Historical Linguistic Dimensions of Spirit Migration in Haitian Vodou

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Historical Linguistic Dimensions of Spirit Migration in Haitian Vodou
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Benjamin Hebblethwaite
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Benjamin Hebblethwaite
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Vodou -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Religion   ( lcsh )
African diaspora -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Spirituality   ( lcsh )
Creoles -- Social life and customs -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Creoles -- Religious life and customs -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
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Haiti

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This is a PowerPoint presentation prepared by Benjamin Hebblethwaite for talks he gave at Duke University (February 26, 2014) and at the Workshop on Linguistics in Haiti and the Dominican Republic at UF and sponsored by the Bavarian Funding Programme for the Initiation of International Projects (BayIntAn) (April 2, 2014)

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Historical Linguistic Dimensions of Spirit Migration in Haitian Vodou Benjamin Hebblethwaite, hebble@ufl.edu Sponsored by: Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures The Bavarian Funding Programme for the Initiation of International Projects ( BayIntAn )

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Basic facts about the organization of Vodou Oungan/Manbo Makout F amily and extended family traditions throughout Haiti. Vodou Lakou / Svit Family and public traditions that hew to a single Rite (Gonaives & Department). Dahomen ( Lakou Souvnans ) Kongo ( Lakou Soukri Danach ) Nago ( Lakou Nan Badjo ) Banda ( Lakou Dewonvil ) Bizango ( Department) Members of Vodou Lakou communities generally attend services in several of the communities of the region. Vodou Asogwe / Kanzo There are also public traditions that syncretize multiple Rites. The southern city of Leyogann is known for its Asogwe / Kanzo Vodou temples. Candidates to the priesthood travel from various parts of Haiti to Leyogann for initiation (Oungan Michelet Alisma ). Vodou Asogwe is my focus because it contains multiple African Rites (Beauvoir 2008 & 2008).

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Courtesy of Google Vodou Lakou North Asogwe Vodou; West

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Historical traces of populations captured and sold into slavery and their religion: Saint Mry ( 1797 ) African populations listed by Saint Mry : Sngalais (26), Yoloffes [Wolof?] (27), Poules / Poulards Bambaras Quiambas Mandingues Bissagos Sosos Aradas Caplaou (29) [Cap Laho east of Ivory Coast], Mines [Gold Coast], Agouas Socos Fantins Cotocolis Popos Fons Mais Aoussa Ibo, Nago Dahomets Ibos, Mokos Congos Mayombs Mousombs Mondongues Malimbes Mozambiques Quiloi (Saint Mry 1797: 26 36) Saint Mry Vaudoux Aradas of Dahomey Vaudoux in the colony (46) Grand pr tre ( Roi / Papa) or grande pr tresse ( Reine / maman ) chosen by the worshippers La socit as the term for the community Monter Vaudoux (49); violentes agitations (49) Vaudoux as Une cole (50) Don Pdre (51) Conte de Zombi (52)

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The Foundations of a Theory of African Syncretism: Ports Used in the French Slave Trade In Africa, the ports most frequented by French vessels were, in chronological order: 1. Whydah on the Bight of Benin/Senegambia (late 1600s to early 1700s). However, by 1720, populations from West Domingue ( Geggus 1991:36) 2. Malembo ( West Central Africa, the second most prominent port). 3. Cabinda ( Loango coast in West Central Africa). 4. Loango ( Loango coast in West Central Africa). Ultimately West Central Africa formed the main source of captives for the French slave trade ( Geggus 2001:122). Courtesy of the National Museum of African Art

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The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade Database at Emory University ; Captives who Left Africa, All Years

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Evidence of n ational and culture specific Rites in Asogwe Vodou (from Asogwe priest, Beauvoir 2008a). ceremonial organization is based upon Rites (services for groups of spirits ) with national and culture specific names that are the central element preserved. The notion of Nanchon Nanchon Papa 21 Nanchon Ginen ) reflects Vodou's treatment of Rites as the reflections of African national traditions

