Training for Contingencies at Terrain Flight Altitude Retooling the Force for Large-Scale Ground Combat OperationsChanging Operational Landscape The Army is preparing for the most complex combat environment we may face across the range of military operations on the conict continuum in the coming years, reected in the newly revised Field Manual 3-0. All of these potential LSCO conicts entail rst world adversaries with nearpeer or better threat capabilities. For Army Aviation, the anti-access, area denial (A2AD) capabilities that these near-peer threats pose characterized by a multi-domain, contested environment consisting of early warning, cyber, space, electronic warfare, integrated air defense systems, and sophisticated reconnaissance and surveillance capability, tied to lethal and precision long range res will drive our rotary wing forces much closer to the ground. We must now train to operate at terrain ight mission proles that we have predominantly eschewed during the limited contingency operations of the last 16 years. The prospect of LSCO against a peer competitive threat dictates that we retool our training approach. Foremost, we must focus our crew training on contingencies and emergencies that require immediate crew recognition and action because, at terrain ight proles, there simply isnt the decision time or maneuver space to react like there is at permissive altitudes. With this retooling, our aircrews must demonstrate in training scenarios the ability to operate prociently in high-workload situations. Part of this training should be incorporating and rehearsing during the crew mission brieng the crew actions and crew coordination necessary during unplanned events (i.e., emergency procedures, contingencies) and during critical points of ight during the mission. Incorporation of contingencies and emergency procedures into training scenarios at the highest workload demands within the mission prole will inform aircrews on where they are procient and where they require additional emphasis in training. Old Ways Become New Again The skill sets and operational environment in which Army Aviation has become procient in the COIN ght now require the training paradigm to shift back to what some refer to as the Cold War scenario, except in the 21st Century, near-peer adversaries have taken a quantum leap forward in their ability to contest the environment and deny area access. Our desire to operate at altitude with air superiority and little fear of surface-to-air threats wont survive RSOI at port in a contested LSCO ght. Likewise, the techniques we have trained and ingrained through rigorous situational and Figure 1. Source: ISW, Russia Advances its Integrated Air Defense System (IADS) in Syria, Chris Harmer and Kathleen Weinberger Army Aviation must change its training approach to a terrain ight mindset to prepare for large scale combat operations (LSCO) against near-peer adversaries that pose complex and lethal multi-domain air and area denial threats.
emergency procedures training for COIN operations must now transition to the doctrinal tactics and techniques necessary to survive in a high threat environment. And as seen over the last several months in recent mishaps that occurred while training in decisive action, near-peer scenarios, we must focus procedural response to emergencies and contingencies at terrain ight mission proles. The ight environment during operations at terrain ight altitudes is very unforgiving; there is little margin for error. Reaction time and maneuver space is severely limited when operating near the surface at slow airspeeds and at the high gross weights typically associated with combat operations. When tough environmental conditions, particularly degraded visual environments, are added to an already higherrisk prole, relatively benign emergencies can overwhelm an aircrew if they have not thought through and rehearsed those scenarios. The following is a good example of a mishap that reinforces the need to increase our intensity, focus, and repetition of emergency procedures training. While transitioning into a battle position in the desert at night in dicult terrain at terrain ight altitude, the crew of an attack aircraft failed to respond correctly to a night vision sensor (NVS) failure. The pilot on the controls who experienced the NVS failure did not respond according to the procedure, and he transferred the controls to the co-pilot without announcing the emergency. The co-pilot gunner, whose attention was inside the cockpit during this critical portion of maneuver at the time of the transfer, was unaware of the emergency situation. The result was an aircraft impacting the ground and two fatalities. Maximize Situational Training We may enter LSCO at a position of disadvantage and geographical location not of our choosing, but we can train for known A2AD and IADS threats in the contested environments and possible geographic locations and environmental conditions in which we expect to ght. Tough, realistic training tailored to these conditions and mission proles, with progressive and iterative repetitions executed to standard, is the formula for success. Commanders and instructor pilots must focus on rigorous situational training, maximizing simulator use to gain valuable repetitions rehearsing emergency procedures and response to contingencies, and they must incorporate these actions into crew and mission briengs and rehearsals. Situational training in the most demanding modes of ight and environmental conditions with repetitive emergency procedures and crew coordination rehearsals will provide the commander with the trained and ready aircrews necessary to deploy, ght, survive, and win against the peer or near-peer threat. Readiness Through Safety! COL Christopher W. Waters Deputy Commanding Ocer U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center Figure 2. Enemy continuous maneuver defense in depth within enemy main defense zone 2
