Health misconceptions of seventh, tenth, and twelfth grade students


Material Information

Health misconceptions of seventh, tenth, and twelfth grade students a study of the relative prevalence of certain health misconceptions and superstitions as subscribed to by boys and girls in Florida Public Schools
Physical Description:
Salt, E. Benton
Publication Date:



Record Information

Rights Management:
Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 14641003
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter i
        Front Matter ii
        Front Matter iii
        Front Matter iv
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Front Matter 6
        Front Matter 7
        Front Matter 8
        Front Matter 9
        Front Matter 10
        Front Matter 11
        Front Matter 12
        Front Matter 12a
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Chapter I. Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Chapter II. Historical background
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Chapter III. Procedure
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Chapter IV. The relative prevalence of certain health misconceptions among seventh grade students
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Chapter V. The relative prevalence of certain health misconceptions among tenth grade students
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Chapter VI. The relative prevalence of certain health misconceptions among twelfth grade students
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Chapter VII. The relationship between health knowledge and health misconceptions
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Chapter VIII. The relationship between socio-economic status and health misconceptions
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Chapter IX. General summary and conclusions
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Chapter X. Discussion and recommendations
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 145a
        Page 145b
        Page 145c
        Page 145d
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 147a
        Page 147b
        Page 147c
        Page 147d
        Page 147e
        Page 147f
        Page 147g
        Page 147h
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 149a
        Page 149b
        Page 150
    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

"44444 44;

412~> '
.~ i,44
4'" r4

r[~sl 44i

1~Sd' ~ ""'~~ ;Z~ll~lfl~l~~~i~l~i~~~44

s~~~'811~~~~1 ~ 44
~~~a~'i~i ~i~j' >4~E~PL a~ii~ ~~

ri; ~;gilBj~:~~~: i~~~ ~-~". iRi~8444~
4~~l: 44Bl~:al

~~~4~44 k


2'l~~: 44

Sl u ~ IE;~~;'~i:';i:;nl: 44 "
4?: 4' 4 2,;i' '4"" l"'"IWEi gj
'442 '

inn::iii ii:sr

"4 1

i" 1 lg
a~ .ii E%
II P ;i~ii
.,d r,,, s ;~4i
~i .r\ ., 1

U :"': !~ Ui
I;I x5, "li"
I~lr:~i~?ulBA .l;il: ~B
~,~~"~~C~~,~1 ~:i""j;El-rr:iii: i.;" '.""""
?i*r.~ linj~ rr~
ii I
:i:" 4~
I jb" I--~
'"",,, r4 :g i'
l";""i ": ~'" i~li:i: ,::' ;, ;:. r:,;i;:' : ~. I~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ , :;: ,~ ~ ; ~r '~
"' rxi
i, insi

i~li:W1,, ~FQlli.i"i

1 irii-i
ca, 1
;ixi~j~g Il;g
9iP~li .,I
,; I
~a ;g

"" "~
: Il~ii~El
Irri~ 'iiiil~


r'lxTi rriit Lr~B~

s;Xi:" ~

~ s",~~
I,,. ,~ ;g, ~~~,, -~ B ,, ~ :

~hE;l gg~
~~l;As3il. I'~~'l"r,,


Ei~ I:I;~ ~ ~i ,, i i
.;x h
I :a~-
I *"~Z~b;; ,,i
i' .iixlli.
c dijl iilii~
~i- r~Elpi~l,
4rri ~~" ii~
~~ a~ ';:aiill,W a--,i,
(I~iiiii;xigiE~~"m~~ .rur i~ ii, p~~0 .i; iu;2" ia.~
rra rat




Ofo the sethalhbbie tttos

/..... ..... .. .. ...... .
**rthh it wuld sei II
40abe as a 'bas or t u
yese % ths thenestfor

seam" *11#4 11e &UPRO's SA mm us**% oriletaera Of U (ft6

VUS Osay nar oneons toy Wes mentai thhea re3Aen V paeste

ofseui haleth emise as tIN and "eT eas bttet as NeAUG1 toseas1

8WORIN In th movatk otk, abeantsd tv ath agratites of JJW a vka%

PUeUent Mby19 2 to ms otimentsa cma rss on hetaisofmW
Sado e* nmofhee ommlr g gameLa "e n

415GOW Weuo there iatsti anyrdtlole 'sitiona whealthe kv*dio
20010-sah!i Oat" CA the iiOne, handi and belief In iialth miseggesiiinsi

11e Wha thebg~tteretr health aiaetoeadsprttionasftonses

superati $1 tons?

3* When students ore compared by grodes, is there a amrke

difference In the degree to 'which they subscribe to =nfounded

beliefs relating to health?

4t, Do negro students tend to subscribe tf the same healtJ lp

Genseptiols and superstition aso white students of the so" grde

5, When students are compared an the basis of their home

eomminity, I***, rural. or orbam., do they tend to differ signiianl

as Indicated by their belief in health misconeepteions and super
II 2i~siiiiiiiiiiiii~ii~ii

B :iE ii iii i iiiiii iii ii i iii ii ilii ii ii i iiiiiliiiiiiii ii i!liiii i ll iii iiiii .. ....... .. .. ..
ii % iI ~ ~ I~a iiiii i iilliiiiiii! iii ii iiiii ili~ilii~i~iii ii~iii iiiii =iil] iiiii iiii 1lii

iiii~iii i i iiiiiii liiiiiliii i i~ ii, E L I iiiw ii-ii iii iiiilii!ii !iiiiiiii iiiiii.lliiiii ili iii i :i ii~iiiiiii
iiii9~ ;iii;iiiiiRiiiiiiiiiiii=i~i~ iii ii! ii iiiiii~iiiii iiii=iliiii? iiiiii iiii ii~ i iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiilili~ii iiii~iiilliiiiiiii!;iiiiiilii ii!liiilli! ~iiii~ilil iiiii illi~iii!!ii~l~ii~liiiilll~ilii i i; liiili1 111111111:111111111111 2 11 111111iii liii =

in fg
ii = i iiii iiIl ii lii! i l i...

Biiiiii iRii~iiiilili ili iiililii~li iiili!il
! !! ili!ii iIiiI= iii= ii iiii~~iiiii~i~ii ii I Ii

ua A a s ba otte s heath m sept s

ta~t lMq e

$*'Is a et A betw e st a ee

status o his home 4eiaast re tt

w a.tns oan Mfnatin include te se b oefes ttat ha vea

As an while unfounded by fastso usually appliesLony to

those beli4C* baving afi element of feart faitha or the mapernatural,

the house at night,

mA ts"however Is an unfounded belief which arises as Us
:;i""-s.-l "i~s"'".{' "(*!"'"*"s" '' *'** ^ .I-IS~ ^ ?^^^ -V "i '*."i^ pfES ^^ ^^^n""^*'

9km tb. 1E
Wes stay: 111 be sAjt- to the Selloli l indtatins A

Is No attempt willbemade to~ panatmat a te4kw Inter=-

$loa Tet Whic will include every posstal' WOUS&As beller
to -whic Us siad ato lay sboorthg duo to the tact tha$

the stuy sed earl to ascertainathe relative prevaloase at

health amatemoopstion aat sporstilloso

X& No consideration Will be given to the my In Which *he

health nstasmopition and supeatstiteam, ueds 13 this study, arooe,

S. A o**et.estlon of the subject material r the methods

mployed In teahing halth iomed outside the province of
,this study.
4. The methods or devices by which education may seek to

eliminate Unfounded beliefs are not oonsidered a part of this

5. The Realth Iznformation Test used in thin study Is not

designed as a measure of health knowledge or intelliganse,

but in used as a devioe for ascertaining the relative pro-

valence of certain health misconceptions and superstitions*

6, Comparisona, will be made wherver data In generally

available on the school recordso

v, A random sample of seventhq tenthp and twelfth grade
students In the White public schools of Florida will can

8, The subjects will be selected troa the white race

although a sample of negro students will be taken for pur-*
poses of comparison.

tr' *as o uavete pae lo to not d a*aay Ulu* IR *aiW
am wellas unuate Peo are knw to imase to var iou s $
to* 'or taets relating tof man l ea tar ule S *s Peaop
to Wouned b el ads res ent aenS' aessag to the vs. '

The aw oheath aiwonetan tday is pably nol

to show that education, in o plaes has failed to eliminate mis
One aspect of this whole problem deals with belief in bael th =lI$

results of an iTvestiagatiol conduted an the eollege level,, however it

lying tham.
,i|^ *,.'.^r?; 1*

Usk Us Oaye, studies InatNe that; ta*atthf should Me tbM
date seoage asn the Peoraleme of health xsteeneepties aat sapes'ktiOteSs

befwor It can cosidser the proelan.of oluiatang natowAba "belters.

That .the l3atter. stop is otweattenally sound adeastratblo Is evttneestU

the fact that, aeduation in of merit only ansetar-as It Oonsthatly prw*

video for a nere effiient-type of living,,



1. Those an validated by
a jury of medical dotorswhih should be Included in the Health In

formation Test,

2. The Bo of each subjects

3. The ingge claseification of each subjest ,

4. The rgage to vhich each atbject belonget
5, The type of h m smnity1 ru-al or urban, where each subject


6. The 9eA~Oscinof the state of Florida in which each

subject remidsoo

*0 The knith knowlqat which each subiset possesses at the )Presat
4, ss
~~i~UI, Ei *E Q

(1) enek1 issmeations eand sperattitesa

(a) health *

'a, Boom#, "rilean 0oupilatons deallas vith rolk**lome,

popular oawers, heeling 1"140 emnas* NUpe1,41t10301soMia

0, Health mstapwooptioao and "POPersatt"S t aw sggsted b Shr wn'8

Proess mak60 %gaiske Mad, other types at athertisingt

d. Health alonotisai uperstitions aomptled by. Pukite
HeaOth Nurses Un tortaft counties ofYlorlima.

thsintermation will be aeuwAt
tree each subject Included In this mtutys,

1*9ep seventh# tenths and twelfth grado
students in the pubX10 s4heels of Florida*

Awk-odge** msat MO."e a smple of the White studonts,

'A Nealth Information Tort., tru6-fTalse and objective in

typ06 will be ne04 as !the instrumen't for collooting the data,
relating to misco~neptions, The toot wil~le va4idated by medioql

doctors wan the reliability establishst, by the Seas-emn

heala know1444S Sa xftea s

tas~~~~4T0 top th*4e*o1aesai f h ais

2*2WWpA e Annga&~a aSprgin

?he esitwestan trame fti & abLe, U2 to 0

Its th 130"s' tore oIseties *1 "ft peerWA -t v

uat jwioage orthe per entoattigte t

"a iente th. correet .respone for eRAAMRchsau

wil beuse iag the menstandarnt foreortiong Us"*anta

Ingtof the soife-oeneae sau of the sueana hus

b.DtermIs eakdwrigt the pere ofa of tonc total

ofthe oy sdiffereneOfthate from tht
b eean hetp fmscneto arceitoo
the bos as ferenlatedfroa hat o the lrlo:

b. Deterllae the type ot misonueption charaotetlw e of seh

saple atnege st hets, us::g the a staa elat:::

and sandad error o the difference of the means,

...... .thers is a si ..i icant d er. ..a enc between *.its a| .

students on the basis of test re#suts, then dotemine th

5, Now- .Om.. .ty

error of the difference of the means,

urban group as differentiated from the rural groupi.

of the state, using the mean, standar deviation, ad

A~, llz' .: !~ ~i ,.: ; ; :

; ilillpcrp;r- 11I

., ,- : ~i to lre t thet $00"i P' xa" OR ti Re.t ".w so J R] 6 .-t
..-At.h mr ma".t*" OR, t"@ st 004

usin h Pefsnv Producta Mammt ors .





i!!ii '= ( i:: '" ]~ "..:{i I"l:il:~~''~ ~ ~,I ::,l~ ,~~:Y ~I~~;2j~j:

:: ....: ~a :EWI~ ....: ..;~i I

+" ~i@ II";:= . .. =f i =.. . ii. .. . . ii.. I ." .
q] XL : : i i? . i, .'' = " Ji : / '= "'i .. .... ..... . i.1 i == i .I >> . i .. .i; s. .. i 2= .. . I= =

ii = i . =4 ; . 1 i b .
IW ..% ";.. .. . +
"i H III; " .. i ".." .. .; IiI$( "! i~ [ i, -, ". =.i = N i % 1,
=I L ( .. :.. q ..: !I .. ==

.ii4~~ q . /.]p> / "] ; iI.N, i==8 H" "[ ~ ',81 : ..:,:: 8~ll" i

qi~~l l:l ?: ',. ... .: 11 Ii : ,,:. ~. i ~ : .. ". t A" i./ .> =.y"i = ..
}...)..? .

A:,: :`,ki i;;;- i iii iiiWIiiIiii

: k . %L t
iip X~t ". ". :i,= / .:'= 1 L iq- "!. ,=AI i .:i,,:. Q .*- .I~ ; %I i ""!I ..>.; 1 8 "I~~i<*G )'
i i .: % lli =i J i "." " i J?2 !1 ./ i q i jj. a ii i =, = 4 = =
.) ;l ;i ]ji ," ,, f, = 11 1% ix , ,, / ; !" > / 1 I ,Ii~ ,,]'] ]i ],,j ]J K J = iS lj;jg jii;,i~ i 6 I !"ii J' I" il


:l :---:-:- .- .:-ii i i


-t -woortalY

x' adiii
A Ai


o A-.m -i -
:- : - "


00 VAor+k Zeeb 1 oL
Ann4Arbo, Mr Ilow

e. 3 -- /l-o 7 o

TRANSCULTURAL NURSING: a book of readings, ed. by Pamela J. CHOICE JUNE'76
Brink. Prentice-Hall, 1976. 289p tab 75-31521. 7.95 pa. ISBN 0- HealhSciences
13-928101-1. C.I.P.
The interface between nursing and anthropology is, indeed, an interest-
ing and logical development. The blend of the two areas of study is
called transcultural nursing and involves nursing within and across
cultures. The comparative method is suggested as a means of enhanc-
ing and extending the understanding nurses have of their patients,
health professionals in general, and others with whom they come in
contact. Interactions do, in fact, occur within culturally defined con-
texts. Brink has provided a broad view of this new/old approach. Cov-
erage includes articles dealing with problems and issues that treat, for
example, cultural interpretations of uncooperative patients and inter-
cultural communication. A section on methods and strategies,.deals
with the advantages and disadvantages of selected types of data gather-
ing. The final section, integration through application, provides dis-
cussions on such topics as terminal care in two cultures and Gypsy cul-
ture and health care. The book is suggested as required reading for
medical personnel who deal with a variety of cultural groups. Anthro-
pologists and behavioral scientists in general will find the readings to be .'


A Stuy of the Relative Prewalene of Certain

Health Meianoeptions and Spoeretitions a Subswrbted

to by Boys and ri n Florida Pube ahool


requirements fr the degree of Door of

Muo a in the Shool of u in of

Nw York University

< '.'

ond tawtb aue S &dy Uastee. Spw don no p

ashoute ement to au of +Amok*

cwittas evamnblu of rtaia 'te Manal and to Vr* C* We Dmn7% r"
**we '*iuoblo 'sg um ragge 4 fa" of "WO movit
*1lpttd Ashmet me ae amft to . * B* ft dth A* Co

mobb md hUs vte Ma ftbu '*A* am *onbt* VOOVe a*.
ear'~ eam= Ind Amlzs~rtten hve" mfe this tabtr ppsethles
ODOti ftso
^g1niBi:vf ^m' ^ff'l^B^ ^MlIflwlM^ :^f ^JE^^~T^:lMi9Eill

> ritf'n f^mf m illunHu-tuo -riin

7hete U woae

11 :M M ** ** 9* ,, **i,*** 20

OV* *4*** 10
G a i al $ 411Mdha * * .. * * *::*f33
TY" l * * * 3 = * * Im4
4* 0 4 * # *# * ir

l*****4*****4*******e*** 07

sw3ANgiarn at Datiae * * * * 41 * 0 0 0 29
S*ia9i an9d AI aC a* * 9* * * o 90

om S EM ME H * * * *0 ** flo

i *A kiadAl a * * * ** a **** ** 20

V a TH 0 6aA 07 4AI T M2500 050TICHB
(YM of aofBW nm y a wngfcruB 0 c 0 o o 9

O rggaiS iiti q n d WatX af *** ** **** '
Type o H**M ** *******
So *** i *** * ** **** 9

Rao" * 94

SSia aBXT O ** l * * * * * 9 * * W8 .

Race** 2********* ** * ** 9

VZ Teax r l e r Mn MOMs AM WOMan


*2 *L 4* 4 9 * > * t A #

*3ME00tAPC i * ** * * * * * * * * * * *8

APP = 0 10 41 0 ib wM 4p 4r 10 0 0 140

I * -.' '' "

estl* Poo
*** **w 11 * ' ' , . ^ ^ ,

11' 'Nod)w at rPOPaS mum.ati asuba lbed +o by
s nuo Soba B" and .. 13

IT eopMN to S> Ba xWUMe
V The f entennm Wb=Ud B4 de In Lm"ge Mlates

VI adamseen i babom lbehigmoo st deGtaln Populaw
vnU m ESinse. iIf anea IscaInn ^ *BBon B IseHUB t 5me -- ia8

vi r l at aot Bw tb rmftt Teste % 29 . . a

IX A Coerlem to Debmine tho Deg to fbseh a
ROWM UWMp2o ft fhtte at: m nts s *ft* d* * * 14
X *0n1tMUr at thS anet* WUM me* .Tef # s* * # 4

fada ata bs Teow 0 * 06 a 0 0 4 0 0 13
xnl sw ath wmmtim Test ie o Rmase iz Dmnaim

mt +a Bat asw at a a aTsor" o

*liiiReSmQ*h e G **' V m1 0 * *0 # 0 85
zU" Teft U P I aroulln a 4 fttmaf33o
XIn arebi3 ml Order cc the Bmas of th1

H' tlK~ftMM1 1 *tlMttl OBPaipl Qt'tfclat 'MB6Xllta


2n at seed0 AoUe A

the $month *M *"we, 0oa
xm wat oesn otawoe <)ftb n
PArbd Ante An~ am h tAa h w
anal ormea dome oaw
ffMShnr Ml

mad tDlstm4,m$* i,* IR3=ftd In O rdw ca tho ~"~
PWGO*OM at etoal Qroup ()Nfttbe "a morkb
V*s asks semA no UaVSM omsmsm Mt

sank4 dl *0'a Ia'ra -K i o om at
weth oae RAU* aroup 0"4 "A'Or*
ZWKWMKIUPSW va Co-unouops wtb
l io on tea ToIot u" Insrolvixv ft R K mvo o ^ Zor

Ma ke i owtoftw arder Wte gadmr
Rookod Ient re ane ta tu fV

1 O at stmu frous waris

~re new assets~ll
AMAftm in neordo VWmls f h
mu "Oft wed*a *Ias a

ReAbod In bOASOCarder ca ten s fb &x
80moath QPPAo Vito araup SI

Inmoav, oRwo Ins Do!!!" Qmrot h
BOSUot tes *&I" Soeek Vd*Grv6

2v lamn TIses of cortodn Orn ou moa*3
Tsee ;; = "in Bsr of U s a i -Si Mi ft
Rnesed lut~ oon ordw*= ar u th a~ o h r
sweenth era" "d3 o *ImM * 0 0 0 * 0 #- *o f a f *
11 SmAlth bdavastia Tootsto Ranked lu limo
Mdt* studooto Hldk Emoh i tma bwW**tY* 72 1

t ad* at 300a Wap utasAm~a Tes S004 &v 00
mcnn a"W" ofb awas0me eadrsas sen Now=
swo^wy TOA muar aw mona
'J~t'l IarftUSf {SHMettbttOft w anN US4i TB~Rf- aTttt fltbo, B*Iite

