Panama Considered: Remembering the Past Embracing the Future

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Panama Considered: Remembering the Past Embracing the Future UF Center for Latin American Studies 63rd Annual Conference Program
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2 UF CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 63 rd Annual Conference March 19-21, 2014 Gainesville, Florida The UF Center for Latin American Studies 63rd Annual Conference, Panama Considered: Remembering the Past, Embracing the Future, marks the 100th anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. The conference features more than 30 expert presentations on Panama from diverse perspectives. Highlights include addresses from Jorge Quijano, CEO of the Panama Canal Authority; Dr. Rubn Berrocal, Secretary General of Panamas National Secretariat of Science, Technology and Innovation (SENACYT); Angeles Ramos Baquero, director of the Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam; and historians Julie Greene, author of the award-winning The Canal Builders (2012). The conference also features a special Thursday evening panel with former Florida Governor and US Senator Bob Graham, and former US ambassadors to Panama, Simon Ferro and Ambler Moss. The Panama Canal and its current major expansion have important business implications for the of course, is more than a canal and the conference also seeks to provide a much richer portrait of the country than is commonly perceived. It includes presentations on such topics as paleontology, and popular culture. The conference also highlights UFs contributions and connections with respect to Panama. Several of the presenters are UF alumni and a number of UF scholars have close ties with the renowned Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama, much of whose work is focused on tropical conservation and development and sustainable development, two hallmarks of UF in general and the Center for Latin American Studies in particular. Scholars of the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) won a multimillion NSF/PIRE grant to fund research and educational outreach in connection with the canal expansion. And the UF George Smathers Libraries recently acquired the substantial holdings of the Panama Canal Museum, formerly based near St. Petersburg, Florida, a labor of love for a large number of prominent Zonians who thought it important to commemorate and preserve the history of the US experience in Panama, particularly in the building, operating, maintenance, and defense of the canal and canal zone until 1999. The UF libraries have been awarded close to half a million dollars in grant funding to curate the collection and to make it publicly accessible. The UF Center for Latin American Studies was founded in 1930 and has been recognized as a National Resource Center by the US Department of Education since the early 1960s. The mission of the Center for Latin American Studies is to advance knowledge about Latin America and the Caribbean and its peoples throughout the hemisphere. With over 170 faculty members from colleges across UF, the Center is one of the largest institutions anywhere devoted to interdisciplinary research, teaching and outreach on Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies.


3 Bacardi Family Foundation Florida Museum of Natural History NSF PIRE US Department of Education UF George A. Smathers Libraries Bob Graham Center for Public Service, UF UF Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) UF Samuel Proctor Oral History Program UF History Department UF Center for the Humanities and the Public Sphere Port Tampa Bay Floridians for Better Transportation UF CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 63 rd Annual Conference CO-SPONSORS


4 Conference Organizers Conference Chair: Richmond Brown, Associate Director, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida Conference Co-Chair: Paul Losch, Associate Librarian, Latin American Collection, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida Conference Coordinator: Nathalia Ochoa, Program Coordinator, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida Conference Steering Committee Stephanie Bohlman, UF FRC Aimee Green, LAS Bruce MacFadden, FLMNH Andy Naranjo, UF CIBER Jocelyn Peskin, LAS Rachel Schipper, UF George A. Smathers Libraries Margarita Vargas Betancourt, UF Latin American Collection Isabelle Winzeler, UF CIBER Aaron Wood, FLMNH Conference Travel Agent Beth DeMarco Special Thanks to Kym Dalton Anna Porter Mary Risner Patricia Sampaio Richard Wainio Liquid Creative Studio


5 The Conference at a Glance Date Time Event Location Wednesday, March 19 6:00PM 7:30PM Bacardi Lecture Chandler Auditorium, Harn Museum 7:30PM 9:00PM Bacardi Reception Powell Hall, FLMNH Thursday, March 20 8:15AM 9:00AM Emerson Alumni Hall, 9:00AM 10:15AM Advancing Science In Panama: Ruben Berrocal (SENACYT) Emerson, 10:15AM 10:30AM 10:30AM 12PM Early Natural History Presidents C Business in Panama I Classroom 12:00PM 1:30PM Luncheon with Jorge Quijano, ACP 1:45PM 3:15PM Panamas Forests Presidents C Business In Panama II Classroom 3:15PM 3:30PM 3:30PM 5:00PM Dilemmas of Development 5:00PM 6:00PM Reception 6:00PM 7:30PM Roundtable Discussion: Panama and the United States Presidents Ballroom Friday, March 21 8:15AM 9:00AM Smathers Library East Lobby 9:00AM 10:30AM Building and Living with the Canal Smathers Library East 100 10:30am 10:45AM Smathers Library East 100 10:45AM 12:15PM Race, Culture, and Nationalism Smathers Library East 100 12:15PM 1:30PM Luncheon with Angeles Ramos Baquero, Museo del Canal Smathers Library East 100 1:45PM 3:15PM Politics of Panama Smathers Library East 100 3:15PM 3:30PM Smathers Library East 100 3:30PM 5:00PM Panama Canal Museum Collection at UF Smathers Library East 100 5:00PM 6:30PM Closing Reception Latin American Collection, Smathers Library East