3 The Armys ability shape the operational environment, prevail during large-scale combat operations, consolidate gains through tactical success and continue the ght depends upon its ability to refuel and rearm vehicles, aircraft, tanks and other equipment on the move, enabling the units to maintain combat momentum. The Army Quartermaster branch enables combined arms maneuver through provisioning of refueling and rearming support while reducing the operational risk through digital training sustainment. Support to aviation operations requires high standards and continuous training in forward arming refueling operations (FARP). A FARP is a temporary operation strategically setup, organized, equipped and deployed by an aviation commander to provide fuel and ammunition necessary for the employment of aviation maneuver units in combat. It expands the aviation commanders operational range by staging forward, closer-tothe-ground maneuver units being supported, greatly increasing the range and station time for Army aviation assets. A FARP permits rotary-wing aircraft to refuel rapidly and rearm simultaneously. A FARP primarily has four points with a minimum of 100 feet between each refueling nozzle. When employing the advanced aviation forward area refueling system (AAFARS), each refueling point has the capability of refueling multiple aircraft at 55 gallons per minute at each point or 90 gallons per minute independently. The heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) tanker aviation refueling station (HTARS) primarily has four points dispersed 100 feet apart with the capability of refueling at 62 gallons per minute at each point. Refueling capabilities for both systems change depending on the number of points employed. The location of a FARP is selected to minimize response time, decrease turnaround time and reduce risk to maneuver ground and air units by providing sustainment support forward. Minimizing ight time to and from the FARP and reducing the refueling and rearming time within the FARP achieves this objective. Fueling and arming assault helicopter and heavy-lift aircraft can be accomplished in about 20 to 30 minutes, while processing an attack aircraft may take up to 45 to 50 minutes. In both instances, refueling takes 10 to 15 minutes, while ordnance uploading is mission dependent. The overarching factor in estimating FARP processing time revolves around what ordnance is required; secondary factors are environmental, aircraft armament and support personnel prociency. To sustain the 92F Petroleum Supply Specialist military occupational specialty (MOS) technical prociency and increase repetition, the Quartermaster School is developing digital training enablers that can replicate setup and operations of critical Quartermaster systems. The rst of the two digital training enablers (DTE) Sustaining the Aviation Force Quartermaster Petroleum Operations and Digital Training Enablers
4 focused on enhancing maneuver unit lethality and operational reach. Todays warghters have access to virtual HTARS and refuel-on-the-move (ROM) DTEs to sustain technical prociency. Both of these can be set up and operate in a virtual environment, providing the needed repetition and muscle memory to sustain prociency. The development of the FARP DTE relied on a joint eort with the Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) integration development team, Quartermaster School, Ordnance School and Aviation School. The focal point was to provide the warghter tools to improve training prociency, prepare for supporting large-scale combat operations and sustain the ability to refuel and arm aircraft during continuous combat operations. Due to the 92F exibility, many times they wont operate the aviation refueling systems enough to maintain their training sustainment needs. The Quartermaster School goal was to develop DTE to help sustain a trained and ready liquid logisticians force. The use of digital training enablers provides low-cost but eective training options that reside in a virtual environment, an ideal solution for home station training. A major component to the Army Learning Model (ALM) strategy is reducing the gap that exists between the institutional, operational and self-development training domains while providing Soldiers reach-back capabilities for sustainment training. As an example, the petroleum supply specialist 92F is a broad MOS. Soldiers can be assigned to organizations that do not require the knowledge of tasks associated with support of aviation units. This may happen for several assignments. They may go years without using their knowledge of aviation refueling while being assigned to units responsible for pipeline or ground refueling operations. Soldiers receive training on environmental stewardship, reghting, ship-to-shore operations, ground, aviation, hoseline, pipeline, fuel additizing and the accountability of fuel. The DTEs provide refresher training to sustain technical prociency across the MOS and reduce the operational risk during live training and combat operations. Providing access to these DTEs to maintain knowledge and aptitude throughout their careers guards against atrophy of skills not routinely used and is a force multiplier. To increase the integrated learning domains, we have leveraged the ALM to ensure what we are teaching in the institutional Army is being reinforced in the operational Army for sustainment training. Army aviation relies on rapid refueling and arming to support the cross-domain maneuver eort and decisive actions. The Quartermaster branch supports this operational mission by supplying fully trained 92F personnel and the required sustainment training enablers necessary to execute rapid refueling and arming in training and during combat operations. The Army Quartermaster branch enabling capabilities provide support to Army aviation on time, on target and decrease operational risk to ground and air maneuver forces by providing forward refueling and arming, allowing extended reach, time on station and support to the ground maneuver commander. SFC Joseph A. Pina Petroleum and Water Department US Army Quartermaster School, Sustainment Center of Excellence
