Citation
Military notes on Cuba, 1909

Material Information

Title:
Military notes on Cuba, 1909
Series Title:
War Dept. Document ;
Creator:
Furlong, John William, 1869-
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
c 1909.
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (757 pages) : maps. ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geografía militar ( bidex )
Military geography ( fast )
Cuba ( fast )
Genre:
federal government records ( aat )
Registros del gobierno federal
Temporal Coverage:
US tutelage ( 1902 - 1958 )
Tutela de los Estado Unidos ( 1902 - 1958 )
Spatial Coverage:
Cuba

Notes

System Details:
Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Statement of Responsibility:
[prepared by Capt. John F. Furlong] ; War Dept., Office of the Chief of Staff.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Latin American Collections
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
035612198 ( ALEPH )
616918629 ( OCLC )
Classification:
U1 .U76 ( lcc )

Full Text
,!, ipt
I -If
. tv
Xf




0













i~i ii iIi ,ii
!i~~ ~ ~~ oiiL:,i,:,iii_;
pp r
i~~mi~~i~~i T v,!! ,-.-44,1 'k f N ---iT
I ,,"" '~4 A"""iili
r- I !!




IL./krjrlrll
4C4DlLJLJE4Crrlj[4ojj




WAR DEPARTMENT: OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF
Second Section, General Staff, No. 15
MILITARY NOTES ON CUBA
1909
WASHINGTON: : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.: :1909




7'000q
WAR -DEPARTMENT,
Document No. 345.
Office of the Chief of Staff.




INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

These military notes were compiled in the Military Information Division, Army of Cuban Pacification, during the occupation of Cuba in 1906, 1907, and 1908. The plan was formulated in said division and carried to completion under the supervision of the commanding generals of that army.
This compilation was prepared by Capt. John W. Furlong, General Staff Corps, who was in charge of the Military Information Division, Army of Cuban Pacification, February 19, 1907, to November 23, 1908.
The island of Cuba was divided into districts, to each of which an intelligence officer was assigned and almost all of the information herein contained was obtained by these officers. Some general information has been taken from the Military Notes on Cuba published in 1898, and from the Cuban Census of 1907.
The maps showing the division of the provinces into townships and the townships into barrios are not intended as indexes to the subject-matter following them, but are inserted for the purpose of showing the relative locations of townships and barrios. They were prepared from maps furnished by the Department of Government of the island of Cuba.
Figures of population are taken from the Cuban Census of 1907. A general table of contents shows the arrangement of the subject-matter. The book may be used in connection with the Military Map of Cuba, 1906-9, and Road Notes of Cuba compiled during the second intervention.







TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Cuba in general: Page.
Table of distances, in miles, between towns in Cuba----------- 14
Historical sketch----------------------------------------- 15
Size'and shape ------------ ------------------------------ 19
Location-...--------------------------------------------- 19
Administration-----------------------------ft------------- 20
Territorial, judicial, and administrative divisions-------------- 23
Method of administration ---------------------------------- 24
Orography ---------------------------------------------- 25
Hydrography ---------------- w--------- ----------------28
Climate ----------------_------- ---------------- --------- 28
Hygienic rules; diseases---------------- ----------------- 30
Yellow fever ---w_---------------------------- 35
Insects---------------- ------ ----------- ------------ 37
Animal life---------------------------------- ----- 38
Diseases of the horse----------------------------------- 39
Forage----------------------- ------------------------ ... 45
Geology ---------------- a--------------------------- 46
Mineral resources -------------- ---------------47
Forestry---------------------- -------------------- 47
Soil--------------- ------------------------- ------ ----- 48
Agricultural products----------a--------- --------------- -- 49
Fruits and vegetables-.--------- -------------------- --- --- 51
Population- m- - ------------------- a-------------- a------53
Language, religriom, and education -------------------- ------- 54
Agriculture, industry, and commerce----------------------- 55
Earthquakes------------------------ w-------------------- 57
Railroads--------------------------------------- ------ 57
Roads and trails _--m-. --------------------- 95
Trochas ----------------------------------- ------ 96
Sugar mills-.-.-.-0 --- _----------------------------- 96
The provinces.- ----------------- --_-------- --------- 100
Province of Pinar del Rio:
Table of distances between principal points... ----- -- 102 Location and boundary----------- --------------------- 1-03
Area and population --------------------------- --------- 103
Judicial and municipal districts - ..- -.- -------------------103
Provincial government-.------------ I------------ ---------- 103
Capital and principal towns -------------------------------104




8 TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Province of Santa Clara-Continue(. Page.
Coast line. ..--------------------------------------------356
Agriculture, industry, and commerce----------------------- 357
List of judicial and municipal districts---------------------- 357
Judicial district of Cienfuegos.--------------------------358
Township of Cienfuegos. ..-------------------------- 358
Township of Cruces. ..-----------------------------382
Township of Palmira-------------.-----------------384
Township of Rodas-------------------------.------388
Township of Santa Isabela de las Lajas-------------392
Judicial district of Sagua la Grande--------------------- 394
Township of Quemado de Gfiines------------------- 394
Township of Rancho Veioz. ..------------------------396
Township of Sagua la Grande---------------------- 400
Township of Santo Domingo----------------------- 410
Judicial district of Sancti Spiritus---------------------- 417
Township of Sancti Spiritus. ..------------------------417
Judicial district of San Juan de los Remedios-------------431
Township of Caibarien-------------------- -------431
Township of Camajuanf----------.----------------- 435
Township of Placetas. ..-----------------------------439
Township of Vueltas. ..----------------------------- 441
Township of San Juan de los Remedios-------------- 445
Township of Yaguajay. ..---------------------------449
Judicial district of Santa Clara------------------------ 451
Township of Calabazar. ..---------------------------451
Township of Esperanza. ..--------------------------- 457
Township of Ranchuelo. ..--------------------------460
Township of Santa Clara. ..--------------------------463
Judicial district of Trinidad. ..-------------------------- 473
Township of Trinidad. ..---------------------------- 473
Province of Camagiley:
Table of distances between principal points------------------ 482
Location and boundary----------------.------------------ 483
Area and population. ..------------------------------------483
Judicial and municipal districts. ..---------------------------483
Provincial government. ..------------------ .---------------- 483
Capital and principal towns. ..------------------------------ 483
Geography and topography. ..-------------------------------484
Rivers-----------------------------------------------485
Coast line--------------------------------------------486
Agriculture, industry, and commerce-----------------------486
List of judicial and municipal districts---------------------- 486
Judicial district of Camag iey. ..-------------------------- 486
Township of Camagt ey. ..--------------------------- 487
Township of Nuevitas. ..---------------------------- 505
Township of Santa Cruz del Sur -.... ....-------- 509




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9
Province of Carnagdey-Continued. Page.
List of judicial and municipal districts-Continued.
Judicial district of Mor6n.. ..----------------------------- 512
Township of Ciego de Avila. ..----------------------- 512
Township of Mor6n. ..------------------------------ 524
Province of Oriente:
Table of distances between principal points ----------------. 532
Location and boundary. ..---------------------------------533
Area and population. ..------------------------------------ 533
Judicial and municipal districts ............................. .533
Provincial government. ..---------------------------------- 533
Capital and principal towns. ..------------------------------ 533
Geography and topography. ..------------------------------533
Rivers. ..----------------------------------------------- 535
Coast line. ..-------------------------------------------- 536
Agriculture, industry, and commerce---.------------.-------537
List of judicial and municipal districts. ..---------------------- 537
Judicial district of Baracoa. ..--------------------------- 538
Township of Baracoa. ..----------------------------- 538
Judicial district of Bayamo. ..--------------------------- 546Township of Bayamo. ..----------------------------- 546
Township of Jiguanf. ..----------------------------- 555
Judicial district of Guantdinamo. ..------------------------ 561
Township of Guantdnamo. ..------------------------- 561
Township of Sagua de Tnamo.--------------------- 577
Judicial district of Holguin--------------------------- 582
Township of Gibara. ..--------------------------- 583
Township of Holgufn. ..----------------------------- 590
Township of Mayar------------------------------603
Township of Puerto Padre-------------------------608
Judicial district of Manzanillo. ..------------------------- 615
Township of Manzanillo----------.-----------------. 615
Judicial district of Santiago de Cuba ......................- 629
Township of Alto Songo. ..--------------------------- 629
Township of Caney-----------.-------------------- 633
Township of Cobre. ..------------------------------- 640
Township of Palma Soriano. ..------------------------ 643
Township of San Luis. ..---------------------------- 646
Township of Santiago de Cuba---------------------- 650
Cienaga de Zapata:
General description. ..------------------------------------- 661
Vegetation. ..---------------------------------------- 664
Ci~naga Occidental:
Lagunas. ..------------------------------------------ 667
Springs-------------------.---- ..-------------------- 671
Camp sites--675---------------------------- --675
Roads and trails---------------------------_ --------.. 682




10 TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Cienaga de Zapata-Continued.
Cienaga Oriental: Page.
Lagunas ........----------------------------------------. 696
Springs. ..-------------------------------------------699
Camp sites----------------------------------------. 700
Roads and trails. ..------------------------------------706
Jocuma-Orbea trocha. ..--------------------------------711
Bahfa de Cochinos:
Description. ..----------------------------------------712
S e ttle m e n ts . . . . . .. .. . ... . . . . . . . .. . .. ..- 719
Springs. ..----------------------------------------. 721
Camp sites. ..----------------------------------------722
Tramways. ..-----------------------------------------722
The Laguna del Tesoro. ..-------------------------------723




LIST OF SPANISH WORDS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN MILITARY REPORTS PERTAINING
TO CUBA.
Almacn Warehouse.
Arroyo_ Small stream; creek.
Asiento ---The center of a hato, corral, or plantation.
Azotea -- --- A walled and paved flat roof, which could be
utilized for additional floor space by erecting temporary shelter.
Barrac6n_- Buildings constructed on plantations to quarter
laborers.
Barrio -----------Subdivision of a township.
Batey The yard surrounding a sugar mill and usually
inclosed by a fence or wall. Bodega .A store selling provisions.
Bohlo (Bogfo) ----A shack made of palm leaves. Caballeria ---. _A tract of land 33- acres.

Cacagual CafetalCaleta

Calle -C(1alzada ... Cantina (arretera
()eja Central-.
Cimarr6nC(olonia -ColonioCordel, Corral
Cuartel EmbarcaderoEncrucijada Estancia .. Estero --Finca -

C----------ocoa plantation.
.- Coffee plantation.
-- Cove; a small bay or inlet.

.Street.
--- -A first-class telford or macadam road.
- Store where liquor and provisions are sold.
High road; pike.
SSmall crescent-shaped piece of woods.
A large sugar mill, grinding its own cane and
that which is raised on adjoining colonias.
A runaway slave.
A farm devoted to growing of sugar cane.
-The owner or renter of a colonia.
Twenty-four yards.
A plantation, round in shape, with radius of 1
league; usually devoted to cattle raising.
Barracks.
--- A shipping point.
----Crossroad.
A small farm devoted to raising garden products. ....A small creek into which the tide flows. .-Farm.

Guano ------------Dry palm leaves, used to roof shacks.

11




12

LIST OF SPANISH WORDS.

Hacienda- Plantation; also used as a term for landed
property in general.
Hato ..- A grant of public land, circular in shape, with
radius of 2 leagues: usually devoted to raising cattle.
Ingenio- Sugar mill grinding cane from its own lands.
Kilometer- Sixty-two hundredths of a mile.
Laguna Lagoon.
Mangle -Mangrove.
Manglar__ Ground covered with mangrove trees; usually
swampy.
Manigua_ Ground covered with small, thick growth. This
name is also used in western Cuba for the country.
Merced-. Name applied to a class of public land grants. Mogote ..-- An isolated, flat-topped hill.
Monte __In Cuba this term signifies woods or unpopulated territory with small growth. If the territory is extensive, it is called monte firme." It is also synonymous with the country in eastern Cuba.
Paso ..- Name given to points along streams where there are frequently used fords. Playa A sandy beach.
Potrero- _A cattle ranch or farm with land devoted to
grazing.
Rancho-- An isolated palm shack.
Realengo -Land not included in grants; property of the State.
Sabana_ A flat table-land with but little vegetation.
Salto_ -Cascade. Sao -Woods. Seboruco ------------ Sharp, porous rock.
Sitio A small farm with few inhabitants or a very
small village or community. Tienda -- --Store. Vega .........-- -Tobacco farm.
Zafra- -- The sugar crop. Also used to designate the season when the sugar crop is gathered harvest.




CU13A IN GENERAL.




BAHiA HONDA. 838 BARACOA. 682 196 BAYAMO. 174 664 508 CARDEN 269 569 413 95 CIE 742 147 60 498 473 201 637 481 45 68 76 762 606 98 193 105 730 577 69 164 73 765 609 101 196 683 152 48 442 417 99 739 583 751170 700 168 18 456 431 709 244 37 465 440 29 805 649 141 236 137 631 475 37 132 480 358 202 306 211 71 879 723 215310 418 420 254 244 149 285 553 397 111 65
52 786 630 121 217 20 829 673 165 260 308 530 374 134 77
108 730 574 66 161 282 556 400 108 45
84 754 598 90 185 343 495 339 169 85
755 134 73 582 482 75 765 609 127 209 320 518 362 146 45
638 200 44 464 484
7 765 609 101 196

TABLE OF DISTANCES. IN MILES. BETWEEN TOWNS IN CUBA.

;AS.
NFUEGOS.

COBRE.
541! COLON.
666 125 GUANABACOA.
637 96 29 Gt'INES.
669; 128 3 32 HAVANA.
102 485 610 581 543 HOLGUiN.
643 102 21 16126 587 JARUCO.
42 499 624 5951557 55 601 JIGUANi.
97 508 633 6041566 85 610 55 MANZANILLO.
709 168 43 72 40 653 70 667 680 MARIEL. 535 64 61 32 64 479 38 493 502 104 MATANZAS.
262 279 404 375 407 206 381 220 2291447 343 NUEVITAS.
783 242 117 115 114 727 140 741 750 155 178 521 PINAR DEL RiO.
324 217 26 313"345 268 319 282 291,385 281 62 459 CAMAGtEY.
457 84 209 180 212 401 186 415 424 252 148 195 326 333 SAGUA LA GRANDE.
6901 107 24 37 29 634 47 648 657 19 85 428 99 366 233! SAN ANTONIO DE LOs BAfO-. 733 192 67 96 64 677 90 691 700 32 128 471 63 409 276 431 SAN CRIST6BAL.
434 104 232 203 235 378 208 392 401 275 171 172 349 110 45 256 299 SAN JUAN DE LOS REMEDI,- .
661 93 32 12 3) 578 12 592 601 75 29 372 149 310 147 56 99 200 SANTA CATALINA.
487 81 206 177209 404 183 418 427 249 135 198 323 124 32 230 273 32 174t SANTA CLARA,
685'117 5 24 11 602 20 616 625 51 51 396 125 334 201 31 75 224 241199 SANTA MARiA D1. ROSARY).
426 142 26 7 238 270 343 240 357 366 310 206 1371384 75 58 291: 334 481235, 54,2591 SANCTI SPIRITU S.
13 554 679 650 682 85 656 55 110 722 618 275 796 337 470 703 746 447 647 473 671 4121 SANTIAGO DE CUBA.
670 125 16 32 13 613 37 627 623 27 77 394 114 345 212 11 51 235 22 196 20 257 695 SANTIAGO DE LAs V E(AS.
449 119 244 215 247 366 221 123 389 287 183 1601361 98 89 268 311 68 212 54 236 44 435 234 TRINIDAD.
104 437 562 533 565 48 539 62 71 605 431 158 794 220 353 586 629 330 530 356 554 295 117 552 318 TUNAS.
669 128 1 3 32 0 59 26 557 566 40 64;407'1141345i212! 2964 235 35 209 11!270,682 13 247 565HAVANA.




THE ISLAND OF CUBA.

