additional expense is not included in the figures that I have already quoted, so we can see that it is a very significant cost of which we are speaking.
Next is the impact of- the State adult educational vocational

not in these figures that I have been speaking to. A high percentage of the refugee population will continue to be potential clients.
Then fourth, finally, we have been working closely with Dade County officials, our congressional delegation, and key administration officials, including Secretary Hufstedler, and let me say that I want to commend the Secretary and the Department. They have sent a special task force down here. They have worked with us. I will say I am glad we have a new Department of Education, and the Secretary has been most cooperative and has taken a real initiative in working with us in helping to meet these needs. They have been here in an effort to identify and access the resources necessary to meet the needs of Cuban and Haitian refugees without disrupting or diluting our existing State and Federal resources and programs.
It is important that we do not disrupt the programs that we have underway not only in this part of Florida but all over Florida for our children. Florida is moving up on the educational ladder. Our scores are improving. Our schools are improving, and it would be a shame if by an influx here that we had to cut back or dilute the commitments that we are making to the students that are presently already in our school system.
Our Federal relations people tell me that it has been an arduous task at times, but I am happy to report that we are well underway toward securing some type of emergency assistance for conducting summer schools for the refugee children. I again commend Secretary Hufstedler and her staff and our congressional delegation for their understanding and support.
In summary, while the State feels that the refugees are a Federal responsibility, we have moved ahead to relieve the direct impact on our local school districts in the absence of a determination of the level of responsibility that the Federal Government will assume and should assume.
The fact is that substantial numbers of refugees are currently residing in Florida, as many as 60 percent are expected to ultimately settle in Miami.
The profile of these refugees indicates that their primary education need is: First, to learn English. However, other education needs include; second, basic education for those in grades K-12; third, some compensatory education for those 'in grades K-12; fourth, adult basic education; fifth, vocational education; and sixth, consumer and citizenship education.
Recommendations. A. Acceptance of responsibility by the Federal Government to relieve the impact on State and local education agencies. B. Federal assistance, which is unencumbered by excessive redtape, to those school districts impacted by the refugees. C. Approval of legislative authority, such as Congressman Stack's bill, for appropriating the necessary fiscal relief.
Such authority could also include: First, an amendment to sec-


that a significant portion of these funds will be made available to cover the education costs mentioned earlier in my statement; third, use of the Secretary of Education's existing discretionary program authority for appropriating refugee education funds; and fourth, an amendment to the Refugee Act of 1980 to include the current influx of Cuban and Haitian refugees. And indeed I would include Nicaraguans and others, who are legally applicants for asylum, not refugees as defined by the act.
D. Better utilization of existing management information system capability to inform State and local education agencies where the refugees are being resettled.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, for your support and your consideration on these recommendations.
Mr. STACK. Mr. Chairman, I would like to point out that Dr. McCabe, president of Miami-Dade Community College, has joined the panel at this time.
Now we have State Representative Young, chairman of the House Committee on Education, a man who is known throughout the State, who has long given very effective service on behalf of adult education. We are proud to have you here today.
Mr. YOUNG. I am very happy, Congressman, that you are assuming a leadership role in education. Being my Congressman in Broward County, it is especially important to me. My name is Walter Young. I am a member of the Florida House of Representatives and serve as chairman of that body's Kindergarten Through 12th Grade Education Committee.
I have just- completed a legislative session which began in April with the understanding that Florida was to lose $70 million in Federal revenue sharing funds normally earmarked for the Florida education finance program-FEFP. This money, incidentally, gentlemen, was earmarked totally, it has been in the past and is, for our FEFP program. This was a big shot right at the beginning of the legislative session.
I might also say that we all signed the memorials to Congress letting you know that we wanted to balance the budget, and when you started to do so, it took a different view from that point on, but we were concerned from the outset that we were in big trouble in Florida, because of this problem.
The State of Florida took a major step to respond on a State level to what can only be categorized as a national problem. First, let me say that since 1961-and even before-Florida's public shool systems have been accepting, and serving, refugees by the hundreds into our classrooms. In the now famous freedom flights of 1966-67, we absorbed thousands of Cuban refugee children and adults, and with Federal assistance, provided the education, social, health and welfare services these people needed in order to fit into the fabric


What I am saying is that this State is no stranger to handling large influxes of refugee children and adults and of responding to their needs.
We have been, and continue to be, flooded with refugees. More than 100,000 from Cuba, thousands more from Haiti, others from Central and South America, and while the flood from Cuba seems to have ended, at least for now, we anticipate that it is a temporary shutdown which could very well start up again. Even while this particular Cuban onrush is in a hiatus, we continue to have boatloads of Haitians pull up to our shores.
If I sound dramatic, it is because the problem is dramatic. Indeed, it is traumatic. We, by our very own laws, must provide education and other services for the thousands of refugees already here and for the hundreds more who are sure to come. Historically and legally, we have made that commitment on a national level and now we must fulfill that commitment with an unparalleled immediacy.
Under normal circumstances we were able to handle the refugee flow.
The current circumstances are anything but normal.
The Florida Legislature is attempting to respond-to this latest refugee onslaught by insuring that the money the State provides for each child's education this school year will not be reduced because of this sudden mass influx.
In an unusual move the legislature has guaranteed that the allocation for each child's education shall remain intact and that any additional funds needed for each new refugee student will be taken from the State's contingency fund., This guarantee is a new concept for Florida which traditionally has let that base allocation per child float up or down on a statewide basis in response to unanticipated increases or decreases in enrollment.
This is quite a departure from our usual procedure, I must say, that if our estimates are wrong, normally we have to absorb the difference.
Mr. STACK. May I interrupt to ask how much is in the contingency fund?
Mr. YOUNG. It started out at the beginning of our session up around $300 or $400 million and it is going down every day. It I is down to a couple hundred million at this point, I think.
Mr. STACK. Thank you.
Mr. YOUNG. By far, the great majority of these new refugee children will be enrolling in Dade County schools. But school systems in the neighboring counties of Broward and Palm Beach, and eventually on up the line, also will be called upon to provide programs and services for the refugees. The State as a whole, while recognizing that though most of these students will be impacting on just a few counties, also is recognizing that the problem is not just a Dade problem, nor a Broward, nor a Palm Beach problem.. It is a State problem, one that must be addressed by the entire State government and by all our citizenry.


Yet it is a handful of communities and primarily this one State that will be called upon to respond to the needs of these thousands of refugees, and if past history is an example, they will respond to those needs with amazing fortitude and in a genuine spirit of helpfulness.
In other words, the invitation has been extended, the guests have arrived-to say, I might add-and now it is up to the Federal Government, to you ladies and gentlemen, to insure that a handful of local communities and a single State from among all the 50 are not left by themselves to serve as the surrogate hosts.
We conservatively anticipate as many as 20,000 largely nonEnglish-speaking refugee children, hundreds of them falling into our category of "disadvantaged," will enroll in Florida's schools by this fall. Some 17,000 of them will be here in Dade alone. These children will need language training. They will need a regular academic instruction program. They will need special academic assistance. Beyond that, we anticipate literally thousands of adults will be enrolling in our public school job training programs. They will need language training along with the opportunity to learn job skills.
All this is going to take personnel, instructional materials and supplies and staff training. It is going to take money.
We emphatically believe that it is the duty of our Federal Government to insure that a handful of local communities and the taxpayers of a single State are not required to carry the financial brunt of all this education alone while the rest of the Nation goes on about its business, unmindful of the many needs we have here in Florida.
Therefore, speaking on behalf of Florida's legislators and of our local citizens, I would urge you to do everything you can to insure passage of legislation to provide supplemental appropriations designed to reimburse State and local governments for expenses they incur on behalf of the refugees. I urge that you do everything you possibly can to make your fellow congressmen and women understand that our problems are neither parochial or futuristic, but rather are national and immediate and, as such, require solution at the Federal level now.
We in this State and community have done our part. It is now time for you to do yours.
I might mention, Congressman Stack, that in reference to our surplus, we have a dilemma there that we don't know whether we should put ourselves in a position that California found itself in, with a huge surplus, or to give it all away, and then with the recession we anticipate to be in trouble. You realize that back in 1973-74 we had a $300 million surplus at the State level. This was eaten up in less than a year, and we had 2 years of shortfall, so we feel that this small surplus that we have is not overabundant for what we might expect in the future. Thank you very much.


out of the legislature, I for onei so we can sympathize with the situation. So thank you for being here today.
Chairman PERKINS. I likewise. Mr. Young, we will do our best to be as cooperative as possible in connection with this problem. I Mr. STACK. I have just a few questions which I will ask you a little later, Mr. Young. I did want to, and I have the chairman's permission, to make this statement. Panel 2 and panel 3 are here, and we will be calling them shortly. We are presently delaying calling them, but we will do this in a very few minutes. I have just two questions to ask you but I will hold them.
Mr. YOUNG. Thank you, Congressman.
Mr. STACK. Dr. McCabe is here.
Dr. MCCABE. Thank you very much for the opportunity to appear. I have just come back from 2 days in Washington trying to understand the situation with regard to the adults who are here, and therefore I will have to deliver my testimony at a later time, as I discovered when I came in this morning, and I apologize for that.
There is a very serious problem here in south Florida with regard to the adults who are coming in. I think the thing that we must recognize is that while there are many school age youngsters who will need education, there are greater numbers of adults who must receive some additional education in three areas that we identify. One, of course, is language, in English. The second is in job skills, as well as occupational training, and the third is acculturation.
My institution has begun much work here. At the time that the refugees have come to the centers, volunteers from Miami-Dade Community College have been at the centers running short courses in acculturation at no cost to anyone. It is my staff volunteering to do this. We have, additionally, been running short 3-week, very basic English courses, in which we now have more than 2,000 people enrolled, but this of course is insufficient for someone to function effectively in the community.
In addition to that, my board has acted to waive fees so that we
can begin providing additional services particularly at this point to the Haitians, many of whom have been in this community for years, not receiving services and not preparing themselves to become a part of the basic fabric of the community.
The point that I would make is that we have two choices. One choice is to not provide additional educational services to these people, and for this large mass of people who are here, and in fact are going to live here, to become a burden to the society, and not to be able to participate fully.
The second is to provide the education that they need, and therefore to give them a chance to fully participate and to become constructive citizens as have the previous Cuban refugees who have


learned that they are probably ineligible for programs under CETA. Both of these forms, particularly the basic educational opportunity grant, and CETA programs for the foundation for working with the Vietnamese refugees in the California area in recent years. We feel that it is absolutely essential that we find some way to get assistance to this community, both to the public school system's occupational programs, and to the community colleges' occupational programs, and to both language programs, so that we can effectively serve.
If we are cut off from the funds that would permit these people to pay fees on one side, because they are poor people without funds, and on the other side cut off from any aid to provide the services, it is impossible for our institution to do what it must do.
We are willing to go part way and work for one side or the other, but to work without any additional funds would be an impossibility, and would not only create a temporary burden on this community, but a long-term burden, because we would not be working these people into the society as we must.
Thank you very much.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you for a good statement.
Go ahead, Mr. Stack.
Mr. STACK. I just want to say this, if I may. Before we present the bill H.R. 7425, to the House Education and Labor Committee, I intend to add language to cover the situation you discussed, that you think should go in the bill. Perhaps we can discuss it privately and then come up with something we can present to cover the costs of adult education, which I think is a significant step we must take. I thank you for your testimony.
Dr. MCCABE. Thank you very much. We certainly are willing to help in any way.
Chairman PERKINS. Mr. Erdahl.
Mr. ERDAHL. No questions, just again to thank the witness for a fine presentation.
You have touched on, sir, something that several of us have brought up. What is to be the designation or the definition of these people. It is a fundamental concept involved in how the Federal Government will participate. At the present time, 1 think under the ruling that some of us have found from the immigration people and the Attorney General's Office, to be treated as emigrees they are properly entitled only to food stamps. That is the problem.
It is a question whether they can be covered under CETA, but unless there is a change in the law, or a change in the understanding of the definition, the present influx of people are not treated as political refugees, but really as economic refugees or as emigrees, a word which, when used, we get into semantic difficulties. But I think you bring up a very fundamental concept that the administration has yet to define.
Dr. MCCABE. Let me say that I was told at the White House on Friday-Mr. ERDAHL. You have been there after I was, but go ahead.