5 Summer Weather: Are You Ready for the 2018 Season?Introduction For many adults, summer is the time we look forward to taking family vacations. For kids, the season provides a much-needed break from school work for their brains. For teenagers, its a time to bask in the sun at the beach. For aviators, though, summer is a time when many ight hazards exist. Understanding and preparing for these hazards are the keys to staying safe. As we transition into summer, gone are the days of cold fronts and noreasters. Most of summers weather is tied to thunderstorms. Whether youre talking about the sea breeze, air mass thunderstorms, severe weather or a tropical system, all thunderstorms have certain inherent dangers: severe turbulence, severe icing, low-level wind shear (LLWS), heavy rain, hail and lightning. It even says so right there in Block 22 of the DD 175-1! All thunderstorms have the potential to turn severe with little or no notice. And nally, any thunderstorm can produce a microburst. There are a few other summertime hazards besides thunderstorms, and we will get to those later. Thunderstorm Development It is important to understand the basic dynamics of a thunderstorm. To put it simply:Moisture + Instability + Lift = Thunderstorm When these three ingredients come together, it is the perfect recipe for a thunderstorm. As a harmless cumulus cloud grows into a dangerous thunderstorm, it goes through three stages: Developing Stage: During this stage, the cumulus cloud (CU) grows vertically, and an updraft develops. Little, if any, precipitation falls, but there is some occasional lightning. Expect some light turbulence in and around these convective clouds. Mature Stage: In the mature stage, the updraft continues to feed the storm, and a downdraft is formed. Precipitation falls, sometimes heavy, often reducing ight visibility to < SM. Frequent lightning, hail, damaging winds and tornadoes are possible. Dissipating Stage: As the downdraft reaches the surface, it cuts o the updraft and the storm dissipates. Although the precipitation tapers o, lightning is still present and isolated instrument ight rules (IFR) ceilings are possible. It is during the dissipating stage that you have to watch out for microbursts. 22. THUNDERSTORMSHAIL, SEVERE TURBULENCE & ICING, HEAVY PRECIPITATION, LIGHTNING & WIND SHEAR EXPECTED IN AND NEAR THUNDERSTORMS.CHARTLOCATION NONE ISOLATED 1 2% FEW 3 15% SCATTERED 16 45% NUMEROUS MORE THAN 45% AREA LINE
6 Types of Thunderstorms There are three types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multicellular and supercell. Lets take a closer look at each type. A single-cell storm (also known as a pulse storm or air mass thunderstorm) is generally short-lived, lasting only 30-60 minutes, and usually does not produce severe weather. It contains a single updraft. Strong winds and marginally severe hail are possible, but tornadoes are rare. Multicellular storms are clusters of single-cell storms. New storms tend to form on the rear edge of the cluster; mature cells are in the center; and dissipating storms are along the front edge of the cluster. New cells can continue to develop every 5-15 minutes. Flash ooding, large hail and strong winds are the main hazards, but short-lived tornadoes are also possible. A supercell contains a single, rotating updraft and is usually isolated from the main thunderstorm outbreak a renegade, if you will. Large hail, severe winds and tornadoes are possible. The lifespan of a supercell can be several hours. Forecasting Thunderstorms As Air Force meteorologists, we have many tools at our disposal to detect and predict thunderstorms. As you probably guessed, we use the operational weather squadrons hazard charts. These forecast turbulence, icing and thunderstorms in three-hour increments out to 120 hours. We also look at surface and upper-air analysis as well as the Skew-T Log P diagram. The Skew-T gives us a vertical prole of the atmosphere at a particular location so we can identify the availability of moisture, instability and lift (remember those three ingredients?). Every day is dierent, and every thunderstorm is dierent. Ive seen days when Id have bet the mortgage on getting severe thunderstorms and gotten absolutely nothing. And Ive seen days when I had to amend the mission execution forecast (MEF) before it was even valid because thunderstorms red up hours earlier than expected. Thats what makes thunderstorm season so interesting and exciting! Satellite Imagery Satellite imagery is a great tool for identifying clouds, areas of turbulence and thunderstorms. Im particularly fond of visible imagery, but it is only available during the daytime hours. With a 1 km resolution image, you can watch the CU build, the thunderstorm bubble up, the anvil top blow o and the outow Life Cycle of a Thunderstorm
7 boundaries form. Its quite a sight! At night, we use infrared (IR) imagery. There are various enhancements that help identify thunderstorms. Radar Of all the tools at our disposal, radar is the single most important in monitoring the development and progression of thunderstorms. Using radar imagery, we can track the location and movement of precipitation; identify thunderstorms versus showers; pinpoint any areas of hail or rotation; and interpret whether the storms are building or weakening. So how does the radar work? Basic radar theory is that the radar shoots a beam at the lowest elevation angle. The returns are bounced back to the radar, where the data is processed into the imagery that we all know and love. Once the radar has completed a 360 degree sweep of the lowest elevation angle, it moves on to the next highest elevation angle and so on and so forth. Within minutes, we have a full picture of all slices of the atmosphere. Each individual slice is plotted as a base reectivity product, and the composite of all slices is plotted on a composite reectivity product. Radar imagery can be deceiving. Dont fall into the trap of seeing red and thinking it means a thunderstorm. That is not necessarily the case. While red on the radar could mean a thunderstorm, but it could also mean large raindrops or a great number of raindrops. The interpretation of red also depends on which product you are viewing. Most forecasters I know use the composite reectivity as a brieng tool because it gives a nice overview. However, this product is a compilation of all layers in the column, so the presence of red might make you think the situation is worse than it actually is. A scan of the lowest two to three layers of base reectivity is a better way to check out a storm. Or better yet, ask your local weather experts at the Air Force Weather team! Some other things to watch out for: Beware of the bow! When you see a line of thunderstorms begin to bow outward, thats an area you want to avoid. A bow echo is usually indicative of damaging straight-line winds. Outow boundaries are no picnic either. An outow boundary is essentially a small-scale cold front. Across an outow boundary, youll notice a wind shift, gusty winds and cooler, drier air. It is along these boundaries that new thunderstorms are likely to form. When outow boundaries converge, you could see warninglevel winds and new thunderstorm development. I mentioned earlier every thunderstorm has the potential to produce a microburst. Unfortunately, predicting microbursts is a challenge. We cant