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Rites inform us about the cultural and Rit Anmin ( Anminan ) is from the Mina people in Dahomey ( Jil & Jil 2009: 145); Anminan may display progressive and regressive nasalization from (mina > min ) Rit Bizango is from Bissango island near Senegal ( Jil & Jil 2009: 160); notice the s/z [+/ voice] contrast which typically alternates in language contact. Rit Bosou ( Achade ) is from the name of the Dahomian king Tegbosou (1740 1774). Rit Boumba is from the Boumba river in southern Cameroon (see Google maps). Rit Danwonmen Dahomian Fon pronunciation in the nasal vowel [] in the first syllable, i.e. ( Segurola & Rassinoux 2000) Rit Gede is the word the Gedevi entire Gedevi population of the Dahomian region was sold into the French slave trade (Brand 2000:41). Rit Ibo is from the Igbo people and language of southern Nigeria. Rit Makaya is from the Kikongo makaya Laman 1936). Rit Nago is from the Fon term Ng from the Yoruba. Rit Rada is from the town of Allada in Dahomey Notice the loss of the initial a in Haitian Creole (apheresis). The liquid l to r contrast also follows predictable language contact sound change. Rit Seneka from Senegal; notice the [k/g] contrast reflects [+/ voice] alternation. Rit Wangl from Angola; notice the retention of angol in both words.

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Within the Rites, the names of the Vodou lwa (spirits) also inform us Contemporary Haiti Benin Correspondences The Haitian spirits o f the Rit Rada Vodun Legba Agasou gas Ayizan Ayiz Ayizan Velekete Avlekt zili Azli Ogou Gu Kebyesou Khvis Papa Lisa Lis The Haitian spirits of the Rit Rada Vodun Kadya Bosou Tegbosou Danbala Wdo Ayida Wdo Sakpata Sakpat Danwezo Dn Mawou M Loko Lk

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T he names of the Vodou spirits ( lwa ) are often clues about the cultural and geographical aspects of Rit Ibo : Loko Davi ( Iroko ) Rit Mahi : Loko Mahi Fado ( I roko ) (the Mahi are an ethnic group still living in Savalou Benin) Rit Nago ( Yoruba ): Odoudouwa ( Emperor Odduw ), Ogou Chango ( spirit of fire, lightning, storms in Yoruba, Rouget 2001), Legba Gwt ( Esu Elegbara Verger 1957:109), Ogou Badagri ( Badagry Nigeria) Rit Rada : Legba ( ), Loko ( Lk name for diverse tree spirits, Rouget 2001:100) Rit Makaya : Simbi Makaya ( Makaya in Kikongo ) Petwo Fran : Bakoulou ( Baklu ) Rit Kaplaou Kanga : Kaplaou Pemba ( KiKongo ) Rit Kita ( Kongo ): Grann Simba ( Laman 1936 lists 12 entries for Simba), Simbi Kita Zila Moyo ( Kikongo ; moyo KiKongo ) Rit Kongo Fran : Lmba ( Laman lists 16 entries for Lemba ), Zao ( Zau KiKongo ); Manman Pemba, Simbi Ganga ( KiKongo names ) B E N I N C. A F R I C A

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Spirit migration is unidirectional from the Bight of Benin Rites into West Central African Rites Bight of Benin West Central Africa Rite Spirit Rite Spirit Ibo Loko Davi Petwo Azangon Loko Mahi Loko Mahi Fado Makaya Loko Atisou and Loko Azanblo Gidi Rada Loko Dj Kom Loko and Wa Loko Alade

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Bight of Benin West Central Africa Rite Spirit Rite Spirit Nago Legba Gwt Zand Legba Zand Rada Legba Atibon Legba Azouka Vye Legba Petwo Fran Legba Bwa Bight of Benin West Central Africa Rite Spirit Rite Spirit Nago Ogou Petwo Fran Ogou Je Wouj Bight of Benin West Central Africa Rite Spirit Rite Spirit Rada zili Kongo Fran zili Towo Petwo Fran zili Bohan

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The etymologies of several other key dimensions of Vodou: Fon core, Kikongo overlay Haitian Creole Vodou Term Bight of Benin versus West Central African Origin Oungan Fon hungn Gangan KiKongo Nganga Ounsi Fon hunsi Andjennikonn / Oungenikon Fon ( Rouget 2001:98) Sanba Kikongo smba nganga 1936:870) Ason Fon as 2000:66) Vodou Fon vodn Ountgi Fon hnt Wanga KiKongo (L aman 1936)

