Exhibit Object List and interpretive labels - Voices from the Panama Canal

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Exhibit Object List and interpretive labels - Voices from the Panama Canal
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Panama Canal Centennial Exhibitions
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Vargas-Betancourt, Margarita
Losch, Paul
Santamaria-Wheeler, Lourdes
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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Voices from the Panama Canal| 1 Voices from the Panama Canal August 4, 2014 October 24, 2014 Smathers Library Gallery George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida Curated by Margarita Vargas Betancourt and Paul Losch Part of the University of Florida Panama Canal Centennial Celebration Voices from the Panama Canal is based on the research and work of UF graduate students in ARH6836 Exhibition Seminar, Fall 2013. Special thanks to Megan Daly, Chloe Dye, Ka ty Estes Smargiassi, Heidi Kershner, Carly Kosmacki, Christina Johnson, Tom Southall, Rachel Turner, and Jessie Ward, for their great ideas and hard work. It was inspiring to see how a group that was largely unfamiliar with the history of the Panama Canal at the beginning of the semester had so many valuable insights by the time of their final presentations. Gold Roll Record 19471948 2001.017.002 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Burt and Carol Mead http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI005417/00001 Silver Roll Record 19441946 2001.017.004 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gi ft of Burt and Carol Mead http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI005419/00001 The division of gold and silver was first used when a U.S. firm built the Panama Railroad in the 1850s. During the construction of the Panama Canal, the scheme evolved into a system of segregation whose purpose was the efficient control of the heterogeneous groups that participated in the project. By 1909, white United States citizens constituted the gold roll; West Indians, most Panamania n workers, and eventually other nonU.S. citizens, the silver. The silver wage scale received its pay in a different currency, their wages were lower, and they had no benefits. In addition, each group was assigned different jobs, housing and opportunities for entertainment and shopping.

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 2 Mint of the United States Roosevelt Medal No. 2067 presented to C. Spencer 190608 1999.001.020 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Marc Quinn Mint of the United States Roosevelt Medal No. 389 with three bars presented to F. Kind 19051907, 190708, 190911, 191113 1999.001.015 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Marc Quinn In 1908, President Theodore Roosevelt directed the Isthmian Canal Commission to create a medal to reward service by American citizens on the construction of the Panama Canal. The medal was awarded to those who had served continuously for two years between May 4, 1904 and December 31, 1914. Each bar above the medal represents two additional years of service. Over 7,000 medals were awarded to both men and women. Keystone View Company (American company, 18921963) Col. Goethals in Charge of the Panama Canal c. 1910 Stereograph 2013.2.91 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of William P. and Barbara L. Angrick http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015211/00001 President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Colonel George Washington Goethals Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal in 1907. Goethals oversaw all aspects of Canal construction. The Canal was remarkably completed seven years after his appointment; two years ahead of schedule and under budget. He became the first civilian Governor of the Canal Zone in 1914. [Medallion commemorating opening of Panama Canal showing steam shovel basket] 19121917 2003.063.018 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Chris Skeie

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 3 Ernest Red Hallen (American, 18751947) 518Y13 Gatun Upper Locks, East Chamber, Main Gates and Top of Intermediate Gates in foreground March 12, 1912 Gelatin silver print 2000.029.023 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Ted and Patsy Norris http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI003204/00001 West Indians constituted the most numerous workforce. In 1912, their population in the Canal Zone was 62,000. They performed the most dangerous work during construction including dynamiting, digging, scaffolding, and fumigating. Thus, they suffered a high rate of casualties. Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad [Identification badge of Canal employee] n.d. 2005.027.203 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Patricia Bjorneby http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI000640/00001 Ernest Red Hallen (American, 18751947) 58I. U.S. Marines on bridge built by them over Camacho Diversion at Bas.Obispo July 1911 Gelatin silver print 2001.074.001.023 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Doris and Ken Tuley The first U.S. soldiers assigned to the Canal Zone arrived in 1911. Their mission was to protect the construction project. Until the 1990s, thousands of U.S. troops were based in Panama. The peak of their presence (approximately 65,000 troops) took place during World War II.