tell you which cell will produce a microburst and when that microburst will occur. The science and technology just isnt there yet, at least not on the military side. We can examine radar data for signs a storm might collapse by looking at the echo tops trends and vertically integrated liquid (VIL) trends; but by the time we receive the data, its already several minutes old. Unfortunately, we usually only nd out about a microburst after the fact when one of our weather sensors reports a gust of 65 knots. Thats not a good feeling! Air mass thunderstorms are prevalent during the summer months. In and of themselves, they are usually manageable and easy to pick around. However, certain interactions can quickly wreak havoc on aviation. We constantly monitor the radar for outow boundaries, merging cells, sea breeze and other interactions that tend to ramp up convective activity. Any of these interactions increases the risk of warning-level winds. Other Hazards Weve been talking a lot about thunderstorms, but they are not the only game in town during the summer months! Lets not ignore other summer aviation hazards: turbulence, LLWS and fog. Hurricane season also spans the summer months. Turbulence: The two main types of turbulence are thermal and mechanical. Thermal turbulence occurs when the surface heats up and warm air rises. Thermal turbulence is usually light and conned to the lowest levels of the atmosphere. As you probably guessed, the peak times for thermals to occur is from late morning until late afternoon, since that is when heating is at its max. Mechanical turbulence is caused by horizontal and/or vertical wind shear and can be the result of pressure gradient, orographic eects or frontal zones. Mechanical turbulence is generally found in a thin layer with a width of 10-40 miles and a length much greater than that. Watch out for rotor, lenticular and cap clouds. These clouds are associated with mountain wave turbulence and should always be avoided. In general, the eects of turbulence for rotarywing aircraft are amplied with increased airspeed;
decreased weight of aircraft; decreased lift velocity; and increased arc of the rotor blade. The turbulence intensity depends on aircraft type. The table below shows the turbulence intensities relationship across the four categories of aircraft: Category I, II, III and IV. LLWS: Drastic changes in speed and/or direction in lowest levels of the atmosphere. Outside of thunderstorms, LLWS most often occurs near/ along frontal zones and in mountainous areas. Fog: It is common after heavy rain to have periods of dense ground or tree fog. This happens frequently during the summer months. The good news is this is usually localized and short-lived. Radiation fog is very common also during the summer months. More good news: Radiation fog burns o when the inversion breaks, usually by mid-morning. Terrain can also impact fog formation. Upslope winds will cause fog to form; it will persist until the winds change direction. Upslope fog can last for days. Hurricanes: Hurricane season runs from 1 June through 30 November. Hurricanes form over the warm ocean waters and can even impact areas well inland. A good example of how much area they can eect is last summer. As Tropical Storm Cindy was bearing down on the Louisiana coast, I had an aircrew preparing to y from Fort Rucker to Texas. Even knowing the storm was entering Louisiana, they would not cancel the mission until I provided the DD 175-1. Needless to say, my forecast was for severe everything! The crew was not happy the mission didnt go, but they survived to y the aircraft to Texas when the weather cleared. The rst hurricane season outlook for 2018 is in and Colorado State University is predicting a slightly above average forecast with 14 named storms, seven hurricanes and three major hurricanes (Category 3 or greater). An average season would have 12 named storms, six hurricanes and three major hurricanes. Furthermore, these hurricane gurus are forecasting a 63 percent chance of a landfall along the U.S. coastline (the average is 52 percent) and a 38 percent chance of a landfall along the Gulf Coast (average is 30 percent). Will these numbers pan out? Only time will tell. A Final Word Many aviation hazards exist during the summer months. We are all impacted by weather in our daily lives, but probably no one more so than aviators. Mother Nature can quickly turn a routine mission into a life-threatening situation. Understanding these hazards, ensuring you have the most current weather brief, and how to mitigate them is critical to keeping your aircrew safe. Weather happens Are YOU prepared? Cindy Howell Meteorological Technician 18 ASOG, USAF Fort Rucker, AL Turbulence Intensity by Aircraft CategorySource: AFH 11-203V28
9 History of Flight A CH-47 was on a redeployment ferry mission from a port to a regional airport for staging to redeploy to its home station. The aircrew was conducting a limited maintenance test ight during the ferry mission. Once the aircraft had landed at the regional airport, the crew was given taxi instructions to transient parking. The pilot in command (PC) taxied the aircraft to the transient area where there were no ground guides. As the aircraft taxied between a parked CH-47 and a hangar, the PC stated he would be making a 180 degree turn near the hangar. The crew chief stationed at the cabin door addressed concern about the proximity to the hangar to the crew. The PC continued the turn and the crew members stated the aircraft was clear to make the 180 degree turn. While conducting the turn, the aircrafts aft three rotors struck the hangar. Three aft rotor blades, the corner of the hangar and two aircraft inside were damaged. Crewmember Experience The PC had 1,647 hours in series and 1,806 hours total time. The PI had 49 hours in series and 133 total time. Commentary Aircraft operations are just as hazardous when taxiing as when in ight. The crews ability to successfully negotiate aircraft ground operations in conned/congested areas requires accurate aircrew visual surveillance and appropriate crew communication. While aircraft are being ferried, postand predeployment, commanders, aviation safety ocers (ASO) and leaders must be involved in the planning. The operations cell should ensure the locations in which aircraft will be refueling and/or overnighting have been surveyed and a pre-accident plan has been integrated for the ight ground staging area. When Army aircraft are operating at non-military sites, it