eligible. That is what I was told in the White House on Friday, and that is going to be a very difficult thing for us.
Chairman PERKINS. One final question from me. We have got a bill known as the youth initiative bill in Congress coming up today. By and large the out-of-school youth are served by the Department of Labor in that bill. But in the school youth, the disadvantaged are served by both CETA, that is, the Department of Labor and the prime sponsors, and the education divisions of the country.
Do you see any conflict between the local educational agencies of the country and CETA cooperating for the welfare of these students in the secondary schools that are disadvantaged, or do you think that this bill uses the right approach, instead of throwing everything back in the hands of the Department of Labor or CETA only?
Dr. MCCABE. In this community we have worked very closely with the CETA operation, and both the public school systems and the community college operates CETA programs, so we do have cooperation here. I do have to admit to a bias, and that is that I think that in many cases the programs can be provided without necessarily the cost of stipends, and if you go the labor route, you add the stipends in all cases, so I think it is appropriate to have a mix, because I think in many cases the people take the programs and will benefit without having to go to the stipend route. So I would prefer, certainly, that some of it come through education.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you very much.
Go ahead, Mr. Stack.
Mr. STACK. I want to ask Mr. Turlington and Mr. Young one question each. Mr. Young, in arriving at the State budget this year, did you include Federal revenue sharing in your total revenue sources in the amounts that you normally assume will be used for education?
Mr. YOUNG. No.
Mr. STACK. For the record.
Mr. YOUNG. For the record, we totally ignored the possibility of receiving any revenue sharing funds, so we assumed that they were not to be forthcoming, and as a result is not included in our appropriations act.
Mr. STACK. It was very wise to do that, and I commend you for it.
Mr. YOUNG. I was in close contact with your office, Congressman, and I was led to believe that maybe it wouldn't be wise to anticipate it.
Chairman PERKINS. Heretofore, how much revenue sharing had you received?
Mr. YOUNG. $70 million, which was pumped directly into the Florida finance program. This would be to send to the individual school districts for the operation of the schools.
Mr. STACK. That is $70 million?
Mr. YOUNG. $70 million. You can see we started out with quite a deficit.
Mr. STACK. Yes. Thank you very much.
Mr. Turlington, just one question for you. You would settle for $18 million. That is what you said. I am not quarreling with you now. What I really want to say-and excuse me for being somewhat facetious about this grave matter-the fact is you provide


through the State budget about 60 percent of the cost for local education, if I understand correctly.
Mr. STACK. When the State is impacted as a whole by refugees, whatever, there designation, we have the burden of education in the localities in which the States and the Federal Government share the cost. The Federal Government does provide in Dade County about 11 percent of the costs. Regarding the $18 million figure, are you suggesting that there is a shortfall in the State budget in the amount of $18 million, or are you saying that in equity this is an amount that the State should be receiving because of the special circumstances?
Mr. TURLINGTON. No. The $18 million figure, we have a basic FTE cost, as we call it, and FTE is a term of art; it is not necessarily a student. For example, we would count a student at the high school as being about 1.11 FTE's, so that is the system for budget allocation. But our basic FTE value is a little over $1,100, and the $18 million comes from taking-and that is the so-called State basic program, so if we take an influx of 17,000 students multiplied by $1,100, why, we come up with something in excess of $18 million.
Now, in addition to that has to be the actual local funds that are generally going to that student, and additional to that are the special needs of refugee children, and it is estimated that that cost is an additional $1,000. So when you ask about what the total cost is of what is going or would be going to the education of these 17,000 refugee children, $18 million does not come anywhere near covering the total cost.
And then adding on top of that what Dr. McCabe pointed out, we have a very important responsibility and need for adults, and none of that was included in the figure. I can appreciate your problems as you grapple with the Federal budget, and I think you can now see ours. I believe that all of us have a responsibility when we get through, and I don't anticipate that the Federal Government is going to pay all of this cost.
We would like for it to, and we would think it would be appropriate to, but we think that our covering that basic cost of those students, we are not asking for that $18 million in effect to be paid by the Federal Government, but we do believe that the Federal Government could appropriately do that, but most especially it should pick up the additional local funds, and those additional special needs, and the adult needs, and that leaves us with quite a financial chore for both the Federal Government, the State and the local governments.
Mr. STACK. If we had rehearsed this we couldn't have done it any better. That is just what I wanted you to say, and I thank you.
Mr. TURLINGTON. Thank you.
Mr. STACK. I have no further questions.
Mr. ERDAHL. No questions.


Can Richard Portis come around ? He is the executive director of the Dade County OIC.
We will be delighted to hear what you have to say about the situation. Go right ahead.
Mr. PoRTIs. I would like to express my appreciation to the subcommittee for their foresight in coming to Dade County. I would also like to thank on behalf of Reverend Sullivan and the GIC of America, you, Congressman Carl Perkins, for your support, for during your illustrious career OIC was written into the CETA legislation of 1973, and express our thanks and gratitude for your support of that legislation.
I would also like to recognize Ms. Maxienne Dargans who helped during the days of OIC, and we appreciate her support as well.
The OIC movement began out of a need for expanded and alternative educational and vocational training programs for blacks who were overlooked and not assimilated into the mainstream of economic America. The conditions that existed 16 years ago at our birth bear unfortunate similarity to the conditions that exist today in Dade County. OIC has proven its capability to prepare and train youth and adults who were rendered unserviceable by traditional systems.
OJC's have developed direct working linkages with all traditional education systems in this country. As a result of these linkages, many youth and adults are now provided a service dimension which was overlooked by traditional education. GIC, through its motivational, attitudinal self-help programs, has set the trend for serving dropouts, underachievers and, generally, castouts. Our demonstrated capabilities can be a definite asset in this current crisis.
GIC believed in 1964, as it does today, that there is a direct correlation between the unemployment and underachievement of black and minority youth and adults. Our concepts of and modalities for adult and youth education should be utilized, in cooperation with the Dade County school system's programs, to deter a worsening of our local unemployment problems. To do this we must include parent education and training as essential components of our forthcoming endeavors. To exclude assimilating parents of school-age youth from programs designed to deal with the current crisis would be to render ineffective any efforts to help their children.
GIC supports the recommendation to increase from $400 per pupil to $1,000 per pupil, the Federal supplement to the local school systems for handling the new influx of Haitian and Cuban students. Resource allocation, however, should take into consideration the lingering needs of the already present black students so as to avoid -creating, among them, a sense of -hopelessness in education

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I would like to interject that OIC looks forward to this committee's support of the youth initiative program and the career intern program. We find very crucial that as the bill that that the OIC is looking forward to in terms of passing, can have a direct result and a direct impact upon the local situation here in Dade County.
In conclusion, we offer the full spectrum of the national and Dade County OIC services and capabilities to deter further generations of people plagued with hopelessness and despair. Moreover, we ask that you empower the State and the local school boards to collaborate with OIC in forthcoming community education efforts. Current cooperative efforts can be expanded to provided for additional service needs.
Chairman PERKINS. Let me congratulate you, Mr. Portis, on an outstanding statement. I can certainly tell you that the committee will thoroughly consider your views in the markup of the legislation that comes from this committee.
Mr. Stack, any questions?
Mr. STACK. No. I certainly want to thank the gentleman for his comments.
Mr. ERDAHL. Mr. Chairman. I would also like to thank you for being with us, Mr. Portis, and I think OIC has been a good program, and it is a good example of how we can deal with the present situation. Usually it seems to me people rise to the level of our expectancy, and this is one of the reasons for our success.
Mr. PoRTIs. Thank you very much.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you.
Mr. Stack, you may put the witnesses on in any way that you want.
Mr. STACK. Panel No. 2, Ms. Nancy Kalan, school system bilingual department, Broward County Schools; Mrs. Kathleen Wright, vice chairperson, the Broward County School Board; Mr. Vernon Crawford, administrative assistant for Public Information, Palm Beach County School System; and representatives from the Monroe County School System.
Mrs. Wright, the vice chairperson of the Broward County School Board.
Chairman PERKINS. We are delighted to join in welcoming you.
Mr. STACK. She is one of our most able persons.
Will you proceed, please.
Chairman PERKINS. Let me say that I particularly welcome the opportunity to work with you and with these witnesses from Congressman Stack's district. I don't think we have a more aggressive Congressman insofar as trying to obtain results in the U.S. Congress than Congressman Stack, to my way of thinking. John Quincy Adams, after being President, returned to the House of Representatives and served additional terms. To my way of thinking, Congressman Stack is more active than a man in Congress of 35 years of age, so he is commencing a youthful career in the U.S Congress. Naturally, as long as you have got Congressman Stack here, you are going to have the best representation in


MS. WRIGHT. Mr. Chairman and our own Congressman Stack, we
are very proud to have Congressman Stack representing us in the 12th Congressional District. We are very pleased to also have the opportunity to come before you this morning and share with you our input as it relates to the newest refugees that have come to our shores.
Mrs. WRIGHT. The School Board of Broward County, Fla., in consultation with Broward County Commissioners and other municipal 'organizations, is attempting a uniform approach in providing for the educational and service needs of the most recent Caribbean refugees. The Broward County public school system has been providing transitional bilingual education without benefit of Federal assistance for nearly 1,000 non-English-speaking students for over a period of 4 years. This has been at an annual expense of clsoe to $1 million above our regular State allocation or FTE allocation for these students.
Between June 2 and June 20, 1980, 285 more Caribbean refugees have registered in the Broward County school system for an emergency summary school program, and it is projected by the opening of school on August 25 of 1980 that at the current rate of 25 new students per day, there will be approximately 1,250 new Cuban and Haitian refugees entering the public school system. It has been estimated that less than 10 percent of these persons speak limited English.
If the current rate continues, by the 60th day of school, -an additional 1,500 Haitian and Cuban refugees will impact on the Broward County school system, making a total of 2,750 new students.
As a result of the Federal assignment of equal refugee status for Haitians, we expect anywhere from 200 to 2,000 school-age Haitian children who are currently unenrolled because of fear of the authorities to enroll as of August 25, 1980. Mr. STACK. May I interrupt at that point, please? Mrs. WRIGHT. Yes.
Mr. STACK. Did you say 2,750 new students will come by the opening of school year, and that in addition to that amount these Haitian students will be an amount of 2,0004? Mrs. WRIGHT. That is right, up to 2,000. Mr. STACK. With that 2,000, we would be talking about 4,750 approximately. Is that correct?
Mrs. WRIGHT. That is right. As a result of the flotilla from


The current budget reflects an additional $1.6 million above the regular FTE for bilingual education in Broward County.
The impact of an additional 1,250 new students would necessitate the doubling of that figure.
Due to the influx that has resulted from the confusion during the process of refugees and the question which still remains about where refugees will ultimately be locating, we would request a contingency formula to be attached to the funding in order to adjust to unexpected shifts in student populations.
This we anticipate where there will be some spillover from Dade County into the southern portion of our county. We also anticipate that if we have a very serious winter in some of the other location sites, that those refugees will find themselves back in the Dade and Broward County area.
The pattern of settlement has impacted severely on already overcrowded schools in the western sections of our county.
It is impossible to provide housing, transportation and adequate educational services for the influx of refugees without Government assistance.
It should be noted that Federal regulations decree the type of educational program which must be offered, and these programs which comply with the law cost the district an additional $1,500 per student above the normal cost of educating an English dominant student, not including transportation, housing and special services.
The School Board of Broward County, Fla., is in need of emergency financial assistance to fund educational programs which both comply with the Federal regulations of Lau and to accommodate the needs of this new influx of Caribbean refugees.
In an effort to provide a viable educational program which will meet the diverse needs of these refugees, the Broward County school system will require approximately $4 million. These moneys are requested to fund the following educational services: transitional bilingual educational program K through 12, which meets the district policy of two teachers and one aide for every 30 students.
Remedial educational services for students who have never attended school.
Extensive adult educational programs which would include vocational education as well as English for those students of other languages.
Preliminary health, speech, and hearing screening for all students entering the Broward County school system, and this is to comply with our State regulations of meeting the special need of students.
Screening and diagnosis for special education and psychological services by the special educational needs of non-English-speaking students.
Curriculum and material development which are necessary to expedite the learning of English as well as providing for maintain-


Purchase of equipment and acquisition of facilities, as well as -the transportation of students.
By providing these educational services, it will greatly assist in the refugees joining in the mainstream of American life, and should ultimately alleviate the refugees' reliance on social services, thereby benefiting all residents of our community.
The Broward County public school system is anxious to complement the humane refugee policies of the Federal Government, and to comply with the Lau remedies.
In order to do this, we will require Federal assistance to fund educational services.
On our impact data statement, we have indicated that presently there are 733 refugee students K through 12 who entered the Broward County public school system during the period of January 1, 1979 and December 31, 1979.
There are 1,000 Cuban refugee students who entered the United States after April 7, 1980 who will be eligible as of August 25, 1980 to enroll in the Broward public school system, and the estimates in this category go up to 3,000. There are 250 Haitian refugee students who have achieved legal status equivalent to the Cuban refugees, and will be eligible to enroll in the Broward County public schools as of August 25.
Mr. STACK'. 350?
Mrs. WRIGHT. 250, and that is an estimate of another 2,600 students in this particular category.
Haitians have enrolled in the ESAA program during the week of June 9, 1980, and new registrants equalled approximately 25 students per week, and, incidentally, we were promised that we would get some Federal dollars to assist us with this program, and to date those moneys have not reached Broward County, so we would urge your assistance in that area.
Chairman PERKINS. Just when was it promised?
Mrs. WRIGHT. It was promised prior to our starting the program in June, and as of Friday there was some dilemma as to whether or not Broward County would get any of the funds, and we started with the program based on the promises of funds coming to this
Chairman PERKINS. Who made that commitment in Washington?
Mrs. WRIGHT. Some of the bureaucrats I am sure, but it came through the Department of Education, but we would appreciate any assistance.
Mr. STACK. The Federal Department of Education?
Mrs. WRIGHT. Yes, the Federal Department of Education. It is a part of the summer school education funds to help get these students into the mainstream, and we started the program but we haven't gotten any money.
Chairman PERKINS. How did they commit themselves, along what lines?
M rs.WRGT.MsA alnXees rmTurbligulprgrm


Ms. KALAN. Basically we received a phone call from the State Department of Florida indicating that there was Federal money available for summer school programs for Cuban refugees, well, any Caribbean refugees who were coming in, but especially for Cubans, and that that money would be available to start emergency summer school programs.
We registered 300 children in 2 days, brandnew students to the United States, and were ready to start the program. When I did not hear from Washington, I called them in order to negotiate and asked them if they were ready, and they said no, that they aren't ready.
In fact they thought that perhaps they weren't even going to send the funds, and we have already committed $55,000 of Federal money for the summer school programs.
Mr. STACK. The promise came from the State, you say?
Ms. KALAN. No, it was from the Federal Government, through Secretary Hufstedler's office, and the person that we were calling to negotiate through is from that particular office, through the U.S. Office.
Chairman PERKINS. Do you know the name of the individual that you commenced negotiating with in Secretary Hufstedler's office?
Ms. KALAN. In Mrs. Hufstedler's office?
Chairman PERKINS. Yes.
Ms. KALAN. Yes. Mr. Hanson.
Chairman PERKINS. Mr. Hanson?
Mr. KALAN. Chuck Hanson.
Chairman PERKINS. Chuck Hanson. He is one of her assistants, my staff tells me. Thank you very much.
Mrs. WRIGHT. There are also 293 new Cuban families who have applied to Spanish Manpower for vocational education, 288 Cuban and Haitian refugees have registered between June 16 and June 18 for emergency summer school, and during the period from September 19, 1979 through April 24, 1980, between 25 to 30 Hispanic refugees registered monthly.
As of June 2, 1980, approximately 25 Hispanic refugees per day are registering in the Broward County school system.
Mr. STACK. How many is that, please?
Mrs. WRIGHT. About 25 per day and this is approximately one new classroom per day, and there are currently no unallocated portables availabe for any programs in our county, and, based on the current construction costs from $4,500 to $7,500 per student is required to build new facilities.
Thirty thousand dollars is required to provide an additional portable to house each additional 30 students in schools which are already overcrowded.
At the current rate of enrollment, we would need between 15 to 20 portables to be built before January 1, 1981. Transportation would require the purchase of one new school bus at a cost of $21,000 for each additional 185 students. At the current rate of enrollment, we would need between 10 to 15 new buses to transport these students.