6 PANAMA CONSIDERED: R emembering the Past, Embracing the Future WEDNESDAY, March 19, 2014 Registration Pickup 5:30 6:00 Lobby, Harn Museum of Art Bacardi Lecture 6:00 7:30 Chandler Auditorium, Harn Museum of Art Welcome Richmond Brown, UF Latin American Studies, Conference Chair Introduction Philip Williams, Director, UF Center for Lain American Studies What happens when the United States gives a small country what it wants? UF Bacardi Eminent Visiting Scholar, 2014 Bacardi Reception 7:30 9:00 Florida Museum of Natural History THURSDAY, March 20, 2014 8:15 9:00 Warrington A&B Coee Service sponsored by Floridians for Better Transportation SESSION 1 9:00 10:15 Featured Address Presidents B&C Moderator: Bette Loiselle, Director of the Tropical Conservation and Development Program, UF Advancing Science in Panama Rubn Berrocal, Secretary General of Panamas National Secretariat of Science and Technology (SENACYT) All Thursday events will take place at Emerson Alumni Hall


7 10:15 10:30 Warrington A&B SESSION 2 10:30 12:00 Panel 2A: Early Natural History Presidents C Moderator: Aaron Wood, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) Discovering Fossils and Ancient Biodiversity along the Panama Canal: A Once-in-a-Century Opportunity Bruce MacFadden, FLMNH Expansion of the Panama Canal and the Rise of the Isthmus Carlos Jaramillo, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Investigating Panamas Rise from the Sea and its Eects on Marine Life Laurel Collins, Florida International University Panel 2B: Business, Investment Banking and Tourism Classroom Moderator: Andy Naranjo, UF Warrington College of Business Beyond the Canal:Finance and Tourism as Sources of Panamas Growth Brian Gendreau, UF Warrington College of Business Tourism Development and Challenges in Panama Brijesh Thapa, UF Eric Friedheim Tourism Institute Luncheon 12:00 1:30 Presidents A&B Welcome: Philip Williams, Director, UF LAS Introduction: Richard Wainio, Global Planning Strategies The Panama Canal Expansion Program: A Story of Challenges, Innovation and Commitment Jorge Quijano, CEO of the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) Luncheon sponsored by Port Tampa Bay


8 SESSION 3 1:45 3:15 Panel 3A: Current and Future Forest Dynamics in Panama Presidents C Moderator: Glenn Galloway, Director, UF Masters of Sustainable Development Program (MDP) Establishing National Forest Inventories for REDD+: The Panama Experience Mara Carmen Ruiz-Jaen, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest-Cover Change, Population and Land Tenure in Western Panama Kendra Walker, STRI Current Tree Cover and Opportunities for Reforestation in the Highly Deforested Azuero Peninsula of Panama Stephanie Bohlman, UF SFRC Panel 3B: Business and Legal Environment, Shipping and Infrastructure Classroom Moderator: Andy Naranjo, Warrington College of Business, UF The Business Environment in Panama Terry McCoy, UF LAS and Political Science, Emeritus Country Competitiveness Daniel Sokol, UF Levin College of Law Shifting Trade Patterns and the Impact of the Panama Canal Expansion Richard Wainio, Global Planning Strategies 3:15 3:30 Warrington A&B


9 SESSION 4 3:30 5:00 Dilemmas of Development Presidents B&C Moderator: Jonathan Dain, UF LAS Development, Resources, and Communities in Eastern Panama Julie Velsquez Runk, University of Georgia and Carlos Espinosa, WWF Panama Demographic Aspects Related to Social and Economic Development of the Indigenous Population in Panama Francisco Herrera, University of Panama Clashing Worldviews in the Crossroads of the World: Competing Visions of Development in XXI Century Panama Osvaldo Jordn, CATHALAC Reception 5:00 6:00 Warrington A&B SESSION 5 6:00 7:30 Roundtable Discussion Presidents Ballroom, Emerson Alumni Hall Panama and the US: Security and Diplomacy Moderator: Terry McCoy, UF LAS Panel: Bob Graham, Governor of Florida (1979-1987), US Senator (1987-2005) Simon Ferro, Gunster Law Firm, US Ambassador to Panama (1999-2001) Ambler Moss, University of Miami, US Ambassador to Panama (1978-1982)