becomes even more important for unit ASOs to actually conduct onsite safety surveys of the transient parking and refuel locations and provide a detailed pre-accident plan and what operational issues must be addressed for safe operations. The aircrews involved in post-deployment ferry operations back to home station must make sure they dont become complacent. For aircrews, they must maintain vigilance in performing their crew duties and aviation decision-making. When something doesnt look right it probably isnt, so crewmembers should communicate this and the PC should halt operations of the aircraft until they can assess the danger and either mitigate it or choose an alternate course of action. After high OPTEMPO deployments, leaders must make sure they place the appropriate controls in place to reduce the risk of a mishap. Some things leaders can do to assist in reducing complacency errors is minimizing multiple ights by the same crews, ensuring Army personnel (properly trained) are on ground at the staging aireld parking area/refuel area to ground guide aircraft, ensuring the ASO has completed an onsite safety survey of the planned staging airelds and pre-accident plans have been developed for each location. Mishap Review CH-47 Ground Taxi Mishap
10 Class A C Mishap Tables Manned Aircraft Class A C Mishap Table as of 25 May 18 Month FY 17 FY 18 Class A Mishaps Class B Mishaps Class C Mishaps Fatalities Class A Mishaps Class B Mishaps Class C Mishaps Fatalities1stQtrOctober 0 0 7 0 1 2 7 0 November 1 0 4 0 0 1 3 0 December 1 0 4 2 1 0 7 02ndQtrJanuary 1 0 3 0 1 1 3 2 February 0 1 4 0 0 0 1 0 March 0 1 6 0 0 1 10 03rdQtrApril 1 0 6 1 1 2 3 2 May 1 0 7 0 1 0 4 0 June 0 2 5 04thQtrJuly 0 1 8 0 August 3 3 4 6 September 1 1 7 1 Total for Year 9 9 65 10 Year to Date 5 7 38 4 Class A Flight Accident rate per 100,000 Flight Hours 5 Yr Avg: 1.14 3 Yr Avg: 1.09 FY 17: 0.99 Current FY : 1.03 UAS Class A C Mishap Table as of 25 May 18 FY 17 FY 18Class A Mishaps Class B Mishaps Class C Mishaps Total Class A Mishaps Class B Mishaps Class C Mishaps TotalMQ 1 10 2 4 16 W/GE 3 0 2 5 MQ 5 5 0 1 6 Hunter 0 0 0 0 RQ 7 0 18 39 57 Shadow 0 5 14 19 RQ 11 0 0 1 1 Raven 0 0 0 0 RQ 20 0 0 0 0 Puma 0 0 0 0 SUAV 0 0 0 0 SUAV 0 0 0 0 UAS 15 20 45 80 UAS 3 5 16 24 Aerostat 6 0 1 7 Aerostat 3 1 0 4 Total for Year 21 20 46 87 Year to Date 6 6 16 28 Class A C Mishap Tables1
11 Flightfax Forum Op-ed, Opinions, Ideas, and Information (Views expressed are to generate professional discussion and are not U.S. Army or USACRC policy)Transferring the Controls A Training Case StudyWhy did you give me the controls? will become the primary consideration in this article. In the past several months, Army aviation has experienced several mishaps which resulted in fatalities. These fatalities should never have occurred. For example, lets look at a UH-60M mishap which occurred while conducting multi-aircraft formation training. The mission was supposed to be a quick and easy night vision goggle (NVG) currency and multi-aircraft operations sign-o out and back several times for multiple pilots in training. It was a zero illumination night, and the threat of spatial disorientation was high due to operations over water in a degraded visual environment (DVE). Not long into the mission, one UH-60 and all crewmembers were victims to a failure to train to standard. You seasoned aviators, and probably many who are younger, may have witnessed this same training drill. Execute the training and get the crews progressed so they can be ready to make the mission happen on the next training or realworld deployment. The instructors have done this a hundred times, the briefers have briefed this mission a hundred times, and it has become somewhat of the quasi standard to get it done. As good, solid instructor pilots with a wealth of information at our ngertips, we can pull all the applicable references right o the Internet. So we probably have led the correct references, briengs and unit standard operating procedures (SOP) and have them readily available to make sure we train to standard. So you now wonder how this mishap could have happened with all the standards-based training information, media and professional military educated personnel and leaders involved down to the unit level. The answer is a failure to train to standard. Train to Standard In the mishap, a pilot on the controls became spatially disoriented while over water in a DVE during a turn following the lead aircraft. The pilot not of the controls was in a head-down position when the pilot on the controls states, You have the controls. The other pilot takes the controls and acknowledges it but is also disoriented. So what should have happened? As instructed in the UH-60 Series Aircrew Training Module (ATM), here is what should have happened based on Army standards in crew coordination and aviation ight standardization (key points have been bolded/underlined): Aircrew Coordination Principles(1) Announce and acknowledge decisions and actions. To ensure eective and well-coordinated actions in the aircraft, all crewmembers must be kept informed and made aware of decisions, expected movements of crew and aircraft, and the unexpected individual actions of others. Each crewmember will announce any actions that may aect the actions of other crewmembers. In turn, communications in the aircraft must include supportive feedback that clearly indicates that crewmembers acknowledge and correctly understand announcements, decisions, or directives of other crewmembers. (2) Ensure that statements and directives are clear, timely, relevant, complete and veried. These are qualities that must describe the kind of communication that is eective. Considering the eeting moments of time in a busy aviation environment, only one opportunity may exist to convey critical and supporting information before tragedy strikes. This can be further dened in actions which should have occurred by a quick look at the UH-60 Series ATM under Task 3010 Perform Multi-Aircraft Operations: STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards and the following additions/modications: 1. RCM. a. Participate in a formation ight brieng in accordance with unit SOP b. Maneuver into the ight formation. c. Change position in the ight formation when required. d. Maintain proper horizontal and vertical separation for the type of formation ight being conducted. e. Announce if visual contact is lost with other aircraft. f. Perform techniques of movement, if required.