X= OW f WWUGP** Odtf#g*ad****kp g
bw a nurTest neaw MAsb aas 4%ifto
R69*6 InDsendb 4Dth awatsu of the ab
*I" Tmash are& mite waroupo 0e # a # 0 v

mAko inDmoam ordwena the BeaxUo at e AMare
Twt se M MAU OP *i H-lH **# *ap # # # # as
Oar O cWrn aomps Odtome Ms waresaa
bwr-3 -tee Reas Toiega>*uc rmguamg MnTm a

one, neuted to an~e ordr ac;b l ire mast e
as*W IB-Be tehM WrnW *A tteO .O th|* 8a

on a ceras eas anme an amon

on~~~ + sn order no made
TcB t lMla4* *fMta *rV A* 4* *4 #* *0 0* #0 00

sOwns Ormp o adtb odp.........a
lawr2 cy Test lurmi trk"W aa uae
Dutuna Dembodla it Oa d mh ass the ambst
Ot tbo NtI m Taft nMOHraftliifil Mitei *01 #k~ At~l * 0 0 w a $6

bi se R oakedin woMps M tbO aBesU
at e T thte Wp. T f. M i *f .. 0 . # n
Jf-WAWWofe Owctua Qense Otadt"and Uas eMa
bowratx Test item s~i PbrmtI teesmrent

ffif f ft" aMti OlMt a ordtrtinad Owk UW & a
21 ate t- :o .. i. . ..o. Ia: .i .t ." and
Allydd Radw-Mbw InK iDl*KMftt^ ^BOOnk MtBIHKK the S .MM at the

xvassX w""4 wiiw urw3u* *dtj Md N i a*"M .
-iOmcanvo Taft^_^_^^ I^ ~t o*bi^i aMmote--. -lv-insfliitili'~r *- -r->*o Prasi iiiii t spil iii
iii*mi SAi 'jnDfoweHB1 B ^^^ad ^fg i^SS~S *a99t& BaSS! of UwS~ 'H-HMBHM
nuftw a*aft 'W~f~~ij|" -W o *liRaro~l~w ^'BH^ lP!^MpB i~ jl~lM

bamaI or|ou o Vwor Oatf
wt*IMFW Ut imosaidift l EMMw m t ftell
at the a;7uft raft Vitt" att

kg Ste ito t T e -e o13 ; fttft r
WOXAt In I..M.XC Qrd W 0 a Uso S Ot the ;;60

2L atfthrf lfnttt Wlik tt^ ntl4

at~o vaAm0 o9atae to usett pom"oeTo *d M
ltdBato ormw~ agefth1 2naetaft bwxvt7o
teDll of saft T04Saw"0
u m IV T wt Itom b + m r** a 4"'L

Backed In n i w a lb, ( d oo w I
UAmf teth i~ras-s wne dou

%*,It winas drover wt mM m
askiod tveath oms mht the ss ofp06
IL1 an t ourodu wroupo esamtti n um
Radead Iz Dotmo s SuM m tfw Ba 3teAAo
ZW to wo der ota Cmt u Groupt dttb* and D ki
Inb"dutath rd atta wo m tF fi 04teSA

.walm OIVl0 alto o irm u ," w 0'* & * * mKK
='n Poowme of frtibin ftlos Omitr4adud-f-

Teekd 3Ae Iood*Cawe h
4teli th th Grade &OK QMo . * 0 # U

xmn vm-wA(m amts OaAaw woups o
amve63 tes Rea 2mann as+t& dLQ5

-.ho -ea owmto D.aNA* MblD aTVIftIa Group s-t* Qua6

ametre ruelt via
ilM ~ >- - r-,i t ,

Too Am MwumaU1o
-~a~ on ... Bu of the....
MUMe i mo u i M nef dt ono Bs
L F It adtu .tf "k l .d M

Q *Wa *dttlM ones Mw a
*stly wi. "w bwoutm X&Mrumw NO&n oo
rees ees aamasss an
usw o- W., *lft anaft on tb aMv or
Ian mo warev aetn orase a Oro". lbbt xw. .. .. n

Omwra~eatr eSot* Dow" a ft orse s I~l araftims
e amath |Mae Tilst fterop *. # 4 1 IF 0 0 0 *

theamvute DOWW fte tan gth oe satte boup a we

amed SOjOfW ftfent=s ae nt**A st f h
^^' W ea ^^^lth--f'jU Gra h the GralB'm^pg a*^?||^ ^HHiBMH*j * B * R |||MM 1
Llf O i^^^^a^Haip^e jiSwu^jMbIsje "^WSea IPHe BJ a theI!8IHI~~ StaB^h llar iwtye
^^^sa "^^ amit VS^hea~^H'dglei. teePkee' a"Bp *K^f ll* plI^ ?8B *^B|! g 8
fltgf^u OwastaiaiilgtJiebue ages^j^L ^^BLac theJ*^ analtl :uhato
ameBHW^ An H~wa^snaml MaHRMHB' *"m'^ ."B~M~f &H : :. a._ MaBn

ousi to Ut r bms i an pple s-a d pr trou

the OC" it seeMed moe" Iipartont thut a _hilosoplW of Ufa@ be dartatteJ7
establie then that It be logloca or true. Therefore belits vhich
offered a Iossible solution to a preblem wer accepted an feat bomawoe
auoh aabtan brought pow* of mind and freed mPe ma the stra~n of In-
comlted thk In this my, mn om ted r h ok of
I.4 to

ledge bY embro ounded bene In order to sa y a tral s-
sense for definite caoUlsinsons
Uzfounde bellefa have bean and ame =or* persiabent aid more wido.
Spm sd than most pele supeot# ThW are to be f"3d In a= 11taburo,
t on in the rk of arer witwe like Shakepeare d ee but
mme anmg- the oxtuasparaie. There In no doubt that unfouded beliefs
CmxditIond the thinIdM m4 the actian of man peopole Sm bns oenturiex
and Itis roarasonble to exLemt tlhat m=e in this SojentIMi age these b,1elie

wxer a oweral intbmne# Varios investicators hmveompiled liats of

I* Otis V, Cradmel ad Cerhord F. Lundemn, Do You Belien i.
Norris Fishbein,, ShattorIng !Wnith lu aitrins.
MAiAn 'Miller Vogel, Beliefs an Supearzttittan of tho em Penyvaia

D l Lindear Thame and .=Wy Playney Thawes, Keetuald a r


Urnoumnao bossef dea we not the oonoutria famnes of a tow bat ushi
** Caw"ally obevsd an adberied to -7 a lare at peO-leN
vsth rospeot to hmath,, it boo bean said of te awroago mn that he is the
viatt* of all sorts ot eauafo= beliefs sandtat in t~m of poln be eaffts
eatso anl rease and U roeady to belie"e ar~thIaM ursed upon his tor his
frivrdes, earner druggitts,, and by all quaasis, nostrun promoters, Otft*, who
ha"e somthbas to sell*
It its often aso s that superstitions andmme mptions are the
porticular po-- -~ of me~duaeted people* Bmw~m, this notim Is not
eltaener true* PmVle nwd Cud&* for assIn sa oampl= worse and
almost owerywo has acquired mms boeles vateh Infleamec his saasone in
m ",

m w lo" d twae vae -eatd, an ll as m etedo peple tha

lab aertar n Iti2fbuad betiefs retardit =nagr aspetBs of dtir life* Nroh
Peopl lly da a th ubaibe to wperstias or m oep.

imanl In foot thee regord it as an Ianti to their takelliga wi ait suh
'~~ .t **
w< bm1
a thing Is a e In this respwt, it is of uaborest to not, that
maea uny owded aamlus hmem bew equUred tbrough otrounetwnag %hta
wre mrebut h w rearded a her the rLtiona
of ause and effect SeVa people are absolutely umeanaelous of their subm
aerviwoe to unfouande bettefsp vddle others rooouniso and believe In on-,
tals mian a zdt-as but resent questians e aer g their validityh
The survival of naW unfrounded ideas to probably due to the feat.
that people are slow to surrender beefs that they hav Inheriet, Ant
==W people we still lg anm t atimorous, and that in spite of the x-
Planatio of samm they *atine to find life and the universe lorgely

inepalioble, IbM to this Ust are added the misoonoipans that eao
*watl prod. it 7y be assumed that unfou b s inue, m.
fortunrately, to exert considerable influenoe an the lives of may people*
One ap of this le problem is o rnd with belief in
tt ZfI

1# -* '
health MlUMoemMteis and the d&Wree to whtih educatlMin its*stoniem In
the aliinsw te im o.smm adoMded Idmel. al@th has bsem deatelir*d as
te first oardsma prweiple of s*ooondexry Jta4 and hfalth Laitoubten
is mw reeovAgsed *A a vital part of the prosesmt dy ovurriou2me Howews
mhileD edxxatiaml leedes deal"e to form te and *arry on an ettentive
program or hlth edumation, they adt cmay a bei hmig has bem nMde*
c^rtain webuls2 dealita with the prewlaene of uafoundeg beliefaonavr
in rAsture,, ivaotoet that formal aedation hee failed in a surprisirg do-
pvo to eesmte manmntopa= and andersttim =me hU h A
com at .udents, vhd no study of the prevuloBe of health mtaanaomp
's n has be= ow xited = the vewmairy sohool liwml* ft a men irwestis
getiona t thes colleg level seom to indeaste that forant ohelatif he*
failed to abdrate uxioundad belefts r*^elaig to health,
It has been satd that human life will inreeae In atlaia s
there is Inorease in the use of wxknble truth wd deoreas in the us of
ides not souuny supported. 1ith a view to ioreasin& in na mseaure, the

No. _B. 0 19180
2fq ot oi s TV*ghe ndGy L3At purpose of Wounded Bow
1--er thmme J ms' Te So heer eQas o awtise 2Lst R Xn

: e & and 2 A of unfound d of
Scoo Pupsops of ebr Coofti lleg BaBeardch.
? ~~a g biumUt wl (Apr6 1988

*oar 5, Paule Rhocon BiOkncWf Cla~da A QdffU~one eit
Emong Bi sho esr Junlome t ?omeareI

(Noveaber 19),* pp. 67
3* Pwan Rhfoban ftalth !!tqR2!Z..7g or Prospetv Teahebers


s- a
Tu pre to waw ol the relatie pr of O

l*tiowhip boetwe health knedge and welefOesMote|C stao an the ow:
hed eand t to Inheath s arAs ta other,

MPThis ,wtdy promae to a4r the f*olotIM quetis re
the relatie pram e Of t h th mic and o t supra an

*:w" In he degre to which the7 aubwribe to oar.
tasin =fbt ded beliefs relattI to h flthk
3* Do bems d aai rls differ 8tMnMOeantly vhew *ow6red on the

4* If stndwts ae supe taceshor aooardir Ito wtai sn
sIoal ores, vd1 the groups differ assaflcantly whn
*Omrard cn tho basi of belief in oertai health a.
0eoneptimos and superatltitais?

"0 rure or urbn, do the- tw- to diffw algnito

< 7,
eanly as swouro by the do" to vaMeh the atteerie
to eWarta~ health Mianomm"Ptine to andtimti
6# Do negro acudtis toad to subrthe to eartait heaolt misecon

Omptims and supegatingtiao t i the &mae dogree as whit*

. 5
studseas do?
7* Is tbwa eaz rextMandtip besont twe hfth knimeaftse wash
a abuenam possesses md h"as whreas to Oearean hwlate
stemew ansand supersati san
Is tla m user rea.UUMW bet-wemm adhrmoo to oamtvsx heal&
m *saMe pG m anW tho *o** ooilMe status of mesa

. M
how e4areamew*

Far the purpost of this study the teen vztaunded belierg Jmav^
all boefe) or ideas that hae no aoientifte bewis or support by facts.

Thws, tdssanaptianz eat superatitions *ame wi+hin the lImits of this doet-h
attim. An ftouded tdloe is fvrthe *haracterised by the fet that a
*autal relattaneh is 1upled bobteen objeot phosa or events ohmre

ah ratinship does not dof

to arrIve at a ratlaal exploetim. The ideal then. that =aleria is
anuod byr bad air is a adaeaneeptIan. A SUperatitian In not eally
definedo In the widest sanme It might inolude all belWea that bas no
saiantifie basis or support by fe&ts, In a =o.e lindtod usag,, superstl
tan applis aoy to unfounded beliefs havi an elm ent of tear, fhth,
or the supernatural, such as the idea that death is pot ed by the
howi of a dog ear the house at n t raitions have be umd to

felhba e e beheriM aoourC to fte awepted 14ma of the tluet
a$ pXeansseal dowitos to train people la habits OV CavefulnSs Kad eGOOD
aggas a euratlvo agau; eand to relieve people's clods fma the Otraiss a
Indoo al no
jh* e smae unramdo bellefs are &LW tuperatImn and others

are anled xia alate eatogaries. This difani3ty may be aombedfor w It is under-

atood timt Mn mtamed belief anW oxiet in mw pemos ad as a super-
stitica and In another pgrson's =Ind so a nimmaooptionA, depavAiog obtireo

ly = t attitude of msmdo

Th" rweatasaton was emA td subjot to the rene*'s IWt

1.In 4XlctIMCthe Ut aoe tho imavsigator =PA* no attempt to
comsft-ow an lsarmw* v4Ach VouU iMe wo every poe-
aible =afwaude belief to WhAeh studnsk might subscribe,,
ftr thls study soght to arteln the relative prev.--
I=O"C of Oertain hewith nlaenaw"ptions a3 d uperatit

2 invetigution was made of the way in vhih the health nais
causep~tien ad ouperatitima used in this utudy arose*

3. Aansideton of the aubject mterial or the wthods eWpaW-
ed In teachX belth van deeme outside the provime
of this studya
4. The methos or deviese by vhteh edueti= zigh seek to llal-
aste unfounded beliefs vwri not omsidered a Imrt of
this study*
&, The iastrumnt* for obtiinlW data In this study was not do-
alowd to rwawre heath knowledge or iStelligonse but


-Is oUtaiiek ftWry -a a dervse hur asoinf n*b tbo
rltivem prmvatimw of o4rta& i heatm adoannephteim
and supeatittan"4
G* comarisoms vwer lMattd to diba wateh were found to be
entavulro = all sohool rooeed*

Vw A rankM empl2Sg of sovenbth to ntN wO tweijth ade stuom
deft in the vihteo publia adhoolo of Parfidft omast-
takes the unmr., MvWu of msubooto usedn so this abasyo
Iff* jbr purpoesm of ooorson, a ooUt M ofa vngro studenUs
anowe thoen owton totbd twolth Orades of the
pbo shool of Flrd w- s I=
So The dUta perbatataK to the student*& healt hanfledg were
oalleeted lroa a soaple of tho total jct u&4ed
Sa this atdy
l2o The# data porttAniaM to tha sooo-oo a status of the
otudea6 o ete how weore ow fnd to sonpses obtained
04=a ceveral rmprBaentative toatm m1esti'ttiea*

w~m d teft lie hoerloan, are handed dom ram wra-

tan to g(eaw sn amd are ouft as are ly Owhridhed, The trnth In WA
tateom bo espparent om ne em asn thbe literst e wit
ro d b t Bowaver, addit to tho bees whih oastt

a p* t of our oefaA eoah gownratAn produoe a now stpply ot
*a e Ida" t1o a& to the es ro ls argy rou the
eforts of health pronotwa who hae asothiag to "11 the geweal pubio
has bea as powrful media for the dioaonlasion of advertista propapnda, =*h
of whlah will not stand tho lgt of sontitle invtIgI*A eAnsder
able amomrt of the sonmW hmath intarmatim whiah dia*ow=mrol^d by

orgeoua v43. d.s:;U=. to the hoath of the -*-',r. .eaedo th.

soleWU oddiwoos bowe he it viatined by seopttag mov advwetee

*tns d*LAM ikt up ded be*efrs w rta he as pread

ctalmint superekitamh tArm the beliefs of adults as vall as frw those

aim, wanlnoted severia wboutes Xwt a view to avlluir.*ti anfounded bao-
Loi eft sooanry ashl students ThWr wwaselahtoed that Aftondead boli
ih la anot m bae oth**ated byr awourpom othe SuohmterW into the
'eular eurrivae wnts and ba provIdlh spooifte intruction In the
tehs mderlyia thdm In this lsteawe =nths of Instrrx
I* orris Phbei, Sattfita Bath eatit aeib p a

of 8nd Cteff ooooludod

OtisN CludVOU sod Grarutd E* 7L UM o An anfo82 dqd of
aa an and other enouAxted 1342eof Z se im oandtV
5=rSity* 19= tp* 138*
4. I oU* pa 124
' the ,4 nlL int n e unt ofIntr oioi w

1, ft gg,

exalnd to domrl ieh m d bet w re d to the st of eaoh mtI Mite wee thm rewitte to twelue the neemry
facts roatIs to oertati untoaded it*" A thus twigi) in *omeantl
vith the feats usena27 ivolAod i tohe unit, Nqxpartoual studies *on-
duaed In thi .momn Prowed Umd It is posmsale for senducmto to ellsdo
umte aissomsepties and superseasons *w hen o spoofeass untado es ate
Sare kn-ans -
Studies o the prevelene ofat anded beLte how be= one*
duotod mn baMth e high sahool and eoll" ls*v* Bomwew, caly me atWy
lu the Meld of health aisoaeMKptimoa is mmailableo d this t mavetigan
ticz ix aorgined to pmospeotlve tcachera a the c e lovel,* Thus, be*
fore the mineman of hmlth nsameptios *an be undertake izn oridt
pwtsnont eat& *mnowmitms to relative prevomles of ofrtain aunded be-
liefs wre needd by those responsile Zor the diroots of the various
senandwry aseool ownlemlal.

IPa Rhbtm Tealth 91!2noa a of *Teachero
** ^ '

A oarefal survey of the literature deaia with unfounded beliefs

revsals the ftet that the ma rity of previous studies are devoted either
to & desaription of the varios kinds of mfounded beliefs and their origin

3r to a mire ooepilatin of beiefs ent among various groups of people*

DOn3y a few of the studie., relatively, have endeavored to investigate the

prevname of untounded beliefs and to treat the data statistieally. How
ovwr, these iestigat dite that dren and adults, as a

subearib to superatitIona and isconepti n an eurprising degree. A
wuve of these studies rev only one ih dat speicly with

helth miscwea rtions andft study' was eonfined to prospective tesehere
on the college Iwel* dth the Baeption of the study preiously nt ed

Sthe of previous studies is based upon Inetigations
hiah dealt with unoded beefs in garal.