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 4 Construction crews in a lock chamber of the Panama Canal 1913 Gelatin silver print 2011.999.248 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Curtis Bliss http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093708/00001 The construction of the Panama Canal required the labor of thousands of workers. To build the Canal, people migrated mainly from the United States and the Caribbean, but also from Europe, Asia, and Latin America. Barbados and Jamaica provided much of the workforce, but so did Antigua, Grenada St. Lucia, Trinidad, Jamaica, St. Kitts, Martinique, and Guadeloupe. Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocanique de Panama (French company, 18791889) [French bond for 500 Francs] 1885 2011.999.062.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries The Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocanique de Panama undertook the first attempt construction of a sea level canal, i.e., without locks, in the Isthmus of Panama. Its founder, Ferdinand de Lesseps, also developed the Suez Canal. Lesseps fatal mistake was to apply the engineering principles he had used in Suez to Panama, ignoring the geography of the region. Due to financial problems, the company was liquidated, and the United States took over the c onstruction project. Ernest Red Hallen (American, 18751947) 316A2. Panama Canal. Isthmian Canal Commission. Administration Bldg. Culebra, C.Z. 1908 Gelatin silver print 2003.100.008.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Glen W. Brandl http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI009052/00001 The Isthmian Canal Commission (ICC) oversaw the construction of the Panama Canal from 1904 to 1914. It reported directly to Secretary of War William Taft.

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 5 One of the challenges American women faced in the Panama Canal Zone was to cook with native ingredients. Panamanians bought fresh produce in the local farmers market, like the one at Colon where vendors included not only Panamanian but also immigrant farm ers. In the recipes of the book Tropical Cooking: A Handbook of Tropical Foods and How to Use Them Gladys R. Graham explains to American women how to cook with local ingredients. Even though they could always go to the commissary, if they wanted to find f amiliar ones. Colon Market 1939 Gelatin silver print 2003.088.002.007 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Doris Hutchinson http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI008754/00001 Gladys R. Graham Tropical Cooking: A Handbook of Tropical Foods and How to Use Them 1948 Panama American Press TX725 .G73 1948 c.2 Latin American & Caribbean Collection, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Panama Canal Museum Native Foods Devotee Tracks Down Author of Tropical CookingObject Second Edition September 2, 1979 Star and Herald Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Panama Canal M useum At first the ICC discouraged the migration of women to the Canal Zone. However, during the first two years of construction, the constant turnover of workers made it difficult to organize an efficient system of labor. In 1906, the ICC realized that men would be happier and more productive workers if they had their families in the Canal Zone. Thus, they began to encourage the migration of women and children. Women defied the inhospitable environment to create homes. Initially, the ICC only hired female relatives of male workers, but single women also migrated to the Canal Zone in search of jobs. There, women worked as nurses, schoolteachers, stenographers, clerks, dietitians, timekeepers, telegraph operators, and storekeepers.

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 6 The Isthmian Nurses Association (Canal Zone, 19511970) The Tropical Sentinel: The Official Publication of the Isthmian Nurses Association October 1957 2005.080.002.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Mildred Seeley Hammond The greatest concentration of female employees was in the hospitals. Nurses had come from the beginning of construction, and had fought yellow fever and other epidemic diseases. Their lives were different than mens. They lived in female only housing, had special curfews, and were under more scrutiny. In addition, hospitals presented extreme challenges. It was difficult for them to labor in a male environment and to work in wards that were divided by gend er, race and nationality. However, their skill and scarcity empowered them. The Cristobal Womans Club TwentyFive Years of Club work on the Isthmus of Panama, 19071932 c. 1932 2005.096.006 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collect ions, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Deakins Family The Cristobal Womans Club was the only federated club to continue to exist after Canal construction was completed. Early on, its members considered extending their outreach activities to the Republic of Panama. Like other clubs, learning Spanish was one of their goals. They even proposed the teaching of Spanish in Canal Zone schools. During World War I, the club organized a Red Cross unit that sent supplies to Europe. In 1920, the club opened a free health clinic to provide healthcare, food, and supplies to the destitute of Colon and Cristobal. After World War II, its members conducted an educational program for children and their families to become good citizens and good neighbors. By 1959, Pa namanian women were also club members. Commissary Employees n.d. Gelatin silver print 2004.007.092 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Richard (Pat) Beall http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI009412/00001 In 1905, Canal Zone Governor Charles Magoon and Chief Engineer John F. Stevens established a commissary system that would sell goods at cost to the inhabitants of the Panama Canal Zone.