12 Under crew actions: Note. The most important consideration when a crewmember has lost visual contact with the formation is to announce loss of visual contact to the other members of the crew and the rest of the ight and reorient. Except for enemy contact, all mission requirements are subordinate to this action. More standards-based directed training information can be found in the Maritime Operations Training Support Package (TSP), located on the DOTD Flight Training Branch webpage on Army Knowledge Online (AKO) at https://www.us.army.mil/suite/page/691190. This is a very intense training mission with high workload demand and should be thoroughly planned and briefed. TC 3-04.11, paragraph 6-49, states, If an approved TSP exists for training it will be utilized. And lets look at TC 3-04.11: 6-49. Environmental Training In their SOP, aviation units will explain the eects of the environment on the units ight operations. Commanders will establish a comprehensive academic and ight training program that develops and sustains ACM prociency in that environment and will ensure training was completed satisfactorily before the ACM performs ight operations in the unique environment as described in FM 3.04-203. If an approved training support package (TSP) exists for the training, it will be utilized. All these references, guides, training manuals and directives are there so we train aviators to standard, and through this we ensure that they take the correct actions while in mission to preclude a mishap from occurring. In this tragic event that occurred, a simple transfer of controls which wasnt conducted to standard resulted in a fatal mishap. An example of a standardized transfer of controls follows: Pilot on the controls: You have the controls. I feel disoriented Pilot not on the controls: I have the controls. Leveling the wings, climb power, engaging Z-Axis Plunge (H-60M model). Other crewmembers: Roger, right-rear increasing scan. I dont have lead aircraft in sight Other crewmembers: Roger, left-rear increasing scan. Backing up as required Pilot on controls: I have transitioned to instruments. Wings level, heading XXX, airspeed XXX, altitude XXX. Flight director has engaged For H-60M model aircraft, you note that there are multiple warnings and a note in the ATM about operating in DVEs and utilization of the ight director. In fact, it states it will be coupled and the primary means of ight operations. See Figure 1 below. All the information and training support you require as aviators to train to standard and complete the mission safely while preventing a mishap, in this case SD related to DVE is the most likely cause, are available. As the resident experts in aviation, instructor pilots must go beyond the rote memory programming of the students. An example of this is you can probably ask any hour level aviator what is DVE and they can spit out the memorized verbiage. More importantly, instructors training the aviators to the correlation level will prepare them for when they encounter a problem which interferes with their ability to pilot the aircraft (DVE, SD, sick feeling or a problem with their instruments or equipment) they can identify and announce it when transferring the controls. The UH-60M aircraft have the ight director system, with the Z-Axis Plunge button and the Go-Around button. In the case study, a simple push of either of these buttons would most likely have prevented this mishap. The only possible reason either pilot didnt Figure 1. Warning for DVE and use of the coupled ight director Warning A degraded visual environment (DVE) is circumstance where weather, obscurants or obstacles hinder the ability of the crew to determine where they are in relation to the surrounding terrian. Utilization of the coupled ight director prior to encountering DVE will aid and assist in the prevention of spatial disorientation, reduce crew workload, fatigue and prevent accidents. When operating and/or training in DVE in a UH60M, utilization of the coupled ight director will be the primary means of ight operations. When aviators announce the reason of the control transfer this alerts the other crewmembers to the situation, if a developing catastrophic sequence is occurring, and what actions they must take to maintain control of the aircraft.