HISTORICAL SKETCH.
The island of Cuba was discovered October 28, 14921,by Christopher Columbus, who took possession of it in the name of Spain. The first attempt at a permanent settlement was made in 1511 by Don Diego Columbus, a son of Christopher Columbus, and Diego Velasquez, who landed at Baracoa with 300 men. The first settlement, at Santiago de Cuba, was made in 1514, and the following year a settlement was made at Trinidad.
The island was first called Juana, then Fernandina, and later Ave Maria. It received its present name from the natives of the island, whom Columbus described as a peaceful, contented, and progressive race. Havana was founded on its present site in 1519. It was totally destroyed in 1538 by French privateers, but was immediately rebuilt. The capital of the island was located at Santiago de Cuba until 1550, when it was moved to the city of Havana. The first governor of the island was Fernando de Soto, afterwards famous as an explorer. In 1554 the city of Havana was again destroyed by the French.
The early settlers devoted themselves principally to raising cattle, but in 1580 the cultivation of tobacco and sugar cane was commenced, and this led to the introduction of negro slavery.
During the seventeenth century the island was kept in a state of perpetual fear of invasions by the French, Dutch, English, and the pirates who infested the seas.
In 1762 the English, under Lord Albemarle, attacked the city of Havana, and on August 14, after a siege of two months, the city and island capitulated. By the treaty of Paris, February, 1763, Cuba was returned to Spain.
In 1790 Las Casas was appointed captain-general, and during his regime the island passed through an epoch of pros15




16 ~CBA IN GENERAL.

perity and advancement. Ile inaugurated a system of public improvements, built macadamized roads, laid out parks, erected many public buildings, and constructed fortifications. many of which are standing to-day.
In 1796 the Count of Santa Clara succeeded Las Casas, an(I he also took a great interest in the welfare of Cuba.
A royal decree was issued in 182.5 giving the captain-general of Cuba absolute control making him subject only to the reigning power of Spain. The consequence was that from that time until the United States occupation Cuba was ruled by a succession of autocrats, sent from the Peninsula, with no interest whatever in the welf are of the island or its people, save to raise a revenue for the crown greater than that of his predecessor, pay the expenses of his regime, enrich his owni purse, and then return to Spain to be the, envy of the grandees.
During the latter part of the eighteenth and the early part of the nineteenth century a number of insurrections an(d revolts were instituted, but were successfully put down by the Spaniards. The most important of these occurred ill 1827-1829, when Cuban refugees in Mexico and the United States planned an invasion of Cuba. They organized throughout Mexico, the United States, and Colombia branches of a secret society known as the Black Eagle." On account of the antislavery sentiment, which was beginning to show itself in these countries, the scheme proved a failure.
A more serious insurrection occurred in 1844, when the slaves on the sugar plantations, especially in the province of Matanzas, revolted. They were finally subdued, and over 1,300 persons convicted and punished.
President Polk made a proposition in 1848 for the purchase of the island by this Government for $100,000,000, but the proposition was withdrawn on account of the antislavery sentiment of the North and West.
In 1854 preparation was made in Cuba and the United States, for another attempt at insurrection, but before the plans of the revolutionists were fully matured the leaders were betrayed, arrested, and executed.
During the next fourteen years the island enjoyed a period of comparative quiet and prosperity.

16




18 CUBA TN GENERAL.

and a committee appointed from each country to arrange the terms of peace.
On August 12 a protocol provided for a cessation of hostilities and on December 10 a treaty of peace between the United States and Spain was signed at, Paris.
It was ratified by the President February 6, 1899, and by the Queen Regent of Spain March 19, and proclaimed in Washington, D. C., April 11.
Cuba was at l *ast to be free on the single condition that. "she establish a stable government, capable of maintaining order and observing international obligations."
On Sunday, January 1, 1899, General Castellanos made formal surrender of Spanish sovereignty to the United States of America.
IDuring the American occupation a military government had charge of the island until May 20, 1902, on which date it was relinquished to the Cubans.
In 1906 mutterings of discontent were heard following the elections. On August 1.9, 1906, they culminated in armed insurrection and after ineffectual efforts had been made by the United States Government to secure agreement of the conflicting parties, it became necessary to land marines to protect American interests. The President of the Republic resigned his position, and the Congress of Cuba having failed to act on the irrevocable resignation or to elect a successor, it became necessary for the United States to occupy the island by an armed force and to install a provisional government in the name of and by the authority of the President of the United States.
The provisional government was installed by proclamation on September 29, 1906, and this action was followed immediately by the dispatch from the United States of the Army of Cuban Pacification.
The proclamation was well received by both parties and the insurgent leaders agreed to the proposal to lay down their arms.
The American provisional government came to an end at uoon on January 28, 1909, at which time the newly elected Cuban President took his seat.

18




CUBA IN GENERAL. 1

SIZE AND SHAPE.
The island is long and narrow and its longitudinal trend is nearly easterly and westerly. It is 730 miles long and its width varies from about '25 miles to about 100 miles. Its area comprises about 44,000 square miles. In respect to these features and dimensions, as well as in other respects, there is a striking similarity between Cuba, and Java.
Its shape is irregular, being somewhat like a half-moon, extending from east to west, its convex part facing north.
Its coast line is about 2,200 miles, or, including all indentations, nearly 7,000 miles.
LOCATION.
Cuba is included between the meridians 74' and 85' west longitude, and between the parallels 19' 40' and 23' 33' north latitude.
Havana, the capital of the island, is a trifle west, of south of Key West and is distant about 100 miles, being separated from it by the Strait of Florida. lEast, of Cuba lies Haiti,,, the second in size of the West India Islands, and south of it lies Jamaica. The first of these islands is only 54 miles distant from Cape Maisi, the easternmost point of Cuba. The latter is 85 miles distant from its southern coast. On the west coast Cuba is separated by Yucatan Channel, 130 miles wide, from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mlexico.
Thus from a military point of view Cuba occupies a strong strategic position.
A naval force located in Cuban waters controls the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico by the Strait of Florida, the Windward Passage to the Caribbean Sea between Cuba and Haiti, and the Yucatan Channel, connecting the Gulf of Mexico with the Caribbean Sea.
The first and last of these are the only entrances to the Gulf of Mexico, which is thus controlled completely.
In addition to the protection which a suitable naval force so located would be able to afford our southern coast, its presence would also, when the Panama Canal is completed. enable us to control not only the western Atlantic but also the eastern Pacific.

19




CUBA IN GENERAL.

The island being situated midway between North and South America and being within easy sailing distance of the most important Atlantic ports of both Europe and America, as shown by the table of distances given below, makes it a good rendezvous for the mobilization of our naval forces, should it ever become necessary.
Table of distance," frolitJarait(.
Miles.
K e y W e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 1 0 0
New Orleans 690
M obile ........- 640
Tampa 350
Savannah...... 613
Carleston .662 P h ila d e lp h ia . . . . . . ......................1.. ,1 8 7
New York 1,215
Boston .........1-, 348
Quebec _2,421 Vera Cruz .....- 809.
R io de Janeiro 8....................- 3, 53(
B uenos A ires ---------------------------------------. 4, 6513
Montevideo-........... 4, 558"
Port of Spain- 1,521
Bermuda 1, 154)
(Gibraltar-- 4, 030
Plymouth (Englanld) 3, 702
ADMINISTRATION.
Cuba as a colony of Spain was under a military government, having at its head a captain-general (ipso factor governor-general) at the time of the Spanish-American war.
The sovereignty of Spain ceased at noon, January 1, 1899, and from that time Cuba was tinder the military government of the United States until noon, May 20, 1902, at which time it was turned over to the Cuban Republic. The government of the Republic is representative, republican, and democratic. The sovereignty resides in the people. The supreme governnient is divided into three coordinate branches-the legislative, the executive, and the judicial.
Legislative.-The legislative power is vested in a Congress consisting of two chambers, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House consists of 64 members (I for every

20




CUBA IN GENERAL.

25,000 inhabitants or 'fraction), elected for four years. The requisite qualifications to be a representative areFirst. To be a native-born or naturalized Cuban citizen who has resided for eight years in the Republic from and after the date of his naturalization.
Second. To have attained the age of 25 years.
Third. To be in full possession of all civil and political rights.
The Senate is composed of 4 Senators from each province, elected therefrom for a period of eight years by the provincial councilmen and by a double number of electors, who, together with the provincial councilmen, shall constitute an electoral board. One-half of the electors must be persons who pay the highest amount of taxes and the remainder shall possess the qualifications that may be determined by law. All of the electors must also be of age and residents of municipal districts of the province. The electors shall be chosen by the voters of the province one hundred days prior to the election of Senators.
One-half of the members of the Senate of the Republic are elected every four years.
To become a senator it is necessaryFirst. To be a native-born Cuban.
Second. To have attained the age of 35 years.
Third. To be in full possession of all civil and political rights.
Iphe salary of a senator and of a representative is $300 a month in United States currency.
Congress: The Congress of the Republic of Cuba has two ordinary sessions annually, one convening on the first Mon(lay of April and the other on the first Monday of November. The duration of each session is at least 40 days.
,LExecuti'e. The executive power is vested in the President of the Republic. The President of the Republic must possesss the following qualifications:
First. le must be a native-born or naturalized Cuban citizen and in the latter case must have served in the Cuban army in its wars of independence for at least ten years.
Second. He must have attained the age of 40 years.
Third. He must be in full possession of his civil and political rights.

21




CUBA IN GENERAL.

Third. To be in full enjoyment of civil and political rights, and not to have been condemned to any "pena aflictiva" for ordinary offenses.
Fourth. To possess, in addition, any of the following qualifications: To have practiced in Cuba during ten years at least the profession of law, or discharged for a like period of time judicial duties, or occupied for the same number of years a chair of law in an official educational establishment.
Other persons may be also appointed to the positions of chief justice and justices of the supreme court, provided they possess the qualifications required by conditions 1, 2, and 3 above mentioned; viz, those persons who may have previously held positions in the judiciary of a similar or next inferior grade for the period that may be provided for by the law; those persons who, prior to the promulgation of the constitution of the Republic of Cuba, may have been justices of the supreme court of the island of Cuba. The time during which lawyers shall have exercised judicial functions shall be reckoned as that of the practice of law necessary to qualify them for appointment as justices of the supreme court.
The salary of the chief justice is $6,000 in United States currency; that of the president of the criminal court, $5,750; the fiscal, $5,750; the associate justices, $5,500 each.
TERRITORIAL, JUDICIAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS.
Territorial division.-The territory of the Republic is divided into six provinces, viz: Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, Camagiiey, and Oriente. Each
province has a governor and a provincial council, composed of eight members, elected by the people.
Judicial division.-Each province has an audiencia or superior court and is divided into judicial districts, each of which has a court of first instance. Pinar del Rio is divided into 4 judicial districts; Havana into 8; Matanzas, 4; Santa Clara, 6; Camagiiey, 2; and Oriente, 6. Each judicial district contains one or more municipalities, but the limits do not always correspond.
Administrative division.-For purposes of administration the provinces are divided into municipalities. These munici-

23




CUBA IN GENERAL.

palities are administered by ayuntamientos, composed of councilmen elected by the people. In order to carry out the will of the ayuntamientos each municipality has an alcalde elected by the people. There are in the Republic 82 municipalities: Pinar del Rio contains 12; Havana, 18; Matanzas. 10; Santa Clara, 21; Camagiiey, 5; and Oriente, 16.
METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION.
Each province is divided into municipalities or municipal districts. The government of each municipality is vested in a municipal council and in a mayor.
These governments enjoy autonomy in so far as it operates to provide for purely local needs.
Municipalities are divided into three classes: First, those which have a population of more than 100,000 inhabitants; second, those which have a population of more than 20,000 inhabitants, but not more than 100,000; third, those which have a population of not more than 20,000 inhabitants.
Each municipal district must be comprised within a single province, and when any changes take place the judicial divisions will be harmonized with the administrative divisions. Each municipal district is divided into barrios of more or less the same number of inhabitants.
The municipal councilmen are elected by direct suffrage and the mayor is elected by direct election, in, the manner and at the times prescribed by the electoral law. His term of office is four years. The number of councilmen in each municipality conforms to the following scale: Up to 1,500 inhabitants, 5 councilmen; from 1,501 to 3,000 inhabitants, 7 councilmen; 3,001 to 10,000 inhabitants, 9 councilmen; from 10,001 to 30,000 inhabitants, 15 councilmen; from 30,001 to 100,000 inhabitants, 21 councilmen; from 100,001 inhabitants upward, 27 councilmen.
'When the municipal council deems it necessary, barrio mayors are appointed.
Municipal court judges are appointed by the Secretary of Justice in Havana to serve two years.
The names of three lawyers are sent to the Secretary of Justice by the judge of the court of first instance, from which the Secretary selects one man.
These judges, serve without salary, but there are large fees connected with the office.

24




CUBA IN GENERAL.

The court consists of a judge, secretary, and clerk.
The secretary and clerk receive salaries.
Fines imposed by the court revert to the municipal district for which it is appointed.
Cases tried by it can be appealed to the court of first instance, thence to the supreme court of the province, and from there to the supreme court in Havana.
OROGRAPHY.
The north coast is for the most part bluff and rocky, and in the provinces of Matanzas, Santa Clara, and Camagiiey bordered by lines of islands and reefs of coral formation, the passages through which are extremely intricate and difficult. These islands are low, are in the main covered with mangrove forests, and contain few inhabitants.
The coast is low in the western part of the island, the bluffs ranging about 100 feet in height in Pinar del Rio and rising gradually eastward. About Matanzas they reach 500 feet in altitude. In Santa Clara and Camagiiey they are lower, but in Oriente the coast is abrupt and rugged, almost mountainous, rising in a succession of terraces.
The south coast from Cape Maisf to Cape Cruz is mountainous. Indeed, from Santiago westward to Cape Cruz the Sierra Maestra rises abruptly from the water to altitudes of several thousand feet. The shores of the gulf of Buena Esperanza, into which flows the Rio Cauto, are low, and fromn this place westward, excepting a short stretch between Trinidad and Cienfuegos, the coast is low and marshy as far as Cape San Antonio, the westernmost point of the island. This coast strip of marsh is in the main narrow, but west of Cienfuegos it broadens into a great expanse, forming the Zapata swamp, an almost impenetrable region, 75 miles in length with a maximum breadth 6f fully 30 miles, clothed with the densest vegetation and teeming with tropical life.
Off the south coast are hundreds of low, marshy, mangrovecovered islands and islets.
Most of the harbors on both coasts are of peculiar shape, resembling nothing so much as pouches with narrow, often sinuous, entrances, opening within into broad expanses completely sheltered. This is the character of the harbors of

25




CUBA IN GENERAL.