There are presently 4,192 Spanish-speaking students currently being served in the Broward County school district.
The School Board of Broward County, on behalf of its citizens, urges your support for additional Federal funds in helping us to meet the needs of these new refugees.
Thank you.
Mr. STACK. Mrs. Wright, we didn't get a copy of your statement, I don't believe.
Mrs. WRIGHT. We left them. We do have them.
Mr. STACK. You will get me one?
Mrs. WRIGHT. We have brought them.
Mr. STACK. Just to try to summarize, you are talking about approximately 4,000 additions to the school population by the end of this school year?
Mrs. WRIGHT. That is right.
Mr. STACK. Your estimate is that it will not be reimbursed by the Federal Government, $1,000. You said $1,500, but your total figure was $4 million.
Mrs. WRIGHT. Yes. That included transportation.
Mr. STACK. Of course the breakdown of costs is a matter that we will have to discuss, but I would like you to get me, if you will please, precise estimates. This is essential of what the cost to the Broward County school boards will be. What amount will not be reimbursed by virtue of the fact that the State does pick up only the cost of-Mrs. WRIGHT. The regular FTE.
Mr. STACK. FTE. That you will get in any event?
Mrs. WRIGHT. Yes.
Mr. STACK. You get some Federal assistance.
In Broward County I have figures that indicate your Federal assistance comes to a little over 11 percent. The State assistance is a little better than 50 percent, and from multitaxes you raise about 38.6 percent.
Mrs. WRIGHT. That is right.
Mr. STACK. What we need to be doing in my opinion as a minimum, is to get you 40 percent of your costs of this impact. You have to have a means of meeting this. That is the essential question we need to answer.
For that you will have to get us precise figures. I quite agree with you that in drafting the bill that ultimately will evolve, we certainly will provide for adjustment in population flow, and the fact is we are well aware of the fact that this bill will have to be flexible in its language, and that, as students and obviously families gravitate from other colder areas of the country to Broward and Dade Counties, we will have to meet this need, but it will be necessary for us to have precise figures on what you are including.
It is doubtful to me whether or not we can meet the cost of construction and perhaps even transportation from this particular bill. Dade County, I believe, does have schools that are empty or available for use, I would say. You are saying that we would need 15 portables. What does a portable cost? Do you have an idea?
Mrs. WRIGHT. On the regular free enterprise market it costs us roughly $30,000 for a portable. We can build them in our vocational program for about half that cost, but it takes us an entire year


to get it out of one of our programs because it is a learning experience.
Mr. STACK. Thank you very much.
Mr. ERDAHL. Thank you, Mr. Stack.
Just one question.
Apart from the language difficulty, what are the relative educational achievement levels of the Cuban and Haitian students that come here?
Mrs. WRIGHT. Most of them-depending on the level-have had no education at all.
Mr. ERDAHL. You mean they could be 14 or 15 years old?
Mrs. WRIGHT. At this point we have approximately just 200 and some that have actually been served. Some of these vary in age level. The younger students have little education. The older ones that have come in prior to the most recent influx have had some schooling, and their basic problem has been the language.
Mr. ERDAHL. I guess another way of stating my question, if I could pursue it a bit, ma'am, let's say that a sixth grader comes here from Cuba or Haiti. Apart from the language, is he or she pretty well a sixth grade student in your system?
Mrs. WRIGHT. Not necessarily. There is a good deal of remediation that has to take place with most of these students.
Mr. ERDAHL. The language barrier is just one of the problems?
Mrs. WRIGHT. That is right.
Mr. ERDAHL. Thank you.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Thank you, Mr. Stack.
Mr. STACK. Mr. Crawford.
Mr. CRAWFORD. Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, thank you very much for allowing us to appear here. I do forward the regrets of Superintendent Thomas Miles from the county however. He was unable to be here this morning.
I have heard a lot discussed so far dealing with policies, State policies, Federal policies. Commissioner Turlington talked about Florida's State policies to some extent, and constitutionally it does require for adequate provision of education through a uniform system. This likewise is carried out through the Florida education finance program, the entire school code beginning with chapter I.
Federal policy, we believe in this particular issue at hand probably started in 1974 through the Lau decision which did mandate for the first time that school districts have the responsibility for all students regardless of native background or language situation. The Federal Bilingual Education Act unfortunately for us has been one in name only. We haven't been able to obtain adequate funding through this particular act, title VII as it came about. As a result, right at this point we are spending approximately $771,000 in local ad valorem tax dollars to educate about 750 students who do not speak any English at all or very little English.
The predominant language is Spanish, but there are also about 10 others that are involved.


Mr. STACK. Could you give me that figure again, please?
There are 750 students. We don't have a copy of your statement.
Mr. CRAWFORD.Yes, I believe it is up front.
Mr. STACK. Give me that again. *t
Mr. CRAWFORD. It is about 750 students who either speak no English or very little English, and these students we provide ESOL for speakers of other languages as well as instruction in the basic skills until such time as they are proficient.
Mr. STACK. And what was the cost to the county?
Mr. CRAWFORD. About $771,000.
Mr. STACK. 700?
Mr. CRAWFORD. $771,000, and that is coming out of local ad valorem taxes.
Mr. STACK.We do have your statement now. Thank you.
Mr. CRAWFORD. The school board in Palm Beach County does endorse H.R. 7425 mainly because of authorizing legislation. One question which perhaps later the committee might wish to consider or give us some direction on is in the future of having this come through I believe as I understand it you are in between Cuban Refugee Acts, which are specific grants to various school districts, and, as I understand it, the new act is yet to take effect.
You might want to consider in the future looking at that.
The rationale that we basically have is simple. The Federal policy is to accept and make available the services of the State and various local agencies for Caribbean refugees, then Federal policy should not require the State and local agencies to bear the costs themselves.
I would like to point out two things which have not been mentioned so far this morning that have a direct effect on public school districts in Florida specifically as a result of this past legislative session.
There was legislation introduced both in the House and the Senate which would have provided for a transitional bilingual education program that would have been funded by the Florida Legislature.
The legislation did pass out of Representative Young's committee on the House side. It also passed out of the Appropriations Subcommittee on the House side, but on the Senate side it failed 5 to 50, which killed it for the session.
Among those voting against that particular piece of legislation were three people who felt firmly this was at the time that the issue of the refugees was coming to light in Florida, but the general attitude and the rationale for voting against it was the fact that it was they felt a Federal responsibility, not a State function. Whether you agree with that philosophy or not, the fact is Florida does not have bilingual education funded at the State level. The second aspect which is probably more crucial at least as far as our district 'is concerned, and I think that of others, is the legislature did pass a measure which is commonly called TRIM, or truth in village. Some wags have given it other terms but that


effective this year to a maximum of 10 percent for districts such as Palm Beach County. That is actual dollar increase over the previous year.
It has been primarily this source, this local leeway dollars that we have that the $771,000 is coming out of We are facing about a 2-percent budget deficit. We are also facing about a thousand student increase aside from the issue of the relocation of the refugees, and at this point we are very ill-equipped to absorb any additional costs.
As of last Friday we had identified in Palm Beach County, and I would like to preface this by saying that the numbers that we are using I think are very conservative, but we are not trying to-well, we are trying to be conservative on purpose, in hopes that what we have will be accurate, but as of last Friday we had 192 refugee students identified. Now, that is minute compared to Dade County, but our Spanish population in the 1960's was nonexistent.
At this point it is now roughly 5 percent of the population of Palm Beach County and makes up about 5 percent of the school district population as well, which is something in excess of about 3,000 students.
The impact that we are having of the 192 students is almost double that which we had the previous week. We are conservatively estimating that come August 25 we will probably have at least 300 students, possibly upward of 500. This basically amounts to about a half of an elementary school.
Through various civic organizations, the community, we are operating a summer school program on a totally voluntary basis at one of these schools in the central West Palm Beach area.
Mr. STACK. In the written statement you say 300 by August 25.
Mr. CRAWFORD. That is conservative. We may have as many as 500, but our projects right now say at least 300. It depends frankly upon the orientation aspect.
The Florida Legislature, as has been pointed out, does provide this year funding for the basic classroom instruction by taking money from its contingency fund, but it does not somehow seem very equitable to have the State spend $15 or $20 million, $18 million has been the figure mentioned today, that would be unreimbursed.
Also local school districts we feel do need to have some type of reimbursement as far as the bilingual services.
For us, we are looking at a figure of over $1,000. That is basically using the $771,000 with approximately 750 students that we have right now. It has been our experience for the past 4 years as we have had this program in the district.
The amount does cover to some extent portable classrooms. We are in a similar situation as is Broward County, inasmuch as we are severely overcrowded. We have got several schools in double sessions. Thanks to the Florida Legislature, we are getting some additional funding to try to take care of the high school problem,


We are looking at portable classrooms, and for us that figure likewise is between $25,000 to $30,000 per classroom, or in other words, about another $1,000 per student. We just do not have the space right now if there is a major influx in that one particular area.
We may find ourselves extending the day or possibly double sessions.
The position of our board is basically threefold, and we would like to urge this committee to, one, adopt H.R. 7425 so that we have the authority and that the assistance can be made available to State and local agencies.
Second, provide some means of payback to the State of Florida for regular classrooni instruction, getting back again to the basic student allocation.
Third, to provide local districts with an amount hopefully of at least $1,000. 1 know we are talking here between $400 and $450 but we can't very well offer half of a program.
We can't go one semester and say that is it, folks. We have to be able to do it whether it comes out of State, local, or Federal sources.
We would also hope as far as this funding can provide instruction in English as well as basic skills in their native language, and I am hoping that the $100 million which the House as I understand it appropriated last week will be approved by the Senate, and that this funding will be adequate at least for 1980-81.
One comment that I think was made earlier. It is very vital in our particular district that traditionally Palm Beach County has felt the major part of an impact about 2 to 3 years down the road, and we expect this to be a similar situation.
The figures we are talking about right now again are kind of minute, but we do expect the growth to occur. We are receiving at this point quite a few residents from Dade and Broward Counties into Palm Beach.
Thank you very much.
[The prepared statement submitted by Vernon A. Crawford follows:]


Statement of Position in re Caribben Refugees by the School Board of
Palm Beach County, Florida, Before the House Education and Labor
Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education
Mr. Chairman,.Members of the Subcommittee, I would like to thank you for
extending the invitation for our school district to appear before you today concerning the issue of Cuban and Haitian refugee children and H.R. 7425 by
Congressman Stack.
The policy of the State of Florida toward public education is set forth
in the Florida Constitution, Article IX, which states, "Adequate provision
shall be made by law for a uniform system of free public schools and for the
establishment, maintenance and operation of institutions of higher learning
and other public education programs that the needs of the people may require".
We feel it is this last phrase--"other public education programs"--which is
being addressed today.
In 1973 the Florida Legislature placed into law a uniform and equalized
program for funding public education in grades kindergarten through 12. These
statutes, which have since been used as a prototype by other states, further define Florida's policy toward public education by stating it is the purpose of the state plan to "insure the establishment of a state system of schools,
courses, classes, institutions, and services adequate to meet the educational
needs of all citizens of the state".
Relative to the issue at hand today, federal policy was established in
1974 in the U.S. Supreme Court decision of Lau v. Nichols et al (94 S. Ct. 786)


involving the San Francisco public schools. That decision clearly mandated that school districts shall provide an equal educational opportunity to students who do not have a proficient knowledge of English. Specifically, local school districts shall not only provide instruction of English to non-English speaking students, but shall also provide instruction in basic skills in the student's native language until such tine as they are proficient in English. This federal policy was implemented through passage in 1975 of Title VII to the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The federal Bilingual Education Act, as we commonly refer to it, has provided limited funding nationally. Unfortunately, Palm Beach County has been unable to obtain an approved grant and, thus, is currently spending $771,207 from local discretionary ad valorem tax dollars to meet the Lau requirements for 750 students throughout the system. At the present time this covers 47 languages, of which the predominant language is Spanish.
Federal policy has been expanded, in 1976 through the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act, and nowV by Executive approval for Caribbean refugees. Pending before this Subcommittee is H.R. 7425 by Congressman Stack which would, in-effect, place Executive approval into federal law.
The School Board of Palm Beach County endorses this Resolution as
authorizing legislation. Our Board, however, also strongly urges adequate funding. The rationale is simple: if federal policy is to accept and make available the services of state and local agencies to the Caribbean refugees, federal policy should not require state and local agencies to bear the burden alone.
We feel this Subcommittee s hould be aware of two recent legislative actions taken in Tallahassee, the State Capitol, this past session which ended less than two weeks ago: first, the issue of providing state funding