In 190 Caldwel and Landeen published the results of an Ual
stah they oducted in the junir high school at

Rochelle TN Y The purpo of their study wa to deter e the degree
to vhIch junior high school students were influenced by unfounded beliefs

Paul Rhonealth i Pro ve Teachers.
Caldwell and Gerhard E. Landen, urther study of Unfounded
Beliefs Amcor Junior High School Pupils, Tecers C Record 1
S 1:11111 "

grade dn. T rty the e S e In the test ad been

ade n t h ga The r of th veiaion (
m:l Ml of the of t t |

Tabie 1) indisated that, "the average x=ber of swuerstitious respones

Rexpoa to itae In the Three Junr gh shl rade

'* ctoas De ats

5e bh... .U2 35 01 l )46
Ei(ghther******** ********* *27 22*54 24,3S
. 5lrtah.*.*..*r ....***.* 324 20O09 19082
Total Popniat <*.... 854 24,41 25,97

In a t desgned to seasure the offests of spe Ict rt-
struotian regardg cartain unfounded belefs,, Caldsell and Landeen one.
oluded that the reenits of the Initial test Indiefted that the &vrwage
twevlfth Credo student *posmsed*, previow to war raedtal instructia,
more ratianal attitudes regurdin unfowW Idmea than did tenth grade
boysa This ivecstigmatlm wis cacnfs ted in two high schoola in the state of

2#lb p. o ,

A Unit in Biology 8P kdmns and -athenetics,=aii (Aprii 19m),
A lan ~~~ ~ ~ ~

pp Qli ~ ~~*

r M ~. -I .;*: *.** 'a

m m .^
Penaylvania nAd tola data PM 17Z tenth V-ade bays and 58 hi&

Tho sme 1 tv s m a vbwQ to st oer the 'r
with vhioh Mhg snoool swno49s hav heard of, baievead In* and wwe so.
reanned tV o dn typesb of -t- b s Data e ra r
918 p i and fir p of e arison result re obaid m 264
*o1lee nw nand wlnt nt A Tet oaIniM 200 Ite was aftinistered to
hIdh school and colleg ftudnts the jubjects more requested to IMd***
mhether they had heaow, belieed in, or were inO uenned by each statenat*
A study of the results led uden and Crladell to oamolude that oolege
studets have herd of more unfounded beliefs thm high adhool mentrst
but they belle"e In and are Influmuned by foewe of them then a"e hi&h
sehool studmts.

In 1887 the Caemitbee on RExplertsetl Psyoholcgy published the,
results or a brief tu~ vhiah roev~ald that oollege waonm teW S to boe=w
superstitions *4h= man Cooklin awrried =an sty3 at the University
a t Grgon durin the years 191341917 In which he amandatered a qeto
malre to moonece studwUt In begimalvg psyfhlast.- The mwresu of this
otudV# whah were reported in 2019,0 idicated that wanon regaded =we su.
pa'atitics which they W fftmerly belleved in eai vhiab had influm"
their omnbt then er rowded by the tnoe M= oaduated a

1. oehad s* lmaanden oet ia n.1e ic A stud at o tr e Diwi
Balia a eAwg Hi wigh schlSetwer. oruna o uft w Rearah,
MalI (WovemberI 10)t Mp 257-M7.*
2o First Report of the CaOtStee on Procriei ehe holcage
or *nerteeft fSaetey for N2oae Rettg-eah It No,* 1
3w EfAnna So C004L3p Dtrad itious beli4ef ad Prwatioe Axg Colle"
Studaets* Ameteenp Joural of. PaehfUoQ4ty, (Ja y 1919)g
S 83--10. a4.

.InsiR timl m y4mrs later mmbash I)ue4e *stuents in co dL t 1.
veraity, Bw Terk ftiversity, an Colashla Unxversil omansm e Data war SoMred ftm 140 cMMM and 219 =me A test of 30 itam me a&
nistem-d to the subjentsO eal 4tataaems betIM fataee On the ear3age
the w6m arkae 40 per amt of tho statmovet true a agaist as per oet
fbr tho mn*, fatin, teatmreo enotuded that llee uman had a testoney
to be mro suporxtltloum tma ownese mae

3 * a .a Oi
ea 17*6 19.9
SO* A* 4* * 44

S* (dit.) 104165
erre and Fisher *ome d a awtdy3 pattrned ater that
Mlaus*** They took the laller s t of unfounded belefs hereneased
the =abar to 40, after whfih thW amedthe toet to a vou of
sid& school s ors numbmIxg W5, of which 115 ware ba mid 140 were
girls,* The results af this abuy (See Table I) Uadicated tat rirls
wabooribe to =moe s p t im 4do the boys,

1U n. N. RImM Pukar awwoars to SBe P Iaettans,

20 n. s. Garroet and To R. Fshber The Premancoe of carsen a
V The****-* lom=2 Up Lam ~ean, X (April I6,

o 4Xbi *

qumfw n th Waih M&h 84hool Stara- Hfltftw@ ad of, "-"WU ar

7w iw. iiawa of :
-187 373 M 80S
No rd 1 -3.09 68 96.1 R,7
B t (MM). 215 &t6 10.46 21,b -
5(Mea)89 3435 2 16.3 20*6 3*22

In 1930 Lurdeen and Calamll pubUllhd the reavts of a stady2
designd to diaovwer the fjrepequ y vith vbdah hth salml aedte have
heatrd of, bolieved bni and wre influenced Wy cartain untounded betes.
A auNWary of the results (See Table IXX) led the investigetar to *onlode
that the gi.rls are inluemoat by =meW found bellefs then wre the boys*
This consha en was hnd to be tru io both rrlca amsmtues and large
td Fe 7yere la the *a fwestigat In atY3 of juor
hi s l tud a foad that the dife be en s fth grade boys
d srls e Table I) m so sa as to be aniportant. owevr, the
diffoerma in the eigdr ad ninth grades were found to be more igi
laeak# the girla subsorlbtag to wore untunded belifa th the boys

* Gerhm X6 Lunde an Caldwells A Stu of U ded
Bele a oAg 9th Sobool Senior.a Journal of aabianal Reseereh,

* otin N ldweUl and Ourhard Re. Indee, Furthwer study of Wnfoded
VIYI 10ober 1.93, pp, &5.2


spm to Sperttn be o ea ia irls in the Jut-:r H- S :o o i

Item rked rg

Seventh (V 282)
B4y6a ~***70**. A6 u
Girls#.* 5.*. a 1.*421
g a (N
60 a 8#***6 **** 0 23 *5

01 ,.. ...~.'^~1-~ -723.00 22600

Ot*or inveabtgwbors ft,,m tto to tim arroborated the flains
of the above-mnctioaed stu dies Rhon, howvr, cdut etudY3 in
19S2 ti vhich he found that wBaem tnded to mfbseribe to fewer health
misaooneptionaS on the average, tham did the em In the saM groups. In
this study ho used a tost of 125 miscanoeptions related to health and
oolleated data ftra prospective teaohers ho wer omnpleting thoir collge
oourse In tehw trainUge The comparln vas based upon B ts colleated
fma 409 ==n amd 651 eamo Rhoa oonmluded that the superiority shown
y the W Io n his study me probably due to superior health kowledgo
a the part of the wman, a greater Interest In heath mattera, aad the
possibility of smeriow instruotion by wran teachere of health.

1 i 0 14 W dwll OM Gerbard F. Im Further nta a of Vnfoun
Ex= (Cataber 1934),, po 370

weahMM4* sZhool and soiert T=xx (July 12, sof), pp 697.

lie*sA O ira of matinal Reseeroh. 3G7E (eianary U33), pp.31-843
1. Pan1 Rhoton. Health nsf oTescheras

1 '
Prwov auae an he prevalen-e of ned belie he

Plvm us very 21tto owidenwe canooUgae diffraraoes which mW or =ny wt
date6 baUw people livIn In variwn geograhifal oress In 1927 Roberts
publishod a lsiet of IMa wgpersmnsins much bad been eoampied from
btudy =asd* Lo vAnvan A eeagrisa of the, Loutstelmn s autibm wa
then auhvAk apmvat1=e satored bav nafm2 ahom that p7
300 of thoe XOesima superstians ane lden+Afal with those of xmwbmW*,1
The superestition Uted In these two staftes wom tame to how much la
eamon with an earlier fp titis beliefs of Pmylva
sma Gperman published by fngel In lab*.
*t m th pre e or healh w epn wa

b-e* up= dat*a oeete aolft e stuents In twelv dferent sat a es

cooperattae soflooos,

In 1ab sood reporte sa amstu3 In vhsh girl* onoed -
teehar traoiM ourses were asknd to wite don asb moaw upatitiom
as y ould reall and to ite thoe that a ted teir anu.

W& Rob neerts# LovAsana. suopersitis* The Joural. of lawimrs
reUAmre, zL3 June 197), pp. 144=r*
2, Dwdel UndmW nams md wy Bandy tlthne
Prmtas n %wJorwct Prtm tasweety Preaa ;"i5 .
z* midn umilr rata., fteate sand superatitans of the aensyvania

4.jl afl^s I&m ^^E sty^., p. la .

6" R 14. Gould* %ueatitaes Jame Seabah College Girlso Pe dima *
SOXWUTI MM111* (1M21 p pe 203-W

The respano ated that ter m a surprs rge m r of super-
stdtlou bdeft pevalr smaM eat nthneMUC the =maber a ths group*
Away*U of the roturzs axIdloaeed tb the sesatse who had reooivesd tndir

rural distriAot reeanled a greater a=bar of superatitiam and wareo alsoo
affooted t* them to a gr r degee them war* i.uden4 from 2arge alttls*
Owtari studio* condted at a Iabor date ailred to cirfertlarte ocdn s

which daea %wer mweirad frat 186 collneg fredm This investigntor
rot ano aMitoant ia -ffwmne In the prevaloe of zuprastAtls be tenm
studenbta whto had rowdyad their high sohool teacstion Sn ia fte nn. to= d

studY2 or the provalanee of healt iamm ans ong propective tomehv
Ora, arrived at asimilar onolusimn An analysis of the results in
anted thre me no differone, aaistiestyO bewo rural
and rbhan grmoups ba easpared an the batas of asvuage tost soerest
Lmndmwa irm ld caue in thasr stutV of hish whool eicairs
ollted data rm six hoole ianall toas and four ahools loatd
in large atties. A qaestianmire of 200 idese wme ubaitte to 918 be
and girls& A atudy of the returns (Soo Table V) inadicted that boys and
rls in a l ton had oard,, b ved in* and were gia ed
by n o t the Ideas pr ed t ws th se with the atudente liv-
is in Io atit ae.

2* Rht7 W of(, ppo )-57
3. Ghard E L and *. Caldell, A tud of Unfo ed Bolief
hag h School strs JoWal eof a Roarch XXII
(Nomber I=), pp% 2 857-27SO

ear m* !e n

Urge oi ID

aIrd (5W...... s-.8 1. *9
BUeved (Mn),... 16*6 21.0 27
Influefed (mno).. 3.3 6.*9 S2
T f Or"*e gOirl a

aeard (Wean)....**, 216 7*1
Believed (MMan)**.. 2147 d 24*1 1 *
S (ean)1 h0w A* t *

aaOtWn," t his study of propetive teaobers, collected data
from 133 ftor-year ollege Craduixtes or nego vahols. A teot of 126
heIath zdssensptia wvas aedmnistred to the subjeets, and the resuls
M N t maa *i~ ~
indicated th4t the agro students avmraged sevetee soore points below
v.1 other four-Year whiteo tudentse and thartee aoore points below stou
defts in the two-ear State Teacrs Co~lle grop. It wam presumed
wthat r haiat m not tre responble for wthe a a of the
negro grouw, lsoe apprelm*at ly three-fourths of the subjects profetm-
ed urban reertang. Rhoke oludal that sootal inheritawao, nvirmn-
a nt, a t early GM d p w the
mo t ely feota whih attribut to the low nore of the negro


2. Mot aC 4t pron 50-62-


A urw of the t two In the eld at e ra
vwated no seidy vhtem osens to discver the relatianhip between the
bealth knowuedge Wheh k stwdAwt has sequived and the dWgre to ubleh he
saubewibes to heaflth uiBsoumeptiBms. IkswlsA no astudy was fZoud htiah
aebavored to saeertaiz the rel~latnhlp hobween an Audividua~s seetoo
counamte stees sad his belite n arounded Ideas related to hwalth#
vfa ono astudies of the ervlalon r between health kneeloe~
and beList in herhal steasept-ios bwe boe reported, -it t of Intarest
too noe that calamel *nd Landeozt in their ofa m high sahool
atudepet#, Sbund tbat pupnle harM roords of M&e senuatand whievesna6
wre inallad to boave in a =mler nabor o unfoded beles* ow
evw, the earrlta betwom aducstional ahiewasent and the wnaber of
ite*a mBrked aag ftr the seventh and eighth crude* ms. ometirod
rather lw ( r8 -*52 At *06 ) We&an o atatenigewt were available
for anty the nstth grade Io this setudy The inuestispare focnd a
slightty na In sursati ( rz *2S + .4 ).0
2n1988 Ga antt d aFiakr reportd it a high aohoo mew
ioril far whom Int entas wasures *mad be *wmedo The reslt ofthis
study (See fta VI) indioebad thev the relastanship betwoonsantgene
and belleIn to a taissallible for both bo fi and girls The
ezpw enters sonsidred tNU ltack of rrelation betwo Intellige ne wd
a ty to be the os a iion rst of the study Lne and

14 Ots n. Cud4lwa ma Owwhrd ro Laaden, ftrthar Btuo of f utndes
Balleta Among Junior Hi&h Sehool Pupllso Towhers Colloge Reowd
-X3, (a.oboer 19M)., pp* 5"2 ze sa
2. H4 E Oarrett and To R her, he Preval4OM of Certain Popular
suonoons-. The J l of Abee no (Apri 92).
2.p. 411-M42o T wfl

Caldm41,* Lu a attxV of M&hool **It fiars reported In 19530,* ftbad ttle
or o orlat btw intelligene and A wores o the bais
Xof senp "heard" %oardo, "h e a nd "Inflwmod",*
Relationhip betwevo antelligene Bad Certedn Popular Miaeonoeptimed

*X Sm. (&
mber of C as*************************** 100 100
Intelligeoe 3MasonepMaton **a***r *0.08 *-oni
Iatellgenoe -Misonoeption saws (Age *onawtwe), ra 0100 0.0

Calmal -end ween, in tei r a t2of e high w fw
detsb audeaverea to disoover the relatinhIp betvww age andA belief in
nfOunded Ieas* The ivestipators nowluded Ian= an anay4sis of the re-
=antr that thag was *coo correltion bctwe Me mid the nmaber of Items
anerwd mwang vdttdu a elven grade* Age vos found to correlate positively
with wdwnW b elf In the avereth Vrde to the etwt of *36 AL *03
and In the eighth, grade to the extent of *10 -+ *04* Howevert -At= the
seores oft a justr high alhool studente woro oarrelated as a grop, It
vas found that th ws no relts hip betw _n age and the is nop-
timn teat k0r.a

Previous studios amt4g with tfocunded idweas haew been dwvoted,
for the mnot part, to ompillag end describla the belief of various lo

d 419
24 Otis We Caldll and Gerhard Ho Lunde=, Furthe Study of Unfounded
B2liets AmmC Junor II& Sobool Pupils. Teachers Qk ReHrdo
XMVI (Otobeor 19on pn. 35-M*

co JAth is true In the 1*3 ofbtt hel fo*4,$r w~th we or
two ea=saphsnq previou s base h omlm e al alsses of atunfam
ew Igtn e b made to die possible

OStfttames betmwea grfdoe with repeaot to the ireMUiftMO at a*damWMp*
*mao the resuts at aeral stones som to inons that twelth Omdo
stwicats rAearibe to feour mscaraneptiono them tenth grsoad ttdone sand
tahe assenth grade abudeate ae Inauhnwed by a Creater uambe them ralnt
Craft pupitao Iomwwe, ano me inetaseigabta hea been maes htdoh i*Tead
aubjeats frtu bofi the JUwa te m d the -ader high Sehool
The rity of teestirators vho ban studied the premal et unf oned bel s arrive st the o luau tahat m ad girl are
innuanoe b-y a greater numaber of raBConeeptias tha are those of the
qppoite sem- Of impranteoe, hoawarO, is tho result of a reoumt iunest
CL+Am of prospeetive teachers in Ytdoh the fiMrAlne were foubd to be the
rewrae of prsoaos satudies owductod on tlw oolnsV lavel. Furter
tudy on the sooandary sahool level U neefed to oarroboratear dioprove
the oamlwatm ot previms atudew, especialy in th true of the tenth
grcdo, where ao study bns beeon mAde of sex diffeirenc,
Du*a -an ame or two sowrees so=m to Wicate tha Ceogrphia2
louality has Utttle Innewnee o= the Prenalonee of utmoBmded beliefrs.
HRowmvr, sufficted data re loor anG d further studies v(11 need to be
mvae beft re any defiate eaaelusion awn be readhedi
An anelysis of the results of rtudies eanated an the college
level tweda to Ibardete that there is no sia9 iflnt differeae in the
prevaease of misoonomptins betwmee ftudwts reared In rural diatrites
and those students hio have lived In large cits* A gtudy of hih
smbool seaire liing in six amnll too=s and fou larre eities Indicted
that those bws and girls livIng in =all tons had hoard, believed Ian

-** t. '.: ~
and ware i by zmoe vnftende idoas thme s the ease vith stuavt*
rs in largo itie m In ths rmmtl deU are A -

tiraly for sendms at the twanth =a4 tenth gradeB. A ooaprohmaltv
study ot the three grades maofamed to neosary betre e teol-
aims can be draw regardlM differ mee betwve rural and urban ateso
Recnt evidee diestea that negro coll stuna boribe
to and ere Atluermod by a large vumber of helth misoonmetiom thanm are
hite studets on the saw edu al l A suWvey of previ studies
revels that in tigati of he prevalne o mis pim has beE
ad the high ahool el In i an wt e made to derne

possible race diftlerances* Data in the study previroely mentionedl We"
obtalued firim a wmall mbr of nego da ( ).For this reason,
coupled with the ftot that ther are no obtho reliable dats available a
this aubject at present,, a comprahensiv study of race differencess should
bo mado an the oolleo lwl as well "s m the &eeadwr Whol le"el
Up to the preaet tim ano suy h"s bom made to ascertain he
relationahip between health knmowldge and aoao-eo**ande stttus cc the
wne had sad belief In health msoonceptions on the other.

Fially a v of prvis studies di a definite od
for Aurther researeh which will provide valld deU cmeening the prevae
loo0e of healt a1aeaeptionso The need for reliable data le eapeeially
urgent slne remedial instruoian caant be undertaken by curriclum wrk-
w*r sad teachers until the fotaIn the case are kom

1. Paul khotoan, Hmatb Mi!2=meIc of Prospeotive Tnachere. p. 50.


th a vie. w to orylz, a measure, the tle of

ha= Wfa, thais Ieigation ano undrdewam to aid aduotion in
ll matMg health msoweptions ois super titions by provwdi g

seendary shool teachws In rda w ith prtla t data regarding
the relative prevalenee of aertain umnaded beliefs. The spOOeinO

S problem of this vetia has bem detlzes vi%, to asotn
the relative prewaleace of artain healh aisomepimas and seuperati-
tians as subearibod to by students in the zevmths, tenth. and twelfth

grades of Florida publi shoole to make pertinent parians on the
basis of aso, grades, rae, t of hoe oammunity, gogratphtal influe
nowes and to discover whether there to am relatianhip betwve hwelth

h edg e nd aoet aonmloe statuos n the me hand ead bellef in
health miananoopHtias am the other.

The arlM of rellable data upon mhioh to base oanelusion
depndeds, firet of all, upo seourine a rellable lnetrumet for reoords
inM the prevlene of aertain health misoanmptimn and secods upon
the appliowatgm of this instrument to a large- and representative roup

of sevenths, teths, ad twelfth grade studente in Florida*
The Mrst of these two prerequisites called for the oanstruation
of a anooaly, designed test or ostlonira, It was aanmed that anoh

an atran I ordear to be et ry should onfom to the follow

1. It aIU be a valid meawure of the prwateloo of owtaln
health miaeanoeptions and, superatitionms
2# It ad bo reliable.,
5. It abould lnd itself to objective sow g and ould give

the subjects an opportunity to express their belief
or disbelief definitely An each idea presented.
4. It should be eawy to sdkinister end of awh length as
wvld allow all students to ooElete it*
5. It hould give no bward io through the title
or direftions, that a tudy dealiag with health
misconceptions and superatitians Is being oonduated.
G. It adat allow for the preentation of = amten xaber of
A consideration of the abve ariteria led the taestlgator to
oanolude that an instrument constructed in the form of a true-false
test would best meet the needs of this study. To supplemaBt this Itstru-
ments the investieator selected standardized tests of heolth kntede

ma sooso-oonane stats as2 devioes for securwi other data pertinent
to this Investigation.