Havana. Santiago, Cienfuegos, Guantanamo, and many others less known.
In its relief the island of Cuba is not a simple orographic unit, but presents great variety and irregularity, which renders it incapable of simple description and generalization. The middle portion of the island, including the provinces of Havana, Mantanzas, Santa Clara, and Camagiiey, presents little relief, but consists in the main of broad, undulating plains and shallow valleys, the land rising only in a few places to any considerable altitude. It is only at the two extremes of the island, in the province of Pinar del Rio on the west and Oriente on the east, that the island presents any considerable or well defined relief features. Throughout Pinar del Rio there runs a range of hills, a little north of the middle line of the province and closely paralleling in direction the northern coast. This range, which is fairly well defined, is known as the Cordillera de los Organos, or Organ Mountains, and rises in many places to altitudes exceeding 2,000 feet, culminating in Pan de Guajaibon, having an altitiide of 2,500 feet. From the crest of this range the land descends northward and southward to the coast in long, undulating slopes, the southward slopes forming the celebrated tobacco lands known as Vuelta Abajo.
The central provinces of Cuba-Havana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and Camagfiey-consist mainly of broad, rolling plains, with shallow stream valleys. In Havana, Matanzas, and Santa Clara these plains are, or were prior to the revolution of 1895-1896, in a high state of cultivation, while in Caunagiiey they are, in the main, used for the grazing of cattle. The Valley of the Yumurl, in Mantanzas, is a type of the beautiful, highly cultivated region of this part of the island.
The Sierra de los Organos ceases as a range a little west of Havana, but traces of this uplift can be followed through the central part of Havana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and the western part of Camagiiey in the form of lines of hills of no great altitude, (lotting these extended plains. They are seen south of the city of Havana in the little timbered hills known as the Tetas de Managua," and farther east in the Arcas de Canasi, the Escaleras de Jaruco, and the Pan de Matanzas, just south of the city of Matanzas. This rises to an altitude

26




CUBA IN GENERAL.

of 1,300 feet and serves as a landmark to sailors far out inthe Atlantic. In the eastern part of Matanzas Province these hills disappear, but they reappear again in Santa Clara, taking the form of elongated crest lines and flat-top summits, and as such extend into the western part of the province of Camag iey.
In the southern part of the province of Santa Clara is a group of rounded hills, occupying an area between Cienfuegos,* Trinidad, and Sancti Spiritus. The highest of these, Potrerillo, has an altitude of 2,900 feet.
Among these hills are many beautiful valleys.
Oriente, at the other end of the island, is a province presenting great relief. Its surface is extremely broken with high, sharp mountain ranges, broad plateaus of considerable elevation, and deep valleys-some of them broad, others narrow and resembling canyons. The dominating orographic feature of the province, indeed of the whole island, is the Sierra Maestra, which, commencing at Cape Cruz, south of Manzanillo, extends eastward, closely paralleling the coast, from which it rises abruptly, as far east as the neighborhood of Santiago. In this part it contains many points exceeding 5,000 feet in altitude and culminates in Pico Turquino, which is reputed to have an altitude of 8,320 feet. From Santiago it extends to the east end of the island, but is much more broken and has more of a plateau-like form, with a great diminution in altitude. This portion of the range takes on a different name, being known as the Cobre Range. It contains numerous flat summits, approximating 3,000 feet in altitude, one of which, known as "La Gran Piedra," is said to have an altitude of 3,300 feet.
North of Sierra Maestra lies the broad and fertile valley of the Cauto, beyond which the country rises gradually to a high plateau occupying the interior of the province, with a summit elevation of 1,000 feet or more, on which stands the city of Holguin. The eastern part of the province consists of a maze of broken hills, with altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 feet, in which are many small and fertile valleys.
The Isle of Pines, with an area of 840 square miles, is a municipality of the province of Havana. It is, in effect, two islands, connected by a marsh; the northern being somewhat broken by hills, the southern, low, flat, and sandy.

27




CUBA IN GENERAL. 2

high temperatures is much greater in Cuba and explains the high mean temperature.
Notwithstanding the long-continued high temperature, the climate of the northern portion of the island is tempered by the trade winds, which blow with but little variation throughout the, year, and the nights in both winter and summer are cool.
The mean annual temperature at Havana fairly represents that of the island, it being perhaps a little hotter upon the south coast and inland than upon the north coast.
The range of temperature between summer and winter (loes not differ probably materially anywhere on the coast from that. at Havana, but inland is probably a little greater.
The mean relative humidity at Havana averages about 75' and remains tolerably uniform at all times of the year. JInland the humidity becomes somewhat less, but not decidedly so.
The meani annual rainfall at Havana, derived from observations of many years, is 52 inches. Trhe record shows, in different years, a rainfall ranging from 4() to 71 inches.
This represents quite closely the rainfall upon the north coast of the island. Inland and upon the south coast it is probably somewhat less.
As regards the distribution of rainfall through the year. there is a wet and dry season, the former being from May to October, during which time about, two-thirds of the precipitation of the year is received.
Rain falls during about one-third of the days during each year, although this does not represent by any means the proportional amount of rainy weather. The days are usually clear up to about 10 o'clock, from which time till night during the rainy season it is frequently showery. The nights are commonly clear. Thunderstorms are frequent but not violent. The island is occasionally, though not frequently, visited by hurricanes. The maximum destruction occurs on the coast, as they rapidly lose their force and violence proceeding inland.
In winter, when the trade winds extend farthest to the southward, northers not infrequently occur, greatly and suddenly reducing the temperature on the north coast. These occur during the winter months and follow the severe storms,-,

29




30 CUBA IN GENERAL.

of the United States.' The temperature sometimes f alls as low as 500, causing much discomfort, and even suffering amongst the pooro.r people, as very little provision is made against (0old in the construction of Cuban houses,
HYGIENIC RULES; DISEASES.
[ From Circular No, 1, Headquarters Army of Cuban P~acification, Marianao,
Havana, Cuba, October 16, 1906.]
The same hygienic rules which govern the conduct of men in temperate climates apply to tropical climates, but it is well known that intemperance and excess of all kinds are more dangerous in the latter, where, therefore, a stricter observance of those rules is necessary.
The best time of day f or mental or physical work in tile Tropics is the. early morning. Heat and light often become excessive after 11 a. i. and until 4 p. in. Between those hours men not on duty should preferably remains in the shade and rest. If exposed to the sun, every care should be taken to keep the head cool, that is, properly covered, ventilated, and, if necessary moistened.
As the'suin goes down, there is a rapid radiation of heat and quick fall of temperature, often producing a distinct chill. Tfhe night temperature is always much cooler than. that of day and care should be taken while in bed to avoidl exposure of the body, especially of the abdomen, which is its most sensitive part. Such exposure, it must be remembered, renders one also much more liable to mosquito bites. Men prone to digestive or intestinal disorders would (10 well to wear a thin flannel abdominal band at night. It is generally useless during the day.
Exercise, either at work or sport, is useful in the Tropics as in all other countries, but it must be taken with discretion and moderation. The same output of physical energy is not possible in hot climates, except for a short time, and violent exercise or excessive work should be followed as soon as possible by adequate rest and recuperation.
The same amount of food is not required in the Tropics as in northern latitudes. Since one of the principal objects of food is to maintain the bodily temperature, the warmer the air the less is the loss of heat by conduction and radiation. and the less the amount required to be generated.

30




31

CUBA IN GENERAL.

Furthermore, severe continued exercise being impossible, there is less wear and tear, of tissues and less need of repair. It is also true that our digestive organs share in the general lowering of nervous energy and lose something of their power of dissolving and assimilating food. We may conclude, then, that the diet in Cuba should be moderate in quantity, but varied, of good quality, and well prepared. Recent scientific experiments have shown that Americans eat too much meat, that more than 10 ounces a day is seldom required to maintain the body in its best condition; that is, the condition which permits of most. endurance to hardships and of longest resistance to fatigue and disease. * The advantage of a diet moderate in proteins has been illustrated in the late Russo-Japanese war, when both belligerents, whose ration of meat, seldom exceeded half a pound, had the smallest mortality from disease on record, despite a series of strenuous campaigns.
Comparative statistics make it not at all improbable that the marked predisposition of American and English soldiers to typhoid fever is due to the large meat constituent of their ration. In the poor country districts of Cuba and the Philippines, where meat is seldom consumed, typhoid fever is practically unknown.
Fish is a good substitute for meat and can generally be easily procured, and of good quality in Cuba.
Excess of food is particularly dangerous in hot climates, where the kidneys are less active, the liver is more liable to congestion, the fermentation of the contents of the large intestine more likely, and the multiplication of bacteria more rapid.
On account of their general tendency to torpidity and the consequent, possible accumulation of dangerous bacteria and their toxins, it is necessary that the bowels should be properly regulated. This should be done by suitable diet, if possible, rather than by medicine.
Tropical fruits are wholesome, and, if ripe, can be freel. indulged in. Especially excellent are the aguacate, mango, banana, cocoanut, pineapple, star apple, sapote, etc. .
The evils of intemperance in alcoholic drinks in the Tropics are too well known to need any notice here. But intemperance in water drinking calls for remark. On




3~2 CTBA IN GENERAL.

account of the greater perspiration of the skin, in hot cotries, more water is required by the body, and a habit of dIrinking it every hour or two is easily contracted, especially while on the march or on fatigue duty. This is a pernicious habit, disturbing digestion and weakening the body, rendering it less resistant to fatigue. It is seldom necessary to drink more than once between meals. At mealtime, the thirst should be quenched before beginning to eat and only a moderate amount of water taken with the food itself. On a march, water should be drunk only during the rests; if not very long and made in the cool morning hours, it is much better to abstain -until camp is reached.
The diseases of tropical climates are mostly preventable; that is to say, they can generally 1)e avoided by self-control and the observance of proper sanitary rules. The diseases most to be apprehended in Cuba are malarial fever, yellow fever, and venereal diseases. Typhoid fever mnay also be expected, but not to any greater extent than in the United States. IDysentery is infrequent, and has none of the grave features of the type so common in the Philippines. Various kinds of intestinal lparasites are present but not dangerous. Such especially tropical diseases as beriberi, leprosy, filariasis, elephantiasis, etc.. need not be feared by North Americans.
Malarial. fever, in its inany forms, is the most prevalent disease in Cuba (especially the eastern part), and the one from which our troops suffered most during the first intervention.
* * We know that it is produced by the bite of mosq1uitoes, andl probably in no other way; this knowledge puts the necessary weapons in our hands.
Yellow fever, formerly the scourge of Cuba, has been stamped out of the island as An epidemic or endemic disease, and it may be assumed that the ordinary vigilance of medical officers will suffice, if not to prevent an occasional sporadic case, certainly to prevent a serious outbreak among our troops. Yellow fever is, like malarial fever, produced by the bite of mosquitoes, and in no other way.
Mosquitoes, therefore, are the great enemy of American troops In Cuba, and an incessant' warfare should be waged against them. But as their complete destruction is generally impracticable we must take every precaution against their bite. This is best accomplished by the use of wire

32




33

CUBA IN GENERAL.

screens on doors and Windows and of mosquito bars over beds, AnY-man who fails to use a mosquito bar
carefully shows a criminal disregard of his health and that of his comrades, for should he be bitten and infected, he becomes the source from which other mosquitoes may become infected and disseminate the disease. A wholesome fear of the, mosquito bite should be felt most where malarial fever is prevalent, but should never leave us, for it is well known that natives apparently in good health may carry malarial germs in their blood, which when transferred by the mosquito to a non-immune develops a severe form of fever. Lastly, it should be remembered that a mosquito bar, if torn or not well tucked in, is often worse than none at all, since mosquitoes will get in and may be unable to escape.
There is among Cubans an intense dread of night air, to which they ascribe dangerous effects. They consequently tightly close the windows of their bedrooms, to the great detriment of their health. It is hardly necessary to say that this fear is not based on any rational ground; free and pure air', day and night, is necessary and beneficial in all climates. Doors and windows may safely be left open, provided they cause no chilling air current and they are screened against mosquitoes or the beds are protected by bars.
Venereal diseases are particularly infectious and virulent in tropical countries, as shown by the statistics of the Surgeon-General's office. Thus in 1900 the ratio of admissions per 1,000 of strength for troops in the United States, was 155.39, while for troops in Cuba it was 190.68, and in Porto Rico 367.88. For the year 1901 the ratio for the United States was 149.96 and for Cuba 187.28. In 1904 the ratio for the United States was 163.43 and for the Philippines 297.42. The prevention of these diseases should receive the careful consideration of commanding officers. A very efficacious measure, quite unobjectionable when properly conducted, is the examination of the men every week or every other week by a medical officer, all those found diseased being kept in hospital or simply debarred from pass and post-exchange privileges.
Typhoid fever is just as liable to spread in our military camps in Cuba as in the United States, but as it is relatively
492-09-3




34 CUBA IN GENERAL.

uncommon among Cubans, the sources of original infection will not be so numerous.
Typhoid fever and dysentery, as is well known, are caused by the ingestion, with food or drink, of the fecal matter (often in a powdery or almost invisible form) of a typhoid or dysenteric patient. Hence the importance of so disposing of the excreta that the danger of pollution be reduced to a minimum, either by burning them in crematories or by carrying them away by excavators after disinfection. Pit latrines are always a source of danger, but, in the absence of any better system, their use in temporary camps will often be necessary. In such case the greatest care should be taken to carry out the' measures prescribed in the Field Service Regulations and the Manual for the Medical Department, in order to reduce the danger to a minimum.
Excreta from men and animals, as well as other dangerous organic substances, may find their way into the water supply; hence the accepted rule-, from which it is never safe to depart, that any water open to suspicion should be sterilized by boiling or filtering. The porous. jars, or ollas, found in all Cuban households, cool and clarify the water and may, to a slight extent, purify it if kept very clean, but can not be relied on to exclude any of the disease-bearing organisms.
Fecal matter may be carried by flies; hence the great importance of using every measure to prevent their breeding,. to exclude them from latrines and prevent their access to kitchens and mess rooms by suitable screens. Flies are mostly bred in stable manure. Therefore stables should be as far from barracks as possible and the manure carried off, burned, or disinfected.
But of all carriers of infected matter in camp or garrison, man himself is the chief offender. It was ascertained that in the camp epidemics of typhoid fever in 1898 the disease was principally spread by direct contact ,from man to man or man to food-; that i s to say, that the germs were disseminated through the soiled clothing, infected shoes, and dirty hands of men visiting the latrines. Most important it is, then, in camps, especially where ordinary pit latrines are used, to enforce cleanly personal habits and to require men invariably to wash their hands before entering the mess room.

34




6CUBA IN GENERAL.

2. The stegomyia becomes contaminated and acquires th faculty of transmitting the disease only after having bitten a yellow-fever patient within the first three days of h| attack.
3. It is only when at least twelve days have passed since its contamination that it acquires the power of producingW well-marked attack of yellow fever.
4. Once having acquired this power it retains it probably until death.
5. The average life of the mosquito is from one to two months.
All ordinary sanitary measures during 1899 and 1900 ha been failures so far as stamping out yellow fever was co, cerned. Yellow fever, at the beginning of 1901, was about as bad as it had ever been in Havana in the winter.
As soon as the conclusions of the commission were form lated in February, 1901, work was commenced along the line of extermination of the mosquito and pushed in every dire, tion, with the result that on the 28th of September, 1901, th last case originating in Havana occurred. During the year 1902, 1903, and 1904 there were seven, eleven, and three cases respectively (all imported).
From December, 1903, to September, 1904, no cases were reported. During the latter month the disease again mad its appearance, but only three cases occurred up to the end of that year. Since that date, isolated cases have appeared from time to time and a slight epidemic occurred in Cien fuegos in September, 1907, but it may be confidently asserted that so long as proper sanitary measures are vigorously applied, absolutely no danger exists of an epidemic.
In such a city as Havana it is believed that the mosquitoes are bred within the house they trouble, and that the stegomyia generally breeds in the rain-water barrel and receptacle.
The stegomyia is very domestic in its habits and will not be likely to leave the premises in which it has taken up itS quarters as long as the necessary conditions for the com pletion of its life cycle are favorable, viz, human blood water in which it may lay its eggs, an agreeable atmosphere and required temperature. In the absence of any of thesc requisites it will go to the nearest place where condition

I
i

36




'CUBA IN GENERAL.