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Bight of Benin A Fon influenced text: Yabd antaye ansi an ; Yabadaooo = exclamation of contentment (S & R 2000:525). Ayibobo / Abobo = awbb (Fon), Acclamation by tapping on the lips with the fingers. Sobagi ladogwesan mina o = Sogbadji is a neighborhood in Ouidah Benin and the official residence of Vodun chief Daagbo Hounon Houna is called the Sogbadji The Mina Coast (Matory 2005:91); the Mina people, another name for the G ethnic group 2000) Ago e! in Fon ( Segurola & Rassinoux 2000) Ounsi = 'spouse of the spirit,' initiate Yabd antaye ansi an Ayibobo Ayibobo medam Nou pral antre nan sobagi a. Abobo Nou pral antre nan sobagi a la. Sobagi ladogwesan mina o Anvan n antre f nou jete dlo. Nou pral antre nan sobagi a. E ago e! Nou pral antre ounsi kanzo Ladogwesan Abobo Nan sobagi a, nou pral antre nan sobagi a la. Sobagi ladogwesan mina o -Racine Figuier antre nan sobagi Vodou Lakay Yabd antaye ansi an Ayibobo Ayibobo, ladies. We are going to enter the sanctuary. Abobo! We are going to enter this sanctuary. Oh the sanctuary of the African heritage. Before we enter, we must pour out water. We are going to enter the sanctuary. Hey ago hey! We are going to enter, ounsi kanzo of the Heritage. Abobo! Into the sanctuary, we are going to enter into the sanctuary. The sanctuary of the African heritage. Rada (Fon) Rite/Rada lexical items

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http://llmap.org/languages/ajg.html Ewe Adja Mina Fon

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Djobodo antaye ansi an, Ayibobo Ayibobo! Ayibobo, medam Ayibobo! Agwe Vodou mi wa e. Abobo, E Ago E Agwe Tawoyo Vodou mi wa e. Agwe Vodou mi wa a se Agwe Vodou mi wa e. E Ago e! Abobo -Racine Figuier Agwe miwa Vodou Lakay Djobodo antaye ansi an, Ayibobo Ayibobo! Ayibobo, ladies Ayibobo! Spirit Agwe we have come Abobo hey ago hey Spirit Agwe Tawoyo we have come, hey. Spirit Agwe we have come, spirit. Spirit Agwe we have come hey. E Ago e! Abobo! S = Fon word for the essential aspect of a being; destiny, fate; spirit; God, providence (Segurola & Rassinoux 2000). Mi wa Segurola & Rassinou 2000:353) Alegba se ( VSHCE The songs of Milo Marceling ). Invocation Agb (Segurola & Rassinoux 2000:28). Agouet is also a coastal town in Benin In Fon : Agbetawoy is onomatopoetic ocean in its & Rassinoux 2000:28). Bight of Benin Rada (Fon) Rite/Rada lexical items/Rada spirit

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zili Freda o Alada Dawomen o kay mwen. Abobo M ape rele mtrs ki soti anba dlo, se fanm chans mwen. E ago e Pale, pale, pale medam wi! Si Zota pa ta o kay mwen. M t ape rele mtrs manbo ki soti anba dlo, se fanm chans mwen. M t ape rele mtrs ki soti anba dlo se fanm chans mwen -zili Freda Vodou Lakay Ezili Freda o Alada Dahomey, oh my house. Abobo! I will call the mistress who comes from under water, my luck woman. Hey ago hey! Speak, speak, speak ladies, yes! If Zota I will call the mistress manbo who comes from under water, my luck woman. I will call the mistress who comes from under water my luck woman. Alada Dahomey is a toponym that refers to the town of Allada in Benin (formally Dahomey) Rada (Fon) Rite/Rada lexical items/Rada spirit

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zili is attested in the form Azl in the Fon language of Benin. Azl refers to a lake and to the Vodun spirit of the lake. In addition to the similar pronunciation Azl and zili also share in common water as their resting place. .benin.org

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Aoche Nago awo Ng Nago di koch e awode Yaleman di koch e awode San l kil kouray o. Adye kouray m ap mande se vre Ayima sa foula o! M pa p ng ank Kouray m ap mande Aoche Nago awo Nago men say koch hey awode Yaleman say koch hey awode Oh that Ayima vaporizes rum! Nago (Yoruba) Rite/Nago lexical items/Nago spirit Awo = Collective reference for believers of the Yorb Fama 1996:21) Aoche Nago = By the grace of the Nago spirits