Sources of fealth Mi!aonoeptions
A list of ame 600 health misoonceptiona and uperatitions
ws eompiled fron the following sources
1 Previous atdics in the field of

1I Arthur I. Gates ard Ruth straM, fteo*StranM Realth Kw__de

2 ern S oreard for o tatus

a) *r
b) unf&Ade belleft, gnwal In natur

e) heath iaoaeptins and speratitis
2. fooks, articl3eA, an eampitastene a s ith Wk-lores

popular erarg, healing m Age coma&, atru, fath
g superatitions, ae* eal dn atgno eemp-

a* Pr.ess, Bagsa de,raioa other f f ader-tae hch
ontauied ofomaoded health tdaa, aSthr sateda or

4 U A it of b a ad supertitis ailed

by arta puli hlth m n Florida

vKr health eduwtora. Pe4o0mal 0a erecesV hold with the physeisn. ,
and a a result rta itemswe ppel w ne w
added, -ad othe sttabanb were reatarto after bei re-mrd A re-
fined iat of m 400 aate wts as th made avliable d whih to

Pma the rafinad list of wat staeanoeptions, a tentative
trueftale test of 300 statenets was oanstructed mad mieographed* In
the fall of 19S6 this trial test twa thn adsnisatered to a represente-
tive group of 6wS Booadary school students; v2is., 224 sovnth Crude, 218

tenth grade, %d 221 tl grade boys and- girls. The students wreO

* rShaniler ppton m Mw York Uiveret,
Dr George 0 Des Nw York Universit

The h m eted r
Iltrutead thst thse gmrtde of maah a temait mse to bet anidwed as
an oxproe ,1 at persoma OeA coAad tha e thry gras sen .prce

Sthr beat Sdte as to th t arth or ftlaity of the I wd l e.
00i0waticass Pcother* the wxudents we rowuefteH to at statemhl ete

a of -s I thetm e o
In ns". of dnobt and to aorent a orde or p traoe In vhih the

reavems The a soth ceat furnith sa teroo atlam tud'e 1 otaw
hav jusett awter te a fs Sialx *itear a tho f boo at the eado
roePrOafts thwaojee haey jaut was a te eig tea t

Se ether o the ri of a irtt a

4. Dr. Thmaa 0. Otto. Miamia. Flrida.

*me Beqffiji s itano h I XsjtaaUC hoelth =I an supeHMMMiticawso
Thw xperts ware requested to hok the tru r a ty of oh teat

eamteman that seemd to be debtable or amasguou as to men r
ree SO nwrO =ade lan te light of the ar thlims The amandod list
of est ite was thm Op e 7 this jy of =lj ewprts.

The ?1=1 T-ot
A talatim of the ON tra tesO Mb had boen nam ter.d
to a woindary 0hool abtudents, mae =&dU m the baids of the nmaber of timea
001 BtaemWt vAs ma det arrlyl, eaiMrrtly r aitteds In omeside.
Iag %faih item asould be iask sed In the flma3 test, the laestigator
4deemd it advisable to exmlude those abatemnts hich made no stinot
betwni tindiviAuals taikl the test* r this reasn, oarta stateaents
wea lals atod as folle*s
1. Those marked oorrootly by 9W1 or mre of the group
2# Those arked orrey r aitted by 9 or moe of the

The appl tia of this oriterion resulted In the det ainte ela of
thirtytwo statemaenta frm further oanaiderstim as detirable test items.
ite other test Iten were allinated after conferees ith
arta tehers who had m stered the test, after cf ing with a
sahool and after the tost had bem heked for wrda and
phras tih the Bdent had eworoled.
The rminine test items wore subjeted to till another cri
twrion via., "A very valuable item is coe that Is pas ony by those
who toal soores are w derably hi thn the total soores of those

1 Dr* Wo C" Thaas, ainseeville, Florida.
Dr. J. MaSOY Dell. Gaine el Florida,

Vho ftOi thatb samefto A Vry MUpeuiet m Is mooe ti to suc ar.l-
17 ansured b obtaidren who we really pocr n the quality belag meaared
aft otm as it Is by aillrawho are really very good In that quality,*11

9de far esoh test Item an the basis of these mho marked the statement
oorrectly and on the baots of those %ho marked the statxotb ionrreatly
or omitted oem. Ony 100 manes selected at radan were used in marktg
the above eaaputattan betwnse of the gPeat volWua of work Savolved wth

a y 300 Item Thity eeequet2y obtained for the n
*teat Justifs In part the s of he amil aampl in this instano,
Affr the abofeorWtrin had been applied to each Itsn, the
1GW noat valuable atatanbs wre seleated to eosprise the finl test
foru, In this reapect, the wdenistratim of the trial test to sareven

rd st ta revee the fa t that a rmie of are han 160
tabtenmew*Aedv not be advisable as It would most likely oo e =ore
timthen the foryfv la a rily allcted to ame olass period
The itae iilud abatnatesatnd S2 true abstatae ts. They wr alasaifled and grouped in,
to thirte bet matter divi e as ahw in Table VII, The Gtate-
mobs were the rranged so that ite of slalwr subject matter wold not

mmn in sequence and so that the true and false stateant would be distri-
A questiomaire wse provided at the boglning of the test to
ollet 4at perala to the student a ne, ago a, rae. grade.
hom o pty, and location of the ahool The tastr =t for wollewting
ata vw namted, "Health Imformation -lst". In aooordanoe with the aritrts
Caftr the eastruation of the test. The Instrument in itts fia fam

1I* RanOPad Franson. BOlth Fgonatioa TesU I. 16.
~g~arc ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~


ambwofr Ito m

i. newfod Beat m * * *#- * * n3
2* a * u 0 * I

5* Orguadi PAowtilon MAl DiaitWte9=l o * * we 19
8* SafgeOe an ess * * 18

90 tgre and Para * * * * * * * * 110
e 10W AP * * * * A* * *U ** 1

1 ombaoll as *oa F n *. t . .* 1i0

It has bem metimod alsaChre that, In order to sourw e raeli

ble Wt& wv hiah to base" equlutmw lSa ths stat, a retitable iamtru-
ment was neotto for btfani data and farthwnbare, mah an instrument mast
be aini r ed to a l eD ad "presentative grcup of seventh, tenths, wad

tweithh grafte atada*b ix Florida publie schoolso The previous section
of this chapter dealt M ;thi oanstrootio of the newssary Instrusnrt

14 Soe Appendix R

vW& ve nomf d *aeaith TOW Inda fa the G dth p aha
of t as saftn the vrsemedw sonoz p In s* .z*pie te Balst
ltrUMM TVA eand str ee l odnbe Maamseau The deta
obtiedse fm ton Naln aaath Teest VWO *onessed dMIMesthe
=cmth of Januarym 19360 v&IU the datear ftax anbothM fowledge Tsee.
*and the SOOIO-Deoma ftahm Ttes wre obtained durIM Februexy of the

Adea! stramts of the RmIsth Inftemaim Test
A lemetr mcpImUlmg the prpose of the Imetigatim and re-
questbLv Homperattim In *&W saterUag the Health onemea T eioat was
msiled to 62 priaipals of jdowseanotr hbI sehools in al parts of
the stateo A atapedW sal-ft*ddressed frO v WOUMM to teetr*
'tat rply an to providoe a =m for wtfeas i.aber of tes
farm requirc4*
SawohU 31tted to woopamte in this study wwe selected on
the basis of rao,, Cograph3soal loeati*V and type of comaaters*
hieo, urban or rural. Thirtywthree prinelpalm returmed the reply-cards
prmp 2y atn iienated theIr williagress to adminisr the Health

I. Arbar 1I feze eaXA Ruth Streng, GateasStrong ealth omaledgo
ls L m
Vdswera 34.91mav B oCard frarsneaaes es
s5 3ee Appendix B*
3* 300 App03dia 00
Rea The vite anad nero races.
# GoographiWl 1eeoenai es t nflorida i daignated as that part of the
A40 wet of the Cui eRivw Buat Flarifs to desigated as that
port of the tate east and soubh of that rivr. See Appendix A
40 Type of ComamAit Rural it the tera used to deftne all ecamumities
of lss thn 250 pheUrban In the term wued to defiea all
of. 2e6, of omat m wovr,


2nmt imt Toot to t r e th, tth a t t gre stude-ts.
Sam prianipals returwemd thoir rep ard aftlw the tabulattrs had

bMw1 vwko *1 t as r llas Uta drbe eaW ratte to reply*
APPresmaeaY secoot ftus# aa eanied tw a lo ette oa o
-tatft dieeOns fo Za *dment wrbW the tsat, were aiee to Ws
u th later part of Do iv day ter a
fo1m l4ttr me et to aeMh primipa reet the aly &d
daitalraton of the teats sad thear pvmpt returna Thtrterwi 8*ho"la
returnd 3313 tavo.Of or number, a2 were ttwom out because an
direotlas had not be= ood in mar the test, w a otal
or S3a usbl* tewt fonr=e. The diteribation of the Bsmth Infoiution
Test form Is dto m i Table viii, Twmntysts sabools far vhite studerts

Mebtritutim of 30lth Wwiteio4an Tofts

Urban Rial Urban Mural Toa TOW

ooeratin 10 4 ) ()
7th rade* 19 350 180 2866 989 S43
10th grad 197 343 150 w48 9 160
12th grade.,. 1U8 263 1w 187 _702 169
6. 592
TOW abr7 of ase (,ite and negro)... 21

I- See AppOndiN D*
2* sFe Appendix F4
3. See Appmeaix A*

ratmwe 2M =sable tests$ while *st Odols for geV rertumed Mg

In markiW the tests, studnts wee direeted to oait those
statemenS at hidah the were in doub t &a to the *arest anmar. An e*-
emitaion of the remweed tewto Idct that eomtentz in eoam ahoo
t*dd to Mat a reativly large ambw of bateAsents, vle at

^B0$*9 wpu4 w w^ al wt I
in obeat schools eaf ted preatitoaly nteh e on aagent of thi apparednt

varlato n arag teta, aill s*o es v wf ampute byb th a ft ts
The somte eq as te wear of ta.eo n ar adt owkp tly rturn te

a br marked n o a raard 1
The sewzi of reliahle data whih to b eouale in
t es saur depgoed tIn part p the appiotedin a the Healt nfeoaiA
Teat to a rWpraeatIve sample of zovaftho tenth, sad twelth grade stvL.

tat a this reas wa demand tnetery to ak th40e returnhe MW
teast fam for evidwene w*h vh wovuld Indlate forber or not a ranzm *sno

ple the it rtudents a been obtai d The produ used in this
instanoe was as b11mas The first thousand tou t2. fo (100) to bo gra
turd ve gro uped togethe9 and dealgntsa d as Swampl 02; the 1e.apd
thwoad test fors (g97) wSere grouped together as SIa.le #Z The no*

a Crtiul Rati of at least 3.0 or mwe Is usually oonatdwed Indicatie

that a rania sampUl of mhiteo alAgtMe was obtained for moeh of the
tbre asradeas

Studwm Was Obtained

Ihabcro.wn**.AS 395 352 30 21M 2"

D.o**.**** 26#7 27*4 42M8 30.4 304 29*9
I M. 25 4" 612
So E# (dIt* ..t)3** S&2 48 2488

CPo. Ub )87 14 9

rWl.b ty, ena.teaete m e e in rder to obb*0 an P aa. of

Croups referred to In the presdng paragraph* The tests wf then
soared an the boAle of add =aberea iteas ait again E the basAi of wren
aumberad Item The correlwtim borhawn the od mid sev numbered teAt
soorea Mwa them ouBputed using the Poare= Pron tament foarmante,2 A

2. Ibaon. m.B163s160*


poodtio owralagafm or *48M A #007 vita cbtalmdst. The Spewwa-g>tSro
lphowrwhi oa en ow atpue 0 to tbe obtanCd amrrastims ws the

and is no doubt an hih as ooud be eseabed for a toat oontaintag 160

ReliaMUAW of the Health Uasur ima Toot

Oft V=Wwe TLe Pam eX Nwbwe Test he

. ^9eai4a** ** ****** 00 1
1. S* b. 1900 19*60
r *WA A *D7 (Pea rod t FM Ala)
iyi *93 (SpOWaMa&~rom Prpheay woman)

The Asnsateratr O of the 3e th aMnssea la

ose aspect of thi IMMeabt ietm ia emezd with aasmrtiAnt
IMe vtber there is aw re~atiandhip between hftlth knowtu ke ad ealo-
comicB o sabt=e an the me hand and belief In hftlth naissaawaptia on
the other In ardw to obtain the data pwtaini to heath knowledge
and ocolo-eeamaie states It mw nvecesary to admebater teo teesh2 to a
rankan swmple of vhite abudente who had returned usable Reath Informati

e.w X, Ot and Ruth strang, Health

vernerw go Sa w Ceesanrd Dw smio wanan a s us.

A ltt eMatalfat g the U e fodvr *&aMltt da2am*ft r Ow eryi
on the vmettgaBta w malAed to 30 f uO- etaU of vbfte sahools ro-

Test ekor the S soma Statua Tt4. A sampe od e|edMt fmv-
*1d wes oMnoloed to ftlisUtata ropay Fourtem priwipass lam ted
ther, wilinu s to *afitl*t w a seeamt teat to tbose students Aw o bad
robursed a nsabsl 'flth Uftateinme n Test farm*
JAppEWistW O 900 faath IbmIateU Testok g7mpie d b ot
rofotic for &"c*n4 arin tw tefs t, ware =Tiled to tewurban md: ftw

on' to the VriswItp&Ute *I'fry ft lia t of the tsdensnt who weM ei**
gible to taki the Bealth ITneldge Teat In thea r respeative 0hoolsw
sovm humdred sMo fifty usMble t-ete fann were returwav by the ad of
the mnath, The distriubtn of toot ftars Is show In Table XI* The
prlneipalU wore unable to admata te oot to awwy eligible auent
or the ream that eae studw** hod eithr asved,, resignd or *wee

Distributm aof Hmath Mwouede Toots $aa eesol anFawnda ltatux Teoat

Samith !noL Tea ootozaU Test
NO oft ohooTS
enoperasal3....*..... (9) (s)
f rE271 245
1Mh r.......*... S*9 216
12th 2w0 177
TOTAL*#*.**,. 750658

eataoag a lU at oU studt mho we eligible to take the Uea
m t* :u

Six dred nd trwe unabe fo wer rturnd b the las of
February The diatributtan of test farms is shown It Table I* TestsX
swer not &Wdatered to wry eligible studiat ftr reasms already
enatined IBn e^Iame c v1th the &u dnitr4A'bjs of the Ha wledg

Attar the tree tests used In this etAy hmd be= sBmredo th
rmaut wwr malld to each prllpa who Wasenopwated in *a mrMst*-

The a f step to Inorgmeal ouan anaayse the obtained daet
ocmiatad in socrim the aulth atration Testse, *the 1%&MKnoswodge
Toots* =d the soalo-amano 3tt atn Toots,
Tib th hotitmbe tho h=631M of thwe datea the tvewtigucor
olaeaifled the Health Infotrematioa Tests aording to the twenty-seen

U Mite studenots, Wet Florlda, Urbmn, Boya, Sevnth grade,
(2) Toth grade, (3) T graden;
4* *te abtudemnba woan Florida, Urbon, Girls, Sevent grade,
(6) et grsae (6) atte Ode
7* VAte smeason, Wta Floifat, BurW Bae, Sooenth grade,
(8) Tenth prade, (9) Twelfth Urade
1o. Tstuea ftB, Falsr da we, th grade,
(I) (2)
I3* aste s*en tep Dtat Plorl4mo WhenU Be"# Sevemh grades
(14) grade, (16) Tw gt Wrad

VS. o awe Ubn, r, sona graas

(7) TWom )ades (3A) TwiteM asa
29* ?Rdt stdao an* Parason Pxr4, Bo"*, Softtha gred
S (2D) Twth Wado (2X) Tv h ea)ftc
a% ftnte etumefts allMft Fll^ Ramle, Girls, seM grade,
(23) Tanh ede* (24) Twt gpad"e
254, Ne6* B<*v 8sa Senmth faAe, (26) Teamt p Made*
A boo wm e mofe to discoer vhich sturamat bad takn boBth te
Oelftth Totn amd RavtioMn *.o^ Tee wst*. The name of those
studt vwee typed an ow of three 11evto. *im^e to grade snd the
soarea vhih the etdet* a ca es test w rerded ppoete his

The ease prom as described abom ma fboiatoed with tho
ataxUdAw w hve tagke both the Salth duunuation Toot and tho
Scoofotomada StaTatus Test* This procedwe wM follatd ft the two
ninateame to etelltafte the hwnd of data In *owasatl oertaie o-re

Prft alcspe of Certain Haalth !ynh a "Ims
The B"fth Infranstie 7otsf to 466 of th e (27)
roq, pwia=y ---atamae oho rm by grop to asaerata
the total ==bar of time aee test item :It mBrked inoOTrrectl or adttod
it wme maoed that as ftm marksd Sinorratly indlosted beltef
In th Isoe vs. the staem atwevred vile a tem mae
oarW7bly Indiftate SMaOs lf In the pn*4*uIw misoonvaptian iavlved,
The re!sut of all serenth grade white groups we totaled to
de*eraNi the M&nbM tax e4a.h test i tam ad bow Ma d v crredty
-or anitted* The totaU ar *enwmrted Into sr omitbs ads recorded to

the Memost %ele par Otrb* A tbeu gas tha emItmbeil In tV Ah the
tste Item were ranked In a.Man it rear of thedr Thet n
owrieek rempuMe Ow sekmah Vme wseeosin~ed e tar on lftwer and *r
*A *m ins Ttfed sfr te *t1 ma tworse gerew,

-. -. ThBjf.g~ff~^^T -
Thee mo mTft
at or the senath Intonat Tof peAs I am empw. s

whtie abaMlus 2 Wit Shd the testH Of Umftet grad o eagrt eL

the twfth wai tawste grdeus. "w sthate l prWem*u&e ues In a e
the samperiae ws:v as ft~omse
a) Tbo mw and st amdard lasicOe vat *E*fftod for owh gyra*S
b) The sttendwrd orn% of the me= for eah 4Aixtriluf wme *cap
p4)od by th *1w **
) Theo. e aror of the atw w o4 th*s smeoX me ompu
ad ty the forls (it ) 1) + SS (di
4) Theo ffegMe bieteen the two meaB we dme t1nteA
e) The dltewwe of the omw as ivded by the staetardad
ror of the differ5e of nthe mea to obtain the CrIt-
ioeal RaAco A CrItival Ratio of 3.0 or more Is usual-
IV soaldered Sadleative ao a sgninceea attrmooe

omverilson of Same
The **area a the oealft 2narmatan Tests atdmizitered to
white studenha we covpared soeordlwS to sGX Tbree ocuparians wewe
maed av ftlloaes toe behaotwm sewith grade boys and girlo, suot. Now
twen tmaubh p-ade boys and girls, and still snfthth bOt"DWe twelfth grade
b* s and girls* The detiled attistica proedwur fallowed in sauahem

I* Sao 1* 320


*mpfms .b" be= e s-taod In the pr*-em^ pa-N'ah

Amm m. -qtto*f HMOR ge-m!#t Z
Tbe soar" of wte assath Waomfrttm Te~as af! itB to

Ity to mabih tbo pupil liesd* Three otusprms ware ee as fdiowmes
etwous "emoth gratd* wb and rwat abutts, bet"Mle tent Crude
urbn amo rwa staendmts and beoeewm twofth grade hosnd rml. stup-

be a2d Io a pr-lo pe

The Bowe 1 thea 1w e tr1mt Tests Aed to mte
budtawre w ctapnarea mmarcg to geographeacal Iocacn. # Cowptriaome
3wmae =af Btween ath rade tud vI in hat
Florida mnd thMoe UYU In west. Frida, betwe ttAh grade students H
Ing tEit aSatri and oe In Wot Frd, and betan tlth
Grade eudnecs lvinM I es rida and thset om In Vm r

stte In a praInA paraerph#

Tho r of the amt om Tot a atre to
s -am to .*

1# See pe 38
2- See p. 88.