Mosquitoes and other very small annoying insects abound, especially in the vicinity of swamps. When campaigning, the only way relief can be obtained is to thoroughly grease all exposed portions of the body.
Flies speedily become numerous unless absolute cleanliness is preserved.
Picket lines and stables should be at least 150 yards from kitchens.
ANIMAL LIFE.
Throughout Cuba game is abundant; deer, though not native, have flourished and multiplied greatly. Rabbits are also plentiful. The wild boar (so called), the wild dog, and the wild cat are simply domestic animals run wild. They are quite numerous in all parts of the island.
Wild fowl, especially ducks and pigeons, abound, the former crossing from the Southern States during the winter season, while the latter remain on the island the year round. Pheasants, quail, snipe, wild turkeys, and wild guinea fowl are also numerous, with several other varieties of game birds, such as the perdiz, tojosas, rabiches, and the guanaros.
The only distinctively native animal is the jutia or hutia, rat like in appearance, and -black, which grows to a length of 16 or 18 inches, not including the tail. While eatable, it is not especially palatable.
Cuba has more than 200 species of native birds, including those mentioned as game birds,. many possessing the most beautiful plumage, but those with song are rare.
In swampy localities crocodiles and American alligators (caimans) are found. They frequently grow to an enormous size, and the crocodiles give some trouble in the Zapata Swamp, where they seem to be quite numerous.
When camping on any of the islets of the swamp over night it is necessary to erect-a stockade.
Few varieties of snakes exist in Cuba.
The maja, from 10 to 14 feet in length, is semidomesticated, if such a term may be used. Its favorite living place is in the palm-leaf thatches of older buildings and its favorite food is poultry.
Another snake, named the "juba," is more vicious in disposition than the maj a, although never reaching more than one-third its size. It is not poisonous. The other varie-

38




CUBA IN GENERAL. 39
ties are still smaller in size, are seldom seen, and are not venomous.
The land crabs are very abundant and annoying.
The following table gives the registration of the number of animals in the island on June 30, 1908:
Province. Horses. Cattle. Mules. Total.
Pinar del Rio ------------------------ 389755 231,601 9,879 290,035
Havana ---------------------------------------- 76,417 344, 755 15,794 436,966
Matanzas------------------------------------ 66,724 377,098 5,440 449,262
Santa Clara----------------------------------- 117,226, 895, 438 9,456 1,022,120
Camagiley ----------------------- 50,555 455,129 1, 730 507,414
Oriente -- -----------------------------128,020 479,347 14,289 621, 655
Grand total ------------------------------ 477,697 2,783,368 56,388 3,317, 453
It is believed that the stock in Camaguiey is not correctly reported. It is the best stock-growing province on the island, and in numbers it should rank with Santa *Clara.
DISEASES OF THE HORSE.
There are practically no serious diseases of the horse in the island, with the exception of glanders.
There is a little of this disease scattered about, no locality being particularly infested with it.
The following are the common diseases existing and the best-known treatments therefor: THRUSH.
This is an inflammation of the cleft of the frog, and may occur in any or all of the feet. It is caused generally by standing in mud or manure. The horse goes slightly lame. There is a slight but very foul-smelling discharge from the cleft of the frog.
Treatment: Keep the foot clean and d ry. Trim out the
frog so you can get at the bottom of the cleft. Apply pure tincture of iodine once daily. Dust in calomel and pack cleft with oakum or absorbent cotton. Change dressing
daily.
Packing with powdered charcoal is also effective.
SCREW FLIES.
Screw flies are small white worms, larvau, or "maggots'




CUBA IN GENERAL.

(b) Characterization: As the name indicates, infectious suppurative cellulitis is an infectious disease common amon cattle and sheep, but also attacking horses and mules. It is an extensive inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue of the lower extremities; if the morbid process extends beneath the hoof, causing it to slough, it is called "hoof rot." If the inflammatory process attacks the skin, it is called erysipelas. If it becomes circumscribed, resulting in local suppuration, an abscess or ulcer is the result.
Cause of the disease: The disease is brought in by animals coming from practice marches into the interior and camping on grounds or fields infected by cattle, or they may be infected by being transported on vessels formerly used for, transportation of cattle coming from Central and South America. Bacteriological examinations of Pasteur have proven that the disease is caused by a streptococcus.
Course of the disease: Like all infectious diseases, suppurative cellulitis is a self-limited one; that is, if once an animal is affected, the disease will run its course and there is no way of checking it until its virulency is exhausted. As a rule, a number of animals which are subjected to the same conditions are attacked at the same time, resembling an epizootic. Usually but one foot is affected; sometimes, however, two or more.
Symptoms: A swelling of the lower part of the leg is usually the first symptom of the disease, and the disease and the swelling often extend to the knee or hock; there is considerable pain, the subcutaneous tissues become indurated, the skin is thickened and dry and usually cracks, followed by a discharge of thick, creamy pus. The swelling subsides and the leg is returned to its normal condition; in most cases it is accompanied by sloughing of the skin around the pastern. The course of the disease is from ten to fifteen days. The exceptions are largely in those cases where the inflammatory process extends to the coronary cushion, in which cases the disease is most serious, and mostly results in sloughing of the hoof and death from septicavmia.
Treatment: If the fetlock begins to swell, carefully clip the hair as high as the knee or hock and thoroughly wash the leg with warm water and castile soap; in order to hasten the inflammatory process, apply the so-called "Prietznitz poul-

1

42

U




CUBA IN GENERAL. 4

tice (linen dipped in disinfecting solution or wet antiseptic gauze, covered by a flannel bandage). All dead pieces of skin or tissue should be carefully removed and the wound treated antiseptically; cauterized with lunar caustic when necessary and the wound from time to time swabbed with a Mild solution of chloride of zinc; bandaging is in most cases indicated. If cellulitis has appeared around the coronary band, dispersal is favored by warm baths to which some antiseptic is added. The appearance of distinct fluctuation is the sign. for immediately opening the abscess;, considerable bleeding must be expected and almost always occurs. After the discharge of the pus, which is blood stained or decomposed, the cavity should be washed out with disinfectants and tampons inserted to check the bleeding. The tampons can be kept in position for twenty-four hours by a bandage, the pressure of which will assist its styptic effect, but care must be taken that the bandage is not applied so tightly as to cause necrosis. For a few days the cavity is syringed out and treated antiseptically, tampons and bandage. Precaution must be taken against retention of pus.
Prevention: The disease is due to a local infection of some kind, brought in by cattle from Central and South America. Where a herd of cattle or sheep have been pasturing there is danger of infection; also, on the steamers they have been transported on (cattle or sheep infected with that disease). The prevention of disease consists in clipping the fetlocks of all animals and then washing the fetlocks with castile soap and warm water. Wherever the sea is near enough give the animals a chance to get a daily foot bath; both infected as well as noninfected (of course only those which are able to walk without causing hemorrhages from the fetlocks).
(e) The so-called foot rot is what is known technically as dermatitis gangrenosa or gangrenous grease. It is characterized by moist gangrene of the skin and adjacent tissues of the phalanges of solipeds, which produces extensive sloughing; infection through slight wounds being doubtless a very important factor in the causation, obstruction's to the circulation might be suspected, but were that the cause the necrosis would be confined to the part robbed of nutrition and the dead separated from the living tissue and no further invasion occur; but in this affection new areas are rapidly invaded

43




44

CUBA IN GENERAL.

until the entire foot is destroyed or the animal dies from septic intoxication.
The disease is sudden in its attack, often manifesting itself in the night, though its true character may remain obscure for two or even three days. The leg involved is swollen and extremely painful and resembles an acute attack of scratches. In the latter the soreness and swelling subside with exercise, while in the former it does not, but is aLyLyravated and the debility of the patient is more marked. A careful examination will reveal a moisture of the skin in the affected part and by pressure a turbid serum, having the characteristic odor of gangrene, can be squeezed out; the surface of the necrotic spots will be cold and clammy, while surrounding parts may' have a feeling of subnormal temperature. The necrotic patches are usually small, but may involve larger areas. If located at posterior part of fetlock it may extend across the region as a crack, like scratches, or it may extend up and down on either side of the flexor tendons from the coronet to the fetlock, involving the region immediately superior. The swelling may extend to the hock or knee, the animal becoming restless and showing extreme pain. The temperature is elevated, respiration hurried, the pulse increased, small and weak, and debility soon becomes well marked.
In about three or four days the necrotic patches are cast off as slimy patches. The disease may terminate here and the wound will fill with granulation, and recovery by cicatrization be complete in about two weeks, but this termination is exceptional, for, in most cases, new areas superficial and deep are invaded, sloughing extends, tendons, hoof, and ligaments are destroy ed, and even the capsular ligament may be involved.
In most instances the system absorbs a sufficient amount of poison from the wound to produce a general septic condition that rapidly leads to death; the difference in the termination often noticed is probably due to the ability of the system to resist the poisons.
As the infection may' take place through a very small wound, treatment by preventive measures is not likely to be successful. The disease being rapid in its progress, treatment should be energetic, and even heroic, and applied as early as possible. An antiseptic course locally and internally has




CUBA IN GENERAL. 4

been used, and often without success; the treatment with germicides, even to a degree of potential cautery, gave poor results.
Actual cautery (white-hot iron) is reported by some veterinarians as the one successful agent. It has been used vigorously when it seemed the entire foot 'was in an advanced stage of moist gangrene, even when sensation appeared to have been lost and treatment useless, and twenty-four hours later found the disease not only checked but every trace of gangrene gone, leaving only the resulting sore, requiring only the usual treatment for simple wounds.
After the destructive process has been arrested, cleanliness and antiseptics insure resolution. If the case be an aggravated one and debility be marked, stimulants are administered and the liberal use of hyposulphite of soda will assist in arresting the fermentation of the blood.
ITCH.
American horses turned out to pasture in Cuba are usually attacked by an irritating skin disease.
The skin of the legs, neck, and head are principally affected, and usually the disease appears within about forty-eight hours after the horse has been turned out.
There is intense itching, and the horse will rub or dig at the skin with his teeth until he rubs the skin off, and frequently causes bleeding. Not all horses suffer from this disease, but others are very susceptible.
The disease seems due to bacteria or a vegetable parasite like a mold. It is not an animal parasite, and does not appear contagious.
The disease is not mange, nor is it the dobe itch of the Philippines.
Treatment: Keep the animal up and apply strong antiseptics. The best success has been obtained with a 1 to 500 solution of bichloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate) in water.
Apply thoroughly twice daily.
FORAGE.
The best forage grasses in Cuba are the guinea and parana, or "4paral." The latter grows on rather moist soils.
The forage is much better from Havana east than West, as the principal grass about Havana and to the west is a wire

45




CUBA IN GENERAL.

grass, "espartillo." It is poor forage; animals do not like it, and it is not nourishing.
If other forage is not available the tops of sugar cane can be used to advantage. The classes of forage in order of excellence are: First, grasses, either guinea or parana; second, green-corn fodder; third, sugar-cane tops.
Three crops of corn may be gathered in one year, but as a rule only two are obtained, which are known as rainy-season corn and winter corn.
The green-corn fodder is excellent. The sugar-cane fodder is not very nourishing and is laxative. Most of the cane is grown east of Havana, in which section both cane and corn will be found scattered all over.
GEOLOGY.
The general geology of the island may be briefly stated as consisting of an older basement of pre-Tertiary sedimentary rocks in which Cretaceous and probably Jurassic fossils have been found. Above this there are, first, littoral beds composed of terrigenous material, and then a great thickness of white limestone, consisting of organically derived oceanic material as distinguished from true reef rock of late Eocene and Oligocene age. The island was reclaimed from the sea and assumed its present relief by a great mountain-making movement in the late Teritiary time, succeeding the deposition of the limestone. In late epochs, Pliocene and Pleistocene, the island underwent a series of epeirogenic subsidences and elevations which affected the costal borders, producing the wave-cut cliffs and a margin of elevated reef rock, which borders the coast in many places, as can be recognized in the cities of Havana and Baracoa. So far as its history is known, the island has never been connected with the American mainland, although such has frequently been asserted to be the case. These assertions have been based upon the erroneous identification of certain vertebrate animal remains. There are no traces in the animal life of Cuba, past or present, which justify this conclusion. Some of the crystalline rocks may be ancient, but most of them are mid-Tertiary in age.
A detailed report by the United States Geological Survey may be found in Volume I, Civil Report of the Military Governor of Cuba, 1 901.

46




CUBA IN GENERAL. 4

MINERAL RESOURCES.
The most important minerals of Cuba are iron, manganese, asphalt, and copper. The principal iron mines are in the vicinity of Santiago de Cuba. The Juragna Iron Company's mines are situated at Firmeza, Oriente Province, about 18 miles by rail east of Santiago. The annual output of about 168,000 tons will be increased in the near future to 600,000 tons.
The mines of the Spanish-Anmerican Iron ,Coinpany are'aP IDaiquiri", 24 miles east of Santiago de Cuba. The annual output is about 450,000 tons. Some iron ore is reported from the mountains* of Pinar del IRfo.
Asphalt is found in the provinces of Havana,. Pinar del 1o, and Santa Clara. The annual output is valued at about $122,900.
Manganese is found in considerable quantities in the province of Oriente. There is a mine at Ponupo, about 4 miles from- La Maya, Oriente Province. The total annual output of manganese is valued at $164,000.
Copper is found in small quantities in nearly all the provinces, but the most important deposits are in 'Oriente Province. There are extensive mines at El Cobre, about 10 miles west of Santiago. The annual output is valued at about $13,000. The old. shafts are reported flooded, and the ore produced comes from some high-grade ore in the portions of the mine above water level. If the property is pumped out and developed, the annual output will increase.
Several gold mines have been located in the provinces of Santa Clara and Oriente, but no gold is being produced. It is possible that valuable veins exist, but- evidence is wanting for an unqualified 'statement that either placers or quartz mining will prove to be of economic importance in the island.
In Santa Clara a small quantity of naphtha is produced.
On the Isle of Pines, near Salinas Point,' are deposits of salt. and near Nueva Gerona some good marble is produced.
FORESTRY.Owing to the richness of the soil, the equable,, moist termperature, and abundant rainfall, the island abounds in flowers, fruits, and a great variety of vegetables.

47




CUBA IN GENERAL.

49

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS.
The principal agricultural products of Cuba are sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, cocoa, cotton,' sarsaparilla, vanilla, copal, china root, cassia, Palma Christi mustard, pepper, ginger, licorice, balsam de Guatemala, India rubber, etc.
The following table shows the approximate areas, expressed in cordeles, of which there are 324 in a caballerf a, or approximately 10 to an acre, which are planted in each of the principal crops, together with the percentage of the cultivated area in each crop:

Cordeles.
Sugar cane----------------------------------------------------- 4,142,016
Sweet potatoes------------------------------------------------- 973,629
Tobacco ---------------------------------------------- 817, 452
Bananas ------------------------------------ 758,627
Indian cr-------------------------639,042
Malangas -------------------------------------------------------30,0
Yucca ---------------------------------------------------------- 283,363
Coffee&--------------------------------------------------------- 137,854
Cocoanuts------------------------------------------------------ 120,261
Cocoa----------------------------------------------------------- 119,525
Rice ------------------------------------------------------------- 42,076
Y ams------------------------------------------------------------ 30,030
Irish potatoes - - - - - - - -- - - --- - - - 26,808
Pineapples ------------------------------------------------------ 26,782
Oranges -------------------------------------------------------- 23, 418
Onions--------------------------------------------------------- 14,274

Per cent.
47.3 11.3 9.3 8.6 7.3 3.4 3.2 1.6 1.1
1.4 .5
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2

The table shows that very nearly one-half of the cultivated area of Cuba is planted in sugar cane; that the next crop of importance, in which 11.3 per cent of the cultivated area is planted, is sweet potatoes; while tobacco, for which crop the island is quite as celebrated as for sugar cane, occupies about 9.3 per cent of the cultivated area, being third in importance as measured in area cultivated.
Coffee, at one time a product of great importance in Cuba, occupies only about 1.6 per cent of the cultivated area. Nearly one-half of this area is in Oriente.
In general it may be stated that crops which are cultivated mainly upon owned estates are those of a permanent character, such as sugar, cocoanuts, coffee, and cocoa, as distinguished from annual crops.