13 push the button is because they werent trained to push the button. Repetition is required to build the automatic reexes required to ingrain immediate action steps into aviators. Instructors use this method to build the automatic reexes in aviators necessary to execute immediate action emergency procedures. So this same system should be utilized to ingrain use of the Z-Axis Plunge and Go-Around modes in training scenarios where aviators are put into situations where they require it (DVE, SD). Commanders Take the Controls The aviation training program is the commanders program. To positively inuence the training program, commanders set the example and provide guidance on their priorities for the unit. All commanders prioritize the safety of crews and safe operation of aircraft in conducting their assigned missions. As the primary trainer, they must ensure the programs support their priorities and are meeting the standards. If the unit standardization program isnt preparing the aviators for actions when encountering issues which require a transfer of controls and the use of aircraft systems which make the dierence between life and death of aviation crewmembers and/or passengers, then the program is not meeting the standard. The commanders rst line of defense against training deciencies should be his unit aviation safety ocer (ASO) in concert with his standardization instructor pilot (SP). If the training is not being conducted to standard, the ASO and SP should be the rst to identify it by being engaged in surveilling the training program. At this point, the team can inform the commander of the identied training program deciency and the plan to mitigate it. This action should happen rapidly, as aviation is inherently unforgiving to lack of discipline. As commanders, you must take the controls on your aviation training program. This will ensure the right training is conducted by engaging your standardization section after surveilling ongoing training within the unit. High standards of training with emphasis on those tasks which are seen as weak, decient or undertrained (i.e., identifying and announcing when impacted by DVE/SD, announcing why you are transferring controls, crew-coordinating actions, Z-Axis Plunge, Go-Around system use) should be prioritized. Eective training management by the commander and quality assurance surveillance by the SP and ASO can prevent the next mishap. Aviation Division Directorate of Assessments and Prevention U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center
14 Hot Topics New 2018 STACOMs:18-01: Clarication and Amendment of AR 95-1 (MAR2018) Requirements This STACOM is a clarication and amendment of AR 95-1(22MAR2018) requirements. Through stang of nal revisions it was determined that some requirements cannot be met until updates to Aircrew Training Modules (ATMs), The commanders Aviation Training and Standardization Program (TC3-04.11), Centralized Aviation Flight Records System (CAFRS) and electronic log books have been made. These policies will be implemented pending program revisions and completion of a Rapid Action Revision to AR 95-1. POC: DAC Bill Tomkins at 334-255-3440 or email@example.com LOCATION: https://www.ako1.us.army.mil/suite/les/4486324 18-02: Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Observers This STACOM re-establishes the denition and requirements for UAS Observer (Previously referred to as Ground Observers in AR 95-23). POC: DAC Bill Tomkins at 334-255-3440 or firstname.lastname@example.org LOCATION: https://www.ako1.us.army.mil/suite/les/4486324 18-03: Update to the Commanders Aviation Training and Standardization Program This STACOM serves as a Warning Order on Aviation Enterprise eorts that will better prepare individual aviators and units to execute large scale combat operations (LSCO) in contested environments. While you will see changes in knowledge levels we focus on, it is important to emphasize that this is not a license to know less about our profession, but rather a responsibility to know more, optimizing what we know so that we may focus on safe and tactical application of our systems on the battleeld. POC: DAC Ron Niles at 334-255-3440 or email@example.com LOCATION: https://www.ako1.us.army.mil/suite/les/4486324Joint Air Ground Integration Center (JAGIC) Update JAGIC ATP Revision. ACPO is complete with the rst authors draft of ATP 3-91.1. The draft, stang memo, and sent out for worldwide stang on 27 March with a suspense of 25 Jun 18. ACPO estimates completion of the ATP Revision will be 4th Qtr. 18. JAGIC Training Circular. ACPO is complete with the rst authors draft of TC 3-91.1, Training the JAGIC. Released for worldwide stang with a suspense of 2 Jul 18 and plans to submit to ATSC and published by 4th Qtr. FY18. Div FDU. ACPO has provided the organizational design for the Airspace Control Element in the division, Organization of the JAGIC using PLS containers and airspace and JAGIC. The Design and O&O are at FORSCOM for stang. CALLs JAGIC MTT Insights provides additional JAGIC-related insights, lessons, and best practices from mobile training team visits, Warghter exercises, and other training events led by a group of the Army Joint Support Team with the USAF Air Combat Command and Fires Centers of Excellence subject matter experts to inform and empower division commanders and their stas to learn and adapt from others. Airspace Management Operational Planning Team (AMOPT). ACPO attended the rst meeting from 16-18 May 2018 at Fort Bragg, NC. Attendees were representatives from TCM Ranges, IMCOM, FORSCOM, DAMO TRS, USAACE (TCM AB and DOTD), and MCCOE. The purpose of the AMOPT was to dene the status of installation airspace management capabilities/processes, individual installation airspace management mission scope, gap identication, and COA development. The overarching objective was to improve airspace management capabilities and eciencies in order to manage ever increasing complexities associated with safe management of installation airspace. For questions, comments or concerns contact ACPO via the Airspace Control page on milBook (https:// www.milsuite.mil/book/community/spaces/airspace-control). Be sure to follow the page and stay informed on products, discussions and updates to all things concerning airspace control and airspace management.
15 Blast From The Past: Articles from the archives of past Flightfax issues VOL 3, NO. 12, 15 January 1975 NOTE Anti-icing and Biocidal Additive for Commercial Turbine Engine FuelThe fuel system icing inhibitor shall conform to MIL-I-27686. The additive provides anti-icing protection and also functions as a biocide to kill microbial growths in aircraft fuel systems. Icing inhibitor conforming to MIL-I-27686 shall be added to commercial fuel, not containing an icing inhibitor, during refueling operations regardless of ambient temperatures. Refueling operations shall be accomplished in accordance with accepted commercial procedures.