for bilingual education was defeated in the Florida Senate Education Committee. The feeling of some of those voting against the legislation was that if federal policy dictates such a program, it should be a federal function. Whether you agree with that or not, the fact of no state funding for the future for bilingual education remains.
Second, in an'effort to constrain property taxes, the Legislature passed a measure, commonly called TRIM or Truth in Millage, which limits what local school districts can raise in unequalized ad valorem taxes. It is from this that our district funds the $771,207 for bilingual education already. Facing a 27l deficit for next year, we are ill-equipped to absorb additional students without additional funds.
As of last Friday, Palm Beach County had identified 192 refugee students-almost double that of slighly over 100 from the previous week--most of whom are Cuban inasmuch as we have a growing Hispanic population in our district which makes up about 5% of our population and student enrollment. While these numbers are comparatively minute to the impact in Dade County, we are feeling the effects of the immigration--severe in isolated areas such as central West Palm Beach, based on past years' experience of Hispanic migration from Dade to Palm Beach Counties--and expect to see a significant increase over the next few years.
Conservatively, we are currently projecting over 300 refugee students in our schools come August 25th. That amounts to half an elementary school. Of these, 100 are currently enrolled in a totally volunteer summer school program at one of our junior high schools in West Palm Beach. While the Florida Legislature provides funding from the state's reserve fund (Working Capital Trust Fund) for increased student enrollment in regular or special

education classes, it does not provide for costs connected with bilingual education. It does not seem equitable even for this state to spend what may amount to $15 or $20 million dollars for federal policy. Our Board feels the state should be reimbursed. Further, local districts should be reimbursed for the'bilinguial services. For Palm Beach County, it will cost over $1,000 per student to cover instructional costs and space, i.e. purchase of portable classrdbms for those elementary and junior high schools which we expect to be affected the greatest; otherwise, we may face double sessions since these are older smaller schools. The total estimate of $300,000 to $500,000, again, is small compared to the need in Dade County, but, in a budget cutting year, it can cause a serious impact to our basic programs,
In summary, we would urge this Subcommittee to 1) adopt H.R. 7425 by Congressman Stack so that assistance can be made available to state and local education agencies for Caribbean refugee students, 2) provide a means of payback to the state education agencies for funds they will have to expend for regular class instruction, and 3) provide funding to local school districts in an amount of at least $1,000 per student for space, instruction in English and instruction of basic skills in their native language in accordance with the federal policy espoused by the Lau decision and Title VII (Bilingual Education Act of 1975). We would hope that the $100 million dollars appropriation passed by the House last week, will be adequate for state and local agencies and the various services they provide.
on behalf of our Board and Superintendent Thomas Mills, who was unable to be here today, I would like to express our appreciation for the opportunity to appear before you.


Chairman PERKINS. I just want to thank the gentleman for a very clear statement. It speaks for itself. Mr. STACK. Just one question.
On the language training, you don't get any help at all from the FTE?
Mr. CRAWFORD. No, this is above and beyond the State funding program.
Mr. STACK. Thank you very much. You have been very helpful. I believe, Mr. Chairman, that concludes this particular panel. Chairman PERKINS. Go on to your next panel. Mr. STACK. Panel No. 3, Ms. Linda Pearson, Classroom Teachers Association, accompanied by Kine Barrowman and Arlene Tobias, Mr. Dick Costello and Mr. Roland Rolle.
Mr. STACK. Ms. Pearson, would you like to proceed first?
Ms. PEARSON. Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, my name is Linda Pearson. I am a kindergarten teacher at Hallandale Elementary School in Broward County.
Mr. STACK. That is my district.
Chairman PERKINS. Let me congratulate you for being represented by such an outstanding congressman.
Ms. PEARSON. Yes, thank you. I am here representing Mr. Art Kennedy, president of the Broward County Classroom Teachers Association.
I speak on behalf of more than 8,000 teachers and paraprofessionals in Broward County. We are deeply concerned over the refugee situation and its impact upon Florida's economy, particularly its impact on our educational system.
Floridians face an additional assessment on their ad valorem taxes of 1.8 mills for an influx of 16,000 students for the 1980-81 school year.
Chairman PERKINS. Just one question before you get into your testimony. Up until the present time have you been able to cope with this situation and do anything about these youngsters of kindergarten, age?
Ms. PEARSON. Have I been unable to cope with it?
Chairman PERKINS. Yes. I mean, have you been able to put them in kindergarten?
Ms. PEARSON. Well, we are accepting children. In the school where I teach currently we are receiving more Cuban refugee children, and they are going into our kindergarten programs, but


we are finding that older children are not able to fit into the level. For example, a third-grade child is not capable of doing third-grade work at that time, and we are having some problems with that. The community, Hallandale, where I teach'is an area where these people are beginning to settle. We have not had a tremendous influx yet, but we are expecting I think more refugee children.
Mr. STACK. You are talking about Cubans principally or Haitians?
MS. PEARSON. Well, at the present time, in this last school year, we have had Cuban children, but I would expect that it would be reasonable to assume that we might get Haitian refugee children as well.
Mr. STACK. Thank you.
MS. PEARSON. Floridians are facing additional assessments on their ad valorem taxes of 1.8 mills to fund the projected influx of at least 16,000 students in the 1980-81 school year in neighboring Dade County. As yet we have no projection of the student refugee population figures for Broward.
Statistics reflect that Florida ranges 26th in the Nation in the dollar amount spent per student annually. In addition, Florida stands 46th in the Nation in teacher salaries, which are approximately $3,000 below the national average, while the cost of living in south Florida is among the highest in the Nation. Currently the conversion of rental complexes to condominiums further complicates the availability of housing. News accounts indicate that construction of new housing is at a virtual standstill due to exorbitant interest rates.
The lack of classrooms to house additional students is an equally critical problem. In Broward County, classroom space is at a premium. We have three schools on double session, two schools housed completely in portable buildings, and last year no less than 120 requests for more portables to relieve overcrowding at other schools.
We are wondering where we will house so many new students. How are we going to pay the cost of additional teachers, textbooks, and necessary educational materials.
Let me assure you-we do not seek to deny these children opportunities now that they have reached our shores.
As teachers, we have the responsibility of educating all children. We believe that Federal assistance available to other refugee children must be made available to Cuban and Haitian refugee children as well. Florida taxpayers should not be expected to shoulder this expense alone.
Last, Mr. Chairman, I would like to present to you this print drawn by a Broward teacher, Beverly Thomas. I believe it illustrates the compassion felt by many of us for those who risked their lives and left their loved ones behind in hopes of providing a better life for the next generation.
-This is-.a line drawing by one of our classroom teachers in

67-162 0 80 -


position to grant you a wage increase, I would do it on the spot, but unfortunately I cannot do that.
MS. PEARSON. That is one of the problems, that our funds are going to be impacted with more children.
Mr. STACK. I certainly understand your working conditions are bad and they need improvement and you need more money, and I hope we can get it to you, but we cannot -do it today.
MS. PEARSON. I know that. You asked am I representing the group. I am speaking for Mr. Kennedy, who is the president of our classroom teachers association, in his absence.
Mr. STACK. Thank you.
Mr. COSTELLO. My name is Dick Costello. I am a high school teacher in Broward County. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Erdahl, Congressman Stack, committee.
No one knows for sure how many Cuban and Haitian refugees are living at this moment in south Florida. It is precisely this point. that brings me here as a teacher and a representative of the Broward Teachers Union to address this issue. Our school system in Broward County is the 11th largest in the United States. Over the past decade the population of Broward County has been one of the fastest, if not the fastest growing in the Nation. Needless to say, it has been virtually impossible to provide equal educational opportunities to all Broward children in light of such an increasing onslaught of new faces in the classroom.
As teachers in such a situation we have not been faced with less students to teach and massive layoffs from our-jobs as many of our colleagues in northern cities have experienced. Instead, we have seen crowded classrooms, lack of school facilities yet to be built, two faculties using the same schools on double. sessions, and worst of all shifts in population among our 29 municipalities whereby some schools are way over capacity and others are all but empty of students. These conditions have persisted year after year.
Now we have the prospect of thousands of more students, Cuban and Haitian refugee children added to our attendance rolls when school opens in mid-August. The estimates are as high as 10,000 new persons will eventually be living in Broward County alone. As I stated at the outset, no one knows for certain how many of these children will settle here. As you know, Cuban families at processing centers throughout the country are still seeking sponsors or relatives. Haitian families, already here, still fearful of deportation back to Haiti, are reluctant to take that first step that could one day make them American citizens.
What is known is concern bordering on outright resentment has surfaced in the south Florida community over the presence of these thousands of people. As teachers and as union members we cannot isolate ourselves in our role with anyone's children. The job we do with refugee children ultimately affects the community. We recognize that public schools developed because immigrants to our


Certain resentments were voiced when the refugees from Southeast Asia 'Were given Government resettlement assistance a few years ago, yet little of that resentment is heard today. Asian children have been assimilated into our schools.and are on their way to becoming productive' citizens. The same thing can happen with Cuban and Haitian children, but the task will be almost impossible unless Congress acts quickly.
First of all, as a teacher who is proficient only in my own language, I know of nothing more frustrating than attempting to teach a student who speaks only Spanish or only Chinese. In those circumstances the best I can hope for is a student interpreter who can translate what I say. I can assure you that is not equal education.
We have a curious funding formula in the State of Florida that says unless a course is purely academic, purely physical, remedial or vocational in nature, it is not worthy of any extra funding. While teaching science in high school for the past 9 years, I have watched foreign language programs treated as superfluous, as frills, and bilingual teachers resigning, laid off, or at best assigned to other departments. At the time we need them most, the teachers may not be available. Add to that the fact that teacher salaries as you have heard in Florida have gone from an average of 22d highest in the United States in 1970 down to 46th highest in 1979 and you have some picture of our dilemma.
We do not expect the Federal Government to solve all our problems, nor do we want it to, but it is essential the Congress move rapidly on this legislation to fund bilingual programs and other ways to meet the influx of these children of refugees. Providing a place and a proper environment for learning for these children will 'have a twofold effect. It will not only help us make them better citizens, but will free up their parents to better.adjust their lives in a new land, which is after all what fleeing tyranny and the promise of America is all about.
In closing, let me offer our support for H.R. 7425, and I believe H.R. 7427, too, is that right, Congressman Stack?
Mr. STACK. H.R. 7425. And what I am proposing to do really is to amend the existing Indochinese Refugee Act in some part, and I think we will have to draft totally new concepts on this. I think funding in that respect would not be adequate to meet our needs. The bill I offered on May 21, 1 believe it was, 7425, but the purpose of these hearings is to find out the extent of the financial problem that does confront the local school districts, and that is the need we are trying to meet, and with your help I hope to be able to do this. I found your testimony very eloquent here today and very enlightening. If I may state at this, point, Mr. Chairman, I would like to especially welcome Mr. Costello, since he is the representative of the -Broward Teachers Union, and speaks for a very active group of teachers, and I think you have made a most perceptive statement, one that will be very helpful to us in our work as we proceed to try

ot 4

have been very helpful to the committee, and I know the full Committee on Education and Labor will appreciate your statement.
Mr. COSTELLO. We thank you very much for the opportunity to present this today.
Mr. STACK. Thank you very much for coming.
STATEMENT OF ROLAND ROLLE, UNITED TEACHERS OF DADE Mr. ROLLE. Good morning. The first thing I need to do is ask indulgence for my voice. I am very hoarse this morning, but I would like to continue with the opportunity to address the committee.
As others have indicated, we too appreciate the effort and the concern that you are showing for the problem that we have here in Dade County.
My name is Roland Rolle. I represent the United Teachers of Dade, which is the exclusive bargaining agent representing approximately 12,000 employees right here in Dade County.
You have a very brief written statement from me I hope on the podium, so I do not intent to read that. I would just like to reiterate and emphasize certain portions of that statement.
No. 1, 1 think that we are dealing with a perception problem in this community. I think it is a psychological problem. I think it is humanistic, and that has to be considered as you and your colleagues in Congress make decisions about this problem. I think several speakers have alluded to the fact that there is resentment. That resentment can be translated into some very serious problems down the road in terms of what happens. We are concerned about whether our current programs will have to be diluted because of the lack of adequate resources to take care of the new influx.
I think that you have to consider this in terms of not just seats in the classroom, but all the other aspects of the community and the expectations and things that these students would have to know in order to function properly within our society, and these are some of the special needs that have been raised by various speakers. It is not just the seat in the classroom.
For example, right here in Dade County we were trying to help ourselves with readymade plans to try and give some kind of orientation with the language problem that is sure to impede progress if it is not dealt with and not dealt with immediately.
I think too that in terms of what we expect, we too feel that inasmuch as the Federal policy is the open door, most of us agree with that, but the problem is that on the one hand we have a diminution of resources vis-a-vis the State. You heard about the village restrictions, the lack of capability of a local agency to raise funds to take care of the problem, so it is even more necessary for the Federal Government to take some immediate steps.
We do need the money if we are going to provide for these students.
I would like to raise one other concern. I think I detected this throughout the discussions. I know the subcommittee needs our

Ito' 5
Obviously I know that the process is give and take, but this could become a real serious problem, and in terms of a level of funding I would hope that at least if you cannot reimburse, that at least you will be able to take care of the excess costs, Which raises perhaps right here in Dade County a need for $10 to $12 million in terms of the current situation.
In conclusion I would urge that maybe this is the time to change the perception that I have about many of the programs that emanated from the Federal level. We start with full funding. Immediately it is 50 percent, and the following year there is nothing. I would ask that this legislation be drafted in such a way that the funding will continue as long as we have that need. We can write in some monitoring system, some mechanism for finding out have these students been assimilated, have they learned the language, or some mechanism for assessment. Write the program so that we will not be left with the problem in an era of declining resources locally.
Thank you.
[The prepared statement of Roland Rolle follows

PREPARED STATEMENT OF ROLAND ROLLE, UNITED TEACHERS OF DADE My name is Roland Rolle. My address is 2929 S.W. 3rd Avenue, Miami, Florida. I am here as a representative of the United Teachers of Dade, which is the exclusive bargaining agent for approximately 12,000 employees within the Dade County school system.
As I understand the intent of H.R. 7425, it is to provide assistance to the school system for the education of Cuban and Haitian refugee children. If that is indeed the intent, we wholeheartedly support this amendment. In our view, it is essential that the federal government take immediate steps to provide additional resources, in order to ensure that our regular program is not diminished by having to spread already meager resources further. As long as this country accepts refugees, there is a concomitant responsibility of the federal government to assist those communities who must accept those refugees.
This school system currently faces a significant short-fall of revenue for fiscal 80-81, and without further assistance from the federal government, providing for the Cuban and Haitian refugee children is going to be very problematic. We need money and we need it immediately. We must begin meaningful orientation programs so that these children will have an equal opportunity to succeed in our school system. We are planning intensive English language immersion programs for this summer and it is essential that this be accomplished. The need for additional teachers and other support services to carry out this endeavor is critical. We would further request that what you provide be more than a stop-gap measure, and instead be programmed for as long as this need exists.
In conclusion, United Teachers of Dade supports adoption of this amendment.