492-09--4

//




50 CUBA IN GENERAL.

Sugar.-The percentage of cultivated land planted in sugar cane in each province is about as follows: Per cent.
Matanzas ---------------------------78.4
Santa C lara - - - - -- - - - - 71. 3
Caniagii*ey ----- --- - - -- - ---- 34.7
Oriente ------------------------------34. 5
H avana --- - - --- - - - - -- 27.0
Pinar del Rfo - - - - -- - - - - 6. 1
Tobacco.-Of the total cultivated area of Cuba, about 9.6 per cent is planted in tobacco. The proportion of land so~ planted varies widely in the different provinces, as shown in the table below:
Per cent.
Pinar del Rfo ----------------------------- 42.4
Havana --------------------------10.3
Santa Clara - - - - -- - - - - 4. 2
O riente - - - - - - - - - - 6
Cam agfiey - - - - -- - - - - .3
Matanzas --------------------------------------- .3
Considering tobacco relative to other agricultural products, it is Most prominent at the western end of the island, in Pinar del Rf'o primarily and in Havana secondarily. It is cultivated in all the other provinces, but to a very small extent.
These are the two great export crops of the island. The cultivation of sweet potatoes is distributed quite generally over the island, but is greatest in the two extreme provinces, Pinar del Rio and Oriente.
The banana is quite generally cultivated, although in the province of Oriente much greater attention is paid to it than elsewhere..
Indian corn is a grain of much importance in the agri-, culture of Cuba. It is raised in every province in considerable quantity, but most attention is paid to it in Oriente.
Malanga, a farinaceous root, is raised quite generally for food throughout the island, but the greater part of it is produced in 'the province of Pinar del Rf *o. Only a trifling' amount is raised in Camagii*ey.
Yucca is produced in every province, but the most attention is paid to it- in Oriente.
Coffee, once a crop of great importance, is now produced in but small quantity. Nearly one-half of the area devoted to this produce is situated in Oriente.

50




CUBA IN GENERAL.

The cultivation of the cocoanut palm is confined almost exclusively to Oriente.
The-production of cocoa is confined almost exclusively to Oriente as is also the production of yams.
Irish potatoes are raised to a limited extent. About onehalf of the total crop is raised in Havana Province.
Pineapples are raised in every province, but more than four-fifths of the product comes from Havana Province.
Oranges are raised to a much greater extent in Havana and Matanzas Provinces than in any of the others.
Of the onion product, more than two-thirds comes from the province of Havana.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
The fruits of Cuba are numerous and delicious. Among them are the pineapple, banana, cocoanut, and orange, which need no description. 4
Aguacate (alligator pear) .-This is one of the most popular fruits. It is pear shaped, green or purple, and often weighs 2 pounds. On account of the pulp being firm and marrow-like it is also known as vegetable marrow or midshipman's butter." With French dressing it makes a delicious salad. A very good oil for soap comes from its seed. It grows on a tree.
Caimito.-This fruit is purple or dark green on the outside. It has a milky, fibrous meat, sweet and starchy, and a number of round black seeds. It grows on a tree.
Chimmoya (custard apple).-This is a heart-shaped fruit, quite sweet, with a slightly acid taste and very refreshing. It has a smooth peel and contains numerous seeds buried in a pulp. It is sometimes known as "bullock's heart," on account of its size and shape. Grows on a tree.
Anon.-Somewhat similar to the above, except that it has a scaly exterior.
Figs (higos) .-Grow luxuriantly.
Granadilla.-Grows on a vine which bears the passion flower. The fruit is generally as large as a child's head. The meat is glutinous and contains iiiany small seeds. It is much used in making refreshing drinks and desserts.
Guandbana.-A large fruit about the size of a muskmelon, with many seeds, and having a fibrous meat with a delicate

51




CUBA IN GENERAL.

flavor. It is eaten in its natural state and also used for making drinks, ices, and preserves.
Guava.-The guava is a pulpy fruit with an agreeable acid flavor and is used in making jelly, marmalade, etc. There are two varieties, the red or apple-shaped and the white or pear-shaped.
Lima.-Somewhat like the lime, but has the flavor of a grape.
Lime (limon citrus).-The juice is much used in summer beverages in the Tropics.
Mam y (sapote).-The mamey or sapote tree yields a fruit the juice of which resembles marmalade. It is known locally as the "mamey colorado," red mamey, in contradistinction to the mamey of Santa Domingo, which is yellow in color and is also grown here, but is eatable only after cooking.
Mamonillo.-The fruit grows on a tree in clusters. It is a species of plum, is tart, and has one fibrous pit. The juice will stain clothes black, like ink.
Mango.-A fruit shaped somewhat like a pear, but attached to the tree by the larger end. The-meat is fibrous and clings to the seed, somewhat like that of a clingstone peach. Sometimes used as a vegetable when green. When ripe, its flavor is delicious. There are several varieties of this fruit, of which the Philippine variety is the best, the meat being less fibrous.
Papaya (paw-paw).-The papaya is about 10 inches long, ribbed, and has a thick fleshy rind. It is eaten raw or boiled as a vegetable when green. It is also pickled. The tree is about 20 feet high and has large leaves at the top only. Meat boiled with a small portion of the leaf is made tender, or can be made tender by hanging it among the leaves. The seeds of the fruit are used as a vermifuge.
Sapote or Sapotillo (plum).-A small brown fruit with black, watermelon-like seeds and juice which disappears with incipient decay, and the fruit becomes very sugary.
The following vegetables are raised: Corn, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, onions, peppers, eggplant, okra, etc.
Besides the above are the following:
Yucca.-Two varieties, the sweet or edible variety and the sour or poisonous one. The sour variety is used in the manufacture of starch, of which it contains about 20 per cent.

52




CUBA IN GENERAL. 53
AYame (yam).-Cultivated on a small scale on the outskirts of large cities.
lalanga.-A tuber having an agreeable taste, similar to that of the white yam.
Banana (plantain) .-Constitutes one of the principal
articles of food of all Cubans.
POPULATION.
According to the census taken in 1907, the total population of the island of Cuba is 2,048,980, the racial percentage being as follows: White, 69.7 per cent; colored, 30.3 per cent.
The percentage of native whites is 59.8 per cent, and of foreign whites 9.9 per cent.
The total population of each province is as follows:
Pinar del Rio------------------------------240,372
Havana -------------- 538 010
Matanzas ---------------------------239,812
Santa Clara---------------------457,431
Camagiiey 118,269
Oriente -----------------------------455, 086
The racial percentages in the different provinces are given in the following table:
Province. Native Foreign Colored.
white. white.
Pinar del Rio. ..------------------------------------------ 68.7 6.4 24.9
H a v a n a .. . . . . . . ..-- - - - -- - - -- - - -- - - - - - .-- 58 .7 17 .9 23 .4
Matanzas. ..--------------------------------------------- 54.6 7.4 38.0
S anta C lara ------------------------------------------------- 63.9 8.6 27.5
C am agfiey . . . . ..--------------------------------------- 75.0 6.7 18.3
O riente -. . . . . ..--------------------------------------- 50.9 6.0 43.1
Cuba.. . . . . ..------------------------------------- 59.8 9.9 30.3
The number of males of military age (18 to 45 years) in the island of Cuba is as follows:
Province. Native colored. Foreign
white. whie Total.
Pinar del Rio . ..-------------------------------- 33,521 11,551 9,588 54,660
Havana. ..------------------------------------- 65,617 26,125 52,761 144,503
M atanzas ----------------------------------------- 26,887 16,144 8,951 51,32
Santa Clara. ..--------------------------------- 58,638 23,966 23,693 106,297
Camagiley. ..----------------------------------16,612 4,196 4,526 25,334
Oriente. ..------------------------------------- 41,094 35,421 16,407 92,922
Total----------------11--1r2i7,403 iA.926 475,6




54 CUBA IN GENERAL,

Leaving out of 'Consideration the foreign white element, the military population is 359,702, divided as follows: White, 67.3 per cent; colored, 23.7 per cent.
The population of the city of Havana is 297,159, and the racial percentages are as follows: Native whites, 50 per cent; foreign whites 24.5 per cent; colored, 25.5 per cent.,,
The urban population of the island, including in that term the inhabitants of all towns of more than 8,000 population, is 619,835, or 30.3 per cent, being a trifle smaller than that of the United States. If we include all towns of a population of .1,000 and over, the urban population rises to 899,667, or 43.9 per cent, which is a little less than that ofI the United States.
LANGUAGE, RELIGION, AND EDUCATION.
The only language generally spoken in the island is Spanish; although on account of its proximity to the United States many of the better educated Cubans speak English.
The great majority of the Cuban p eople profess the Roman Catholic religion; but there is no favoritism or intolerance, the people adapting themselves without any difficulty to the religious liberty provided for by the constitution.
The establishment of churches of other denominations is respected and accepted as quite natural.
In Cuba, as in all other Spanish possessions, public instruction was practically ignored.
At the time of the American intervention the appropriations for schools were far from adequate and their adminis-, tration most im perfect.
The teachers were poorly paid and,* their methods of instruction most antiquated. The first care of the American military government was to provide teachers and schools of primary instruction throughout the island.
Adequate buildings for schools were provided and the number of schoolhouses and teachers rapidly augmented.
The institutes of secondary instruction at Havana and Matanzas were recognized, and those at Santa Clara, Camagiley, Santiago de Cuba, and Pinar del IRio were reopened.
An academy of stenography and typewriting was inaugurated; the school of commerce at the Institute of Havana was reorganized; schools of surveyors were opened at those

54




CUBA IN GENERAL. 5

of ,Matanzas, Camagiiey, Santiago de Cuba, and Pinar del iRio, and the chair of agriculture, which had been suppressed, was again estab lished in all the institutes.
A reform of the University of Havana also took'place. Under the system adopted the university was divided into three faculties, viz, letters and science, medicine and pharmacy, and law.
The faculty of letters and sciences consists of the following: School of letters and philosophy, school of pedagogy, school of sciences, school of engineers, electricity, and architecture, and school of agriculture.
The faculty of medicine and pharmacy consists of school of medicine, school of pharmacy, school of dental surgery. school of veterinary surgery.
The faculty of law consists of the school of civil law, school of public law, school of notarial law.
The School of Painting and Sculpture of Havana was reorganized.
The School of -Arts and Trades of Havana was also gen, erously provided for.
The Normal School, kindergarten for teachers, was also established in Havana.
The Cuban Government, since its advent, May 20, 1902, has tried to continue the good work of its predecessor in the matter of education.
TIhe number of schoolrooms has been increased, largely in. the rural districts.
The school law considers "city district, the town with more than 10,000 inhabitants, and rural," those with less.
AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE.
Agriculture is the source. of practically all the wealth of Cuba. The agricultural resources have not been developed, and the practices are antique, although rapid strides have been made in 'Introducing modern agricultural methods since the war of 1898. The principal crop is sugar, of which there was produced 1,132,482 tons (of 2,240 pounds to the ton) in 1906. A large amount of molasses and alcohol is also manufactured from sugar products. !Next to sugar in value comes live stock, next comes tobacco, and then fruits. Con-

55




56

CUBA IN GENERAL.

siderable honey and wax are also produced. A small amount of coffee is grown in the island. Most of the tobacco is from west of Havana, the finest coming from the'Vuelta Abajo district in Pinar del Rio Province.
The tobacco crop of Cuba amounts to about $30,000,000 per annum. For the year ending June 30, 1906, Cuba exported to the United States cigars and cigarettes valued at $4,000,000 and leaf tobacco to the value of $13,500,000.
The agricultural development is retarded by the bad country roads. These roads are impassable except for horses and ox carts. Near the large cities the government is building fine macadam roads which will be extended rapidly in the next two years.
There is very little coffee grown in Cuba. This' was formerly an important crop, but since slavery was abolished the cost of labor makes coffee growing unprofitable. Practically no cotton is grown, as the boll weevil is very bad.
The soils of Cuba are generally, very fertile, but hard to cultivate, as the red and black lands contain so little sand that implements do not scour. Sugar cane is cut once annually for from eight to ten years without replanting and with very little cultivation.
The principal fruits grown are pineapples, oranges, grape fruit limes lemons tangerines, bananas, cocoanuts, mangoes and guavas.
Vegetables are grown during the dry (winter) season, as follows: Tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, Irish potatoes, and sweet potatoes; the latter grow abundantly all the year. I The foreign commerce of Cuba amounts to about $200,000,000 annually. Of this one hundred and ten millions. are exports and ninety-five millions are imports. About 87 per cent of the exports are to and 50 per cent of the imports are from the United States. The principal exports are sugar, tobacco, fruits, and valuable timber, such as cedar and mahogany. The principal imports are cattle, mules, horses, provisions, oil, coal, lumber, machinery, and manufactured goods.
About 50 per cent of the wage-earning class of Cuba are. engaged in agricultural pursuits. There -is little manufacturing except sugar, cigars, and cigarettes.




CUBA IN GENERAL.

5. Empalme branch, from Empalme to Giiines.
6. Marianao branch, from Concha Station, Havana, to Hoyo
Colorado, crossing the Villanueva division at Cidnaga.
7. Alfonzo XII branch, from Alfonzo XII (Alacranes) to Uni6n
de Reyes.
Matanzas division.-This division runs from Matanzas.
through Uni6n de Reyes to Esles, and has seven branches. The Villanueva division joins the Matanzas division at Uni6n de Reyes, and trains are run from Villanueva Station, Havana, over the Matanzas division to Col6n. A plan is being considered of extending the line from Esles to Rodas, on the Cuban Central Railroad, and running through trains from Havana to Cienfuegos.
The branches are as follows:
1. Cabeza branch, from Uni6n de Reyes to Cabeza.
2. Gflira-Nieve branch, from Giiira to Nieve.
3. Atrevido branch, from Navajas to Atrevido.
4. Jagiley branch, from Navajas to Murga.
5. Manguito branch, running south from Guareiras to Manguito.
6. Col6n branch, from Guareiras to Col6n.
7. Branch running east from kilometer 106 on the Col6n branch.
Cdrdenas division.-This division consists of two main lines and three branches. One main line is known as the C~irdenas or Central" line, and runs from Cardenas,
through Jovellanos, to Esperanza, which is a short distance from Santa Clara. Trains from Regla to Santa Clara and the east use the section from Jovellanos to Esperanza as a continuation of the Regla division and the part of the line from Cirdenas to Jovellanos is practically a short branch line. The second main line is known as the Jficaro line and runs south from CUirdenas to Ant6n Recio. The line, however, is operated only as far as Yaguaramas. Beyond this point the only traffic consists of an occasional freight train, and it is the intention to abandon this stretch in favor of an extension from Esles to Rodas. The branches are as follows:
1. Montalvo branch, from Jovellanos to Navajas.
2. Macagua branch, from Altamisal to Macagua.
3. Itabo branch, from Recreo to Itabo.
THE CUBAN CENTRAL RAILROAD.
This system is a combination of five different lines and consists of one main line and eight branches. The main line

58




CUBA IN GENERAL. 59
runs from Concha [Isabela de Sagua] on the north coast of Cuba through Sagua la Grande and Cruces to Cienfuegos. The branches are as follows:
1. Aguada or Rodas branch leaves the main line just north of
Palmira and runs to Aguada de Pasajeros on the Ckrdenas
division of the United Railroads of Havana.
2. Santa Clara branch, from Cruces to Santa Clara.
3. Sitiecito-Caibarien branch, from the main line at Sitiecito
to Caibari 6n.
4. Camajuanf-Placetas branch leaves the Sitiecito branch at
Camajuanf.
5. Placetas-Caibari~n branch is a 3-foot narrow gauge road
joining the two points named.
6. San Juan branch leaves the Santa Clara branch at kilometer
92.5 and runs about 6 miles to the south.
7. Caguagua branch, from Sagua to Caguagua.
8. Calabazar branch leaves the Sitiecito-Caibari6n branch at
kilometer 52 and runs 2 miles to the north.
THE WESTERN RAILWAY OF HAVANA.
This road runs from Cristina Station, Havana, south to Gabriel, from which place it runs west through Pinar del Rio to Guane. The branches are three in number and are small.
1. Hacendados branch begins at kilometer 1.114 and terminates
on the Hacendados pier. At this point boats of 18-foot
draft can unload.
2. Fajardo branch leaves main line at kilometer 38 and runs to
the sugar mill Fajardo.
3. Pilar branch leaves the main line at kilometer 68.3 and runs
to the sugar mill Pilar.
GUANTAkNAMO RAILROAD.
The main line of this railroad runs from Guantbinamo
to Caimanera. From the latter place a small branch runs to Deseo. From Guantbinamo branches run to the Soledad sugar plantation, to the Isabel sugar plantation via the town of Jamaica, and to the San Carlos sugar plantation via the village of the same name.
GIBARA AND HOLGUIN RAILROAD.
The main line of this railroad runs from Gibara to Holguin. There is one branch which leaves the main line at Iberia and runs to Velasco.