Weound bas be= Statet n d tal ln fwn1

or BM io at ennsilan or Itn aeh arSVE

1* ba P 1 S R t lt i f i ~i^ M riac
basa of b*jeot mattr deviloab*2 nsrm abjec atter tablem wee
forb the we sae h gre ro ft mA1ah the test items In aeh
dilsrim Wr I In order an rh basis of the peremomga
oawmath gtrat hiMto studtents rkWlC eseh 'Item Saerreabi* The pmr%
Oeag" adtltng a*A t.ot Item w also tawftteA The pWrCntag
uIMses ouch It= ItnanM stly and the peremNH *outtig seek test item
van also tandl e for the following sgamtbb grade opv s mite bce,,
wvA~e girls, whit* urban atodenatm* vhit real abudentsm, ite students
i og I a3st Florida* te xadanbs re t in Wt Plarda, d

For each moenth grade group the man psrowtaW markeW stt
itams sInrrootly In anh avbjoet mattm div isi van doterasses as w*n
an the no= perventage imtatg each itma*
A tableon va matrueted In vato the rAueoa matter divisioin
for each aermth grade gpoup we ranked on the betes of the soma pereent-
ag" f studtents marktae teooroetly test Ite ia each diviatan.
Thi proeedure vas followed to detail far the tenth and tvwlfth

**l***n*i aBetimmn anolth Ramodee and aRl as nooncpctaM
Soares =m e by students ms the Healt Informatlo Teoo and
scames nods b the *me students on the 31th ftaletgol TeAt gre,

20 ra po 29,

to seeas 29


correlated to disoover peosible ***l*timumbip** Ockrelatlms woeore c
ante~d an the sevent tufth, and twafth grade lowels foltoonrC the
Pearns=rcn~mn an~

owom s01. m now Stus an Bea a .sts.
Soonr ado by otudemb an % Health 2utommi Test and
arw aade by the am sth a m the Soo o ee tatu Test w
arlatd to po ble relaion ps orreti w n
auted mn the seanth* ano d twslfth grade levels follmotag the

A tr o test oasposed of 300 truewfalsm sttemats ame eaF"
struoted and saaeographed The test was than admidnstered to 65s
seoanda whool studens In Florida*
The teot st fio*ts were validated by a9 jury of six prmeaMt-

A tbal tost l th es 160 test Its in the tra tbest

Yas oentrwhed and printed The 88ntia are, vealth
Inarmtin Test and ecntained 118 false statmaaets and 32 truo state-

The 3weth Inft-matim Test wee admnistered* to approximatelr
3000 atudento iu 32 schools. Twout3osix schools for mhte students re-
turnaad 2M Able teatae vhile ass aebools far n6g2es returned 592
usable fhrase minIM a total of 3221 oeaee
A ahk the r thousa oea ( ) re(swd end a

chooa of the :suent.o' ndet cam (917) ata thae a randcn saspe

lU* P. 1-18.
2. LOCO Olt*


of 'vth stalmts bad bee sbInWta for1 enh EWtW the SwltM W5wo

The rt a ty of th WmatM Tek van ahm-tI by-
erreautlta the **ame mvde am odd and eve amseed teAt itmes A

pwassVO earolst~am of ,08ftd+,woo? vas *eW=-Sd. The SPOermx=arean
ProphooW fbmala wVs tah appUft and a roliabillty wooffolet of
.93 wes obtaici for the eatire teat,
Dwath .oo e Test* we odz to ap-ro b WOO
atuadeas mho bad takM mte Saolth aXttrMats t Test* Sevw hmared ozl
fifty usableb eath *)ouet taeas WW returned by n1im s*eam ry
80hools aditalnaterlag the test fa*ms
Vivo wtn seaaday ahols rehiurnd 6W8 usable *oawe eardI Of
tbeo hio*0oone qtatus Tests mhieh bad been admziatrwed to atwuemts
who had taien the Boalth Woaterntt Toots
The dat& Obtalad rar the Haftlat a mantiXn TeM owere trest
*tustigtia"L to *agetaft ta Pm re seaa of owatau health aisonaimBl-r

Coopertaas were made *A the basis of gradet OQ* CGeoMrphle"t locmtien
type of home <.oaaatr omd rae* ththemo, the typ" of heatl mise-

Oaptim ahmmatci tUMet *ftho groups for each grade via ^ifttauln
t e wre o t to disoer the relationship betwe
?x*j* L ----

hawlth boxwledge mad sloeeaonateat m the mm hwa7and belief In
*hlth mlft Ime m the *ther
1* e a^"t


.. -. ; *ta ..3
Thisamemeason ewoght, amwu other tass, to ascortaU t
restive proramm of wrttin hbeal lalmoa-ti4ns as subesrt4to b.
sa th se tte sa nte i e p shols ot r a"d to afe
eartsi *=pwriews m te bawds ofaM1 saw's e o hfme 14 ****
seoograflphilf.looatin sde raoft
nwta r wManI odll W4 989 ton atunAseIntso the sev9nth graft
vios. 472 Wws me 517 Cirls, 373 auseft reeLhat in urban oemudtles
wAs 6l2 sgtvnts 1sIMiet n t runal oowmw "=-Wsd ansde 440ens Omdose UvU left nories.2 Pwr parpse of rm.
itcon data wee collofedu ftew 24S uWagg studsa*e* la Inth ea6 grade,* X
que9t|aM=tM knom as the Health IMoftoMmati Tesfc 0o00tanisc 160 Otabte
unts urvad so tme Inatrumant for olleftim the data* The reliability
oones lent obtained for this tft mes .os.93*
The M89 Hsath M Infame Toots Yhth had boem ad abored to
seenMth grate uhite stuetabs Ywe assembled togtebr tIn me Croupo Rah
at the 150 teft Ith*= mea h ahoaned to asoartain the total amber at
tmma it had be= eattees wd the total mker of times at Wa ben mrke
0116P K"t.3ej b7 Whda goupo The total In enmh ease =a*as euere into a

I* See po 3C6
2* See po 30*
Soa~t 9e e a

*i& Oca "A reas to he m>t as p a as of

sengradswe vas stasemas markbg mb te ste Item samenwourt~t the
swpat rm* at emh Mam wo shoe ft 9a834 Xn (po 4)* To pereetab
so o $auaenets multuges ach tentft ften 11 sorer"Ves ftrm ton per
milS (W) to IBNtape -feaft (90o q, ba lmo .a1 t7 ww per amnt
(%), -the M&UZ per se9 (4% ) "d 3 asbftws Par elmS
(Wo).A amtbot o meobtalmad "ft* IesnUAes tot sommft Vrad

gree on Mh*e fto mo kn aw vt A.*s teaners o at Wensent sen be
fm aftsnth Cdrft sBftw" lft& rPepftB to hewfla e 0 attele mnewemtoh
Isswo ft apprs tarm sao eamsas ottf otll &ta tf on unfo uned. be-
Ueftf *reSHNRt to bmal a* Vftetrtiwl* hlfff oe te, es s wat r*mm
eaftotie haz ftlene la se aftft degraw to *a1olrktiW amptaln bodth =I&-

e 48" to a wlma sea-- sth %espo, to p
sobers who wee comla ad er sealse couee In toNwo triabco
1%0 teat "me amm wm 0*02$Od 040mm to theiin: t r 46ealepdtve
..awt* matter :^.f***m* reozas in A-f f er mi an the ba& o
~11 ~.
tefc ArobalwH f awewef grad Mfe *atk Aets alufflb e itha Sagerwi"-
3y (sm Ton" W to =TV pp4 "*a),
ft vuc of the subjeet mbter divislxm, reaked In dvemeen
sbs arer (a the basU ort he no=n pavaenes of students mraati sswmtore-
27 tdft %WH ft 0096* VeIsOn WL6WtAW hA tbfl ISr DtO so tn*pe at
eate IN s. ete abft8W of sar grade vidto- ftuief (soe,
babl =m, po GO)* somwer, Uoft Ufts lumoviv Parysial Aetivit wre
fboan to rank ff ratat I fslamd 5m "-g rarer WW Uose stbjeft mrft
0. se

U Sb*O 1N0I m. p* aaw t mg Ml
2 S e o


Rank ats
le Evreyone should engaga in deep-breathing exercises daily* 92
2, Returning canned food to th refrigerator in its original con-
tainer after it has been partly used will cause tin or lead

3, Mil contais all of the essential elements of a good diet and
in sufficient quantities to insure good health'and normal body
development, F 88
4* It is more dangerous to priok onets self with a pin tan with a
Sneedle. 86
5*6 Powdered glass can cause death when mixed with food. F 83
55A drowning person rises to the surface of the water three times
before finally sinking. F 83
7*6 Boilsa re caused by bad blood attempting to rid itself of impur-
ities. F 82
7.5 Liste~rie should be used in cases of sore throat because it
promptly kills all harmfl germs. F 82
9. Cleaning one's teeth frequently, especitlly if a toothpaste or
Spowder is used, will prevent the teeth 1rom decayinga F 81
9. The beat treatment for weak arches is to have well-fitting arch
.s!pports placed in the shoes. F 81
I~ iiS~98
41. Ex-Lax is a chocolate covered, non-habit forming, laative which
will correct cases of constipation without danger to one's
heath. F 79
12. Cortain toothpastes and powders destroy harmful bacteria in the
mouth. P 78
14* The X-rays enable the doator to look into the pydio2ts body and
bserve the various organs at work, F 76
14. Unpleasant breath (Halitsis) can be owued by using an antisep-
tic mouth-wash* F 76
Me tdicated soaps have the power to kill gemns. F 76
16. Prev'sig the upper li:p, or placing a key or piece of ice at the
b'doi of the neck, will stop a nosebleed. F .75
17. Seabathing is beneficial to one's health due, primarily, to the
high seat content of the water., F 74
18. Oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and tomatoes form acids in the body, F 73
22. A persohocn get appendicitis by swallowing the seeds of
orangos,.grapes, apples, etc. F 71
22. Color-blindness is a dsease of the eye which may be oued by
,roper treatment. F 71
22. :Vouth washes, such as Popsodent Antiseptic, are valuable bo-
w ause they kill all harmful bacteria. F 71
220 Ipana Toothpaste will oure the condition known as "pink tooth-
brush". F 71
22. Gargl with salt water and vinegar will kill the gems causing
a sore throat. F 71
22. Some persons actually hrve double joints. F 71

SThe correct answers are indicated by the letters ""(false) and
'IT" (true).
:3111 ji4

are ill. F 70

27 Aperson with round oulders should wear a brace to correo
this defeat. F 69
28.5 An intestinal tape-worm onses an excessive appetite in the pa-
*. .t.n.. 6
30. A laxative should be taken whenever a person has a stomachaohe
or abdominal pain. P 67
5 C ain thpast will defin y and permanely correct a

l Pain the left ches is most likely caused by he$art disease. 6
34.5 Adults sm times beioome feeble-minded from overstudy. 68l
4.5 The chanoc of atcehing cold are out in half if one gargles with
Pepsodent Antiseptic or LWwterine. F 66
.5 The use of certain cosmtic ras and lotions will in tellliii
insure a clear complexion. F 65
346. The pores of the skin possess the power to open and close. F 65

the skin. F 63
38. Thera are no living gems in pasteurized milke F 63
41.5 It is not an entirely healthful habit for one to sloop on his
loeft ide because such a position hinders the heart's action. F 62
41.5 Ono coaot got too mch sunshine. F 62
41*5 Some abdioal doctors of good standing possess, for serious di.
'sases, sure curos which are unknown to other physicians. F 62
41.5 Some persons have the ability to "tell fortunes". F 62
44. The vapor inhaled fromwnplaoing a few drops of Vapox on a hand-
- .. erhief. w ill kill the bacteria ca:uing a old.

4' Milk normally curdles as soon as it reaches the stomach. T 0.
47#5 The toes should be pointed outwurd in walking. F 59
47. 5 Athletes will find g ir a sourooe of quick energy. .
47.5 Sulphur and molasses is an effective, even the old-fashionod,
rIMOdy for impuro blood. F 59
47.5 A piece of bacn appied to a wound made by a rusty nail wil

prveD blood poisoning. F 59
50.5 A black eye is best cured by applying a piece of raw beefsteaik. F 58
50.5 Clay applied to a boo sting will draw oiut the poison. F 58
52.5 the hands and nails are easily sterilized by washing thaem with
aoap and water. F 57
Some persons possess an "Evil yeo". F 57
55.5 A pain in the back indicates the prosence of kidney disease. F 56
Thre is truth in the old saying, "Food a cold and starve
favor". F 56
55.5n who aro very hairy, oespecially rif they have an obundant
growth on their chests and limbs, are possessed of groat physi-
al strongth8 56
55.5. Driukig milk fresh from the cow is an especially healthful
practice. F 56
58. A cold bath is an oxcollent tonic for all people. F 5
61.5 Growing pains are a sign of growth and occur in all healthy
boys and girls, F 54
A iii iil =i i I 1i~ ilii~ liililliiii{ i iiiAil li!ii i iiiiiii iA 2 iii !i! liii iiiiii iii iiiiiiiii1 iiii~iA lliliii ~lii~ iihii! iii ii iii iiii hAiiiiii= iiiiliiii iiii I iiiiiiiii

61,5 Broamo-So ter is 4 safe hooLache remedy for pe ople to ue* F 54
61*5 A "patnt medicine's a* called because it has c tuall beend

patentaed. F 4
614 All bran breakfast food should be oeaeby all peose who are
constipatedb P 5Q
61.5 Putting a cobweb on a wound is a satisfactory way to stop It
from bleedig, 5

6 The majoity oig s l athletes evelop athlet heart S
6575 Throwna 4 a person to deep water ois an almost certain method
of teaching him to swim F 53
67. Aperson can tell fros the taste, odor, aind appearance of water
whether or not it is safe for l1Jhdag purposses* t 6

70. Patent medicines are consumed, largely, by the itelligent ad
well informed peoplet, P S0
70. A drugght eabe relied upon to prestribe the correct medicine
in case of illaess. F so
70. A medicine which is especially disagreeable in taste or very

75.6 Cold vater in just an effective in contracting the pores as ayW
skin tonic or astringent purchased 5in the drug store. T 48
75.5 The food which a child cats is of more importance in assuring a
healthy sot of tooth than regular brushing cnd dental care. T 48
75.6 Fish is a brain food. F 48
80.5 Lightning novor strikes twice in the same place. F 47
80.5 Orange juice and baking soda will definitely cure a cold. F 47
80.6 Chilling the body reduces the efficiency of the body defonses
in resisting baotoria. T 47
80. Measloes in not contagious u'til the skin breaks out. P 47
80.5 Siome peopo possess the poWer to stop the flaw of blood in
others* F 47
80.5 If you oat the liver of a healthy animal it will be of partiu*.
856 The w aring of oye glasses cause*s one to "got usod" to thom,
honoo o should put off woaring thon as long as poasible. F 46
85,5 Leman juice applied to the skin will remove fro klos. F 46
85#6 If an expootant mother is frightoned the child will be marked
by birthmarks. F 46
8545 Propor tomporaturo, humidity, and circulation are more important
factors in veontilation than the carbon dioxide content of the
air. T 46
68. Yeast will curo all forms of eonstipation. F 44
89.B A daily moi cold bath will make one i=oune to colds. F 43
89.5 The marriago of cousins is practically certain to result in
children of inforior intelligonce. F 43
91,5 In ardor for an oxorcise to be good it should produoo soronces
and stiffnscs as ai result. F 42
A S <:.
''altlS'.l ^.-tt^ l- j-<|yit:.|g6as88 ~iia8 # 'xtti *to.I1^5A:*li8< f*% j~iM~l *, ** .;*, *'.::,^
'?;: **NflleiJ'l6'*fll|i*'ltt! f orS^-fo /a lB ^Iti^^^^*?'*^ .'''":'
' 8 S |i^~~~~~~~~1't i m l1t -i l f ^ ^ t U ^* P 4 "'' .
^ :8.f *:l** e^ s ;,,,, f :.ei t ** '* ' **'*:
: '"' ^ ^lB i~t ~ ii -.'r **'*" :* *:*.:' ; .* .- '* f -* ^ '* ; -:',
85S rpo tmortro hmdiy iid cirulaio 8r oeipranc *.
*:7!\':':Sf~vSWS''^'t&S^ '* *' *:
** ,,. ^ .:a | | ^ ***'*.~ ~ ~~~~~~:. **; ** !, * ,; . ** * * 4 : : ; .
: Bw Se^irlliwB:iS ^O"SB ft~~s~oico ,* '* ,? 4 *,** '
89.BA daly omia o od bth vill kc ao ifimuo t ools F* 4 : :; ** '***'.:'
'~ ..' "8"B f9.n~il^^ t..p~fCa~ ~?t~i .'., ti I ^ ir iI Iali l ':! .' "? ''' 1 | **L.*:,.
aiofiP lic^iie ia&i~t'Nfoe t'Wgo^*f *hifpodn^B^OI '."'""-.- 'i
* '"~ e a t 'l fi 1i .'^ " * ..* * 4 . ..