Chairman PERKINS. Thank you very much for that statement.
Mr. STACK. Mr. Rolle, I want to express my thanks for your statement. I think it gives us a dimension that we need to know, and while certainly we are not going to be hesitant to seek the legislation pending the figures we need, ultimately I would urge you to believe that we do need them, and I might say while I am posing a question, or let us say making a statement to you, I would like to make one further statement to Dick Costello.
Dick, you make mention in your statement about some school buildings being underutilized in Broward and some are overutilized. Let me say this: Would you subsequently get me information on the extent of the underutilization of school buildings? I think it is important that we have that.
Thank you, and thank you, Mr. Rolle.
Mr. ROLLE. Thank you very much.
Mr. STACK. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Ms. TOBIAS. Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, I am Arlene Tobias, executive director of the Florida Teaching Profession of the National Education Association, residing at 213 South Adams Street, Tallahassee, and representing over 31,000 teachers in the State of Florida.
I would like to begin by thanking the committee first for the opportunity to speak on behalf of the children of refugees from Cuba and Haiti and, secondly, for holding the hearings here in Miami. The fact that you came to Florida, to the very location where the impact of the influx of refugees is greatest, is evidence to me of your concern for and recognition of the most serious problems that the recent immigration of Cubans and Haitians poses for Florida and our public schools.
I come before you today to plead for children, the children of politically and economically oppressed Cubans and Haitians to whom this great Nation has opened its doors and its heart. One again our country has accepted the challenge and shouldered the responsibility for the homeless and the downtrodden of the world, and I am proud of us for having done so.
Now, however, we cannot stand, and we must not fail to provide the most basic essentials to the fulfillment to the American dream for the children of those refugees, a quality education, one which will enable them to become productive, contributing members of our society, and here is where we need your help.
To say that the economic impact of the refugee children on local school districts in the State of Florida is heavy would be an understatement. Local resources are currently stretched as far as they possibly can be. The Federal Government must assume its share of financial responsibility for educating Cuban and Haitian children by providing direct assistance to local school districts in Florida, such as here in Miami where the emphasis is greatest.


contribution by the Federal Government in an amount not to exceed $450 per pupil, to help alleviate the cost of educating Cuban and Haitian children.
Dade County currently estimates the cost of educating refugee children to be a full $1,000 over and above the regular per pupil expenditure, and while we believe their estimate to be conservative, Representative Stack's bill takes a definite step in the right direction, and will alleviate a sizable portion of the burden.
The 31,000 members of the FTP-NEA support H.R. 7425, and urge in every way possible that the members of this committee act favorably on it.
In addition, the children of refugees must be included in the Federal Government's impact aid program. Based upon the most recent information from Washington, Florida stands to lose $17 million in impact aid this year alone, and that loss does not even take into account the children who we are talking about today. In virtually every instance where the Federal Government cuts back, the local school district must make up for the loss if the job is going to be done for kids, and in Florida, we believe in doing the job for kids because we know they are our hope for the future.
Thank you.
In closing, let me simply state that the teachers of Florida are ready, willing, and able to meet the challenges of the CubanHaitian refugees, but their willingness and their dedication cannot do it alone. They need your help and they need the help of the Federal Government. It is time, ladies and gentlemen, for the State of Florida and the Federal Government to join hands and work together to insure that every possible opportunity is guaranteed to the children of over 100,000 Cubans and Haitians who currently have sought asylum in this country. We can do no less, because it is their children too who are our hope for the future.
Thank you.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you very much for a good statement.
Mr. STACK. Ms. Tobias, I would like to thank you, too. I would like to make one comment. In amending House bill 7897, the existing Indochinese Children's Refugee Assistance Act, I do not mean to limit the aid in H.R. 7425 to $450. On the contrary, that is why we are here. That is why we will be hearing from people throughout the country, in order to develop more accurate figures on what is realistic and what is the amount that the school boards and local districts should be reimbursed for something that has been imposed on them by the Federal Government. I thank you for your statement, but I would like to make that clear, too.
Ms. TOBIAS. Thank you.
Mr. STACK. Thank you.
Mr. ERDAHL. I just want to thank Ms. Tobias for a very good and concise statement, also. No questions.
Mr. STACK. Mr. Chairman, I must apologize. With these bright lights shining up here it is very difficult to see people out in the audience, and I was unaware of the fact that we have with us this


apologize indeed to the committee and to Mayor Clark for keeping him waiting. You also have with you, Steve,,the chairman of our county commission, Howard Forman.
Chairman PERKINS. Let me first state that I am sorry that I also did not recognize you, Mr. Mayor. I am delighted to be in your city. I always enjoy coming here, and I will come back again sometime in the future. We want to cooperate with you on this problem in every way possible.
Mayor CLARK. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and distinguished members of the panel, Congressman Stack, Mr. Erdahl, Mr. Perkins. We are a little bit down here. We do not sometimes like to be like that, but we are.
We have the largest ethnic makeup of any urban community in the world right in Dade County. We have them all the way from babies that were born on boats to senior citizens who reach in excess of 100 years, so we have a severe impact in our community, and we like it all. We live with it and we are going to get by this crisis. I am sure we will. But I would think that, Mr. Chairman and distinguished members of this panel, now that we are talking about the Cuban and Haitian refugee problem, the Nicaraguan problem, and some people from Russia, some Indochinese right in our community, it might be worth your time if you had the opportunity to see firsthand some of the reception centers that we have in our community, maybe at Opa Locka, to give you a better chance to see what it is all about.
Chairman PERKINS. How many refugee centers do you have?
Mayor CLARK. Approximately four.
Chairman PERKINS. And approximately how many refugees do you have in these centers? Tell us that, describe it briefly, and how do you screen them?
Mayor CLARK. Yes. Many of them are sent to Eglin Field, some to Camp Chaffee, some to the State of Michigan, some to Maryland, some to Pennsylvania, but when it first started the Federal Government I really believe thought this problem would go away overnight. They thought it would just evaporate, 10,000 Cuban refugees in the Embassy in Havana.
Chairman PERKINS. And perhaps a little overly generous in inviting them over.
Mayor CLARK. Whatever the case may be, but it is here, so we have to live with it. We have operational now at Opa Locka, the air base, and I am sure Congressman Stack will show you exactly where that is located. We have had an awful lot of people that got out of the separation or reclaiming centers up at Camp Chaffee,


wandering the streets, but it would be very difficult for the city of New York, the city of Dallas, or Cleveland in the period of time to have almost double the population in refugees, the permanent population. It is getting close to a half million at the present time. At one time Dade County did not have more than a half million people in the whole county.
The reason I am here today is twofold in nature. I hope you understand, and I am sure that Congressman Stack does, being a former great servant in Broward County, they blame all of the problems on the county commission, because we are the tax assessor. In other words, we set the millage, but we collect the taxes. Then we disburse the taxes to the city, the school board, and to the county, so all the blame comes back upon the county commission, and of course we accept that blame. That is our system of government. We have to go through with it.
Our position is this: If the Federal Government has taken the position that this is the policy, rightfully so, since 1960, the Federal Government should also assume some of the responsibility. I do not believe that all the counties that appear here today, Mr. Chairman, are asking too much, when it costs from $6,000 to $7,000 to construct a new office or a new schoolroom for a child, for one child. You talk about the thousands that have come and thousands that may come. We just do not know what the Federal policy is.
This county has expended probably $8 million that we did not have to take care of a problem, to take care of these refugees, rather than have them walk the streets, and to try to keep some sane position in our communities.
We are here today, Mr. Chairman, to ask you to take back to your colleagues exactly what the position is of this county, Broward County, Palm Beach County, Monroe County, and the counties that are affected with this great influx of refugees, because no one wants to drown in the ocean. Many have. No one likes the quality of education to be lowered. It will be, without some assistance.
We are here today to request of you, this subcommittee, to take back to the full committee and to your colleagues in Congress the position of this community. We are following your Federal policy, and all we are asking for is a little of your Federal help. Thank you, gentlemen.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you for an outstanding statement.
Mayor CLARK. Thank you, sir.
Chairman PERKINS. It has been very enlightening to the committee.
Mayor CLARK. Thank you.
Mr. STACK. Mayor Clark, I would like to say just one thing if I may. Of course we are here as you recognize because we are aware of the great burdens that have been laid upon you, and certainly I do not envy you your job, and believe me I will never run for mayor of Dade County. I would like to make this observation. I hope you will understand the spirit in which I say this. You speak


hoping to correct the inequity which has been caused here by the situation that this hearing is concerned with, and we hope eventually to bring you tidings of great joy that we can do precisely that, and Mayor Clark, I again apologize for keeping you here.
Mayor CLARK. No problem at all.
Mr. STACK. We get paid for this, and you go back to your office. Perhaps you enjoyed being here.
Mayor CLARK. I have.
Mr. STACK. We thank you for coming. It is good to have you with US.
Mayor CLARK. Thank you, Congressman.
Mr. STACK. Mr. Erdahl.
Mr. ERDAHL. Thank you. You said it very adequately and well.
Mr. STACK. I would like to introduce the distinguished chairman of Broward County Commission, the Honorable Howard Forman. May I ask also if I may include in this panel Ms. Garcia, director of bilingual education of the Monroe County school system, who I believe is still here.
Perhaps she has had to leave.
Mr. Forman, would you proceed.
Mr. FORMAN. Congressman Stack, Congressman Perkins, Congressman Erdahl, and ladies and gentlemen.
First of all, I would like to say that I am very pleased to have the opportunity to testify before this hearing concerning Cuban and Haitian children and the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act, House bill 7425.
Broward County shares the concerns of its neighbor, Dade County, as it relates to the economic and social impact on the south Florida communities. I wish to present some basic issues that were raised by Dr. Minnie Johnson, director of Broward County's Unit Services Department, and Mr. Robert P. Kelly, director of Broward County's Health and Medical Department at the NATO conference in Washington on May 2, 1980. They took up the issue of Cuban and Indochina refugee initiative. This demonstrates our obvious concern that goes far beyond the simple assistance in the area of education to the broader concern for support of health and human services to these new members of our community.
First, the recognition that the influx of Cubans and Haitians into the south Florida area is a national problem would be a great step forward. It is essential that the Federal administration and the U.S. Congress recognize the national as opposed to local nature of the south Florida refugee problem.
The accident of hemispheric location should not demand that local government, that this region bear the financial cost and the health and social impact of a refugee influx that is a result of the failure of Federal policy or a lack thereof.
In conjunction with this recognition, we recommend that the Federal Government make a strong financial commitment in order to ease the adverse economic and social impact in south Florida. Such money should be earmarked to deal with a multitude of institutional accommodations necessary for proper assimilation, of


course of which the educational system is one of them, health, and access to the human services support systems.
Local government structure should be empowered by adequate funding in order to resolve the issues at the local level where perceptions are more accurate and mechanisms move more easily.
To date when the Cuban refugee crisis hit us in the month of May of this year, Broward County expended out of her own coffers approximately $61,000. 1 think the figure could possibly have gone higher than that.
Mr. STACK. Say that again.
Mr. FORMAN. Broward County spent out of its own coffers over $61,000 on the Cuban refugee problem alone when the crisis hit Broward County in May of this year.
Mr. STACK. That was the initial processing for health and so forth?
Mr. FORMAN. Right, and where Broward County at the Federal request opened two armories in Broward County, one at Hollywood and one at Fort Lauderdale, and our staff in my opinion did a tremendous job and spent a lot of overtime ourselves coming from the medical department, county administration, emergency medical service, Broward County Sheriffs Department. I understand the cities of Hollywood and Fort Lauderdale, the police departments put some time in there. The total cost to the local government in this crisis was a great one. If I am trying to convince anyone of anything, I am sure you are very much aware of the problem, we are great humanitarians in Broward County. It is well known. We have had a history of that. But also, this is a federally mandated program.
As Mayor Clark told you previous to this, we have very tight local budgets this year, and we need all the assistance we can get from the Federal Government related to the charge of the immigration policy and the entire scope of the refugee problem and refugee services.
I feel that the move giving the Cuban and Haitian refugees equity is probably a decent move. It is going to last for about 6 months so far. It may be continued I understand after that, and as far as easing racial tensions in the area, if nothing else that did a lot to keep the citizens of Broward County and Dade County in a lot calmer manner, in light of recent history that both communities have had.
We are also going to press for proper screening. As you are aware, the criminal justice system in south Florida is way over capacity. Therefore, proper screening through the INS office could ameliorate some of the bureaucratic redtape and criminal justice problems being compacted by the influx of certain undesirables. This would of course involve the expansion of INS capability in this area.
Also on the issue of more effective coordination, a regional plan and policy with regard to refugees should be developed by the Federal administration. Consistent with this plan a more effective