60 CUBA IN GENERAL.
HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD.
This is an electric road which runs from the Arsenal Station, Havana, to Guanajay and to Giiines. Lines from Havana to Bataban6, from Arroyo Arenas to San Antonio, and from Giiines to Melena del Sur are in process of construction (1908). The following connections are made with other roads: United Railroads of Havana at kilometer 3 and kilometer 12; Western Railway of Havana at kilometer 9; Central Toledo Railway at kilometer 13; Insular Railway at kilometer 14; and Marianao branch of the United Railroads of Havana at kilometer 20.
CUBAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY.
This road runs from Regla station (connected with Havana by ferry) to Guanabacoa. No branches and no connection with other roads.
TUNAS AND SANCTI SPIRITUS RAILROAD.
This railroad runs from Sancti Spiritus to Tunas and there are no branches. The road has but one serviceable locomotive. The track is in very bad condition and locomotives belonging to other roads could not be run on it, as very probably the bridges would collapse.
THE CUBA COMPANY RAILROAD.
This railroad runs from Santa Clara to Santiago de Cuba and has four branches:
1. Zaza-Sancti Spiritus branch connects the two points named.
2. Cacocum-Holgufn branch connects the two points named.
3. Nipe branch, from Alto Cedro to Antilla.
4. Sabanilla branch, from Mor6n to La Maya.
YAGUAJAY RAILROAD.
This railroad runs from La Playa de Carbo on the north coast to Yaguajay and has a branch to Centeno. The branch to Jobo Rosado is not open to the public. Connects with the Narcisa Railroad, which runs from Jiicaro (a wharf 15 miles east of Caibari~n) to Yaguajay, and with the Victoria Railroad, which runs from the sugar mill of the same name




CUBA IN GENERAL.

to Playa de Victoria on the north coast. These three railroads are all connected together, are of practically the same gauge, and for military purposes could be used as one system. The gauge of the Victoria and Yaguajay lines is 271 inches and that of the Narcisa is 273 inches.
NORTH AMERICAN SUGAR COMPANY RAILROAD.
This is the proper name of the Narcisa Railroad and the road is described under the Yaguajay Railroad.
JURAGUkL RAILROAD.
This railroad runs from Castillo de Jagua to Pamplona, via the sugar mill Juragua. There are two short branches one is at Guasimal and one at Ojo de Agua.
RESULTA RAILROAD.
This road runs from Resulta (situated on the Sagua la Grande River) to Calabazar. It is a private railroad, but has the privilege of being operated as a public railroad. As yet advantage has not been taken of the privilege (1908).
PUERTO PRINCIPE-NUEVITAS RAILROAD.
This road runs from Camagiey to Nuevitas.
JIlCARO AND SAN FERNANDO RAILROAD.
This road runs from Jticaro to San Fernando. A branch 'runs from La Carolina, 51 miles south of Ciego de Avila, to the sugar mill Jagiieyal. Connection is made at Ciego de Avila with the Cuba Company Railroad, and at Quince y Media with the Stuart Sugar Company Railway.
CENTRAL CARACAS RAILROAD.
This railroad runs from the sugar mill Caracas to Cruces. It has the following branches: From the sugar mill Caracas to Lajas; from kilometer 1.5 on the Caracas-Lajas branch to the Sagua River; from Caracas to the Salado River, via Ceiba Hueca and Ciego Montero; from Caracas to the Sagua River branch at kilometer 7. There are also numerous short spurs running from the branches to various colonias.
CUBA EASTERN RAILROAD.
This road runs from Boquer6n on the east side of Guant6namo Bay to Guantanamo and to San Luis on the Cuba Com-

61




62 CUBA IN GENERAL.
pany Railroad. It has three short branches-one to Confluente, one to Esperanza, and one to Marco Sanchez.
INSULAR RAILWAY.
An electric street railway running from Vedado, Havana, to Marianao. At Vedado it connects with the Havana Electric Railway, which is the city system. It also connects with the Havana Central Railroad at Toledo Station, near Marianao. The road has a concession to construct two more lines from Havana to other cities in Havana Province, and there is a project to extend the Vedado-Marianao line to Mariel.
CIHAPARRA SUGAR COMPANY RAIlROAD.
The public portion of this road is as follows: From Velasco, northwest through San Juan and El Retiro, to the sugar mill Chaparra, and from the sugar mill west to Las Delicias. At Velasco the road connects with a branch of the Gibara-Holgiiin Railroad. A private branch of the road runs from Delicias to San Manuel, where connection is made with the San Manuel Railroad (private), which runs north to Puerto Padre. There is also a private branch from Chaparra to the Cascarero wharves on Chaparra Bay.

Public railroads.
United Railroads of HavanaCuban Central R. R...... .
Western Ry. of Havana .GuantAnamo R. R -...... --Gibara and Holguin R. R__Havana Central R. R----Cuban Electric Ry_-----Tunas-Sancti Spiritus R. R-.. Cuba Company R. R...........
Yaguajay R. R....-------------.
North American Sugar Co. R. R. (Narcisa R. R.). Juragud R. R.............--------------.....
Resulta R. R ....---------------Puerto Principe-Nuevitas R. R. Jiicaro-San Fernando R. R -.... Central Caracas R. R-...........
Cuba Eastern R. R.............
Insular Ry-----------------......................
Chaparra Sugar Co. R. R......

Gauge.
Standard.--Standard; Caibaridn to Placetas Norte, 3 feet; Sagua to Caguagua, 2 feet 6
inches.
Standard ....
- do . . . .
3 feet .... . . .
Standard .....
do
.. -do ------------do
27. inches...........
273 inches...........
30 inches30 inches ............
....do...........
5 feet...............
Standard-...........
30 inches--------............
Standard--...........
---do .-----------...
3 feet...............

Weight of rails per yard. Length.

62 pounds --..............
Mainline, 65to80 pounds; narrow-gaugebranches, 50 pounds.
621 pounds; 48 miles of 80 pounds.
60 pounds ................
Main line, 35 pounds; branch, 45 pounds. 75 pounds ................
85 and 110 pounds........ 65 pounds-------60 pounds; Sabanilla branch, about56 pounds. 45 pounds ................
__--do--....................
30 pounds ..........
45 pounds ................
56 pounds ................
60 pounds-------25 to 45 pounds- ........
60 and 75 pounds-----

40 to 45 pounds"--------- 8

Miles.
649 294
125
23 29
631 31
241 422
7)
8)
26 221 54 421 614 774




CUBA IN GENERAL.

The information given in the description of the public ailroads is of a general character. All may be classed as single track roads and roadbeds classed as good withwthe exception of the Tunas-Sancti Spiritus R. R. Rolling stock is limited in amount and in event of heavy movement of troops it would be necessary to use box and cane cars. All the roads have an unusual number of bridges and culverts and in event of active operations a heavy railroad guard would be necessary to keep the roads open for traffic.
There is on file in the Second Section, General Staff, a.detailed report on each railroad, including tables of rolling stock, itinerary of road, and plans, dimensions, and photographs of all important bridges and culverts.
A map has also been compiled which shows the location of the public and private railroads of the island.
The private railroads are owned by various sugar estates nd mining and fruit companies.
They have been grouped by province and a brief description of each road is given.
PINAR DEL RIO PROVINCE.
CENTRAL BRAMALES RAILWAY.
Situated at Cabafias. Four and three-eighths miles of plantation railroad running from the wharf to the sugar mill and from the sugar mill to the cane fields. Gauge, 57 inches; weight of rail, 37 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 47 flat cars.
INDUSTRIAL AND MINERAL CUBAN COMPANY RAILWAY.
Situated near Guanajay. This narrow-guage road runs from the wharves at Mariel through the village to San Juan Bautista (Guanajay). The road passes the sugar mill San Ramon. Rolling stock, 6 cars.
CENTRAL LUCfA RAILWAY.
Situated near Boca del Rio Banes. Five miles of narrowgauge road connecting the sugar mill with the wharf at Boca del Rio Banes. The road also extends southwest 6 miles from the sugar mill to Encarnacion. Gauge, 36 inches;

63-




CUBA IN GENERAL.

weight of rail, 35 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 4 box cars, 2 tank cars, and 40 flat cars.
CENTRAL MERCEDITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Cabafias Bay. Six miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill San Juan Bautista to the plantation wharf at Cabafias Bay. There are several sidings. Gauge, 38 inches; weight of rail, 45 pounds; rolling stock,
1 locomotive and 50 flat cars.
CENTRAL OROSCO (OR LA LUISA) RAILWAY.
Situated near Cabafias. One and seven-eighths miles of standard-gauge road, running from the sugar mill to the pier at Cabafias Bay. Gauge, 57 inches; weight of rail, 35 pounds; rolling stock, 25 cars. Cars pulled by oxen.
CENTRAL SAN RAMON RAILWAY.
Situated near Guanajay. Two and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road, running from the sugar mill to Mariel. Two branches run from the sugar mill; one is 61 miles long and runs from the sugar mill to Jabac6, and the other is 5 miles long and runs from the sugar mill to San Juan Bautista (Guanajay). Gauge, 36 inches; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 30 cane cars.
HAVANA PROVINCE.
CENTRAL AMISTAD RAILWAY.
Situated near Giiines. The road is made up of two spurs, and has a total length of 9 } miles. One spur runs from the sugar mill to U. H. R. R. between Giines and Madruga and the other runs from the sugar mill to the U. H. R. R. at Rio Seco Station. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 60 cane cars.
INGENIO AVERHOFF RAILWAY.
Situated near Aguacate. One-quarter mile spur running from the sugar mill to the U. H. R. R. between Bainoa and Aguacate. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive.

64




CUBA IN GENERAL.

INGENIO CARMEN RAILWAY.
Situated near Jaruco. There is a switch from kilometer 42 of the Havana-Matanzas line of the U. H. R. R. to the mill and a narrow-gauge road (Carmen-Loteria) running from Carmen to Loterf a. The gauge of the switch is standard, that of the Carmen-Loteria is narrow. (See Loteria.) Rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 50 freight cars, and 2 passenger cars.
INGENIO MAJAGUA RAILWAY.
Situated near Gabriel. One and seven-eighths miles of road running from the sugar mill to the Western Railway of Havana. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 9 cane cars.
INGENIO JOSEFITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Los Palos. A switch one-half mile long, running from the U. H. R. R. to the sugar mill. There is also an unused piece of road running to the finca Navarra. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock,
2 locomotives.
INGENIO LA JULIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Duran. A narrow-gauge road from the
sugar mill to San Antonio de las Vegas. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 34 pounds; rolling stock, 12 cane cars.
INGENIO LOTERIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Jaruco. A road pertaining to the Carmen and Loteri a sugar mills and running from kilometer 42, Havana and Matanzas line of the U. H. R. R., through Carmen to Loterfa. At Loteria the road divides into three branches. One runs to San Antonio, one to Carraballo, and one to a plantation south of Mamey Duro, at which point the road again connects with the U. H. R. R. There is also a short branch running from Carmen to a near-by plantation. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 50 freight cars, and 2 passenger cars.
492-09 5

65




66 CUBA IN GENERAL.
CENTRAL LUCIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Bauta. Nine and three-fifths miles of road, having the following branches: From sugar mill to Banes Bay; from sugar mill to Encarnaci6n; from sugar mill to asphalt mine; Florencia branch to Baracoa. Gauge, 30
inches; weight of rail, 35 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 60 flat cars, and 3 tank cars.
INGENIO MERCEDITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Melena. Road runs from the sugar mill to a point near Palenque. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 100 cane cars.
INGENJO NOMBRE DE DIOS RAILWAY.
Situated near Giiines. A switch running from the U. H. R. R. between Palenque and Giiines to the sugar mill. Gauge, standard; rolling stock, 1 locomotive.
CENTRAL NUEVA PAZ RAILWAY.
Situated near Las Vegas. Eighteen miles of road connecting with the U. H. R. R. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 60 box cars, and 100 flat cars.
CENTRAL PROVIDENCIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Giiines. Four and three-eighths miles of road running from the sugar mill to the railroad station at Palenque. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 45 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 41 cane cars.
There is also a narrow-gauge line running to Cabeza de Vaca and Santa Teresa, and to Cajayas and Barranquito. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rails, 35 pounds; rolling stock,
3 locomotives and 85 cane cars.
INGENIO ROSARIO (PELAYO) RAILWAY.
Situated near Aguacate. Fifteen and five-eighths miles of road. A branch running to Via Cruces and Juquete connects with the U. H. R. R. at kilometer 60. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 62 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 64 cane cars.




CUBA IN GENERAL.

INGENIO SAN AGUSTIN RAILWAY.
Situated near Quivican. A switch, 5 miles long, running from the station of Quivican to the sugar mill. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 8 cane cars.
INGENIO SAN ANTONIO RAILWAY.
Situated near Madruga. A switch one mile long, running from the U. H. R. R. at Madruga to the sugar mill. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; no rolling stock.
INGENIO SAN JOSE RAILWAY.
Situated near Melena. A standard-gauge switch running from the station at Melena to the sugar mill and a narrowgauge line, 3, miles long, running from the sugar mill to La Luisa. This line connects with the narrow-gauge railroad running through Melena del Sur. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 33 cars.
CENTRAL SAN MIGUEL DEL JOBO RAILWAY.
Situated near Las Vegas. One-quarter mile of standardgauge track connects the mill with the side track of the U. H. R. R. passing the mill. No rolling stock.
INGENIO SANTA RITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Sabana Robles. Switch running from the railroad at Sabana Robles to the mill. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 21 cane cars.
INGENIO TERESA RAILWAY.
Situated near San Nicolas. Eighteen and three-quarter miles of road. It runs to Guana, near the south coast, and connects with the U. H. R. R. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, C( pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 60 cane cars, and 3 tank cars.

67




CUBA IN GENERAL.

CENTRAL TOLEDO RAILWAY.
Situated near Marianao. Seven and one-half miles of road, connecting with the Guanajay line of the Havana Central Railroad and with the Insular Railway (part of the Havana Electric Railway). Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and a few cane cars.
MATANZAS PROVINCE.
INGENIO AGUEDITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Macagua. Spur, 21 miles long, from U. H. R. R. to sugar mill. Gauge, standard; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 12 cane cars.
INGENIO LAVA RAILWAY.
Situated near Banagiiises. Twelve miles of road running from the sugar mill to various colonias and connecting with the U. H. R. R. One branch runs to Banagiiises, one to the finca Havana, and one to the finca Conchita. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 70 pounds; rolling stock, 7 locomotives, 66 small cars, 68 large cars, and 4 tank cars.
INGENIO ANGELITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Recreo. A spur 21 miles long running from the railroad at Villalba Station to the sugar mill. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 55 pounds; no'rolling stock.
INGENIO ARAUJO RAILWAY (FORMERLY NENA).
Situated near Manguito. This road runs from Manguito to the sugar mill and from there to the ingenio Esperanza. From Esperanza the road runs east to the Ctrdenas line of the U. H. R. R. There are 4 miles of track. Gauge, standard; rolling stock, 20 cane cars.
CENTRAL ARMONIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Bolondr6n. Two and one-third miles of road running from the sugar mill to the station at Bolondr6n. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 24 cane cars.

68




CUBA IN GENERAL.