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Bosi priye mt Osan yo Aoche Nago Mezanmi m ap rele Bondye ou pa w m inosan e? Bosi priye Papa Mt Osan yo e mezanmi m ap rele Bondye ou pa w m inosan e? M ape mande kote repozwa lwa m ye? M ape mande kote repozwa lwa m ye? M bezwen konnen kote danti lwa m yo ye! Si m bliye Mt Osan o e. Men Wawa, m ap rele Bondye ou pa w m inosan e ? -Seremoni Grann Bosi pray to the Master Osan Aoche Nago Oh heavens, I am calling on God. Bosi pray to Papa Master Osan O h heavens, I will call God. I am asking, where is the dwelling of my lwa? I am asking, where is the dwelling of my lwa? I need to know, where are the ancestors of my lwa? Hey oh if I forget Master Osan Here is Wawa, I will call God. Nago (Yoruba) Osanyin = spirit of medicinal leaves. Osanyin holds the ase (force) which resides in leaves. (Verger 1957:231)

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Olicha Olicha Fawo e Olicha, Olicha Fawo e Fawo e Fawo e Fawo e Fawo e nou pral janbe pas la, Alesou Fawo Py. Olicha, Olicha, Fawo e E e abobo! Fawo e Fawo e nou pral janbe pas Alesou Fawo Py. Olicha Nago Olicha! Abobo! Racine Figuier Vodou Lakay Olicha Olicha Fawo hey. Olicha, Olicha Fawo hey. Fawo hey, Fawo hey! Fawoye Fawoye we are going to cross the pass, Alesou Fawoye Py. Olicha, Olicha, Fawoye Hey hey abobo! Fawoye Fawoye We are going to cross the pass of Alesou Fawo Py Olicha Nago, Olicha! Abobo! Olicha / Orisha / Orixas : Yoruba word for spirit ( lwa ) (Murrell 2010:212; Rouget 2001:100) Nago (Yoruba) Rite/Nago lexical items/Nago spirit

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Nago (Yoruba) Rite/Nago lexical items/Nago spirits Olicha Legba e o, Ogou o e Ayimasa itoto Legba Ogou o, Anye o Olicha sali Nago Anye o! (Beauvoir 2008: 01275) Olicha Olicha dokwa rele Nago Oyo M a pral Sali N g nan lanm o dokwa (Beauvoir 2008: 01276) Olicha Abobo yo Kan Mt Olicha Danbala Wdo Olicha (Beauvoir 2008: 01273) Obatala & Odudua = Yoruba creator couple of living beings [ Lisa Mawu in Adja Fon culture] Oyo = Yorubaland Empire and its royal d ynasty. All the ethnic groups of the Oyo Empire were Nago the Dahomians (Joo Jos Reis 2003: p 253) There is usually a one to one correspondence between the lexical etymological evidence in songs and the Rite or Nation referenced in the same song... but there is also evidence of spirit migration in the corpus of Vodou songs ...

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Ay Makaya se jwe y ap jwe Bilolo Makaya se jwe y ap jwe ; Lwa Simbi a, kite yo jwe Andezo se jwe y ap jwe sa yo w la anye Makaya se jwe y ap jwe Makaya se jwe y ap jwe Makaya se jwe y ap jwe Makaya se jwe y ap jwe sa yo w la anye ? Wi Makaya kite yo jwe ou ou ou Makaya se jwe y ap jwe Makaya se jwe y ap jwe Lwa Simbi a, kite yo jwe sa yo w la anye ? Sa yo w la anye Men sa yo w la anye -Racine Mapou de Azor Sanba a pi move Hey Makaya they are playing games! Bilolo Makaya they are playing games; Lwa Simbi let them play. Andre, they are playing games, what do they see here, oh yeah! Makaya they are playing games! Makaya they are playing games! Makaya they are playing games! Makaya they are playing games, what do they see here, oh my? Yes Makaya let them play! ou ou ou Makaya they are playing games Makaya they are playing games! Lwa Simbi let them play, what do they see here oh my? What do they see here oh my! But what do they see here oh my! Simbi = spirit of the waters. In Kikongo culture Simbi is generally disturbed. Simbi can also refer to The spirit of a human being. ( Swartenbroeckx 1973: 576). Simbi Makaya is a lwa in the Makaya Rite (Beauvoir 2008a:190) Makaya is a place name in the Kongo Makaya also refers to leaves used in healing and magical practices. ( Laman 1936:480) in Haiti, Makaya is also the name of a mountain in the s outhern peninsula. Kongo Rite/Kongo lexical items/Kongo spirit

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Makaya Kongo courtesy of Google Socit Makaya Miami, Florida Photo by Richard Freeman, the NEH Vodou Archive