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 7 Goods sold at the commissary included food, medicines, clothing, and supplies to meet the basic needs of the work force and their families. Eventually, luxury items like silk, lace, and perfume were added. The commissary also sold items for the crews of the ships that crossed the Canal, such as linen, stationery, silverware, cleaning supplies, tobacco, and food. By the 1940s the commissary resembled a department store. Both women and men staffed the commissary. 13c 45 (14) New Gold Commissary, Gatun, C.Z. April 1943 2014.52.1 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00023918/00001 One of the main concerns for American families in the Canal Zone was to raise and educate their children within the culture of the United States. In 1906, the ICC established a cent ralized school system for the Canal Zone. Womens clubs also promoted the creation of American clubs and athletic leagues for their children. In the Canal Zone, young people grew up with the activities that American children experienced in the United States, but with some changes due to the social and natural environment. They celebrated the same holidays as in the States but also became aware of local festivities. They scouted in the lush tropical forests and learned to enjoy the water that surrounded them holding cayuco (large canoe) races in the Canal, and becoming excellent swimmers. [Childrens Concert at the Balboa Elementary School] n.d. Gelatin silver print 2000.048.158 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Kathy Egolf http://ufdc. ufl.edu/PCMI003792/00001 Thanksgiving Play, Ancon 1924 Gelatin silver print 2004.007.081 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Richard (Pat) Beall http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI009401/00001

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 8 In 1908, women at Gorgonas Anti Cigarette League helped establish the Boy Scouts. In 1913, the Camp Fire Girls were established; only one year after the organization was formed in the United States. By 1939, there were approximately fifty Boy and Girl Scout troops in the Canal Zone Canal Zone Council Boy Scouts of America (19471979) 1955 Scoutcapade 1955 Program 2003.059.003 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Bob and Marguerite Zumbado Green Merit Badge Sash with Merit Badges n.d. 2003.066.001.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Mickey Fitzgerald Gatun Locks Boys Band of 1920 c. 1920 Gelatin silver print 2004.055.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Nellree Berger http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI010315/00001 [Canal Zone Baseball Team (presumably Balboa High School)] c. 1920s Gelatin silver print 2001.020.007.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of James Buster and Jeanne Burgoon http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI005510/00001

