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Concepts of Biology

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Concepts of Biology
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Rice University
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Concepts of Biology

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OpenStax College Rice University 6100 Main Street MS380 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax College, visit http://openstaxcollege.org Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. 2013 by Rice University. T he t extbook content was produced by OpenStax College and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Unde r this license, any user of the textbook or the textbook contents herein must provide proper attribution as follows: If you redistribute this textbook in a digital format (including but not limited to EPUB, PDF, and HTML), then you must retain on every page view the following attributi on: Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/latest/ If you redistribute this textbook in a print format, then you must include on every physical p age the following attribution: Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/latest/ If you redistribute part of this textbook, then you must display o n every digital format page view (including but not limited to EPUB, PDF, and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/l atest/ If you use this textbook as a bibliographic reference, then you should cite it as follows: OpenStax College, Concepts of Biology OpenStax College. 25 April 2013 < http://cnx.org/content/col11 487/latest/ > The OpenStax College name, OpenStax College logo, OpenStax College book covers, Connexions name, and Connexions logo are not subject to the license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. For questions regarding this license please contact partners @openstaxcollege.org ISBN 10 1938168119 ISBN 13 9781 938168116 Revision CB1 002DW

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OpenStax College OpenStax College is a non profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax College is working to improve access to higher education for all. Connexions The technology platform supporting OpenStax College is Connexions ( http://cnx.org ), one of the worlds first and largest open education projects. Connexions provides students with free online and low cost print editions of the OpenStax College library and provides instructors with tools to customize the content so that they can have th e perfect book for their course. Rice University OpenStax College and Connexions are initiative s of Rice University. As a leading research university with a distinctive commitment to undergraduate education, Rice University aspires to path breaking research, unsurpassed teaching, and contributions to the betterment of our world. It seeks to fulfill this mission by cultivating a diverse community of learning and discovery that produces leaders across the spectrum of human endeavor. Foundation Support OpenStax College is grateful for the tremendous support of our sponsors. Without their strong engagement, the goal of free access to highquality textbooks would remain just a dream The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation has been m aking grants since 1967 to help solve social and environmental problems at home and around the world. The Foundation concentrates its resources on activities in education, the environment, global development and population, performing arts, and philanthrop y, and makes grants to support disadvantaged communities in the San Francisco Bay Area. Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving peoples health with vaccines and other life saving tools and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and ex treme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to significantly improve education so that all young people have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and Co chair William H. Gat es Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. Our mission at the Twenty Million Minds Foundation is to grow access and success by eliminating unnecessary hurdles to affordability. We support the creation, sharing, and proliferation of more effective, more affordable educational content by leveraging d isruptive technologies, open educational resources, and new models for collaboration between for profit, nonprofit, and public entities. The Maxfield Foundation supports projects with potential for high impact in science, education, sustainability, and other areas of social importance.

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PAGE 53

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PAGE 54

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PAGE 61

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PAGE 66

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PAGE 69

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PAGE 70

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PAGE 71

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PAGE 72

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PAGE 73

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PAGE 74

0#0DN@IBM@O@?AMJHOC@>@GGfDODN<=PI?@GGNOCM@O@KMJO@DINfNP>C8::?309/:;7,>84.=0?4.@7@8$# DN>JIODIPJPNRDOCOC@0#0=POCTOJKGNPMA<>@tN@@ @=0n2C@1#0gNAPI>ODJINDI>GP?@NTIOC@NDNJA>GP?DIBKCJNKCJGDKD?NnfJCJG H@O<=JGDNHDPHDJIN The Golgi Apparatus 5@CG@N>G@NBJ @AJM@ M@<>CDIBOC@DMADIG@NI@@?OJ=@NJMO@?f K<>F@2C@NJMODIBfOF@DIOC@ :724,;;,=,?@> tNt @=0ttn :8FC6fnn 2C@%JGBDOMJIHD>MJBM@GGDN QDND=G@FJAN@HD>DM>PGG@N >M@?DOHJ?DAD>@DQDIBA<>@I@M@OD>PGPH@JIOC@ ND?@@GGH@H=MG@NOC@DQDIBA<>@fAPN@RDOCDOfJIO@IONDIOJOC@GPH@IJAOC@%JGBDCPG@N2C@I@RGTHJ?DAD@?KMJO@DINPGFG@NOC@JA OC@%JGBD5CDG@NJH@JAOC@N@Q@ND>G@NfOMG@Nf?@KJNDOOC@DM>JIO@IONDIOJJOC@MK@GGRC@M@OC@TRDGG=@PN@?fJOC@MNfN@>M@OJMTQ@ND>G@NfAPN@RDOCOC@KGJIO@IONJPOND?@OC@>@GG 2C@@GGOTK@NODJIRDOCDI>@GGN!@GGN OCM@OJMT<>ODQDOTtNP>C@GGNJAOC@NM@O@?DB@NODQ@ @IUTH@NJM>@GGNJAOC@DHHPI@NTNO@HOCM@O@@GGNfOC@%JGBDC>CCJMKJM@GGRC@GG Lysosomes 'I@GGNfOC@ 7D>:>:80> @GGgNhB>CG@D><>D?Nf@GG@?@PFT>GDIB JAJMBODQ@CGJR@MK&tHJM@<>D?D>nOCTOJKGODJINOC@DIOC@>TOJKGJPG?IJOJ>>PMJHK>@GGDIOJJMB@IUTH@NOJ?@NOMJT?DN@@GGBJJ?@S>PMNDI@GGN>MJKCC@NNFIJRITOJNDNfODJIJAOC@KGMJKCODJIfRDOCOC@ KC@NDON@GAJAAAMJHOC@KGJH@NG@2C@Q@ND>G@ APN@NRDOC@IUTH@NOC@I?@NOMJTOC@KJIO@IODNISrJMB>JIO@IO>JGr

PAGE 75

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PAGE 76

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PAGE 80

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PAGE 82

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