In conclusion, I do believe the citizens of Broward County do support the inclusion of Haitians and Cubans into the Indochinese Refugee 'Children Assistance Act as part of the broader Federal acceptance of responsibility for the refugees located in our community. Meanwhile Broward County will continue to provide a basic level of services which are humane and within its economic capacity.
We stand available to offer staff to work out any details or explain any specific information required regarding the points that I just discussed.
I think basically through all the crises and through all the storms I think Broward County did rather well, and I am very proud of our record of performance there, but if I leave you with anything, we do need financial assistance for the refugees. There is no two ways about it. If House bill 7425 includes this in there, that is going to help the economic impact from our local area.
Also, we sent a resolution to Congressman Stack about not just being reimbursed for the activities we have so far had to engage in. I understand Bob Kelly, our director of health and medical services, is meeting with people today to help work this problem out.
We also want it to be known on the issue of communication, if any major policy that affects Broward County and the local south Florida areas is to be made in Washington, we hope that local officials as well as of course the congressional delegation will be consulted so we can have a lot of communication open and instead of having a crisis we can have a plan.
Mr. STACK. Chairman Forman, I want to thank you for coming. I would like to commend you and your fellow commissioners for the very fine job you did in handling the initial crisis. I would like to say this, however, that we on this committee are directing our attention specifically to the area of education. We cannot intrude into the jurisdiction of other committees, and I believe that if we do bring help to frame the impact of the additional educational cost, we will assist Broward County and the other counties in question. I certainly again am indebted to you for coming, and thank you for being so patient.
Mr. Erdahl.
Mr. ERDAHL. Just a very brief statement. I want to commend you, Mr. Stack, for involving the local government officials by inviting them to participate in our hearing this morning. I think it is absolutely essential that we have an ongoing cooperative and a coordinating spirit between and among these local levels of government. Thank you, for being with us.
Mr. FORMAN.,Thank you. I would also like to remark that of course the basis of my testifying was House bill 7425. I could not help but add some of our local concerns in here which I am sure you will take back to Washington.
I also want to commend Congressman Stack for the excellent job he has done and is doing in his office as a representative of the 12th Congressional District, and also as far as communicating with


Thank you very much.
Mr. STACK. Thank you indeed very much.
Now if I may I would like to ask Ms. Garcia to come forward, director of the bilingual education program for the Monroe County public schools. I want to thank you for your indulgence in waiting. Will you proceed with your statement.
Ms. GARCIA. I want to thank you. I am here on behalf of the superintendent and the school board of Monroe County. It is the county that includes Key West and the Florida Keys. We have had a small bilingual program in Key West for a number of years now, and even though our numbers are small, and the amount of money that we expend is small, the additional number of Cuban refugee students who have come in the last few weeks has more than doubled the number that we will have to serve. We have had 68 to enroll in just the past few weeks in Key West.
I brought an outline of the bilingual program that we have. You can see that under the nature of the program, the program involves kindergarten through 12th grade in all of the county schools. We have three major components: the instructional program, which includes English as a second language, and the equaltime Spanish language instruction in content areas of math, science, health, and social studies.
We have a teacher training program, which has as a priority to help the teachers acquire those skills needed to work with nonEnglish-speaking students, but it also includes the Spanish language program for those teachers who are interested in trying to learn Spanish.
The third aspect is the parent education program, which provides for translations of all school and/or district communication. It also provides for interpretation during parent-teacher conferences, which are designed to increase the involvement of Hispanic parents in the educational process of their children.
We have found that the more we involve Hispanic parents in the educational process, the more effective we are with the children, and so that is a very important part of our program. With this bilingual program, Monroe County provides the native language instruction and the English second-language instruction that 'is required by the Office of Civil Rights under title VI. A major concern is that these students are enrolled in various grade levels from K through 12 across nine different schools, and in order to provide the type of programs described above, each individual school is faced with costs that are quite prohibitive. We do not have any one school with a large concentration of the Cuban refugee students. We have a few in each school, and under our concept of the neighborhood school and school-based management, each school is obligated to provide the instruction that is required for those students enrolled at that particular school.


have to have a minimum of three bilingual teachers or aides. These bilingual teacher aides would work with your English-speaking teachers to provide the instructions to those students. f
In school B we might have just one Cuban refugee student, and to provide for that one student we would also have to hire one fulltime aide.
In addition to providing personnel, the schools must also purchase special Spanish-language area textbooks and materials plus English-as-a-second-language textbooks and materials.
The cost of the program: Monroe County is the county with the highest cost of living in the State of Florida. The per pupil expenditure is $1,574. In hiring teacher aides, the average teacher aide salary is $6,000. The average cost of materials per pupil is about $100.
I have a breakdown here of the figures that would be involved say in serving those students that we had in school A. The per pupil expenditure times 15 students comes to $23,615. The three teacher aides would come to $18,000. Then the benefits that would have to be paid on the salaries comes to $3,648. The materials come to $150. And to serve just 15 students in that one school we are talking about $45,263.
In school B, where we have just one student, and the school would have to hire a full-time aide to serve that student, the cost of the salaries, the fringe benefits, and materials comes to $8,890. The total cost for the 16 students at both schools comes to $54,153.
The last section, talking about the cost of new Cuban refugee students, the influx has doubled the amount of Spanish-speaking students that we have. We have gone from 61 to 129 as a result of receiving 68 new Cuban refugee students in the last few weeks. These new students are scattered throughout nine schools. We have 35 in the elementary schools, we have one junior high school in Key West, and that one has 15. We have one high school and that has 18 Cuban refugee students.
I might say we tried to estimate how many students were going to be enrolling, and each time the figure we estimated turned out to be smaller than the figure that actually enrolled. We estimated we would be getting 50 students in the last influx; we received 68. We had estimated 17 would enroll in summer English-languageinstruction classes; we had 35 enroll. We estimated 5 would enroll in the high school, and we have 18. So our figures have been quite conservative.
Again using the per pupil expenditure, the salary, fringe benefits, the cost of materials, and estimating that each of these nine schools would need at least three bilingual teachers or teacher aides, then the minimum that the 68 Cuban refugee students will cost is the following. Again I have the breakdown, and it comes to a total of $275,832. This is dealing only with instructional salaries, per pupil expenditure, and materials. It is not including any other cost. It is also dealing just with the 68 that we have received so far, and we really do not know what the eventual total number of


Key West, Fla.
SUBJECT: Cost of educating Cuban Refugee students in public schools
PRESENTED BY: Eleanor M. Garcia, Director of the Bilingual Education Progran for the Monroe County Public Schools
I. Nature of Program
There is a District Bilingual Program (K-12) in all county schools. It has
three major components:
1) the instructional program which provides
a) English As A Second Language; and,
b) Equal-time Spanish language instruction in content areas of Math, Science, Health, and Social Studies.
2) the teacher training program which provides instruction
in the Spanish language and helps the teacher to acquire or improve their skills in working with Spanish-speaking
3) the parent education program which provides for translations of
all school and/or district communication and for an interpreter
during parent-teacher conferences designed to increase the
nvolvement of Hispanic parents in the educational process
of their children.'
With this bilingual program, Monroe County provides the native language
instruction and the English Second Language Instruction as required by
the Office of Civil Rights under Title Vi.
II. Concern/Problems
The Cuban-Refugee students are in various grade levels from Kindergarten
thru 12th grade. They are enrolled in 9 different schools.
In order to provid e the bilingual program described above, each
individual school is faced with costs that are prohibitive. Note the
following examples:
School A) This school has the following number of bilingual student s at each grade level: 4 in Kindergarte 4 in 1st, 1 in 2nd,
3 in 3rd, 1 in 4th, 2 in 5th, for a total of 15 students. This school must employ. a minimum of 3 bilingual teachers or aides in order to provide the required bilingual instruction.


School B) This school has only one bilingual student at one grade level,
say 3rd grade. The school must employe one full time bilingual
teacher or aide to properly serve this student.
In addition to providing personnel, the schools must also purchase
special Spanish language content area textbooks and materials, plus
English As A Second language textbooks and materials, for these students.
III. Cost of the program
The per pupil expenditure in Monroe County is $1,574.00. The average
teacher aide salary is $6,000.00. The average cost of materials per
pupil is $100.00.
With these figures we can look at what it will cost School A and
School B to operate their program:

School A) $1,574.00 x 15 students $23,615.00
6,000.00 x 3 teacher aides 18,000.00
1,216.00 x 3 i t 3,648.00
(Fringe Benefits on $6,000.00)
l00.QO x 15 150.00
Total Cost for 15 students......... $45,263.00
School B) $1,574.00 x 1 student $ 1,574.00
6,000.00 x 1 teacher aide 6,000.00
1,216.00 x 1 i f 19,16.00
100.00 x 1 student 100.00
Total Cost for 1 student ........... $ 8,890.00

Per pupil expenditure Salary
Fringe Benefits
Materials & Books
Per pupil expenditure Salary
Fringe Benefits Textbooks & Materials

Total costs for the 16 students at Schools A & B= $54,153.00.
IV. Estimated Cost of New Cuban Refugee Students
The influx of new Cuban Refugees has doubled the amount of Spanish-speaking students in Monroe County Schools. We have gone from 61 to 129 as a result ofreceiving 68 new Cuban Refugee students in the last few weeks. These new students are scattered throughout 9 schools with 35 in elementary schools, 15 in junior high, and 18 in high schools.
Estimating that each of these 9 schools will need at least 3 bilingual
teachers or teacher aides, then the very minimum that these 68 Cuban Refugee students will cost is the following:-

$18,000 x 9 schools =
1,574 x 68 students=
100 x 68 students=

$162,000.00 107,032.00

Per pupil expenditure Textbooks & Materials

Total Cost for 68 new students $275,832.00
Please note that this would be the bare minimum that would allow Monroe
County to provide some assistance. It does not cover any additional expenditures that might be needed in Special Education, Gifted, or Vocational courses. It does not cover district personnel such as a director or a secretary or a translator. It is a barebones, subsistence figure. Much more than this would be needed to provide a quality bilingual program, especially if additional Cuban Refugee students should enroll between now and August. We expected 40 for Summer School, 68 registered, and we feel more will still enroll.


We recommend that the Federal Government provide the schools with the
necessary funds to provide these students with a quality bilingual educational program, emphasizing instruction in the English language, which will allow them to be successfully mainstreamed into the Key West school system and community.
It is essential that these students be able to enter and succeed in
the present Key West or American economy. They must learn English well and they must learn the skills that will allow them the opportunity of
securing jobs.
This federal assistance for educating the Cuban Refugee students must come now, or at least hy August so that the school system will have the time to secure the personnel and the materials prior to the first day of
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you very much for an outstanding statement. It is very inclusive. We appreciate it.
Mr. STACK. Ms. Garcia, I would like to add my thanks for your statement. It has been very helpful in giving us the actual breakdown of figures, and we certainly appreciate your presentation and your kindness in waiting so long.
Thank you.
Chairman PERKINS. Mr. Erdahl.
Mr. ERDAHL. Just quickly an observation. This is true not only in south Florida but also in New York and in the West in giving bilingual education. I wonder sometimes if we should not be making a greater move than we are in society toward having English as the first language, and trying to get to the other language as the second language. One of the situations that comes to mind is in our high school our son just graduated in Falls Church in Virginia, Jeb Stuart High School. Of the over 500 students in the class was a young girl from Korea who gave a very moving address saying "Over 5 years ago I could not speak one word of English." S he was forced by the situation to take courses in English. I do not know if there was any help in the Korean language or not.
I am not saying we should do away with bilingual education. We must stress that. But if you care to share your opinion in dealing with this maybe from your background you could speak more eloquently to it than I could. Are we making the proper thrust in our whole society toward moving toward the language of the country?
Ms. GARCIA. With the bilingual education program we really unfortunately do not have any choice. Monroe County is under court order to be in compliance with title VI of the Office of Civil Rights, and under that title VI regulation known as the Lau remedies we have to provide native-language instruction, so even if we thought we could serve these students in a better way, we do not have the choice.
Mr. ERDAHL. I am not trying to put you on the spot. My mother came to this country not speaking any English, and of course most


Ms. GARCIA. I think so. Personally in our program we have found that after about 2 or 3 years of being in a bilingual program, the child does -make the transition into the regular classroom.
Mr. ERDAHL. How long was that?
Ms. GARCIA. About 2 or 3 years.
Mr. ERDAHL. If I can interrupt there, in the district that we moved. into in Virginia it was very different from our rural district in Minnesota. We have many people, Southeast Asians and others, and I have been impressed how quickly they learn English, especially the kids. Sometimes the parents have a difficult time, but these kids have a remarkable ability and facility for learning English. They play with kids, learn it in the classroom and just in their daily lives.
Ms. GARCIA. They will learn. We have found that the students will learn how to speak English very quickly. As a matter of fact, children are in kindergarten classes who enter in August knowing no English at all, by the end of the school year are speaking English, and they prefer to speak English.
Mr. ERDAHL. Remarkable.
Ms. GARCIA. Once they are in first grade at the end of first grade with some of them we are able then to transfer them into regular English instruction classes. The reason that the native language instruction is so important is that as they are learning English, they are also getting the conceptual development of math concepts and the science concepts and the social and the political under social studies concepts, in their native language. Otherwise they would only be learning English. Once they are able to read English they will not have the conceptual problem, and would become what you would call your underachiever.
Mr. ERDAHL. That is a very valid point. Thank you for sharing it with us, and thank you for your fine testimony.
Chairman PERKINS. The committee will now adjourn and resume its hearings in Washington. Thank you.
Mr. STACK. Mr. Chairman, before you adjourn, if I may impose on you, and you are very gracious.
Chairman PERKINS. Will you go ahead, Mr. Stack.
Mr. STACK. I do want to say this. I think I would be derelict if I did not point out our great debt to both Congressman Fascell and Congressman Lehman for their contributions in the supplemental budget for 1980 in bringing to fruition the House resolution to include $100 million in refugee aid largely because of its impact in this area, and I think we should acknowledge our gratitude to these very fine and effective colleagues serving the country, Congressman Lehman and Congressman Fascell.
Thank you, sir.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you all. I likewise wish to concur in that last statement. The gentlemen who represent this area are outstanding Members of Congress. Thank you all. The committee will now adjourn. [Whereupon, at 12:20 p.m., the subcommittee adjourned, to reconvene at th callof he-Chair.