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Yo m ap rele yo. Gede Nouvavou m ap rele yo. Kwa lakwa m ap rele yo. Trase fouye lakwa m ap rele yo. Jan Simon Britis lakwa m ap rele yo. Adja nou rive. Yo, n ap rele yo. Gede Nouvavou n ap rele yo. Kwa Senbo Yo, n ap rele yo. Gede Nouvavou n ap rele yo. Gede Nouvavou n ap rele yo. Adja, nou rive. Dje mwen di kwa Senbo n ap rele yo. Ti Marasa Lakwa n ap rele yo. Kwa Lakwa n ap rele yo. Mpyon Lakwa n ap rele yo. Sizann Lakwa n ap rele yo. Adja nou rive. -Rasin Bwa Kayiman, Guede Them I am calling them. Gede Nouvavou I am calling them. Cross of crosses, I am calling them. Trace and dig crosses, I am calling them. Jan Simon Britis cross, I am calling them. Adja we have arrived. Them, we are calling them. Gede Nouvavou we are calling them. Senbo cross! Them, we are calling them. Gede Nouvavou we are calling them. Gede Nouvavou we are calling them. Adja we have arrived. God, Senbo cross I say we are calling them. Little Twin Crosses, we are calling them. Cross cross we are calling them. Mpyon Cross, we are calling them. Sizann Cross, we are calling them. Adja, we have arrived. Kwa Senbo may be related to the Fon word s gb S gbo means ( Rouget 2001:101) Gede Rite and reference to Adja people and language Bight of Benin

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http://llmap.org/languages/ajg.html Ewe Adja Mina Fon

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Spirit migration in songs: Mixing a Kongo Rite salutation and a Nago spirit reference Afoutayi Yi Bila bila Kongo L bounda fache kote l chita ? At M g on lwa ki reklame mwen. Pandan m nan somy m g on lwa ki reklame m o! Bilolo Adye Ogou reklame m, se vre M g on lwa ki reklame mwen. M g on lwa ki reklame m, o way o. Ogou Badagri s on lwa ki danjere Ogou Badagri s on lwa ki danjere -Racine Figuier Men chay la Afoutayi Yi Bila bila Kongo When an ass is angry, where does it sit? On the ground I have a lwa who claimed me. While I was asleep, I have a lwa who claimed me. Bilolo Oh my, Ogou I have a lwa who claimed me. I have a lwa who claimed me, oh why oh. Ogou Badagri is a dangerous lwa. Ogou Badagri is a dangerous lwa. Bila Bila Kongo is Kikongo for Kongo Kongo (Laman1936:37 ). Bila ( Swartenbroeckx 1973:17 ). Kongo salutation Ogou Badagri: Spirit of the Nago Rite

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Ogou Badagri Badagry / Badagri The town was exporter of frequently raided by the Dahomians in the 18 th century ( Encyclopedia Britannica )

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Photo copyright G Mariss: Slave Museum Ayizan Velekete," in Fon Avlekt is the spirit of the beaches ( Segurola & Rassinoux 2000 )

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Toward a History of the African syncretism in the development Vodou: Fundamental tools Vodou source texts provide rich historical linguistic evidence (Beauvoir 2008 & 2008, etc.). Historical research on the ethnic composition of French slave trade to Saint Domingue and on its plantations provides some empirical supports for sketching a preliminary theory on the history of the formation of Vodou in the 17 th and 18 th centuries ( Geggus 1991, 1996, 2001). Research on the relationship of the ethnicity of slaves to their geographical settlement site in Saint Domingue (plains versus mountains) offers insights ( Geggus 1991, 1996, 2001). Fieldwork in Vodou ceremonies and communities

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The colonists Arada slaves (Bight of Benin) (Moreau de Saint Mry 1797). T he Rites and spirits from the Bight of Benin are treated as Asogwe Vodou to this day. At the same time, Asogwe Vodou has assimilated numerous Rites including several from West Central Africa.

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Toward a history of the African syncretism in the d evelopment Vodou A pproximately 2/3 (266/401) of Asogwe Vodou's spirits (and Rites) originate in the Bight of Benin i.e. Rada Nago Mayi Ibo, etc. ( Beauvoir 2008). Approximately 1/3 (135/401) of Asogwe Vodou's spirits (and Rites) originate in West Central Africa i.e. Kita, Kongo Fran, Makaya Petwo Fran, Wongl and Zand Vodou temples like Socit Linto Roi Trois Mystres or Socit Makaya in Miami practice Rada Kongo Petwo and several other Rites

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Sources of Africans Sold in the French Caribbean by French Ships ( Geggus 2001:136) Bight of Benin Africans: 22.6 % in the North versus 35.5 % in the West West Central Africans: 56% in the North versus 39.5% in the West

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Preliminary conclusions on historical linguistic dimensions of Vodou If we add Senegambia ( 6.7% ) and the Bight of Biafra ( 6.3% ) to the Bight of Benin ( 35.5% ), the West Africa populations (48.5%) exceed the West Central African populations (39.5%) in the West To this day, the Western Department (Port au Prince & Logne ) remains the seat of the Bight of Benin influenced Asogwe school of Vodou. These demographic facts may explain, in part, why the Rites and spirits of Asogwe Vodou are 67% West African and 33% Central West African The Vodou lexical field provides evidence that a version of the Fon substrate religious lexical field ( Mufwene 1996 ).