16 Engine manufacturers recommend the primal fuel for use in a particular engine for maximum eciency and longest engine life. But which fuel should you use if the primary fuel is not available? Your safest bet is to follow the recommendations in your dash 10 Operators Manual. Also, additional information may be found in TB 55-9150-200-25. Turbine engine fuels with military symbols JP-4 and JP-5 are covered in specication MIL-T-5624. Some of the basic dierences in JP-4 and JP-5 are as follows: JP-4 turbine fuel consists of approximately 65 percent AVGAS and 35 percent light petroleum distillate (kerosene) with rigidly specied properties. JP-5 turbine fuel is a specially rened kerosene having a minimum ash point of 140 F and a freezing point of 55 F. JP-4 has a wider boiling range with an initial boiling point considerably below that of kerosene (JP-5). JP-4 has a Reid vapor pressure of 2-3 pounds and ash point below room temperature. JP-5 has a Reid vapor pressure of less than 0.5 pounds and a higher ash point. When JP-4 is designated as the primary fuel for your aircraft and it is not available, JP-5 is not necessarily the next best fuel. You should try to obtain commercial fuel designated as Jet B. Jet B is equivalent to JP-4 in all respects except that Jet B has a freezing point of -60 F. instead of -76 F. The same rule applies to JP-5 and commercial fuels, Jet A and Jet A-1. Both of these are equivalent to JP-5 and both are kerosene type fuels. The freezing point for Jet A is -40 F.; the freezing point for Jet A-1 is -58 F. The chart (page 1) lists brand name fuels that may be obtained in the USA and at overseas commercial airelds. The use of kerosene fuel JP-5 or commercial equivalent Jet A or Jet A-1 in specic turbine engines requires that special precautions be observed. Both engine ground starts and air restarts at low temperatures may be more dicult due to negligible vapor pressure. JP-4 and JP-5 already contain an icing inhibitor but if Jet B, Jet A, or Jet A-1 is used, crewmen should ask if the fuel contains an icing inhibitor. If not, a commercial anti-icing additive called Prist should be mixed in the fuel, according to the instructions contained on the aerosol spray can, during refueling operation. Again, reference should be made to your dash 10 Operators Manual. The aircrafts dash 10 Operating Manuals contain the primary, alternate, and emergency fuels and restrictions for their use. For example, the OH-6A and OH-58 dash 10 manuals state the following fuel operation limitations: a. The primary (standard) fuel for both aircraft is JP-4 (MIL-T-5624). No restrictions are imposed on engines or aircraft when operating with this fuel. b. The alternate fuel for both aircraft is JP-5 (MIL-T-5624) with an ambient temperature range of 0 F. to +125 F. and with the following restrictions: (1) Engine starting diculties may be encountered at ambient temperatures below +5 C. (+40 F.). (2) Prior to performing the rst practice autorotation or in-ight rapid engine deceleration of the day, insure that requirements of the engine deceleration check (TM 55-2840-231-24) are met. c. Jet A and Jet A-1 (ASTM-D-1655) are restricted to the same limits as JP-5. d. The emergency fuel for both aircraft is aviation gasoline (MIL-G-5572) without tricresylphosphate (TCP) with the following restrictions: (1) Electric fuel pump must be on during all operations. (2) Use is limited to 6 hours total engine operating time between overhaul. An entry on DA Form 2408-13 is required. WHAT IF THE PRIMARY FUEL IS NOT AVIALABLE
Attack Helicopters AH-64 D ModelCrew was ground-taxiing to parking when the main rotor blades made contact with a concrete guard tower. (Class A) Utility Helicopters UH-60 M ModelPost-ight/40/120-Hr inspection conrmed main rotor system damage from an obstacle strike during an NVG mountain-landing iteration. Two main rotor blades and 2 tip caps have been cited for replacement. (Class C) L ModelHigh TGT on shutdown. (Class C) UH-72 A ModelAircraft experienced a main rotor exceedance (118%>) while the crew was performing a main rotor check as part of an MTF. Aircraft was landed w/o further incident. (Class C) Fixed-Wing C-208 B ModelPilot reported ground-resonance eect during landing after his vision was temporarily obscured when his sun visor separated and struck him in the face. Aircraft was landed w/o further incident. Post-ight inspection conrmed propeller blade and front tire damage. (Class C) Unmanned Aircraft Systems RQ-7 B ModelDuring the mission the AV experienced low engine RPM and was unable to maintain altitude. The parachute was deployed and the AV has been recovered. (Class C) Aerostat PTDS Aerostat experienced a tether failure while aloft, reportedly following a sudden downdraft. Contract crew initiated the FTS and the aerostat and payload were recovered from the downed location, with potential class A damage. (Class A) Mishap Briefs for Month of May 2018Online newsletter of Army aircraft mishap prevention information published by the U. S. Army Combat Readiness Center, Fort Rucker, AL 36322-5363. DSN 558-2660. Information is for accident prevention purposes only. Specically prohibited for use for punitive purposes or matters of liability, litigation, or competition. Flightfax is approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 17