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 9 Union Sunday School, Culebra, Canal Zone December 31, 1911 Gelatin silver print 2001.074.001.015 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Doris and Ken Tuley http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI006136/00001 In the early twentieth century, representatives of different Christian denominations decided to work together to form Union churches in the Canal Zone. This unique endeavor was considered the most effective way to foster faith and religious work. Balboa High School The Nineteen Hundred Forty Six Zonian 1946 St. Petersburg Printing Co. Latin American & Caribbean Collection George A. Smathers Libraries http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093678/00036 The first Canal Zone high school opened as a traveling school in 1907, and at times it was located in Culebra, Cristobal, Gatun, and Ancon. Students took the train to attend. In 1916, plans were drawn up for the construction of permanent high schools in Balboa and Cristobal. Escuela Secundaria de Para so / Paraiso Jr. Sr. High School Emilio Parris, editor El Pacifico. Volumen XXVIII 1976 Asociacin Estudiantil de la Escuela Superior de Paraso Zona del Canal Latin American & Caribbean Collection George A. Smathers Libraries http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015058/00001 West Indians attended separate Canal Zone schools. At first these schools only extended to middle grad es, since there was an explicit effort to retain Afro Antilleans as workers r ather than professionals. In 1946, high school education was made available to West Indians. There were two West Indian high schools: on the Atlantic side, Silve r City Occupational High School (later known as Rainbow City Occupational High School); and, on the Pacific side, La Boca High School (later known as Para so when it relocated). In 1954, Spanish replaced English as the instruction language at these schools, and their names were also translated to Spanish. Segregation in Canal Zone schools ended in 1978, long after it had ended in the United States. In the first decade of the twentieth century, people from all over the world migrated to Panama for work. The U.S. government established labor recruiting offices in Europe and in the

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 10 Caribbean. They focused special attention on Barbados where the local sugar plantati on economy offered no hope of overcoming impoverishment. Approximately, twenty thousand Barbadians signed contracts to work in the Canal, and thousands more went without a contract. West Indian workers from other Caribbean countries migrated to the Canal a s well. After overcoming the initial shock of canal working conditions, West Indian workers, like others in the silver roll, found ways to protest. While men were the first to make the voyage, women later followed, where they found work in the growing serv ice industry. The money that they sent or took back home, helped to develop a local middle class, and the migration experience helped to foster national identities in the Caribbean. Ernest Red Hallen (American, 18751947) 236. Sleeping quarters for Negro Laborers n.d. Gelatin silver print 2000.029.020 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Ted and Patsy Norris http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI003201/00001 Interior view of restaurant showing proprietress n.d. Gelatin silver print 2003.017.030.002 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Patricia Hall http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI008135/00001 While American workers lived in more comfortable settlements, West Indian employees lived in labor camps. The food they received in ICC cafeterias was often unap petizing and eaten standing up. For this reason, many West Indians preferred to find their own food and accommodations. This benefitted West Indian women who opened their own businesses to meet those needs Meal Time at an ICC KitchenUpper Rio Grande n.d. Gelatin silver print 2001.074.001.016 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Doris and Ken Tuley

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 11 Errors on Rolls May 1915 2000.029.126 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Ted and Patsy Norris http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00014744 This 1915 document gives an idea of how this dualistic system came to be an accepted part of life in the Canal Zone, especially by those U.S. citizens it privileged. The document was prepared to evaluate the accuracy of different clerks in the payroll offi ce (who were all gold roll employees). The handwritten comments explain that, from the clerks point of view, keeping the silver roll was a relatively easy job, since there were no benefits to be calculated and little variation in hourly wage. [ Parade of West Indians] 1916 Gelatin silver print 2009.039.014 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Ruth Catherine Walker (Taylor) http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI011782/00001 West Indians worked hard in the Canal, but they also celebrated life. They brought to Panama their politics, culture, food, and music, adding a Caribbean touch to Panamanian culture. Gerardo Maloney (Panamanian, 1945) El canal de Panam y los trabajadores antillanos. Panam 1920, cronologa de una lucha 1989 Ediciones Formato Diecisis F1569.C2 M341 1989 Latin American & Caribbean Collection, George A. Smathers Libraries West Indian workers protested poor working conditions and low pay through subtle forms, such as changing jobs, residence, and names. They brought the traditions of British Empire trade unionism to Panama In 1920 they organized a strike, which is the basis of Gerardo Maloneys book.