INGENIO AUSTRALIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Jagiley Grande. Eight and three-quarter miles of road running from the sugar mill to the Jagiiey branch of the U. H. R.IR. Gauge, standard; rolling stock,
1 old-style locomotive and 50 small cane cars.
INGENIO LAS CANAS RAILWAY.
Situated near Alacranes. Thirteen and one-half miles of road running from the sugar mill to the settlement named Tinajita and connecting with the U. H. R. R. at Uni6n. A siding runs to Estante. Gauge, standard; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock; 2 locomotives and 42 cane cars.
CENTRAL CARMEN RAILWAY.
Situated near Navajas. Consists of mile of standardgauge and 31 miles of narrow-gauge road. The standardgauge portion runs from the sugar mill to the Jagiiey branch of the U. H. R. R. The narrow-gauge portion runs from the mill to the San Miguel sugar mill. Weight of rail, standard, 80 pounds, and narrow, 25 pounds; rolling stock, standard, 5 tank cars, and narrow, 2 locomotives and 32 cars.
INGENIO CAROLINA RAILWAY.
Situated near Coliseo. A combination standard and narrow-gauge track, 1 mile in length, runs from Coliseo on the U. H. R. R. to the sugar mill. Weight of rail, standard, 50 pounds, and narrow, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 1 narrowgauge locomotive.
INGENIO LA CATALINA RAILWAY.
Situated near Recreo. One mile of standard-gauge track running from the sugar mill to the Itabo branch of the Cardenas division of the U. H. R. R. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 20 cane cars.
INGENIO CONCHITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Alacranes. Consists of 36* miles of narrowgauge and 11 miles of standard gauge road. The narrowgauge portion runs from the sugar mill to Cocodrillo and

69




CUBA IN GENERAL.

has branches to Majagua, Esperanza, and Cruces. The standard-gauge portion runs around the mill and is the property of the U. H. R. R. Gauge, 29 inches; weight of rails, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 5 locomotives and 200 cane cars (narrow gauge).
CENTRAL DOLORES RAILWAY.
Situated near Jovellanos. Four and three-eighths miles of road running from the sugar mill to Medina on the U. H. R. R., and also connecting with the Atrevido branch of the U. H. R. R. Gauge, standard: weight of rail, 50 pounds; rolling stock, 3 locomotives and 7 cars.
INGE'NIO DOS ROSA\S RAILWAY.
Situated near Cirdenas. Two and one-half miles of narrow-guage road runs from the colonia I)olores and connects at the Dolores cane loader with a spur of the Ingenio Preciosa Railway. A branch, 1-1 miles long, runs from the sugar mill to the Siguapa branch of the Preciosa Railway.
INGENIO I)ULC'E NOMLRE RAIILW\VAY.
Situated near Macagua. A standard-guage spur, 4 miles long, runs from the sugar mill to the U. 11. R. R. There is also 4 miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the cane fields. Rolling stock, 1 standard and 1 narrow gauge locomotive.
CENTRAl, ENIIQUELTA (SANTA FILOMENA) RAILWAY.
Situated near Corral Falso. Three and one-sixth miles of standard-gauge road. One branch runs from the sugar mill to Navajas, where it joins the U. H. R. R. Another branch joins the same road at Corral Falso and also near Arratia. Rolling stock, 6 cane cars.
INGENIO ESPANA RAILWAY.
Situated near Perico. A standard-guage road, 3 miles long, running from the sugar mill to the Cirdenas division of the U. H. R. R. Weight of rail. 70 pounds; rolling stock.
2 locomotives.

70




CUBA IN GENERAL.

Madan and Tosca. This portion passes the sugar mill. One and seven-eighths miles of road forms a siding at Tosca and runs north to the finca San Juan. No rolling stock.
INGENIO POR FUERZA RAILWAY.
Situated near Calimete. Nine and three-eighths miles of standard-gauge road connecting with both the Cardenas and the Matanzas divisions of the U. H. R. R. A branch 1 miles long runs from the sugar mill to Cumanayagua, and another runs to the main line between Calimete and Amarillas. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 1 car.
INGENIO PRECIOSA RAILWAY.
Situated near Cardenas. Narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the wharf at Siguapa, on Cirdenas Bay, and from the sugar mill to colonia La Coronela; total length, 101 miles. A narrow-gauge road of the ingenio Dos Rosas connects these two branches. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 55 cane cars, and 18 hand cars.
INGENIO GUIPOZCOA RAILWAY.
Situated near Hato Nuevo. Six and one-half miles of standard-gauge road running from the sugar mill to colonia Victoria. Several narrow-gauge tracks running from the sugar mill into the cane fields. Rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 90 cane cars (narrow gauge).
INGENIO JESYS MARIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Matanzas. Standard-gauge road running from the sugar mill to San Francisco de Paula, where it connects with the Benavides branch of the U. H. R. R. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 15 freight cars.
INGENIO JICARITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Bolondr6n. A standard-gauge spur, 1 miles long, runs from Bolondr6n Station, on the Matanzas division, U. H. R. R., to the sugar mill. No rolling stock.

72




CUBA IN GENERAL.

CENTRAL LIMONES RAILWAY.
Situated near Limonar. A combination standard and
narrow-gauge track, 6 miles long, runs from the sugar mill to the railroad station at Limonar. In addition, three narrow-gauge branches run from the sugar mill into the cane fields. Weight of rail, standard, 60 pounds, and narrow, 30 pounds. Rolling stock, 1 standard and 3 narrow-gauge locomotives. 120 small and 46 large cane cars.
INGENIO MAJAGUA RAILWAY.
Situated near Uni6n de Reyes. A standard-gauge spur, 2 miles long, runs from the U. H. R. R. at Union to the sugar mill. No rolling stock.
INGENIO MERCEDES RAILWAY.
Situated near Guareiras. Standard-gauge spur to sugar mill. No rolling stock.
CENTRAL PROGRESO RAILWAY.
Situated near Cardenas. One and one-half miles of standard-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the Jiicaro line of the U. H. R. R. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 25 standard-gauge cars.
Five miles of narrow-gauge track runs from the sugar mill into the surrounding cane fields.
CENTRAL PUERTO RAILWAY,
Situated near Arco de Canasi. Three miles of standard. gauge road running from the warehouses at the head of Canasi Bay to the sugar mill and from the sugar mill to Socorro. Rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 22 flat cars.
INGENIO REGLITA RAILWAY.
Situated 2- miles southeast of Perico. Nine miles of standard-gauge road connecting the sugar mill with Perico station. Weight of rail, 50 and 60 pounds; rolling stock,
2 locomotives and 32 cane cars.

73




CIIBA IN GENERAL.

CENTRAL SAN VICENTE RAILWAY.
Situated near Jovellanos. Four and one-half miles of standard-gauge road from the sugar mill to the U. H. R. R. near Jovellanos. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive, 15 freight cars, and 1 passenger coach.
INGENIO SANTA AMALIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Coliseo. Three-quarters of a mile of standard-gauge road from the railroad station of Coliseo to the sugar mill. No rolling stock.
INGENIO SANTA CATALINA RAILWAY.
Situated near Corral Falso. Small standard-gauge spur from Corral Falso to the sugar mill. No rolling stock.
CENTRAL SANTA GERTRUDIS RAILWAY.
Situated near Banagiiises. Twenty-one and one-quarter miles of standard and narrow gauge road. The standardgauge portion runs from Banagiiises to the sugar mill, and the narrow-gauge portion consists of branches running from the sugar mill into the cane fields. Gauge, narrow, 30 inches; rolling stock, 2 large locomotives and 1 small locomotive, 40 cane cars, and 4 tank cars, standard gauge, and 3 locomotives and 130 cars, narrow gauge.
CENTRAL SANTO DOMINGO RAILWAY.
Situated near Uni6n de Reyes. Five miles of standai gauge road running from the sugar mill to Uni6n de Reyes, on the U. H. R. R. A branch starts at kilometer 2 and terminates at the sugar mill Santa Rosa. Weight of rail, 75 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 29 cane cars.
CENTRAL SARATOGA RAILWAY.
Situated near Limonar. The branch road to Giiira of the U. H. R. R. ends one-half mile from the sugar mill.

75




CUBA IN GENERAL.

CENTRAL SOCORRO RAILWAY.
Situated 5 miles south of Navaj as. There are two branches. One is 8 miles long and runs from the sugar mill to finca San Jose de Marcos, near Isabel, crossing the U. H. R. R. at Pedroso. The other starts at Isabel, passes the sugar mill of Isabel, turns toward the sugar mill Elizalde, and ends at the old sugar mill Santa Sofia. This branch is 5j miles long. Gauge, standard; rolling stock, 3 locomotives, 80 cane cars, and 8 tank cars.
CENTRAL SOLEDAD RAILWAY.
Situated near Jovellanos. Consists of 7 miles of narrow-gauge road and 1 mile of standard-gauge road. The narrow-gauge road runs from the sugar mill to a point near San Ant6n. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rails, 30 pounds; rolling stock 4 locomotives and 72 cars.
The standard-gauge portion runs from the sugar mill to the U. H. R. R. near Jovellanos. No rolling stock.
CENTRAL TINGUARO RAILWAY.
Situated near Col6n. Twenty-three miles of standardgauge road. One line runs from the sugar mill to Pijuan and the other runs from Calimete to Zarabanda and has two small branches. Rolling stock, 3 locomotives, 1 electric railroad motor car, 160 cane cars, and 5 tank cars.
INGENIO EL TRIUNFO (LA JULIA) RAILWAY.
Situated near Coliseo. Eleven and one-quarter miles of combination standard and narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the station of Coliseo on the U. H. R. R. Weight of narrow-gauge rails, 30 pounds; narrow-gauge rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 56 cane cars.
CENTRAL TRIUNVIRATO RAILWAY.
Situated near Cidra. Three and three-quarter miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to colonia San Antonio near the Canimar River. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 40

76




CUBA IN GENERAL.

cane cars. A standard-gauge spur of the U. H. R. R. runs to the sugar mill.
CENTRAL UNI6N RAILWAY.
Situated near Agramonte. Ten miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the finca Modela has three small branches. The road is connected with the U. H. R. R. by means of a combination standard and narrowgauge track. Gauge, 36 inches; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 40 cane cars.
INGENIO VALIENTE RAILWAY.
Situated near Alacranes. One and one-half miles of standard-gauge road runs from the sugar mill to the U. H. R. R. at Uni6n de Reyes. Rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 25 cane cars.
COLONIA VEGA RAILWAY.
Situated 3 miles south of Guareiras. One and one-half miles of standard-gauge road joining the two branches of the public railroad running from Guareiras to Manguito. No rolling stock.
INGENIO VICTORIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Jovellanos. The sugar mill is connected with the U. H. R. R. by means of a standard-gauge spur. A small spur runs from the sugar mill into the cane fields. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive.
SANTA CLARA PROVINCE.
CENTRAL ADELA RAILWAY.
Situated near Remedios. Fifteen and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road starts from kilometer 15 of the Cuban Central Railroad, passes the sugar mill, and runs into the cane fields. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 30 to 40 pounds; rolling stock, 5 locomotives and 122 flat cars.
CENTRAL AGUADA RAILWAY.
Situated near Cienfuegos. Two and four-fifths miles of standard-gauge road runs from the sugar mill to the Cuban

77




CUBA IN GENERAL.

portion runs to the railroad at Pozas. Gauge, 29 inches; weight of rail, 25 and 35 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 80 cane cars.
INGENIO CAROLINA RAILWAY.
Situated near Cienfuegos. Four miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to Cienfuegos Bay. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock,
2 box cars and 40 cane cars. Oxen used to pull the cars.
CENTRAL SANTA CATALINA RAILWAY.
Situated near Cruces. Five and three-eighths miles of narrow-gauge road having various branches running into cane fields. Gauge, 271 inches; weight of rails, 40 pounds; rolling stock, 3 locomotives and 15 small and 54 large cars. Three miles of standard gauge track runs from the sugar mill to the main line of the Cuban Central Railroad.
CENTRAL COVADONGA RAILWAY.
Situated near Aguada de Pasajeros. Twelve and one-half nile6 of standard-gauge road running from Santa Fe to Rosario. The road runs from Santa Fe to the sugar mill and from that point three branches extend to the Cie'naga de Zapata. Connection is made with the Cuban Central Railroad and U. H. R. R. at Santa Fe. Weight of rail, 60 to 80 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 60 flat cane cars.
CENTRAL CIENEGUITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Rodas. Thirty miles of narrow-gauge railroad. The road consists of two branches. One branch runs from the sugar mill to Calecito on Cienfuegos Bay, and the other runs from the sugar mill to finca Unguelito. Each branch is 15 miles long. The road connects with the Juraguai Railroad at Anton Recio. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 4 locomotives, 6 box cars, 9 flat cars, and 133 cane cars.
INGENIO CONSTANCIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Encrucijada. A short standard-gauge spur runs from the Cuban Central Railroad to the sugar mill. Weight of rails, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 20 cane cars.

79.




CUBA IN GENERAL.

INGENIO CONSTANCIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Rodas. Forty-two and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road connecting Constancia with Santa Clara, Castillito, Yaguaramas, and Horquita. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 9 locomotives, 1 passenger car, 18 flat cars, and 405 cane cars.
CENTRAL DOS HERMANOS RAILWAY.
Situated near Palmira. Sixteen miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the Damuji River and into the cane fields. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 3 locomotives, 8 flat cars, and 117 cane cars.
INGENIO DOS HERMANAS RAILWAY.
Situated near Cruces. Five and seven-eighths miles of standard-gauge road. One branch, 1 miles long, runs from the sugar mill to the Cuban Central Railroad. The other branch is known as the Santa Rosalia and Pedroso Branch and connects with the portion of the Cuban Central Railroad running into Ranchuelo. Weight of rail, 60 pounds; no rolling stock.
INGENIO ESPERANZA RAILWAY.
Situated near Giiines. Thirteen and three-quarters miles of narrow-gauge road. The main line begins at the piers at Playa de Carahatas and ends at the barrio Caguagua, near the station of the narrow-gauge branch of the Cuban Central Railroad. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 and 35 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 90 cane cars.
CENTRAL F RAILWAY.
Situated near Camajuani. Three and one-eighth miles of standard gauge road running from the sugar mill to the colonia Santa Ana. A spur of the Cuban Central Railroad runs from the mill to the sugar mill Julia. Rolling stock, 60 cane cars. Locomotives are obtained from the Cuban Central Railroad.
INGENIO FIDENCIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Placetas. A standard gauge spur, 1 miles long, runs from the Cuban Central Railroad to the sugar

80




CUBA IN GENERAL.

CENTRAL LUiSA Y ANTONIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Rancho Veloz. Two and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road on the plantation. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 25 to 30 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 25 cane cars.
MANUEL ANTON RECIO DE MORALES RAILWAY.
Situated near Real Campifra. Seven miles of standardgauge road, leaving the Jiicaro line, Cardenas division of the U. H. R. R. at La Rosita and running to the Cienaga de Zapata at Guanal Grande. Rolling stock, 50 cane cars. Locomotives obtained from the U. H. R. R.
CENTRAL MANUELITA RAILWAY.
Situated near Palmira. Eighteen and three-quarter miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to various fincas and to the Damuji River. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 4 locomotives, 1 cattle car, 10 flat cars, and 100 cane cars.
CENTRAL MARIA ANTONIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Santo Domingo. A standard-gauge spur runs from the Cuban Central Railroad to the sugar mill. No rolling stock.
INGENIO NATIVIDAD RAILWAY.
Situated 20 miles south of Sancti Spiritus. Two and onehalf miles of narrow-gauge tramway runs from the sugar mill to Estero San Marcos. Gauge, 28 inches; weight of rail, 12 to 15 pounds; rolling stock, 60 tram cars.
CENTRAL PARQUE ALTO RAILWAY.
Situated near Rodas. Twenty-nine miles of standardgauge road owned by the Cuban Central Railroad. From the sugar mill a narrow-gauge track runs to various cane fields. No rolling stock.- The cars used are owned by the various colonias and are drawn by oxen.