*oPtr on ra

from fear or f right. F 42t

only a mild case to another irituale F 41
93*5 Iron given toa person In the fomof simple fiings or rust of
iron will make that person stronger* F 41

9.1 rations advertised over the uradio. F 40
Shat-bands, 40

99.5 Certain lines and markings in a person's hand foretell his
future. F 8
101. If a tooth does not hurt it must be healthy. F 37
103* Approxinately ninety per cent of all people have at one time or
other boen infeoted with the germ which causes tuberoulosis. T 36
103. There is a relationship between infedted tooth and various
forms of bodily disturbance. T 36
105. It is a sign of bad luck to have a black cat cross your path in
front of you. F 36
106l Morouroohrome, the water solution, as purchased in drug stores,
is as good an antiseptic as iodine, F 35
106. Alcoholic drinks have groat virtue in the troatment of colds* F 35
106, Thoro is no advantage to be gained from using pasteurized milk
in placo of raw milk. F 35
110. Rubbing one eye will help'to remove a oinder from the other eye. F 54
110. If a child picks his nose, it is a sign he has worms. F 34
110. Thoro is no real nutritional difference betweon an ogg with a
whito sholl and ono with a brown ting**' T 34
110. Typhoid fevor, tuboroulosis,diphthtL. and othor ceamuM441c
diseases may be spread by raw mllk. T -34
110. Oysters properly packed and cared for may be eaten with safety
during the summer months; T 34
114. When you cough or sneeze, if you.tum your head away from
people to whom you are talking, it is all right not to cover
your mouth with a handkerchief. F 33
114. It is harmful to have flowers in one's bedroaom at night. F 33
114. The best dootors believe that people who have colds should stay
in bed. T 35
118. Removal of the tonsils always results in some Injury to the
voice or ears, F 32
118. It is quite sensible to expose children to the so-'called chil-
dren's diseases (measles, whoopin cough, ohickenpox, scarlet
fevr) on th basis that they will got thfem anyway. 52
118. If the brooding placos of mosquitoes were eliminated there would
be no malaria. T 32
118. Ghowing gur will definitely enhance a girlas facial beauty. F 32
'.',?. :" ;'Aii.iil.'a ^flo**'& ,i oif .t M At ''' .. N ; -''''
.' I^I S1.,.g.~tjoVi;t ihloSA tl'oey~o~aiitA ^ ;.? ^,,
.' i iifi : a T e ^ i e S t w i S S s : \ .: ' : ' ^ ' * l
'' ~ y^flpf~ f -ifl i ''* ' ***iI
l ja i 2<| -i ft | i |! .,a (| ^" .' "* *. .* * 4 : ** * ;.;
lit''*~&- * ..~ a '^ioaot;^|^At*I*fl~licntt wy*' ;
*'**'*. yoi~~l? 3EBO'>AK ^ tfa~~i~p'~ ~ e ~ ~ fi-'-'**,.;.' : ^ 8 * *
ai*6ei tfl^A^? 3|i **"* h"~' :::*
UA* *Ti.MiF:4'|?o^-.bX.neta eq>. r- lce ossol ty*"'
11 Ie A : :*' *;' ,-. *'**^ *::'' ,' ';I3 ]
13- eiivmI^ 9'%|u~l &5wyB aBas|:8. 1 .iOi -n~ 'O*ce .-=j|

,1 ?oi0 w Q o v :* .. '* ', *** * .- . 2 .. *,^
13 K'ssif- esS~-^:ept lfi't.'o tea ... 'e ei ^I-lEtQ : ll 'l~ *'Au i e;N(f:(.l A ^ .'. '*'.*I
fo~~~wJ:.-aft''-"<3Bu9~~~~~~~~~ ItS~^:Irb'byiilg |e J 2 '*.*i
3a8. f il 'fwSW'Ewoaioi~oli~fofl.-!<>el adn ba heewol *'_ .'
.'',.l~ --ao n~ fl ~ ^ ;'. '': ., *-," .'r *' ;* .. ** . .^ 32 .' ..** .1
; .l~ ii lt -iiff~ ^ Bief ag~s3t oo o1l~ y y 8 *'' .l
* * * : * *. s.i ~ ^ ' : ; |


conditions which favor his cotracting the disease at an early
123. A most important because it may be the symptom of any
one of a Qaier of diseasos common to childhood. T al
123. A sick individual is much ore prone to believe in advertised
cures than a healthy one. T 31
123. If a person touches a toad or a frog he will get warts. F 31
126. Fever sores are often caused by kissing. F 30
127. Thum-sucking is a bad habit, but there is really no ham in
128.5 The action of sunlight upon the skin aids in the prevention
of rickets. 27
128.5 People would be better off today if they ate niothing but raw
food F 27
1331 Tubborulosis may be contracted through kissing* T 26
11 Not all bacteria are harmful to mankind T 6
131. It is possible to foretell the futuro from your dres. 26
133.5 fhooping cough is not a vory dangorous or serious diebse. F 2B
133.5 It is unluoky to have anything to do with the number 13. 25
135.5 All caoeor cro incurable. F 24
135.5 The bout way to brush the teeth is upward over the lower teeth
and downwird over the upper tooth. T 24
138. Gritty toothpastee or powders hasten the decay of teeth by
wearing away the enamel. T 23
138. If a person speaks about his good health, he sho uld rap on ood
or else he will soon b-ecme il1. 23
158. Tea and coffee both contain caffein. T 23
140.5 Cold boths are beneficial because they train the blood
vessels in the skin to respond quickly to changes in
temperature. T 22
140.5 Mlental health is as important as physical health. T 22
142. The amount of food we ought to eat depends mostly upon our
size and what we do. T 20
143.5 A child may appear to be in the best of health and at the same
time have tuberculosis of the lungs. T 19
143.5 There is no good reason for going to the expense of filling
the temporary teeth bo*cause they fall out later anyway. F 19
146,5 WeiSght reducingO may lead to brokeno health unless carried out
under the advice of a doctor. T 16
14t.5 Children with coldsa should be exoluded fr school. 2 186
146.5 All mental diseases are incurable* F 16
146.6 Habitual bad posture will produce bone changes in boys and
girls. T 16
149. Frequent sore throat may be a sign that onets tonsils are
diseased and should be removed. T 13
150. The moasquito acts as the host for the malarial parasite. T 10
*-i a ~ f -. :**;r '~ * .y *; : ,
.l4'9; *3^!li|S :sa"i, 18i^ :i^ 1f ist a .< e. w i g'3a **" .**:;
i~ f& u ~ i~ Io-^ff^ lj ''" ' f '1 **.**;
iB~~~~~~~~w ~ ~ 1teaSI| i' ".';'*

'.: -"'* -' * -". ""_ ;.l.:ii.

4fttft #aly4 flast ra .sa -t r n sU- A"411 es

sue anda 9e s Ltio, Prwm o Us&*.
lres, Bgatfl Swath, ead COAm4mn ma Wathamv Table WOf
tfurther Od4m wthe fthat bat a d4mttserne does not a*-
ist beiwn aoy =t sfleNMift *** 4*viston
it is stla to uote tht bMOW4 in an imren..gim.

t3m hbmritwiBta of aprospeoti teacfers.

Th sear *e lth :m1m1nam Tret w cmrd wi om a b tenth

t g h>toh abuts6 m th an io= sMo r asonmth rade fcabasta to *4, Odle the sof4 tnow
for tOnh P040 StudeBt Is 351.69 A Cratetil Ratio of 27*s ldifte
that the ditBrene (88.28) lbee the amim is movt espI.'tteexn tbu
ashowng that. STOth erde fhtto stauddttrs a 1O Subseribe to health
0'400mptl to a ter dee tha dao t tat grae dt s.
dents iWu o aem ed w the beas of Health Womawiom Test **area,
Swth o cn its stents e a1X tbm to blbte to hoalth

Orua te - 2U COUM, the *n=6e of hmat miaxwomptimm 4 enrshes to
byr tetbh and tahttM grad abdmtst dexgPnessiverbtyte vN lte al3

2* See p* 3S2


Various Comparisons of Certain Seventh Grade Groups on, theBasis of Health

Grade Geographical Location

7th loth 12th E. Fla. Wo Fla*

Number . 989 938 702 543 466
Mean e -4 -454 : 31.69 4266 -4.*36 *4*76
8.l. .D .. 2726 30o.50 30,15 26.10 28,40
Diff. Msa 36,23 10.97 0.39
S.E.(diff.) 1. 1.5 1.7
* t(MT). 27.9 7.3 0.2

Type of Home
Sex Community Bace

Boys Girls Urban Rural White Negro

Number . 472 517 373 616 989 243
Mean . . -1.84 -7.02 -3.01 -5.47 -4.54 -26 57
S.D* *. 27,86 26,46 27.36 27.10 27.26 26*02

Diffe MS, 5*.1 2.46 2203

S.E.(diff.) 1,72 1.76 1.87
3.0 1.4 11.7

It is a t to note thlt ldl & lele1 '' a

:An ontlM f the gagbect mitnte divtidm fm as& grade#

no3 ag amapqnrmeq type o M r mepati wawratarotn i or tweftk graab2dos ("a* Tuble XV& P& 66)o 3=0v fM t &O eh Of
tb tbroo gredos, ealth asseamptai as lva* Activt and

AdvertisWe Pirotx we ouMnt to ra)k =n () 0sd t1 ()eRptivly

we reanod In thme lotno g war (3) aeW M Me Aid, (4) are aUe
renation and nietwtsaee (5) I. UamDUN Smith AMMM 'p (4O) Re
naasl assures, (7.5) Oral Itnglane (7*6) Fwd anda Btitrrio, (0) Pr-o
etes Maouex sbl X v~ (pv 6) frt o n t fact tat( a.

The macros =aMe %y 472 vMte bars m the Health Mat m Test
wew eiaspaad sth the somars mde by 817 hiMte g^rIs n the a-me test
(8*S Toblo XIII, p 51). The a- soame fr the boay is .1.84, while

that thMe atwm (5#t2) bem the Is Ins alufinawt, thus wvbg
at wath grad- mite gi1l as a whole ubawrwbe to hmaltb vlassncep
tiou Ia t greater degree than do the boW In the mem grrate vimn eaqpr
ad a to bess of asslh la mati rTat socra

and Lmusdo1 um ooaexalod tbat to a itwase tooeme awemth grade boy
and gIrl was aso mil as to be axworam (N* Table IV, p. 16) whea
eampared an the ba.s ot unfomdd bolief to ganera.l Rover, t is

ba saod girlsa o theaghh an nth grades to be W m iegalsanfc, wth
the ^rla ubsAeribba to unftunde bolifta in a greater degre than do the
baps, These oan iane were dUadteBllMood froam tuAe** ti

Bal sace JM a Sohool Puplla. Te qrCn Lordg X2WI
(otober ), ppa 3 5 -.
~' ~ i~t 1 a ~~~~w

~ P r~ Xa~~ lr8"4~

Phrcetage of Cp Omitting an
artg m T ie Involvin ga
Men. al Rk In D 4 Orde
4,on t eheBass of she ati Seventh Gde'
White Orauy r
989 472 817 3 $ 816 4* 24

1. Adults sometimes bec3me8 *S3 48 63 66 40 89 08
*.af overtefdy u 4" *4 4 4 4 4 : *
2. Some persons have the ability to "tell 7 8 2 8 56 6 5 4681 76

Sfortunest 3 2 3 3 28 4 2 *
30 Sane persons possess an oRvil PWO P 6t 68 59 56 58 61 53 6T

flow of blood in others* 5 4 6 5 5 6 4 4

hand foretell his future* 3 4 2 4 2 4 8 4

from your dreamse 6 4 6 4 5 6 4 6
Be it is unlucky to have arything to do with F 25 22 27 22 27 24 26 41
the number 13. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
9, if a person speaks about his good health. P 23 18 27 22 24 26 22 44
he should rap on wood oro1 he will soon 2 2 2 2 2 1 3.
become ills
1. Mental health is as importtat as physical T 2* 24 21 21 23 21 24 52
hoalth4 7 7 8 8 8 8 ? 4
11 All mental 4iseaso are inurbles F 16 15 17 13 17 14 18 28

Thto atudontse
** upper .n ber of each pair T OTAIS**4137 390 443 394 433 422 418 598
i*dicates the peroontage of the group ***40 42 49 47 44 50 4X 46
marking the itan incorroetly.
***The lowor number indicates the per- MEANS So 35 40 36 39 38 38 54
contago amitting the item. 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4

a er 1 pviseifs rweB ranked = the aon bvass f ar the Bjrls (See fable
4 -
WV. B"^^lfg .""T-*- T 8 u "^- ,s ^_^;.i.^ uMy^*f.^s i .?!9 -^w s'1-- y_^ ^ s,*BF B ^^ ^ 1^ ^ .'^ ^ W ^ .~ '"^".
: thfc *ft 4u~' *Mfffe nMij~j>_ 'r*:^tl
'" .'~ *~lf ^ ^p^iR-^ l^^ i f W i~fV ^^ W.^S i~r" f ^ K^ ^ ~ "W ^ p lii'K ^ ^ ^ ^~1*..i^
^ .: t ;**_ .. : ,. ' ' '' ^ * ., i' '' ': ' : ' '. *s *'1,
'> r '. * * I~u : : ^ .* ^ *f 'il
: :" "",. :H "-"'^' ~5: i^y ^ ^; ,w #^f if^~ w l*B*f~ll^ .^~fKIp ~ .' .IIISB B^ ', t"-51
'l- A:::':tll;iX iU '1ii>~ t ra-aa Me fe f ^ L JaL-. .-1,.'.---L ^'^ 'j. H i|tini--l~tie .mB'~~l M..:'M "-:-l^ & i" ":: ':'i
-* ~ ~ ir '^Hl^^^H^ H" ""^'-' -^!gB^B '.iB XKJB ^ ^ H, ^HK ^^ -^*^ ?1^ 'lM KIH *^ -B "HtMK : : j:: ''
-"i'w"^;'- ^ _i^ 4-'w W as" i|l iIf lH:" ^ ^:""^ S I^?"IB ) ""B ~ l lw ss i pl:' l |H: .." :/ 'f
*ia l 5 '' : ..... '. ?w. *6 .C ** "'"*.

TtBo E XT Seventh 1rd d Gr( .
Percentage of Cerai Goups O n
'* 'Q' "*:. **,'

7N 989 42 517 37 616 54 448 24

if a toothpaste or powder is used, will l*st 1 1 1 1 1 2

4. Mouth washes, such as Popsodent Antiseptio, F 71 70 73 71 72 70 73 7
aro valuable because they kill all harmful 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 3
5. Certain toothpastes will definitely and P 66 683 69 64 68 65 67 76
pormanntly correct an acid condition of 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

G The food which a child oats is of more im- T 48 49 47 43 51 45 52 53
portan in assuring a healthy sot of 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1

7. The gms normally blood ihon the teeth are F 39 39 39 36 4i 39 39 70
brushod. 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1
8. If a tooth does not hurt it must be F 37 33 40 35 38 36 38 51.
healthy* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
9. Thumb-suckin is a bad habit, but there is F 28 27 28 22 51 27 29 29
really no ham in lotting a child do so. 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 3
10. The boat way to brush the teeth is upward T 24 26 22 24 23 22 26 21
over tho lower tooth and downward over the 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 1
upper toothe
11. Gritty toothpastes or powders hasten the T 23 25 20 22 23 21 24 03
decy of teet~h by wearing away the onamel* 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
12. There Is no good roeson for going to the F 19 20 19 21 18 17 22. 39
xponse of filling the tomporary tooth 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1I
because they fall out later anyvwy.

White students.
** The upper nmber of each pair TOTALS**590 583 596 577 597 580 601 684
indicates the percentago of the ***23 27 22 27 23 23 27 25
group marking the item incorroctly.
*** The lower =umbr ibldicatos the MWANS 49 49 50 48 50 48 50 57

rol.a t bath "0 beiapAn the i. &Uw ;mm the tWA that t2W2 i
<'' .iI~a-'.."*." -' a-..|.' j. ,$.:l **s..**'. ':"*

*8-.^ft-^ai tl'M^^ uxr''i-c'ais-'be ** P .T' -p1 *AO'*^ I' i'ft-'^ *',& ** *'*.:'
*-*: .: '* ^ * * .a - ^ .. ^ * *^ ;f.
*& *|Srtll<'l~~~~o8Bfag-^ F ~~ :28*t 6^l- .ff';',8 *"r.
iwl ~ jt^a ,!el*W~c~ t ' l'. -ill'~i'^il:' T2| a^^ ^ *8- *a'- :,/;
*: .yI~ |lF^~l -l I 2,-1.'* I*'*
tt W '';l T^. ;||ffil|< ^ rS* ;8**( t 8.*2..'| ||. *''.
*;_ ...i~l **|| X .>f| -is~ilf l^ ,3- X 3 '2 .. ...I ':| *. :.*
*~~II; *:* i^1ii ;'s. f^ ? 3 2 @- *& 1 37 ''& ^ '. *
.*M^ ll<^F*^ ttl:'?S''ei^ '- I,' 1 |',. 3,*A '^

*|3 .n|- >* orl :-air- traS<605858SiT5f606f
'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .f, "^ea.o-l.' .*"2S ^ 22-2',2 S'M.'*
HlIpMi3a| f& ia 't m o y '* '*** ,': : :'*.'.*I
***Th lwo l~nor nc~cto to MENS 4949604850 8 0 7' *'.
.. .^ ii l 11^ !!^ i a *: '2 *lr -ll*|! '.C

i -., :-|t *ae'^^^ ^ ^ fa.. L,|^ ,-iA ih ria^ -- ^^^ jc.a t if~fim ^^ i ^-ifl Btr~if ^
_A~~~~~~~~~~~ff~~~":~ _ai I&M ''l F-A~ *' .A ffr fff"11** ""M M^ iOrTTf~vflf~il I rffjc '
:*'ffB all^:':Ig:" **"FB' *I^^ H^H^~lSIg--*Vy_;!Uii~j,:. t ".sWI F ~~^^ .*S;^ */* ^ .^^--''^.'^i";^"" "-,.-'. --<^^ "
fc^J~faf..fa igii.-ti~~~i~ ^ff*-- .icj^^A ^^^.-tf^ i(t~A-4li^|AM^ .bU *(a||fe*'if~c ^^|^B^ i- '""""
II^^H||g,^^p. ^^^HT"5^Hf"*^^l^^^B^^^^ ^^P|BF'~l^lB^^^ytl"^^ "^W^*.^plsy ^^y if.^^^' ".

.f,..j|^vii| ||t^|^^f^^< :ffj^fe :iK:^^^^^f :^B* a^^&^^Jitt:*:::^^^^i:ffl*i^H!B~;""'^
.^KBMBBII^BBBMM^^|^t-IM;aH rHK ^^B^ -'
:i ~ S;"^ l~^ B ^^BSII 'f p ".^ IF IB'. '' wyi slPii -."sK-AS! vf ^f^^ wy '* w' ^ *'^ -"~ ^T" ^": *~ """ .
".": "V "^ .^ i; s ^ i ,*I "/ i" ," " ' i !,,j
" i ^ """ \ |

quaontities of Ceras reooup Wiattin and hp
Ma rkinge, Thorelam est. gaorItem anvolm~es994Tinga9 14
Food anide Rtitins theody 6nDsodz 0
Orderong the Bsis of thentie Seventh 8

Ilil. Seaul rfoods and milk ""hould never be tae 1 8V 1719
togthr t hesae ea1 1 -r ISO"
Grad Ihie Group may M 0e and norse0498 1 86 AS 1

lep Mik contains all of to he essntal ele F N8 29 1 970 8 9
mentseof ae good dietn and in sufficenetse 2** 2W 2s 2 26 2 29
qu.)antiiegsk to inur goo healthi and nor-EB 8 4595
mal boc~y evelojent

2. oanges is o.gaefut an tomatoe Fod 73 71 76 72 74 45 750 78
form~~ ~~ acd in th oy 5 4 4 3
So A peron ean gte appendoicitisalby swkallw F 71 70 72 76 69I 72 70 79
ing the seed of oraronge r tapes. appes .6 5 7 5 6 5 7 d 4
~~I:de liver.s'

togethere sn atvbgg6b thea som mera 1 2 1 2S 16 26 1 14

6.Ter rsn iing grsi pasteurized sFi 63 60a 66re 6 544 63 46 60 69

'?* Drinkin milk frabes from sea th e o is an 555758 4 59 52 60
especially healthl p

8t. Fishers apraient fookd. Fn 4wdtr T86 53 44 51 46 50 48 65
he~~~ 3ae ihsft uigtesme 8 7 5 6 6 2
19. Thfr u eat the lie oftr a ioalb airnima F 547 48 45 54 42 45 49 59_
ietwil e of partwicular bhensefit to your 5 4 6 6 5 56 4
own ivea r., in
14. Therpe is ouldvnaet be gaineof tda ifrahe F 3576 14 25 396 34 37 31
usin pasteuized milk in place ofra 4 3 -2 4 4 3
sil E milk$~

15. othera coffebohcotinicab isaesn my be 4 2 6 31 2 5 322 19

6~ 6 7 6 7
spreadby ra milk

16 Oyther properl o pacood and cared for maydpd T 30 3320 33 35 29 41 36
beoetleupn with safet durng thae do.e 3 4 2 3 2 3 2 5
13. Ther ipse nomreanuritionach diffrec TTLS8 341 36 00 380 353 35 r8 71
beictwen anheg wioethagmie oshel andon 54 5 60 6 58 59 6 3
with aroin tine. o

14* Pheople mouldb bettericoff toda if N the 49 27 3250 29 27 35 al4
peenothige buitin raw food. 3 34 2 24 4 2 4
15* ea ad cofeebothcontin affene T23 2 2122 2 22 4 1
6 67 66 r
l~eTh aoun o fodwe ugt o at epnd T 0 0 9 9 2 2 1 1
moty;pnou ie n ha e o 1111

groupmarkig theitem ncorrctly
th oe me nictsteMS 4 9 95 94 85
percentage ;.ani tting the iten. 3 3 4 4 '4 4 3 3.~~;~;~, ,,';.,,~~,~i~;~,,~~::~,;,, .~~I


Percentage of Certain Gkt *G omitting and
Marking Incorrectly Test -tmee Involv ig *-^
Physical Activity, Ranked in Descending
Order on the Basis of the Entire Senth LO,

N 989 472 517 373 616 643 446 243

1. Bveryane should engage in deep- F 9:**90 9n 93 91 91 71 95
breathing exercies daily. 1***l 1 1 1 1 2 1
2. Sea bathing is beneficial to one's 74 73 7 77 2 73 75
health due, primarily, to the high 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 *

3* The toes should be pointed outward in P 59 69 60 61 69 59 68 81
walking. 2 2 1 2 2 2 1
4 Athletes will find sugar a source of T 59 59 59 60 58 58 60 60
quick energy. 6 8 8 7 8 6 7 8
5. The majority of high school athletes 5 57 50 53 54 54 5 68

6. Tan minutes a day given over to settingo F 0S 50 51 52 50 51 49 67
up exercises will be suf ficient to care 5 5 7 4 5 5 4
for the physical needs of the body.
7. In order for an exeroise to be good it P 42 47 38 40 44 44 40 54
should produce soreness and stiffness 3 2 4 3 4 5 3 3
as a result*.