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Toward a history of the African syncretism in the development Vodou: Geographical Factors Sugarcane ( Geggus 1993:81). purchased more of the slaves they [the sugarcane planters] disdained from Bibi Mondongue Igbo, and Geggus 1993:81). Bight of Benin Vodou were more represented in the plains in the West and thus closer to the larger towns. link with cities like Port au Prince and Leyogann and its earlier arrival in Saint Domingue give it some prestige and greater access Principle

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North 1778 91 West 1785 91 West 1796 97 Sugar Coffee Sugar Coffee Sugar Coffee Kongo 40.8% 63.9% 31.3% 47.3% 21.0% 35.3% Arada 10.5% 8.9% 14.9% 5.7% 16.1% 9.1% Nago 8.9% 5.5% 16.1% 9.2% 18.6% 12.2% N slaves 2,143 973 1,059 457 2,641 1,578 Geggus (1993:81)

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PETWO FRAN RADA IBO DANWONMEN GEDE NAGO KONGO SAVANN MAKAYA Examples of Spirit Migration Rit Kongo Savann : zili Towo Rit Petwo Fran: Azangon Loko Legba Bwa Ogou Je Wouj Rit Makaya : Loko Atisou One way Spirit migration in Asogwe Vodou One way spirit migration from the Rites of the Bight of Benin into the Rites of Central West Africa adds evidence of a Bight of Benin centric structure in Asogwe Vodou

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Preliminary Conclusions on historical linguistic dimensions of Vodou The heavy presence of Bight of Benin languages in the core of the Vodou lexical field suggest its earlier and pervasive influence ; T he inclusion of numerous African traditions within one Vodou system is the most important syncretism in Asogwe Vodou, but it is understudied. U nder the conditions of colonialism and creolization Vodou culture deployed a powerful absorbency that drew various African religious traditions into its Bight of Benin centric core, an approach that maintained the fundamentals while enriching the Vodou system. Visit the National Endowment for the Humanities funded UF Duke Archive of Haitian Religion and Culture at www.dloc.com/vodou

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A special thanks to the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures and The Bavarian Funding Programme for the Initiation of International Projects

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Selected References Beauvoir, Rachel and Didier Dominique 2003. Savalou E Montral: Les ditions du CIDIHCA. Beauvoir, Max G 2008. Lapriy Ginen Port au Prince: Edisyon Prs Nasyonal d Ayiti --. 2008. Le Grand Recueil Sacr ou Rpertoire des Chansons du Vodou Hatien Port au Prince : Edisyon Prs Nasyonal d Ayiti Brand, Roger. 2000. Ethnographie et Vocabulaire Religieux des Cultes Vodoun Muenchen : Lincom Europa

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Selected References Geggus David. 1993 Sugar and Coffee Cultivation in Saint Domingue and the Shaping of the Slave Labor Force. Chapter in Cultivation and culture : labor and the shaping of slave life in the Americas edited by Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan, 73 100. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Geggus David 1996. Sex Ratio, Age and Ethnicity in the Atlantic Slave Trade: Data from French Shipping and Plantation Records. In Slave Trades, 1500 1800: Globalization of Forced Labour edited by Patrick Manning, 257 278. Brookfield, Vermont: Variorum. Geggus David. 2001. The French Slave Trade: An Overview. The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 119 138.

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Selected References Laman K. E. Dictionnaire kikongo franais (2 Volumes) Ridgewood, New Jersey: The Gregg Press, 1964 [1936]. Mufwene Salikoko 1996. The Founder Principle in Creole Genesis. Diachronica 13:1.83 134 Rouget, Gilbert 2001. Initiatique vdoun images du rituel: chants et danses initiatiques pour le culte des vdoun au Bnin Saint Maur : ditions Spia. Segurola Basilio and Jean Rassinoux 2000. Dictionnaire Fon Franais Madrid: Socit des Missions Africaines.