82




CUBA IN GENERAL.

INGENIO PATRICIO RAILWAY (FORMERLY MARINA).
Situated near Encrucijada. Twenty-eight and one-half miles of narrow-guage road as follows: Eight and one-half miles from sugar mill to village of Santo; 21 miles from sugar mill to wharf; 171 miles from sugar mill to crossroads. Near the plantation La Palma the road is both standard and narrow gauge from La Palma to the point where the line joins the Cuban Central Railroad. Weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 3 locomotives and 80 cane cars.
INGENIO PERSEVERANCIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Cienfuegos. Part of the road is standard gauge and part is narrow gauge. The standard-gauge portion is as .follows: From the sugar mill to Pueblo Nuevo, crossing the U. H. R. R. and the Cuban Central Railroad; from the sugar mill to Santa Ana, Romero, Guasimas Pozo, Cercado, and La Caoba; from Amarillas on the U. H. R. R. to San Miguel and Caimito. The narrow-gauge portion runs from the sugar mill to 98," and from the sugar mill to Victoria, Cuba, Vencedora, and Carboneras. Gauge (narrow) 30 inches; weight of rail, (standard) 50 and 60 pounds, (narrow) 30 and 35 pounds; rolling stock, (standard) 125 cane cars, (narrow) 3 locomotives, 80 large and 90 small cane cars.
INGENIO PORTUGALETE RAILWAY.
Situated near Palmira. Eight and one-eighth miles of narrow-gauge road from the sugar mill to the Cuban Central Railroad. Gauge, 30 inches; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 70 cane cars. There is also a standard-gauge spur running from the sugar mill to the Cuban Central Railroad.
INGENIO PURIO RAILWAY.
Situated near Calabazar. A narrow-gauge road. Three miles from the sugar mill to Calabazar; 8 miles from the sugar mill to Granadillo; 1 mile from Calabazar to Oriente; 3 miles from the sugar mill to Caracas; 4 miles from the sugar mill to Manuelita. Weight of rail, about 30 pounds; rolling stock, 3 locomotives and 80 cane cars.

83




CUBA IN GENERAL.

INGENIO RAMONA RAILWAY.
Situated near Rancho Veloz. Ten and five-eighths miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to Salvadora. There are two branches, one of which runs to the boundary line between Progreso and Marocal and the other to the finca Ysabel. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, about 35 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 1 armored car, 7 flat cars, and 46 cane cars.
CENTRAL REFORMA RAILWAY.
Situated near Rojas. Two and one-half miles of narrowgauge road from the sugar mill to Roj as, at which point it connects with the narrow-gauge branch of the Cuban Central Railroad. There is also one-quarter mile of standard-gauge road from the sugar mill to the Cuban Central Railroad, and five miles from the Cuban Central Railroad to the finca Loyola. Gauge, (narrow) 36 inches; weight of rail, (standard) 60 pounds, (narrow) 35 pounds; rolling stock, (standard) 1 locomotive and 6 flat cars, (narrow) 1 locomotive and 34 flat cars.
CENTRAL RESULTA RAILWAY.
Situated near Sagua la Grande. Thirty-two and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road running from the barrio Gral. Nodarse to Calabazar. Gauge, 32 inches; weight of rail, 30 and 40 pounds; rolling stock, 6 locomotives and 130 cane cars.
CENTRAL ROSALIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Taguayabon. Four and three-eighths miles of narrow-gauge road. There are two side tracks, one at Guadalupe and one at Bajada. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 50 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 30 cane cars.
ROSA MARIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Mayajigua. Four miles of narrow-gauge road running from Rosa Maria to Estero Real on the coast. Rolling stock, 2 flat cars drawn by oxen.

84




CUBA IN GENERAL.

CENTRAL SAN AGJSTIN RAILWAY.
Situated near Remedios. Seven miles of narrow-gauge road running from K. 19, on the narrow-gauge branch of the Cuban Central Railroad, to the sugar mill and from that point southeast to the finca Mujica. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 45 to 50 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 101 flat cane cars.
CENTRAL SAN AGUSTIN RAILWAY.
Situated near Las Lajas. Thirty-one and one-quarter miles of narrow-gauge and 31 miles of standard-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the finca Candelaria. Connects with the lines of the central Lequeitio. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 to 45 pounds; rolling stock, 5 locomotives, 2 passenger cars, 140 large cane cars, and 180 small cane cars.
INGENIO SAN ANTON DE LA UNION RAILWAY.
Situated near Santa Clara. Two and four-fifths miles of narrow-gauge road, running from the Cuba Company Railroad to the sugar mill. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 60 pounds. The rolling stock for use on this portion of the road is furnished by the Cuba Company Railroad, but the estate owns 10 freight cars. There is also 2 miles of narrowgauge portable railway running from the sugar mill to the cane fields. Gauge, 30 inches; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 8 cane cars.
CENTRAL SAN FRANCISCO RAILWAY.
Situated near Cruces. Two branches of a total length of 9'3 miles, running from the sugar mill to Mercedes and to the finca Mijalito. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rails, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 96 cars.
There is also 2 miles of standard gauge road connecting with the Cuban Central Railroad.
INGENIO SAN FRANCISCO RAILWAY.
Situated near Quemado de Giiines. Two miles of narrowgauge road from the sugar mill to the cane fields. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 25 to 30 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 35 oane cars.

85




CUBA IN GENERAL.

to Camajuani to the sugar mill. Rolling stock, 10 cars. There is also about 200 yards of tramway near the sugar mill.
CENTRAL SANTA MARIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Ranchuelo. Two miles of standard-gauge road. No rolling stock.
INGENIO SANTA ROSA RAILWAY.
Situated near Ranchuelo. A short spur of the Cuban Central Railroad runs to the sugar mill. No rolling stock.
SANTA TERESA'SUGAR COMPANY RAILWAY.
Situated near Citiecito. Thirteen and three-fourths miles of narrow-gauge road. There is one branch 61 miles long running to colonia Capitolo and another 61 miles long running to Armonia Nuevo. The latter branch connects with the Resulta Railway." The line also connects with the narrowgauge branch of the Cuban Central Railroad. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 35 to 40 pounds; rolling stock, 3 locomotives and 140 platform and box cars.
CENTRAL EL SALVADOR RAILWAY.
Situated near Quemado de Giiines. Eleven and seveneighths miles of narrow-gauge road. Gauge, 28 inches and 36 inches; rolling stock, 3 locomotives and 95 cane cars.
CENTRAL SANTISIMA TRINIDAD RAILWAY.
Situated near Santa Isabel de las Lajas. About 112 miles of narrow-gauge road, running from the sugar mill into the cane fields. A standard-gauge siding, 11 miles long, runs from the Cuban Central Railroad to the narrow-gauge road. Gauge, 29 inches; weight of rail, 35 pounds; rolling stock,
4 locomotives and 50 small and 125 large cane cars.
CENTRAL SOLEDAD RAILWAY.
Situated near Cienfuegos. Twenty-three miles of narrowgauge road, running from the sugar mill to the plantation Limones. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rails, 20 to 40 pounds; rolling stock, 5 locomotives, 2 passenger cars, and 140 flat cars.

87




CUBA IN GENERAL.

CENTRAL TRINIDAD RAILWAY.
Situated near Trinidad. Six and three-fourths miles of narrow-gauge road, running from the sugar mill to the finca Algaba. There are two small branches. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives, five 8-ton flat cars, and ninety 10-ton cane cars.
CENTRAL TIJINUCt RAILWAY.
Situated near Sancti Spiritus. A standard-gauge spur of the Cuba Company Railroad, three-fourths of a mile long, runs to the sugar mill. The estate owns 5 cane cars, and all other rolling stock used is obtained from the Cuba Company Railroad.
INGENJO UNIDAD RAILWAY.
Situated near Cifuentes. A spur of the Cuban Central Railroad; runs from kilometer 41 to the sugar mill. Rolling stock, 2 locomotives, 5 box cars, and 60 cane cars.
CENTRAL VICTORIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Yaguajay. Thirty-one and seven-eighths miles of narrow-gauge road. The line runs from the sugar mill to Playa de Victoria on the north coast, and there are various branches running to the cane fields. Connection is made with the Yaguajay and Narcisa Railroads. Gauge, 27 inches; weight of rail, 40 pounds; rolling stock, 6 locomotives, 10 flat cars, 12 freight cars, and 240 flat cane cars.
MAQUINA-SUPLIAL-COCHINAS RAILWAY.
About 11 miles long. Gauge, 30 inches; no rolling stock.
INGENIO ZAZA RAILWAY.
Situated near Placetas. Narrow-gauge spur, 1-1 miles long, runs from the Cuban Central Railroad to the sugar mill. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive, no cars.
CAMAGUEY PROVINCE.
INGENIO ALTA GRACIA RAILWAY.
Situated near Camagiiey. Four miles of narrow-gauge road. Gauge, 40 inches; rolling stock, 1 locomotive.

88




CUBA IN GENERAL. 89
BAGi-SAN MIGUEL RAILWAY.
Six miles of narrow-gauge tramway, running from Bags, on Nuevitas Bay, to San Miguel. Gauge, 4 feet 91 inches; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 2 platform cars. Oxen used.
CENTRAL FRANCISCO RAILWAY.
Situated near Santa Cruz del Sur. Ten miles of standardgauge track, running from the sugar mill to the wharf at Francisco de Guayabal. Weight of rail, 45 to 60 pounds; rolling stock, 4 locomotives, 8 box cars, and 120 cane cars.
INGENIO GUAYABAL RAILWAY.
Situated near Santa-Cruz. About twelve miles of road.
INGENIO LUGARENO RAILWAY.
Situated near Nuevitas. Twelve and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 30 pounds; rolling stock, 4 locomotives and 180 cane cars.
CENTRAL SENADO RAILWAY.
Situated near Nuevitas. Eighteen and three-fourths miles of narrow-gauge road, running from Las Minas, the terminus of the Puerto Principe and Nuevitas Railroad, to the cane fields. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 40 pounds; rolling stock, 8 locomotives, 20 box cars, and 330 cane cars.
ORIENTE PROVINCE.
BANES-TACAJO RAILWAY.
Situated near Banes Bay. Fifteen miles of narrow-gauge road, running northeast from Delite to Cuatro Varades, at which point it joins the road of the central Boston. A branch runs southeast from Delite to the sugar mill on the Tacajo Railway. Rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 20 cane cars.
CENTRAL BOSTON RAILWAY.
Situated at Punta Macabi on Banes Bay. Sixty-four miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill




CUBA IN GENERAL.

through Banes to Cafiada Honda. There is a branch from Cuatro Varades to Vequitas, one to Dougall, and one to Las Angeles. There is also a branch running south from Banes to the wharf at Embarcadero. Line connects with the Cuba Company Railroad at Entronque de Dumois. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 40 pounds; rolling stock, one 6-ton donkey engine, one 8-ton shunting engine, two 13-ton engines, one 26-ton engine, five 30-ton engines, four 38-ton engines, 630 steel flat cars, 40 steel box cars, 60 flat cars with steel trucks, 6 tank cars, and 2 wrecking trains.
CENTRAL LOS CANOS RAILWAY.
Situated about 8 miles south of Guantanamo. Thirteen and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to its shipping point on the coast. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 36 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 120 cane cars. There is also 31 miles of standardgauge road connecting the narrow-gauge road with the Guantinamo Railroad.
CAPE CRUZ COMPANY RAILWAY.
Situated near Ensenada de Mora. Eight and one-quarter miles of narrow-gauge road made up of a main line and one branch. The main line runs from the wharf to the sugar mill and from that point to Dos Bocas. The branch runs to Rincon. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 40 pounds; rolling stock, 2 locomotives and 90 cane cars.
CENTRAL CHAPARRA RAILWAY.
Situated at Nipe Bay. Seventy-eight and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road. The following are the main parts: A line 8 miles long runs to San Manuel and connects with the San Manuel Railway; a line 31 miles long from the sugar mill to Cascarero wharf on Puerto Padre Bay; a line 12 miles long from the sugar mill to Velasco and connecting with the Iberia branch of the Gibara-Holguin Railroad; a line 7 miles long to El Trompo; a branch 4 miles lon through La Yaya.; numerous branches in the cane fields. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 45 pounds; rolling stock, 10 locomotives, 10 box cars, 100 flat cars, 475 cane cars, and 16 hand cars.

90




CUBA IN GENERAL.

EL COBRE MINES COMPANY RAILWAY.
Situated near Santiago de Cuba. Eight and one-quarter miles of narrow-gauge road, running from El Cobre to the wharf at Punta de Sal on Santiago Bay. Gauge, 48 inches; weight of rail, 35 pounds; rolling stock, 5 locomotives, 2 passenger cars, and 67 ore cars.
CENTRAL CONFLUENTE RAILWAY.
Situated near Guanta'namo. Eight and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the seacoast. Gauge, 33 inches; weight of rail, 20 pounds; rolling stock, one 22-ton and two 11-ton locomotives and 120 cars.
DAIQUIRI MINES RAILWAY.
Situated near Daiquiri. A standard-gauge road, 5 miles long, runs from the wharf at Daiquiri to the foot of the incline at the Province mine. Weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 3 locomotives, 74 hopper-bottom ore cars, 2 steam derricks, and 4 flat cars. At a point 2 miles from the coast a narrow-gauge road connects the standard-gauge road with the Berraco mines. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 50 pounds; rolling stock, three 20-ton locomotives, 40 ore cars, and 4 flat cars.
CENTRAL DOS AMIGOS RAILWAY.
Situated near Manzanillo. One-third mile of standardgauge road from the sugar mill to the wharf at Campechuela. Gauge, 56 inches; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock,
4 flat cars, no locomotive.
-CENTRAL ESPERANZA RAILWAY.
Situated 5 miles north of Guant'namo. Fourteen miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill into the cane fields. Gauge, 39.4 inches; weight of rail, 35 pounds; rolling stock, two 20-ton locomotives and 50 cars.
INGENIO HIATILLO RAILWAY.
Situated 7 miles west of San Luis. One and one-half
miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to

91




CUBA IN GENERAL.

Paraf so. Gauge, 30 inches; weight of rail, 25 pounds; rolling stock, 1 locomotive and 12 large and 58 small cars.
CENTRAL ISABEL RAILWAY.
Situated near Media Luna. Ten and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road running from the sugar mill to the wharf. There are two branches; one runs to Guayos, and the other to Colorado. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, 4 locomotives.
INGENIO ISABEL RAILWAY.
Situated near Guantainamo. The Guanta'namo Railroad passes by this sugar mill and has sidings which are used by the mill.
JURAGUA IRON COMPANY RAILWAY.
Situated near Santiago de Cuba. Thirteen and one-half miles of narrow-gauge road, running from the Juragua mines to La Cruz wharf on Santiago Bay. Gauge, 36 inches; weight of rail, 56 pounds; rolling stock, 13 locomotives, 2 derricks, 3 box cars, 12 flat cars, and 1,110 hopperbottom ore cars.
CENTRAL PRESTON RAILWAY.
Situated near Nipe Bay. Twenty-five miles of standardgauge road, running from the sugar mill to a wharf at Punta Tabaco and west to Rio Nipe and having a branch to Guero. Weight of rail, 60 pounds; rolling stock, eight 60-ton and one 20-ton locomotive, 1 derrick car, and 225 flat cars.
CENTRAL SAN ANTONIO RAILWAY.
Situated 11 miles northeast of Guantanamo. Six and one quarter miles of narrow-gauge road, running from the sugar mill to the cane fields. Gauge, 36 inches; rolling stock, two 30-ton locomotives, twenty 20-ton cars, thirty 16-ton cars, and thirty-three 10-ton cars.
INGENIO SAN CARLOS RAILWAY.
Situated 3 miles east of Guanti.namo. Three and onehalf miles of standard-gauge road. At the sugar mill it con-

92