The history of this Country is one in which we have always proudly believed would accept political refugees from any part of the world--refugees who sought the freedom that was inherent with living in the United States. Throughout the several years of American history we have generally been able to absorb these heavy refugee loads. This capacity to absorb waves of immigrants has for the most part been spread throughout the United States during the last several years. The Vietnamese refugees, for example, were diffused throughout the Country, but in the Cuban situation, the refugees tended to concentrate within the State of Florida.
The geographic proximity of South Florida to Cuba and the accumulation of families in the Miami area particularly, created a natural attraction for the Cuban refugees to South Florida. It has been a factor in the economy of South Florida, and indeed the State of Florida, and up until this time this factor has in the long run been positive.


The Cubans who have come to this Country have proved to be
model American citizens, highly productive and generally providing a fresh culture that has enriched this State, as well as the Nation. There does come a time, however, when a single massive immigration produces strains on the necessary services that government provides for its people. There will be a considerable delay before this wave of immigrants becomes self sufficient taxpayers. I intend to address primarily the area relating to educational services and the strain on the Florida education system as a result of the recent massive immigration of some 100,000 Cuban refugees. The effect of this immigration within the last several months has been to add approximately 15,000 students to the State school system, almost all of these being in Dade County and the Miami area.
In calculating the cost of absorbing 15,000 new Cuban and 550 Haitian Students into a single county school system has been projected at approximately $20 million dollars. My personal reaction to that figure would be that it may be too low. The State Educational Finance Program (FEFP) does not take into consideration the requirement for additional guidance and counseling of non-english speaking students. It does not take into consideration the cost of summer school and summer programs to help prepare these non-english speaking students for public school. It does not take into consideration the need for bilingual teachers nor does it provide for

the construction of facilities that will be required to house this additional student load. It is calculated up until very recently that there were approximately 27 new Cuban students a day enrolled in the Dade County school system, after an initial enrollment of 440 Cuban students the first day of heavy immigration. This amounts to the need for at least one new classroom a day.
This one new classroom a day is obviously a significant increase in capital facility requirements. The Legislature of Florida, this year, did provide for an opportunity for local school districts to raise significant village dollars for the purpose of construction of new classrooms. In spite of this, it will be-necessary to lease space for the coming year or two until new classroom facilities can be built.
It is clear then, that the impact overall on just the Dade
County school system alone can easily be established at $20 million or more. Statewide the figure increases in the neighborhood of $20 $22 million dollars. The reason that federal funds are needed to meet this particular burden at this time, is that the State has been struck by several fiscal jolts which prohibit us from identifying additional operational dollars to meet this burden.
The most significant was the loss of $70 million dollars in
General Revenue Sharing which we are convinced will not be available

through federal law this year. Florida's entire share of General Revenue Sharing was placed in the FEFP program, and has been over the past several years. After consulting at some length with both House and Senate Congressional members, the Governmenit operations Committee of the House, and the Finance Committee of the Senate, it is clear that the State General Revenue Sharing funds will he lost for our 80-81 fiscal year. There is still some question as to whether or not the Proximire amendment will prevail which would not authorize current fiscal year funding of General Revenue Sharing to states--which would put us behind an additional $35 million dollars.
In addition to the above, our revenue projections based upon the Florida sales tax experience suggested that we will be some $50 to $60 million dollars lower than anticipated at the time of our original biennial Appropriations Act when passed in the 1979 Legislative session.
In summary, as a result of both a loss of'State General Revenue Sharing and the declining economy, the impact of 15,000 Cuban and 550 Haitian Creole students on the Dade County school system is going to have to he met by either a diminution of services to the students in Dade County and to some extent, throughout the State, or by a replacement of the additional dollars from federal sources. It is therefore important, I believe, for this Committee to consider and hopefully recommend that appropriations be made to meet this particular burden so that the impact does not have to be borne by those children currently already in the Dade County School system by a diminution in the quality of their education.
I want to thank the members of the Committee for allowing me to appear before them today, and if you have any questions, I would be happy to answer them.

The subcommittee met at 9:30 a.m., pursuant to notice, in room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Carl D. Perkins (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.
Members present: Representatives Perkins, Kildee, Murphy, Goodling, Erdahl, and Stack.
Staff present: John F. Jennings, counsel; Nancy L. Kober, staff assistant; Mike Mazzoli, staff intern.
Chairman PERKINS. The Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education is continuing hearings this morning on H.R. 7425. This bill, introduced by Congressman Stack, would amend the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act to authorize payments to States with Cuban and Haitian refugee children enrolled in their elementary and secondary schools. We had a very productive hearing on this bill in Miami last week. At that time the magnitude and urgency of the problems created by an influx of school-age refugees was brought forcefully to our attention.
As the witnesses here this morning will indicate, this problem extends beyond Florida. Many school districts around the country will be facing a crisis in the fall as they attempt to serve large numbers of refugee children with limited local resources.
I would like to commend Congressman Stack for introducing this bill and initiating these hearings. I am looking forward to today's testimony.
Mr. Stack, I understand that you may want to make a statement, so you go ahead at this time.
Mr. STACK. Thank you very much, Mr. Perkins.
I would like to commend you for having personally joined in the hearing that we conducted in Dade County, Fla. I know it was not easy for you to make this trip down there at that particular time, but you chose to make this a priority which I think is one that should be the priority of everyone.
We are dealing essentially with the question of assisting not individual refugees but local school districts that are being impacted by an influx of the Caribbean refugee children. I want to emphasize that.
There has been some misunderstanding, I think, of what we are attempting to do. The general per pupil cost of education is ap(85)


proximately $2,000 a year in Dade County, Fla.-that is just about the figure-and of this about 11 percent comes to the school board from the Federal Government under existing legislation. About 50 percent comes from the State of Florida, so that the local share is about 40 percent of the per pupil cost. That translates into $800 per child.
To the extent the school board is impacted by new children coming from the Caribbean areas, most parents are not yet in a position to contribute to the tax roles. It is important that we look at this question from the point of view of what the impact on education generally will be if the Federal Government does not choose to pick up the cost which has been placed upon the school boards.
At Dade County-using that as an example-it has a deficit currently of approximately $24 million to fund the cost of education for children already enrolled in the school system. It is estimated the additional cost that we thrust upon the school board by the influx of these refugee children will be in the magnitude of $20 milHlion. That was developed in our testimony in Dade County. Therefore, what we are asking at this time is that the school board receive from the Federal Government that amount of money, and this would be true, of course, as Mr. Perkins points out, not just in Dade County, Fla. We have a problem in my own county, Broward County, Fla., where the school board people testified that their additional cost would be something like $5 million.
This is a problem that exists in many other States-New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Illinois-throughout the country.
We are asking for simple justice. Since the Federal immigration policy is responsible for the creation of the problem, it is only appropriate that the Federal Government reimburse the school districts. We are not asking for aid to the States. We are not asking for aid to individual refugees. We are asking the local school districts which must meet this problem be assisted to the extent of the additional cost. That is not simply the per pupil cost which presently exists.
Obviously, there are language problems. Most of these children speak Spanish. In the case of Cubans they speak Creole. I would like to emphasize we have also refugee children from other nations. They are not conversant with English. We can't teach them in English.
Now, we would, of course, hope that the school districts have empty classrooms where these children could be clustered in an appropriate number, say 30 to a class, and that among other things, obviously, we would certainly teach them English, but we would also have to teach the other courses, in mathematics, for example, sciences, social studies, and what I might choose to call cultural courses in music, the arts and so forth, home economics.
The fact is that they could be included in the general group for physical training classes, but basically, if 'we could get bilingual teachers to fteach these case,q the cost nfwould hbe diminished. lThat.


ratio throughout the country for the local burden, we would have some additional cost necessitated from the fact that. we have a language teaching problem.
This problem will diminish, we hope, in time. We are writing this legislation, which I might say is technically an amendment to the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act. The fact is we are simply trying to include the children of the Caribbean refugees. That is the essence of H.R. 7425; that is the mechanism on which we will tack this legislation. We are also talking in summary of the impact of the cost to the school boards for the per pupil cost plus additional sums as may be determined appropriate to provide for orientation, language training and other courses that will be required especially for these refugee children.
Basically, that is what we would like to discuss today with our panelists. And, Mr. Chairman, I thank you very much.
Chairman PERKINS. Thank you very much, Mr. Stack.
Our first witnesses are a panel from the Secretary's office and I would like for all of them to come around-Dr. Michael Bakalis, Deputy Under Secretary, Department of Education, Mr. Josue Gonzalez, Director, Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs, Department of Education; Mr. James H. Lockhardt, Director, Indochina Refugee Assistance Staff, Department of Education-all of you come around.
Without objection, all your prepared statements will be inserted in the record. You can summarize your statement or proceed in any manner you prefer.
Dr. BAKALIS. Good morning, Mr. Chairman. My name is Michael Bakalis and I am Deputy Under Secretary for Intergovernmental Affairs in the U.S. Department of Education. To my immediate left is Mr. Josue Gonzalez, Director of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs in the Department; and to his left, Mr. James Lockhardt, Director of Indochina Refugee Assistance Staff, in the Department. I am pleased to appear before you today to present the Department's position on H.R. 7425 proposed by Representative Stack of Florida to amend the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act of 1976 to provide assistance to educational agencies for services to Cuban and Haitian children.
Mr. Chairman, all of us agree that it is necessary to meet the


created by the rapid influx of Cuban and Haitian immigrant children into south Florida public schools.
Secretary Hufstedler directed me to meet with the Florida Commissioner of Education and the Dade County, Fla., Superintendent of Schools within days after the enrollment of the first newly arrived immigrant child.
Our objective from the outset has been to work with State and local officials to plan the assimilation of all the anticipated new arrivals into the public schools expeditiously and with a minimum of disruption.
During my visit to Miami I saw firsthand the types of problems confronting local school districts in their efforts to provide services to these children. We have recognized from the beginning that the greatest obstacle to the full integration of the Cuban and Haitian students into American schools is the lack of English language ability.
Removal of this substantial barrier will make rapid assimilation into American education and social systems a reality; therefore, our initial assistance has been directed at supplemental English language training programs.
With this view in mind, the Department's Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs in mid-June awarded a $1 million emergency grant from title VII, ESEA, to the Dade County Public Schools to fund a 6-week summer immersion program of intensive English-language training, using bilingual instruction techniques.
As of last week, approximately 7,500 students had been admitted to the district's schools and efforts were underway to include them in the summer program, which begins today. At this time we are having discussions with local education officials in other affected Florida school districts regarding similar assistance, particularly in Broward and Monroe Counties. However, it is clear that the major impact has been and will probably continue to be on Dade County.
We are also beginning to explore means of effectively coping with the educational needs of the resettled immigrant children with education officials of other States. However, Mr. Chairman, we realize that the assistance we have already provided to schools burdened by the admission of these children will only help solve a small part of the problem and only for the short term.
The question facing us now relates to how we insure that the needs of these newly arrived Cuban and Haitian children, along with the needs of other children who are refugees, are handled equitably.
Under the Refugee Act of 1980 the vast majority of Cuban and Haitian immigrants who recently arrived in south.'Florida are not considered refugees. On June 20, Ambassador Victor Palmieri, U.S. Refugee Coordinator, announced that the Attorney General has provided a 6-month parole for these Cuban and Haitian entrants.
At this time these recent immigrants are technically termed