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 12 Wigniguia C. Gonzalez (Panamanian) Historia de Ogobsucun y Datos Relevantes de Kuna Yala 2011 Editorial Mariano Arosemena F1566 .G66 2011 Latin American & Caribbean Collection, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Ral Castro Zachrisson The Guna Yala are the largest indigenous group in Panama. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, they lived in the Panama Colombia region. When the Spanish arrived, they migrated to other places. In 1870, Colombia created a reservation or comarca for the Guna. After Panamas independence in 1903, they had to migrate again. They had violent encounters with the newly founded Panamanian government, especially during the rebellion of 1925. In 1938, the Panamanian government created the Gun a District of San Blas. In the page shown above, the Guna Yala compare the struggle of Panamanians to acquire sovereignty in the Canal Zone to their own struggle for sovereignty in their comarca. In 2011, the Panamanian government acknowledged the petition of the Guna Yala to change their official name from Kuna to Guna, for this represents better the pronunciation of their name in their language. [San Blas Indian Visiting Miraflores Locks] 1955 Gelatin silver print 2003.025.056.003 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Family of George & Mayno Walker http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI008565 Pollera and Montuno Dancers n.d. Gealtin silver print 2001.077.006.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Dorothy Hart Holder Tembleques n.d. 2011.008.003.002 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Col lections, George A. Smathers Libraries In colonial times, African women in Panama tried to recreate the dresses that the Spanish women wore. The result was the pollera (Panamas national costume), which consists of a white blouse

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 13 with two pompoms and an ample skirt. Both are elaborately embroidered. Also included in the attire are mosquetas, jewelry made with gold and pearls, and tembleques, head ornaments in the shape of flowers, like the one above. Since its beginning, Panamas history has been intrinsically connected to the United States and the Panama Canal. After obtaining its independence from Colombia, Panama became a U.S. protectorate. In turn, the infrastructure that the U.S. built and the funds that it invested allowed the construction of a modern country in the midst of the tropics. However, in the 1930s an incipient middle class educated with national ideals began to contest the lack of Panamanian sovereignty in the Ca nal Zone. Constant U.S. military presence only increased the tensions between the U.S. and Panama. In 1939 Panamanian President Harmodio Arias signed a treaty with U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt. In it, the U.S. renounced its rights to intervene in Pana manian affairs. However, in the face of inequality, economic problems, and political instability, discontent grew worse and led to protests and violence. In September 1977, President Jimmy Carter and Chief of Government Omar Torrijos signed the treaties th at recognized Panamanian sovereignty over the Canal Zone and that guaranteed the transfer of the Canal to Panama in 1999. Canal Zone Non Profit Public Information Corporation Public Opinion Questionnaire on Proposed Panama Canal Treaties [with results marked in red] 1977 2013.15.54 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Panama Canal Museum Canal Zone Non Profit Public Information Corporation Your Donations Help Us Keep You Informed November 8, 1977 2013.15.38 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Panama Canal Museum Th e Torrijos Carter Treaties faced opposition in the U.S. and in the Canal Zone. Michael James, employee of the Panama Canal Company, and William R. Drummond, President of the Canal Zone Police Lodge and a union official of Canal Zone Federal employees, orga nized the Canal Zone NonProfit Public Information Corporation to oppose the implementation of the Treaties. As a result of his activism, Drummond received several threats. On November 1, 1976, bomb explosions destroyed his car and two others. In 1977, Drummond and several U.S. representatives filed a suit questioning the Presidents authority to give away the Canal.