*White students.
T** Th upper nuimber of each pair TOTALS**429 45 426 436 428 430 386 504
indicates the percentage of the *** 28 26 32 32 28 28 52 24
group marking the item incorrectly.
***The lower mber indicates the NWS 61 62 61 62 61 061 55 72
percentage amitting the item. 4 4 5 6 4 4 5 3

ws anteson ss tba t&4 that # a tsense
"^B(^f ijM|kjg!^JBJBI!^| fy~BB^ Bi -PI'iy B'g^ l~W~l~rs~n~|._i~.."lir."? ii""' ""^' "~ -*.. ^ es '"-*- sr i ".

:i *i :;1^.ji a ^: jff~i^ga~ a ^'''~l-.^ .:ic ^ -Rk : *c~^ ^ gi^k a''jliaf~~e&ae :**"I~ lt itfa~ rt^ a~iB'
ZBJCBB 2^f..lujffafiFHPLjjXaTBMI'QUl'Skif fZlt XB
I'F^ ". ^*"^ s^''', 1*"^* W SS B 'M lall ""^ *p ?"s^~ *"*^ S P f^ ^ ^ nty .fiw^i-.-i"*ii s1"?8 '^,.^s^ l ^'^ ^BIJF.fl^If-
.-M~tB~A' *BM : yi ^.. *a|f',|^|l^.^-*_ ^ .f;^ ,.,. adf^3a*i^if*j..^itc. .. !~i-'r" Mfe.,f6ai A ^i :.:iiMal~e
JM^nf'Hi~i:11 *HIB'^fl^fiMR IH^^fBMII' BMl' 'fylBI~ffff 'vm1 jMB~nMHE ii~TO^::
il~icii^^f^^j^ ^^i^ ^ ^.-j "'.^^ c.: .^( -i.iiil1 -,^l *'irariii ai ^*. fa-fc^', ",i~ ~i" f~ii 1 ^ifc -aai-'^~a.j *"jft|l|..-*tty^ni'" fefei "lfe^.. '.""""-.
xHZ^^^B^BIm^^^^^~ft' <'HilF:ffl^^BI^^BI~ "^B~iX^^I^^fc *B''tf* i^^^^Bi^X^'S~^^aH~i^^'~l~S ^S^SB~i '*fl^^B'"^^Hll
:i _i i : : :ij".^"| ^^p i^^S^'*"^W I^BII^I^ ^^ 1'' ^^'^f ^ jR"Hf~l~,-,Bpa '*WSW. 'j^I" tB^
"" *t'lii'^ly~llla -Jm^Atfct'^^^ ^^^ afee^'^ ^Cjfey aj^a- ,* -f- -llifclt *->--** '*afe.^lifcac. ^ tefc ""Mfll'l- ^fe^ ^-*. .^..'...^' t .3^1^- '. "
'^I~~w^^H^Me1 ti~i^ *r^^^rMB^^K'nP"i~l^H^^BCsliB' ViSt~s ^jH^BB^ xX Bg~ixiU- *^IL:'l^bX^^^i~iHRHH^H~l1
-' ... ^ .aa^.a^ ie ^^. lc 4.. W ^ac^i fc^^.~A .c_.t.A -.t fi^.^.i;,,A- -iU i-N ^-i^^f. '''
**^^g--^MI^M~ffim^--fe : -^^ M *^jQfll^-fflfl^ i::"^l-5 I''IBB-I 'HBI~~BB
.. il~p 8!^^i^ ^^ ^B^" ^*^lf^-"IB^PIP^^^i3oB^^~~f^lP ^~ w^I^ "Sym '* f^^plpIKHI^II^
*"" "* JI f~~t t ~ ~ > M ^f tt 'f e gti t f ifi M H i ^ ~ k if i~i

^ :; .^ ;^ ** .. ''" ..' : .' '** .' ** ..'*

N 989 472 517 373 616 536 446 243
1. Boils are causd by bad blood attpting 82**77 87 82 82 85 79 69
to rid itself of impurities. 3***4 3 3 4 3 4 8
2. Colorblindness is a disease of the eye F 71 69 74 71 72 73 69 76

which may be cured by proper treatment* 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 5
oessive appetite in the patient. 1 8 6 8 6 7 7 7
4. Pain in the left chet is most likey 66 63 70 69 65 68 73

6. Hy fever is a disease of the noses F 63 59 67 70 59 65 62 44

7a : $ if not an entirely healthful habit for F 62 62 63 58 64 63 61 77
one to sleep on his left side because such 5 4 5 7 3 5 4 2
a position hinders the heart's action.
8. Milk normally curdles as soon as it T 60 55 64 60 60 58 62 51
reaches the stanach. 6 4 8 10 3 7 5 6
9. A pain in the back indicatea the presence F 66 51 61 49 6Q0 52 61 79
of kidaey disease. 6 6 7 8 5 7 5 4
10Q. A cold bath is an exo11et tonic for all F 6655 58 S3 52 57 65 55 60
peoples 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 1
11 Growing pains are a sign of growth and F 54 48 59 51 55 53 54 51
.occur in all healthy boys andirs. 53 3 3 2 4 .4 2 3
12* Most i alneses are caused by constipsat$on. F 60 51 0SO 47 652 583 47 60
5 4 5 5 5 4 6 2
13. Chilling the body reducoes the efficiency T 47 46 48 41 50 46 48 46
of the bo* y defenses in roesisting bacteria. 16 14 18 20 13 16 15 11
14# The wearing of eye glasses causes ono to F 46 48 48 41 49 43 45 74
"get used" to then, hence one should put 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4
off wearing them as long as possible.
15. If a child picks his nose, it is a sign P 54 31 38 27 539 356 33 79
he has wose. 6 5 6 7 5 6 6 2
16. Removal of the tonsils always rosults in F 32 34 31 28 35 51 34 62
some injury to the voice or ears. 2 53 2 2 3 2 5 1
17. All cancers are incurable. F 24 25 25 253 25 20 28 40
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5
18. Habitual bead posture will produce bone T 16 17 16 14 17 16 16 21
bchanges on boys and girls. 6 6 7 4 7 5 7 2
19* Frequent sore throat may be a sign that T 13 16 11 14 13 13 14 11
onea tonsils are diseased and shoiuld be 1 1 1 1 1 1' 1 1
removed. __
White students.
The upper awbar of each pair TOTALS**980 9531013 931 986 978 9671117
indicates the percentage of the *** 94 89 100 105 88 97 94 76
group marking the ite incorrectly.
'bt'he lowe' r Wrmber Indicates the VMEAS $2 50 53 49 52 51 51 59
percentage amitting the itea. 5 5 5 6 5 5 6 4

; Contagit and Infection, Ranked in 4 &1

Entire eventh Gradi i roup

breaks out* I 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
fever, te) is capable of transmitting,,

only a mild case to another individual.
5. Cold and influn germs are present .in 39 37 42 38 40 42 S6 38
the nose and throat of most healthy people. 5 5 5 8 3 5 3
8. There is a relationship between infoted 3 6 36 35 356 36 55 54
tooth and various fous of bodily disturb- 9 8 11 9 10 9 11 7
7. Approximatoly ninety per cent of all people T 36 37 34 38 35 35 37 24
have at ono time or other been infootod 9 8 10 9 10 10 9 6
with the gona which causes tuboroulosis.
8o A cold is most important because it may be T 31 33 30 26 35 28 35 28
the symptom of any one of a number of di- 6 6 6 5 6 6 5 2
seasos comuon to ohildhood.
9. Tuberculosis is not inherited altho the T 31 33 29 29 32 31 50 23
child may inherit haoe conditions which 11 10 11 12 10 11 10 6
favor his oontracting the disease at an
early date.
10. The malarial mosquito travels only at F 51 33 29 32 31 29 35 53
night. 4 5 4 6 3 5 4 2
11. Not all bactoria are harnful to mankind. T 26 23 29 26 27 23 30 41

12. Tuberoulosis may be contracted throughi T 26 24 29 26 27 29 23 19
kissing* 3 4 3 5 3 4 5 1
135. Whooping coughisnot a vey dangerous or F 285 28 23 25 25 24 26 40
serious disease. 2 5 1 1 2 2 2 1
14. A child may appear to be the best of T 19 20 18 17 21 18 21 15
health and at the same time have tuberou- 2 2 2 4 1 3 1 1
losis Of the lungs.
15. The moquito nts as the host for the T 10 14 6 8 11 10 9 11
malarial parasite* 5 4 6 5 5 5 6 6

SWhite studnts....
** The upper number of each pair TOTALS**514 519 512 505 524 507 524 585
indicates the protage of the *** 80 77 86 90 77 84 82 53
group marking the itn incorroctly.
***The lower number indicates the S 34 5 34 34 35 54 35 39
poroentage aomitting the itom. 5 5 6 6 5 6 5 4
. :. ': **'.. '.-.t : 'I S '*V "* t .*' I: **'8 "*"'**
.~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ,**Ty.Iaj.|^~^ ,:*." :: *. ;'-;*. :::.*' : ;*.* *
*". ai~ -A'aa i.^ sf::^ '^ ^ ....' ";';":* *;': ... -ti;',*;\:,/**. :.:i:B *
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : ,:S-iy| aS laalwi^i~ 'i * l.. 'l'Si-''f'|s'*S*''';'*MA

** . ':Q| *li@|*'~aa?''%ii^^^ 'S. "f ***"'S- ff 'i *'**- "..'.-.''1
<&* i~ ^ -.a, ;^ a<^isa|(*^ -a JI~ll^ *". *t8' :S ,i|-SS : iSS .& ; .I ; * .*;** '*. ';,'i,
', .~B ftil^:Q -Tx^ .*' ^ .~ iS'~~fc 13.~ '*I? ~ it. .- B.* 't ;'*
'N s ~~~~~~~ft.~~~ :" .** ** ';. ** e ' *' *.*' **.- .^; *.' ,' ; ^ .
* '' *?. tjlge wst^ l .-a^ .M at. |B ^ 8 '* '.:"***'c
'N^ ^'<^^$lir*#fc:'~e~li^ ''* ** *.*'a as *i9. 6*. I.'" '''***
. 9? ; fs9 ,g afi'< i~ e *e ^ .?JI . .**' -* *'* '*-:-:

r .., 'ol 's.- rf; te p lifaai' "b oa~t~s.';i*t;:la(**'be -$3 88** 0 "8 ; M .'2 'U 2 ',**.;.'.'*..:::
:.~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 's fi6^^lfiiof*.ag'o:"r *tnlo f*&-*'.- 6 6 ''*6 ''*- a''."''"
; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .r .aD;|iMi4 -** '' **:':."* -*.
:9 ^lrlrsl '% .98 Siy 3'8S ., 'i:'

18x~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ,cpB*eu -sntawyAaeois 52 32 62 64 '' I'I8
8sy MA*a~i'3y:qi~~'-~ *a.Uh betrt 192 1 7 11 821 15
ibebl~at iftd 'O^Sffk'sis ltitw btwe'2*2'*.* 1.s 1'l *.
.IdN a *qff''^Ix.-.llligs: '' ' ;:*.,!
l6..l^ fliai~|B'8^ fl8*.*

,:: :m zz S ..4 i .ouI


N 989 472 517 37 616 54 44 3 'i
1. Returning canned food to the refrigerator F 89**88 90 90 89 88 90 90
in its oriinal conta r after it has 1** 1 1 1 1 1 0
been partly used will cause tin or lead
2. Medi ited *soaps ha the power to kill F 76 74 78 74 77 75 77 83-
germs. 4 3 4 5 3 5 3 4
3. A piece of bacon applied to a wound made F 59 68 60 57 61 60 58 72

y a r y ail wll peet l 7 8 5 6 7 29 E

he han an ailsaeeal el F 57 56 60 56 58 54 61 80
y w g tm wh sp ad w 1 1 1 1 1 0
SA daily mning cold bat will mak e 43 44 43 4 43 45 42 53
Time to colds 3 3 4 4 '4 3 4. 38 2
6. When you cough or sneo, if you turn F 36 30 3 3 31 35 52
your head away frcm people to whom you 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
are talking, it is all right notQ to
owrer your mouth with a handkerchief.
7. It is quite sensible to expose children F 32 2 32 29 34 2 36 52
to the so-called children's diseases 5 4 7 4 6 6 5 4
(measles, whooping cough, ohicken-po,
scarlet fever) on the bas that they
will get them anyway.
Be If the breeding places of mosquitoes were T 32 39 27 33 32 33 52 19
eliminated there would be no malaria. 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 4
9. The action of sunlight upon the skin aids T 27 26 27 23 29 27 27 41
in the prevention of rickets. 9 7 10 9 9 8 9 7
10. Cold baths are beneficial because they T 22 23 21 21 23S 21 23 18
train the blood vessels in the skin to 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 2
respond quickly to changes in temperature.
11. Children with colds haould be excluded T 16 15 17 14 17 16 16 11
fro school. 1- 2 1 2 1 1 2 0

White students*
** The upper umber of each pair TOTALS**486 490 485 475 496 479 497 571
indicates the percentage of the *** 40 38 46 43 40 41 43 25
group marking the item incorrectly,
*The lower number indicates the MEANS 44 46 44* 453 45 44 45 52
percentage aitting the item*. 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 2


etuntaisens realtmg In n -tm mae e en e -it ***sp = me

TABLE XI Sevtenth Gradeat Grcu

Rmedial Measures,, Ranke ?sed- r-4 *. d r4 rZ $-*n ; : :-:
Order on the Basis of the Entire Seventh f % b 6
Grade Mhite GroupCAC ia
X 989 472 517 375 6168 54 446 245
1. Gargling with salt water and vinegar will F 71**70 72 73 70 70 75 80
kill the ges causing a sore throat. 4***5 4 5 53 4 4 1
*::n'" *lI .oU si .o*:. .8 "..:2 6^ .
2. A laxative should be taken whenever a per- F 67 65 70 69 66 65 69 62
son has a stomachache or abdominal pain* 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2
The ue of ertain cometic reams and lo- F 65 62 67 61 68 65 66 79
tions will in itself insure a clear coam 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 4
4. Some medical doctors of good standing F 62 7 66 63 61 6 60 76

pses for serious diseases, sure cures 6 5 6 7 5 7 5 5
which are u iluown to other physicians*
5. Sulphur and molasses is an effective, even F 59 60 59 59 59 60 59 58

tho old-fashioned, reetdy for impure blood. 9 8 10 12 7 8 8
6. Ablack e is best oured by applying a F 58 64 53 68 52 64 52 64
piece of raw beesteak. 6 5 6 5 7 5 7 6
7. There is muh truth in the old sing 58 54 59 53 58 57 55 62
Feed a cold and starve a fever". 5 4 4 5 4 4
8. A spoonful of sugar with a few drops of F 54 49 58 49 57 53 55 60
kerosene will oure a sore throat. 6 8 6 9 5 6 7 3
9. A druggist can be relied upon to prescribe F 50 -47 54 49 51 50 50 60
the correot medicine in case of illness. 7 7 6 6 7 7 7 6
10. A medicine ich is eseially F 50 49 51 4 51 51 48 62
able intate or very complex omposi 7 6 8 6 8 6 9 6
tion is most likely to be very effective.
11. Orange juioe and baking soda will defi- F 47 47 47 48 47 51 42 58
itely cure a cold. 8 7 9 7 8 7 9 7
12. Lemon juie appied to th skin will F 46 41 49 42 48 45 47 72
* ra ove freckles. 7 8 6 9 5 7 7 6
13. Iron given to a person n the form of F 41 35 47 37 44 42 40 44
simple filings or rust of iron will make 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4
that person stronger.
14. All abnormal conditions of the eyesight F 38 47 31 39 38 42 54 46
can be corrected by proper exercises. 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4
15. Acholic drinks have great virtue in F $ 40 81 32 37 31 40 45
the treatent of colds. 7 6 9 10 5 8 6 4
16. The best doctors believe that people who 33 33 533 56 31 35 32 40
have colds should stay in bed. 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2
17. Weight reducing may lead to broken health T 16 18 16 15 18 15 17 10
unless carried out under the advice of a 4 5 5 5 3 4 4 2

hito students.
** The upper number of ach pair TOTALS**848 886 862 840 86 857 838 978
indicates the percentage of the *** 91 88 92 102 81 90 91 74
group marking the item incorrectly.
*** The lower number indicates the MEANS 50 49 51 49 50 50 49 58
percentage omitting the iten. 5 5 5 8 5 5 8 4

TAM xxi zSevent Grade Gro

Markn Incor ar t Iteams In olvin

Grade Vftite Group a p
N 989 472 p17 373 616 543 446 243

the:: 1 : wter three ti:e bere finay s l 1***1 1 1 1 1 1

*will stop a nosebleed. Il

One cannot get too much unshines 1 62 55 69 57 66 62 41 68
4.* Clay applied to a bee sting will draw out F 58 0 56 63 g. 56 60 s9.;,:::
the poison.
.factory way to stop it fr bleeding* 4 4 6 3 4. 3 2.
6. Throwing a person into deep water is an F 5 538 53 48 66 55 54 68

7. A person can *tell fr the taste, odor, F 51 4856 5 52 52 0 0 9
and appearance of water whether or not it 2 1 2 1 2 2 2

10. Lightning never strikes twice in the 4 7 41 56 36 4 0 .
same plac. 4 4 5 6 3 4 2 4
9 Mercurochr me, the water solution, as pur* F 65 636 538 8 56 4S 34 6:i
chased in drug stores, is as good an anti* 4 5 4 5 4 4 9

310. Rbbing one eye will help to remove a F 34 87 41 37 3S 38 5 34 37
cinder from the other eye* 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 4

4The upper -nber of each pair TOTALS**-62 527 573 538 560 541 4 668
indicates the percentage of the group 30 25 35 40 26 34 27 33