Of the aliens entering the United States each year, many thousands are determined to be refugees under the law. In the classic sense, they are fleeing their homelands in fear of losing their lives. Last year the President, in consultation with the Congress, determined that 234,200 aliens would be given refugee status and allowed to reside in the United States. 0.
Of the 234,200 refugees expected to be admitted to the United States this year, 19,500 refugees were to arrive from Cuba. These Cuban refugees included political prisoners and some occupants of the Peruvian Embassy in Havana whose lives were jeopardized by remaining in Cuba. The large majority of the recent influx of 115,000 Cubans constitutes family reunification cases.
Amending the Refugee Act of 1980 to define all these people as refugees would result in unfair, inequitable treatment for the hundreds of thousands of Soviet and Eastern European people awaiting family reunification. However, the President recognizes that State and local governments face an enormous burden of assimilation until these people become self-supporting members of society. As a result, the administration is developing legislation that would provide relief to States and localities, help meet some of the social and educational needs of these Cuban and Haitian entrants and preserve the intent of the Refugee Act of 1980.
Finally, Mr. Chairman, the Department acknowledges the distinction made between entrants and refugees under the law but recognizes that these Cuban and Haitian entrants have essentially the same special educational needs as all children who have left their homelands and enrolled in schools in this country.
As a result, the Department proposes to provide funds for a program of educational services to Cuban and Haitian entrants under the Secretary's discretionary authority, Section 303, ESEA. This program will be used to provide services that are identical to the program developed for refugees under the authority of the Refugee Act of 1980.
The Department has requested $7.7 million to implement this program for approximately 25,500 children of recent Cuban and Haitian entrants during the 1980-81 school year. Mr. Chairman, the $7.7 million that we have requested will provide approximately $300 for each Cuban and Haitian child under our current plan. If this, money is appropriated under the Indochina refugee children assistance program and divided among both Indochinese refugee and Cuban and Haitian children, less than $60 per child will be available.
Because we believe Congress wisely designed this existing authority, the Secretary's discretionary authority, section 303, ESEA, with a flexibility which permits us to meet the needs of children such as these, the administration does not support the enactment of H.R. 7425.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman,
Chairman PERKINS. Dr. Bakalis, in Florida we were told that it costs $2,000 to provide a basic education for one child and that


m-ent? That is the question in my mind. How can we say we can only go that far when we permitted them all to come here? When you consider the cost at the local school level of more than $2,000, and if bilingualism is involved it may run as high as $3,000, how can we get around that discrepancy of discrimination against the local boards?
Dr. BAKALIS. I believe part of the answer is that the figure we have been dealing with when working with the Florida school officials has been approximately $1,000 per student, rather than $2,000. Our $300 figure represents the initial effort on the Department's part to attack the problem of language barrier. We do not claim that the $300 is a total figure for the education of the child, but rather that the $300 represents the approximate Cost of providing that bilingual education and that it is probably closer-I suppose it depends on what ingredients are put into the whole package-but it is probably closer to $1,000 or more for the total education costs.
Our emphasis at this point has been to attack the immediate problem of bilingualism and the need to make sure that the children have full access to education by surmounting the language barrier.
Chairman PERKINS. You support the legislation but only to the extent of $300, am I correct?
Dr. BAKALIS. Our present effort would target $300 per child beyond the normal Federal contribution. If you mean do we support the effort on the part of the Federal Government to help Dade County or any other part of the country in responding to the needs of these children, yes, we support that. We simply believe that we have the authority currently to provide the initial help that we believe is necessary, primarily in the area of bilingual training.
Chairman PERKINS. Mr. Stack?
Mr. STACK. Doctor, I am aware, of course, of the intensive program in Dade County for language training this summer and I commend you for that fine endeavor. Obviously, as a result of a 6or 7-week course these children will not become facile in English. They may understand some English after that course is concluded. I am sure they will, but it becomes apparent that if we are to teach them the regular courses like I mentioned before, beyond English language training, how is a child newly arrived-from Cuba or Haiti or Nicaragua or wherever, going to be taught mathematics, science, social studies, and other courses, even after this course, unless it is in his own language?
You suggest that the per pupil cost in Dade County is $1,000. That is not factual. The per pupil cost is indeed approximately $2,000. Every new child that comes into the school system requires an expenditure by the school board of $2,000 whether that child be technically a refugee or whether he is denominated by a different language.
I think we are engaged in semantics when we talk about these


But the fact is, for some period of time, at least 1 year, we will have to teach these children all the basic courses, to which I alluded, in their own language. This is going to impose the normal per pupil cost on the school board.
I think I have stated that of the $2,000, a portion comes from the State government and a portion comes from the Federal Government; admittedly, the local school district portion would come to approximately $800 for that particular basic cost, if you will, to teach these children as other children would be taught. The only difference would be they would be taught in their language of origin. We recognize there are some additional costs and I think you are recognizing that as well. Under the Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act I understand the amount that has been paid is the figure of $450 for the Indochinese children.
We will come to that later, but the point I am making is this: It would be grossly inadequate to suggest to the Dade County School Board, Broward County School Board and others throughout the country a $300 payment by the Federal Government for a problem the Federal Government created.
After all-and I am not saying this in a critical sense-Mr. Carter's open-hands, open-heart policy invited these people. They did come, as you know, in great numbers, 114,000 from Cuba, and the vast majority will eventually wind up in Dade County. It is not fair for the Federal Government to say we are going to give the Dade County School Board $300 to meet this need. It simply will not meet it.
Let me say this: I am rather surprised that you would have any objection to the bill that we are proposing here. The Congress through this bill will be taking the initiative and saying "We are going to do the fair thing and pay the full cost to the school district." Now, if the administration says, "All right, we are willing to go along up to a certain point" that would be fine. And you say in your statement, if I understand you, the administration is preparing legislation. But the need is immediate. We can't wait for legislation; we don't want to address this problem sometime after we adjourn. That is why I took this initiative early on to get money down there to the school districts that need it, and to the school districts in States like Pennsylvania and New Jersey which were also heavily impacted, perhaps not to the same extent. Obviously not; but it is not sufficient to say you have language in preparation.
I would suggest the administration has been dilatory in meeting this need. It is fine to have summer courses but summer courses obviously are not the answer.
I think it is a very commendable effort. I think the earlier these children learn English, the better, but we cannot teach them in the coming school year inany language other than their language of origin, so I would hope you would support the amendment I have suggested here, and that we do the equitable thing by the local school districts.


Mr. STACK. You did say you would oppose the bill?
Dr. BAKALIS. Only on the grounds we believe there are sufficient existing legislative authorities and other actions in process or planning that will respond to the problem.
Mr. STACK. You have given us the figure of $300?
Dr. BAKALIS. That is only one part of it. You are absolutely correct that the children will need to continue their learning of varying matters in their native language in the fall. It is clear they are not going to become English proficient in 2 or 3 or 5 weeks. But it is also important to keep in mind there will be continual bilingual education training. We expect the various affected school districts with high concentrations to continue bilingual training and probably enlarge their programs in the fall; so the bilingual effort will not stop in the fall.
In addition, we have other educational programs which are ongoing title I programs, the $100 million that is proposed by Representative Fascell, the administration's forthcoming legislation.
Mr. STACK. None of that money that Representative Fascell was responsible for passing through the House is designed to go to educational services.
Dr. BAKALIS. I believe part of it is, sir.
Mr. STACK. I would disagree. Some portion of it may. I would not want to make a flat contradictory statement, but the point is it is not really directed at the problem we have here.
I would like to emphasize this point. We sit here as the Committee on Education and Labor. Education is our primary mandate on this committee and indeed we feel that education, next to national defense, is the primary concern of our system of government, not necessarily the Federal Government, but we feel that if we properly meet the educational needs of our children, we will solve many of our problems. Education impacts on all of our social and economic problems, so what we are doing here is not suggesting we spend money; we are suggesting we make an investment in the education of children newly arrived. If we do not do this, if the school boards' needs are not met adequately, financially, the quality of education for all children will diminish. The place to look to for help for this money is the Federal Government since the school year opens September 1, we have little time here and the school boards have to be assured they have the money on hand.
That is the essential point I want to make throughout this hearing. We are not simply talking about the refugee children, we are talking about children already enrolled in the school system; because if we don't get the money, the school districts will have no option but to increase classroom size. There will not be enough books to go around. There won't be teaching materials to go around. The entire quality of the educational system will suffer and the Nation will be the loser.
I think therefore in equity we would ask you to support this legislation, and if Congress is willing to appropriate the money for


per child because the total amount would have to be shared with Indochinese refugee children as well. Mr. STACK. In the language of the bill, we will spell out precisely what we will do. We will pay to the school boards the per pupil cost less what they are already receiving from the State and Federal Government- to meet per pupil cost for other children, and also whatever additional cost for language training and so forth.
If we spell this out in the bill, it will be clear we will meet the needs of the local school district. Any money the Federal Government has on hand for other purposes can come in behind us. You will not be spending any additional money except to the extent I outlined; $300 is not going to do the job.
Intensive language courses this summer will not do the job, and we can't sit around and wait. The school year begins very shortly and I hope to have this bill, with Mr. Perkins' blessing, through the committee in a few weeks and on the floor of the House, and I would certainly hope that the administration would support this effort which they themselves have the responsibility' to do in view of the fact that they created the problem.
Dr. BAKALIS. I wonder if it would be permissible for Mr. Gonzalez to add a comment, as the Director of Bilingual Education?
Mr. GONZALEZ. I want to point out that our experience with the title VII Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been that at best we have been able to make awards which average roughly .$350 per child out of that discretionary grant authority.
In making the award to Dade County for the summer program, for example, we took that figure into account, since the funds have always been limited for title VII. But I did want to emphasize that in addition to the title, VII ESEA funds that are available, there are the funds that could flow under the discretionary authority of the Secretary and it might be possible to concentrate the funds on those areas which are particularly impacted with Caribbean entrants using the Secretary's authority a lot quicker than we could through the other authority.
The Refugee Act authority is an HHS authority. The education authority we are using for the $7.7 million resides with the Secretary of Education directly.
Mr. STACK.What amount of money would you be looking at.? You said that under title VII, discretionary funds of $300 would be available. Now, if you are looking at the Secretary's discretionary money, how many additional dollars would we be looking at?
Mr. GONZALEZ. I don't know that I could name a figure. It would depend on how much money we had.
Mr. STACK.My bill will spell out the amount of money and, after all, you will agree that the House of Representatives has the duty, and certainly the right, to appropriate monev. If we can come


and using it for all refugees-if we consider Cubans and Haitians to be refugees-we presently would only have $60 per child using that formula for it.
Mr. STACK. I don't follow that.
Mr. GONZALEZ. There are currently 66,000 children nationwide.
Mr. STACK. I am talking about this new influx which the administration created. Admittedly-and I said this before-you are paying about $100 million, as I understand, for the Indochinese children. I am not trying to diminish the assistance that is given to them.
What I am trying to do is something different, a new way of addressing that problem. The Indochinese children are more spread throughout the Nation, whereas you correctly state that the greatest impact will be felt in certain districts, such as Dade County.
I am still unable to understand why you would not add whatever funds are available from title VII to the Secretary's discretionary funds for the purpose of solving the problem we are addressing here this morning. And if Congress authorizes expenditures by the Federal Government, say $800 per child, to meet the basic per pupil cost, plus some additional funds for bilingual training, I would not be able to understand why you would not find that an appropriate way to go.
Dr. BAKALIS. At the risk of being too repetitious, again, we believe that we can do the job more efficiently, more quickly, through existing authority and through the total funds that are available through other programs.
Now, I suppose that, in the interest of efficiency and nonduplication, if there is one comprehensive program that covers everything and permits us to eliminate all these other things, that might have some rationale behind it. At this point we think it can be done as we have proposed.
Mr. STACK. I don't want to do anything duplicative in the legislation. We are going to address the subject of Caribbean refugee children and we are asking Congress to appropriate funds to meet the entire burden thrust upon the school boards by the Federal Government. Then to the extent that you are already meeting the needs throughout the Nation of other types of refugees, whether we choose to call them refugees or whatever, and I commend you for that, additionally we need action quickly. With all due respect I don't think what you are suggesting would be adequate.
So, I think perhaps we have a difference of opinion and let's agree that we do. I will do it the way I think it should be done, and you do it the way you think it should be done, and some time you will come in behind us and help. You already have some money and you won't have to put any more in for that purpose. Let's get onwth the job. That is what I am suggesting. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman PERKINS. Mr. Goodlingr?
Mr. GOODLING. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.


I don't follow your thinking that it would not be fair to eastern Europeans because I am sure if there is another situation like 1956 in Hungary or anything of that nature, we will accept them and make whatever arrangements we have to make. Many of them, of course, at the present time cannot get out.
Let me ask you a couple of questions:
You say you already programed $1 million into Dade County, then you are also talking about $7.7 million for all other Cuban and Haitian refugees?
Dr. BAKALIS. Yes, sir.
Mr. GOODLING. Now, how much money is already available under section 303? You said we are taking the money from section 303?
Dr. BAKALIS. At present I believe there is none.
Mr. GOODLING. Then my second question: What is the status of your $7.7 million request?
Dr. BAKALIS. Well, it was included, sir, as part of Representative Fascell's $100 million request.
Mr. GOODLING. The $7.7 million is in that request?
Dr. BAKALIS. Yes, sir.
Mr. STACK. Is that amount for Dade County?
Dr. BAKALIS. Not only for Dade County, sir.
Mr. STACK. The $7.7 million is not for Dade County?
Dr. BAKALIS. Not only for Dade County.
Mr. GOODLING. I understand that was for all Cuban and Haitian refugee children who are coming in. I guess we have a problem with the legislation because of the administration's definition of these recent entrants.
I understand their problem but they have had a lot of time to come up with better answers. I would think that where we say "a bill to amend the Indochina Refugee Assistance Act," we say "Cuban and Haitian refugee children" I suppose we would have to change that word, since I would imagine that since they are not called refugee children, then the act would not benefit them anyway because the administration would say they are not refugee children.
Mr. STACK. I would say I would be willing to adopt the semantics of the administration if they will adopt my view that we should properly reimburse the school districts.
Mr. Goodling, I believe we could meet that need in drafting the amendment that I am proposing. I might say, parenthetically, Mr. Perkins has informed me that after the recess, on July 22, he is scheduling markup on the bill which I suggested, so that we do not propose to be dilatory here.
We are going to get right at this and if there are some funds already available from the bill that Mr. Fascell sponsored, so much the better. We will have some basis to build on, plus the $300 you mentioned. Therefore, this will diminish the financial burden we are placing upon the Federal Government to that extent. We are not going to be-as I said-duplicative. We will add on amounts sufficient to do the equitable thing that requires doing. Thank you.
Mr. GOODLING. Second, I think we would have to find some kind of accommodation to section B, because herein lies the dilemma for the administration, I think, because here you are saying they will