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 14 Ana Elena Porras (Panamanian) Historias canaleras: doce testimonios de la transicin 2007 Universidad de Panam, Instituto de Estudios Nacionales F1569.C2 P67 2007 Latin American & Caribbean Collection, George A. Smathers Libraries These oral histories give the Panamanian point of view of the transfer and reveal that the process was neither smooth nor homogeneous. While some American officials began to mentor young Panamanians, others were much less cooperative. The process also brought to light problems in the Canal and its organization. Furthermore, the tense relationship between the U.S. and Panama due to Noriegas military dictator ship and U.S. military presence made the transfer even more difficult. These histories describe the creative way in which legal, administrative, social, and economic obstacles were surpassed as well as how the idea of the current Canal expansion began to t ake place. Milton Martinez H. (Panamanian) Panama 19781990, Una Crisis Sin Fin 1990 Centro de Estudios y Accin Social Panameo F1566.5 .M37 1990 Latin American & Caribbean Collection, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Panama Canal Museum For Panamanians, the implementation of the Torrijos Carter Treaties brought about a period of political, economic, and social upheaval. In 1968, Lieutenant Colonel Omar Torrijos seized power through a coup and became Chief of Government. The fight for sovereig nty over the Canal Zone allowed Torrijos to create a project of national unity. Despite inflation, he had popular support. He justified his economic measures as the sacrifice that Panamanians had to endure in order for the Treaties to take place. Once the Treaties were implemented, Torrijoss ideological arguments lost validity, and people began to contest the military regime. The ensuing political and economic crisis, however, prevented the smooth transition to democracy. Torrijos died in 1981, and in the aftermath Manuel Antonio Noriega, his former spy unit commander, seized power. Noriega held that position until 1989 when he was ousted by an American invasion (Operation Just Cause). Creat Ar Quin Controla El Canal / Who Controls the Canal? n.d. 2011.006.001 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of the Panama Canal Museum

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 15 The transference of the Panama Canal took place over a twenty year period, during which Panama and the United States jointly operated the Canal. Before the Treaties, Panamanians could only aspire to middle management in the Canal. Because of the Treaties, American administrators of the Canal began to train bright, young Panamanians into upper management positions. In terms of operation, the result was successful. But in social terms, it was a traumatic experience both for the resid ents of the Canal Zone and for Panamanians. The closing of the Canal Zone in 1979 forced the displacement of people who for generations had considered it home. From 1977 to 1979, people had to decide whether to leave, retire, or stay in a different positio n. Many people left. Panamanian employees, including West Indian descendants, were also affected. In Panama, the Treaties caused a political crisis with economic and social ramifications. Joseph Wood (American born Panama, 1937 ) [Letter from Joseph Wood] September 30, 1979 2013.25.1 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries Gift of Joseph J. Wood Jr. http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00019281 Joseph J. Joe Wood Jr. was born in Panama City, R epublic of Panama. Son of a Panamanian mother and an American employee of the Panama Canal, he grew up in the Canal Zone. He is a graduate from Balboa High School (1955), Canal Zone Junior College, and the University of Florida. After serving in the U.S. A rmy National Guard, he started his career at the Panama Canal as a Graduate Intern. In 1995 he retired after serving fourteen years as Director, Office of Executive Administration. For nine months in 1989, he served as the Canals Deputy Administrator for Administration. He volunteered in many Canal Zone organizations and was a founding member of the Panama Canal Museum in Seminole, FL. Wood played an important role in the transfer of the Museums collections to the University of Florida. Mireya Moscoso (Panamanian, 1946), Presidenta de la Republica de Panama (r. 19992004) Invitacin al Acto de Transferencia del Canal de Panam 1999 2002.010.007 Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libr aries Gift of Charles Hummer http://ufdc.ufl.edu/PCMI006473

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Voices from the Panama Canal| 16 Before the actual transfer of the Panama Canal on December 31, on December 14, 1999, Panamanian President Mireya Moscoso, former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and other heads of state participated in a symbolic and moving ceremony of transfer. Angus Grover Matheney (American, born Panama) [Photographs of Transfer ceremony of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama at Miraflores Locks] 1999 Dye coupler prints Panama Canal Museum Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries 1. [Billboard commemorating Panama Canal transfer] 2009.003.020.022 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00014747/00024 2. [Presidents Moscoso, Carter, and other dignitaries at lock] 2009.003.020.033 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00014747/00035 3. [Dignitaries at Miraflores Locks] 2009.003.020.040 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00014747/00041 4. [Canal transfer ceremony crowd] 2009.003.020.042 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00014747/00043 5. [Presidents Mosoco and Carter] 2009.003.020.043 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00014747/00044