***, The lower number indicates the per- MES 65 53 57 54 56 54 : 4 67

tst (So TAb 3245 V* a) fto mm 00c fr the wrban stadwft to
^ ^^~i8-^^Mr'^Mllll^'^^^' ^U^JKl^ "t~f'^MHk' tttfiiK' if~l' ^lti"a^^^. nflte'iel f JR '! '
.* ,. ^B^'-^g^K-~I.'jiiiig^ *^^'~ *^i{.yipc.p|||B| / .;-*.
~~~~: :**.~ .!

I^: *s '^ **SiyHw^-fiHf W^ ^Hn~l ^I^:i~~^l|l ll' UM fw^ ,::
** ^ iaFr'ftrt, an imi4nfninnl rii iniiml niit tilt**... '':::;
.;.*:.,. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6 "11 .: ,^c''"*g;~p'~*ll Bi>l;>y^IP-|pH^ ^^I-a^'^^:'^p^l|^^*^~|^ *
^V'';'. "'M^^^c1fltl1 ^'* ^^lj^ 'it.Jttt ^~clil "d a r 'llhi. *^ m .j-**' .:

**;'**;;;:**/ **:V II W ^ ^ ~ 'E'*^ I .'B^ B | '11 j~ 'B I^^*'*:'


TABLE 2CIZI Seventh Grade Groups

Percentage of Certain Groups Omitting and *
Marking Incorreotly Test items involv ; n ;,:
Advertised Products, Ranked in Descend'ing P 0
Order on the Basis of the Entire Seventh b o
Grade White Group M 0
. *'i" .ft ::i !:

N 989 472 517 373 616 543 448 243
l. Listerine should be used in cases of sore F 82**78 85 81 50 83 80 82
throat because it promptly kills all harm- 1***2 1 2 1 1 2 1
ful gemons s.
2. The bost treatment for weak arches is to F 81 76 87 83 81 82 80 74
have *011-fitting arch supports placed 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 4
in the shoes.
3. Ex-Lax is a chocolate covered, non-habit F 79 73 84 82 77 80 78 84
forming, laxative which will correct oases 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2
of constipation without danger to. one's
4. Ipana Toothpaste will cure the condition F 71 83 78 73 70 70 73 74
known as "pink toothbrush". 4 6 4 5 4 5 4 2
5. Bottled mineral waters will restore health F 70 88 72 72 69 70 70 72
tomal y persons who are ill., 3 4 4 3 3 4 2
68 A person with round shoulders should wear F 69 65 74 68 70 71 68 74
a brace to correct this defect. 4 4 5 4 4 3 6 4
7. The chances of catching cold are cut in P 65 61 68 87 83 58 60 65
half if one gargles with Popsodent Anti- a 3 4 4 3 3 4 2
septic or Listorino.
8. The vapor inhaled froa placing a few drops F 61 58 63 62 60 60 63 63
of Vapex on a handkerchief will kill the 7 6 8 8 6 7 8 6
bacteria causing a cold.
9. All-bran breakfast food should be eaton by FP 4 60 49 63 65 64 42 66
all people who are constipated. 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 1
10. A "patent medicine" is so callod because F 54 54 54 55 54 53 56 55
it has actually boon patented. 11 9 13 11 12 12 12 9
11. Bromo Seltser is a safe headache remedy F 54 53 55 54 53 53 55 68
for all people to use. 8 5 12 9 8 9 8 6
12. Cold water is just as effective in cono T 48 49 46 43 51 46 50 48
tracting the pors as any skin tonic or 4 3 5 5 35 4 4 5
astringent purchased in the drug store.
13. Yeast will oure all forms of constipa- F 44 42- 46 47 42 46 41 47
tion. 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 2
14. Only trustworthy and reliable claims are F 40 40 40 39 41 42 38 65
made for health preparations advertised 8 7 9 9 8 8 8 5
over the radio.
15. Certain bath salts will reduce one's F 32 36 29 30 34 31 84 55
weight easily and effectively. 6 6 6 7 5 6 6 6
16. A sick individual is much more prone to T 31 31 32 25 35 29 34 25
belie in advertised cures than a healthy 6 6 5 7 5 6 6 5
White students.
** The upper number of each pair TOTALS**935 907 962 944 915 938 9221017
indicates the percentage of the *** 79 75 89 90 76 80 88 60
group marking the item incorrectly.
*** The lower number indicates the VMANS 58 57 60 59 57 59 58 64
percentage omitting the item. 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 4


TABLE 337V Seventh Grade Groups
Percentage of Certain Groups Omitting and *
Marking Inoorreetly Test Items Involving *(D d
Miscellaneous Health Misconceptions, Rank.* m r

ith a pin-than with a needle. 1**1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2, Powdered glass can cause death when mixed F 83 84 82 85 82 83 84 80
with food. 4 3 6 5 4 5 4 3
3. The X-rayns nable the doctor to look into P 76 73 79 79 74 77 75 85

t hepatient'sbody and observe the various 2 1 4 2 2 2 3 2
organs at work.
4. Some persons actually have double joints. F 71 68 73 75 68 73 68 85
3 2 4 5 2 3 4 2
5. Men who are very hairy, especially if they F 56 56 56 54 57 53 60 80
haveroan bundant growth n their chests 4 1 7 6 2 5 3 2
and limbs, are possessed of great physical
6. Patent medicines are consumed, largely, by F 50 48 53 51 50 51 49 48
the intelligent and well-informed people. 12 10 14 12 12 11 13 7
7. Shaving the head will promote a better F 49 51 47 46 51 48 49 52
growth of hair. 4 3 4 6 2 5 2 2
8. Proper temperature, humidity, and circula- T 46 43 48 42 48 45 47 47
tion are more important factors in ventila- 10 9 11 12 10 12 8 8
tion than the carbon dioxide content of
the air.
9. If an expectant mother is frightened the F 46 41 50 41 49 44 49 76
child will be marked by birthmarks. 11 9' 12 13 9 11 11 6
10. The marriage of cousins *s practically F 43 44 42 35 48 41 45 53
ertain to result in children of inferior 9 8 11 12 8 11 7 8
11. Sme individuals have had their hair turn P 42 43 41 46 40 41 43 47
gray quite suddelyfrom fear or right. 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2
12. Baldness is due to the too frequent wear- F 40 44 37 42 39 40 40 54
S ng of hat or to ight hat-bands. 5 4 6 5 5 6 4 4
13. It is harul to have flowers in ones F 33 32 34 32 34 31 35 35
bedroom at night. 2 3 2 4 2 2 3 2
14, Chewing gum will definitely enhance a F 32 30 34 31 83 30 33 63
girl's facial beauty. 6 7 6 8 5 7 5 6
15. If a person touches a toad or a frog he F 31 28 35 30 32 29 32 56
Swill get warts 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
16. Fever sores are often caused by kissing. F 30 33 27 32 29 32 27 51
3 3 3 4 2 3 3 2
White students.
The upper nuber of each pair TOTALS**814 805 824 808 820 806 820 987
indicates the percentage of the ***69 67 94 99 70 88 74 59
group marking the item incorrectly.
** The lower nber indicates the MEANS 51 50 52 51 51 50 51 62
percentage omitting the item. 4 4 6 6 4 6 5 4

iiu i jii f f i 1 1111

4 a EI '
(r "iti
: t- Ik
iC I I ,, ',L i

ti.fmt dttyiatims send tr rackbC tf both ubm fibna mil st ofi s 4laso
exeusmm adn ft ha ewe Is no a* mcubstsmn typo ot beelth-r

tme cuatadon ate usit greaseow. man, Howpfrh amul 1, ro"42na
the Mfht 4H~k to*kll- ItOl IB ift PJ-K m jlhW-1KVU^"^ O MftNfe t lUBd lllBhIMtel

tod aSOMW mod ast AM # a w# tenov *e ead tree fepasa or both
Wbmon =As rwr4 Opo#e amtoq&nos -- low*sme 1ms mis ek IasIn.
aetter at to tareadbo neR ma 4twmmacso Fstwu"4e test Item
sa=emsew Pwwwewtse sNGsures,# Mode al klh Md oCatangis $ad MOMO
rmUhod atwo to%* eatd Aw*w .****t -e* "sum low* r*****e**
UEoA Sjitsn (Xta rsne Isw femw to ueS t etwem tHreNMaMMW ftthe mb-
Hcwt anoe 4divissaims neMM Maro to *$Ot im.lus****

The Dowlt Wamostlms Twte oware at 4 sovnmth grvde vhfto
studmus IAsvfs In Burt Florida wwr omaqved vdte asees sift m tj*
sme tste by "S studmUt at th e am*a gr*AoraiUg In Wwet nars& (See
Tabe s.n, pB 5)*o Umom oee to BxAs Plaes& atudefts Is fiy,*
vhta the 4me saw*e tder West 95elrft wtudM Is -4676# A QeasWa
Rnatio lt (62 *dentm tba t te Twt erame (o9) b6b43m asth seaee is
ond "vAftsonK tn. shMoft tbot s11t1 pas" wbasons aIn ]Sh t s wta
flfrifses ^ ed boo44 hteo axo in ilaltftesy the gas (S0
gre* iwhe emqpaeo mt a bes ot usafh aesuftllt4 ten mocreso
Thu w.. seenes&es, ft a sen e. ot
awtcv in wwge h,-...we*la that prmmanseerw*ouse
t hems ow ar wusmtt ol ba e

The seste iTooJnil ft mftm of newwman ethe V Aftxt stu er
uvie in ast narsei were u.mi.m. to aegQrbasi the yaswah* mpomng

X* asseas p SMOO PO e.*

Subject Matter Divisions, Ranked in Descending Order onI the Basis of the

Seventh Grade White Groups

Physical Activity 61** 62 61 62 61 61 55 72 151 46

Safety and First Aid 55 53 57 54 56 54 i54 67 40 36

and Disturbance 52 50 53 49 52 51 51 59 41 38
Miscellaneous Health 5 41 5
.1.. 7 . .T5: 5e5 7

Remedial Measures 0O 49 51 49 0 50 5 49 58 34 28

Food and Nutrition t 49 7e5 1 -7 49 8 50 5 1 a' 8 785. 48 8 59 8 5 4 9 6 35 61

Preventive Measures 44 45 44 43 45 44 145 52 *M34 31 1

Mental Health 38 35 40 36 39 38 38 54 19 15
Contagions 1 1 __x8iOe 6_11 .*
and Inftctions 34 356 34 134 35 39 23 20
* Rank.
** Mean Percentage*

W O ftlY fem a O& teafat te oby at_ itt disal3me 4 Th S 5m pro.
*8dur ma. thited MA* aesenoth &nde 4 the satdents 4 vi in A5 ;eet Pla0 A
(M ,T0 s UT t0 =f pY 58-W8 o the sa.aet netter di.stais wer

=M""tty to*y it"- 1%1 Sulk e ft *beft ab*b fJttumsd |a|||1
MweIA on ifct maot batde to W ftft ntrftd OW&MaUan abaft fa Tab2* Xz

Sg ftc both Must =Bt we* VIWrI& stuAateos Hies te fht that thwe

Uiay tehe aom* m~w *Wrb- of V at eash Vd e

*o woares met 989 No lafth Zade *Ate habtume a he
XktwUh ktensti4= Tset 1wo omparea wM te 11M mW* byr 20 meth

ner INabdIns In "a6*r. A Wrme1 atioat n.7 bIfto that the
attra e (aW) beteno thoe moam 1 xoat alt bto sho
tbut swiinth Cafegro satut as a whole fsUe to bat assee
*optima InoL afct s 0 dep" etben do vhito studants oftho ow e g

it Is to got* tba thiabud= wu been tates

the vidto abud*a This el was basft wam dift 6lafted rma

p Teta wPu o seQwtK craft mo stabats ns e sneoee.
3 toot tA In oh at t se t afttk ftIira 3 alum in Tables

xv t MYW (pp* 5645)* MW Subjqab amyt divatea wee anald cc
Jwt U*tdrt v "dl et** rftf more ta m musos ttem Is

to rm* M-tre in mwe of r %Uma, rounamw iotn ip= by on pereasie
ftL (4&,) ftfftV Md rare sAM* (3) AftertsA.d ?tregna4 (4) Mmln. bwm
RWa2h 9teasOM"tid=* (6) argeaO ?=GUMta UAn Dstrbeamoo (6) Ra...nW
Umewsse (7) Oral Iftlate, (8*5) Poodand Wat ritim, (8#6) Woutal an"Ih,
(10) Prwmtie Somwues, and (U) cOwtmsseaw w Mmresatax6 it is
quite elpsin tt hat t"e rank wdel of 1ubjew6 mutbor Adiiate| for migro
onsbudm eoaloe1 aprembeet thbat othe a*nb seat enmb ade white groupp

WasOMsat botieto ratbssg to heate fr oumd to be effst* prev%-
2,4f *Waf sveth grd am" uf*$ md t appeara *At ftNal efteatten ha
faledt U a =%rto do"re to slmeanot oartaiu hwalth v&esspm f he
e. bou t sm aSt ttrn ba

There As no me "pp at humlh min**A* p om g bA rnel afm*"INOc
ofah nant wofh grade white gpoebaasa hae

Sewth stado vltot stuxents abearibe to bQadth quie we mta "
In a muc razowbwr dege t do tnth 4w twel| erat e th te students*
Vito 91rUe In tho swaft zrade wahmeribe to homlth misooneep.
Mtam In falswt dectre tbon do vbite boys a the isge rraveo
Samt Mulde mbithe abtudeta rescidM ing uB w-mittes sub-
eamibe to hoith adisramepftimas It apAswtately7 tehame deWee as do
ruraa stu nt

hi~ft sftmutbs or tho "efmt radIe 1Tkrg in Bat ReXdfta 0*0


SMNbe to hw~th adamanFta $am ie as su

Nw reo ashdombss r te osehors waft mbarie t *a. t

e in F-t = mb greater dogree thm do rtm*e atu t oa f the
Tbce is no m* type of bealth m^m et
sevens sen awa 1 *e, say*, girs;e er
r:~ ploriems Imt or amevs aroupo



Tbu Otwt proposed, amg other tsage to toertaIn t* welre
tie prwalawe of aertarba ealth xiseanaeptim a*s a ubew rlbbd to by tenth
graft studenba In the pab35e schools of Floridf ad to ab*e ewtala eams.
pariane mn the beai of grade, aa, typ" of home e* mity, geographieal
otima enad r e*
Deft wore colleed Pmw 9S8 idto studwets In the tmfth graets
vise, 466 boy and 482 girl*, S 47 atudnate reoidg in urban oammitle
and 91 students lUvIsg to rurm ooaunses,1 W atudents. 1iMsg In awt
Flria and 3B abtudentBs inIn wevt Floridr.2 For purpoe of xapa
loan, data wmr oollected ftas 1I0 negro atudenta In the sme, grade. A
que-ati aire*, kow as the Health Inforaatan Test, contalnUtg 10 sate-
matea served an the instruenwt for eeetb* the deta. The reliobilty
ooetfiolent obtblnAd for s tot as .906
The OB InHenat Tests vhtoh had been eseaInated to
tenth grade whte stud-nt wer assembled together In we group am& of
the 150 test Itee =a then *booked to aeowtain the total nmbr of taes
It had been atted said the toal xnuber of tmas It had bea marked Is-
earratly by ths groump. The total I *sobh oe was eaported into a pw

I.* SO po S0.
S, See po 300
3* See p* 3316

- and reorded to te naa pw *. o peese of t
,bit* A Se aadats makag m& test Im In Sarrently eandthe respeotiy*
rank at aa It= ewo ar Inm TSW XaMe (Y* 72)o ?h* pen~antae of oa-o
dwg aw .a t-t iem -n- r e- frm two per oe (2$) to

etWof pr ee (e1, a per *a* MOW) Qt meeft
stray~ee pw *ato (W),O mri Q3 riftye-our per sent (&AK)l An BI *a-
*sa of tobtained data sediot" t*o t*.h sens vne xtusense sub-
aarse to werealn ao l**h k*h In a marked Sepes ** Mail we do
mtc ko uMet the stw.ard ot -abloo dbM2 be Ti teah rade stu"
dente t ragpea to bM conoepitAms, aserthe It a tppears ftrn
an *xwzirt *p of the deft that =Wy mftouwUd belt r(64tta to haitb
we quthe prevalent* dn atibta that ftora eduatie bas failed In
a mrk^et dagrw to eliminfte oartan hwath from the wbeo
of tOAth grtdeon V=t* StanG4
19f trived at e. salaer *afafther o4duottg on f

taftebw training*
The toot Item were then groupe eaearding to thedr reepective
subjec matter diviit=2 and ranked in dBUKdlM oarder i the bpass of
the pereeptage of tefth graft vbite studens nasrkIMac nh item inoorrect-
37 (seo wasteS rmM to xxMxVin ppq aome)*
Aon of .ti of thte subje ntter sans in d

so-M ordw the boaI of a e so= pensage of xotuds markin In,
Searra tseo iteI tn each temisaiw nealtes tat 3har isn oa tpe

aof health* al bn chwaterl of th mal teath ade white

gra* (se Table anxf p. 9BF* Sh. gouswer test iteamd tnovsat Ptmttl&
*. PMena abadar OB a t bin of .th il proeabaw oa ebers, te1

o SX I B t It r It

1. 1 PalMotcn* afthf ma ptf" ofprospo^Tahr.p 1
20 sow p* 2%<


Health Information Test Itebs Ranked in Descending Order According to the Per-
po. :* F .
oentage of Tenth Grade (938) white Students arking Each The Incorrectly

rer ten

1. Everyone should engage in deep-breathing exercises daily. 7* 94
2. Returning canned food to the refrigerator in its original con-
tainer after it has been partly used will cause tin or lead
poisonings P 89
3.5 The best treatment for weak arches is to have well-fitting arch
supports placed in the shoes. 7 86
'5.5 Powdered glass can cause death when mixed with food. F 86
5. Boils are caused by bad blood attempting to rid itself of impur-
ities. F 84
6. Certain toothpastes and powders destroy harmful bacteria in the
mouth. F 63
7. It is more dangerous to prick one's self with a pin than with a
needle, F 81
9.5 Sea bathing is beneficial to one's health due, primarily, to the
high salt content of the water. F 78
9,5 Medioated soaps have the power to kill germs. F 78
9,5 Milk contains all of the essential elements of a good diet and
in sufficient quantities to insure good health and normal body
developsent. F 78
patient. F 78
12. Ex-Lax is a chocolate covered, non-habit forming, laxative
which will correct oases of constipation without danger to
o9nes health. F 77
13.5 Listerine should be used in oases of sore throat because it
promptly kills all harmful goers. F 76
13.5 The pors of the skin possess the power to open and close. F 76
15. Oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and tomatoes for acids in the
body. F 75
16. Pressing the upper lip, or placing a key or piece of ice at the
back of the neck, will stop a nosebleed. F 73
17. A drowning person rises to the surface of the water three ties
before finally sinking. F 70
18. The chances of catching cold are out in half if one gargles
S ith Pepsodent Antiseptic or Listerine, F 68
19. The X-rays enable the doctor to look into the patient's body
S and observe the various organs at work. F 66
20.5 Hay fever is a disease of the nose. F 64
20.5 A perso can get append icitis by psllowing the seeds of
oranges, grapes, apples, etc. F 64
23. Mouth washes such as Pepsodent Antiseptic, are valuable because
they kill all harmful bacteria. F 63
23. Caneer is caused by a geram F 63
23 Some persons actually have double joints. F 63
25. Bottled min eral waters will restore health t many persons who
are ill. F 62

The correct answers are ndicated by the letters "F" (false) and
"T" (true). (continued)
' h oretas.s r niatdb h ltes*? fle n
'tI~t (true)*(eoacl~ed