10 FRIDAY, March 21, 2014 8:30 9:00 SESSION 6 9:00 10:30 Building and Living with the Canal Moderator: Thomas Leonard, University of North Florida (emeritus) The 13th Labor of Hercules: Myths and Erasures in the History of the Panama Canals Construction Julie Greene, University of Maryland at College Park Depopulating La Zona: Erasing Urban History at the Panama Canal Marixa Lasso, Case Western Reserve University Borderland on the Isthmus: The Panama Canal Zone as Imperial Borderland Michael Donoghue, Marquette University 10:30 10:45 SESSION 7 10:45 12:15 Race, Culture and Nationalism Panama for the Panamanians: Arnulfo Arias and Defensive Nationalism Frank Robinson, Vanderbilt University The Forging of Afro-Panamanian Identity: Past, Present, and Future Sonja Stephenson Watson, University of Texas at Arlington Blackness and Popular Art in Twentieth-Century Panama Peter Szok, Texas Christian University Luncheon 12:15 1:30 Smathers Library East 100 Welcome and Introduction: Judith Russell, Dean, UF Smathers Libraries The Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam: 100 Years of the Panama Canal and the Reclaiming of our Historical Memory Angeles Ramos Baquero, Director, Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam All Friday events take place in Smathers Library East, Room 100 (except where noted)


11 SESSION 8 1:45 3:15 The Politics of Panama Moderator: Gene Bigler, US Foreign Service (ret.) Political Culture of Democracy in Panama: Evidence from the Americas Barometer Orlando J. Prez, Central Michigan University Senate Debate on the 1978 Panama Canal Treaties: Predicting Shortand Long-Term Eects Margaret Scranton, University of Arkansas, Little Rock No CMA! The Battle over US Military Bases in Panama Peter Sanchez, Loyola University of Chicago 3:15 3:30 SESSION 9 3:30 5:00 The Panama Canal Museum Collection at UF Moderator: Rachel Schipper, UF Smathers Libraries The Panama Canal Museum: History in the Attics, Trunks, and Closets Paul Morgan, US Army (ret.), University of South Florida Integrating the Panama Canal Museum Collection into the University of Florida Libraries Paul Losch, UF Latin American Collection Oral Histories and Historical Memories of the Panama Canal Zone Paul Ortiz, UF Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Closing Reception 5:00 6:30 Smathers Library East, Latin American Collection


12 Panama Considered: Presenter Biographies Rubn Berrocal Ruben Berrocal, MD, is Panamas National Secretary for Science, Technology and Innovation. For the last 25 years he has medical specialties in pediatricsprevious to which he performed investigative studies in immunology and contagious Carolina-Chapel Hill and the University of Florida. Stephanie Bohlman Stephanie Bohlman is an assistant professor in the School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of PhD and MS in Forest Resources from the University of Washington-Seattle and her BA from New College in Sarasota, Laurel Collins Laurel Collins is Professor of Paleontology and Graduate Program Director for the Geosciences at FIU, Miami. She earned a B.S. in Geology from University of Maryland, an M.S. in Geology from the George Washington University, and a Ph.D. in Geology and Geophysics from Yale University. She began her research on the formation of the Isthmus of Panama as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 19891990, and continued as an Assistant Research Scientist at University of Michigan before moving to FIU. As a Smithsonian Research Associate she travels to Panama evolutionary changes associated with the rise of the Isthmus. She also investigates research closer to home, including Dr. Collins has authored numerous articles for journals such as Geology, Paleoceanography, Journal of Marine Science, and Special Papers of the Geological Society of America. He is a professor of history and founding director of the San Jos State University Global Studies Program. He earned his BA at UC Berkeley and his MA and PhD at Stanford University. He is the author of numerous works on Panama, including Black Labor on a White Canal (Pittsburgh, 1985), Panama since 1903 in the Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie Bethell, and, most recently, the third edition of his book Panama and the United States (Georgia, 2012). He is also the author of A History of Modern Latin America (2005, with Lawrence Clayton), Populism in Latin America (2012), and Africans in the Americas (2003, with T. J. Davis), among many other works on Latin American history. He has lived overseas for a dozen years, held several post-docs (including three Fulbright tours), and served in the U.S. Peace Corps. Florida. Michael Donoghue Michael Donoghue is an associate professor of history at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He received his BA (1993) and MA (1996) at the University of Rhode Island and his PhD (2005) from the University of Connecticut. He has written Murder and Rape in the Canal Zone in Jessica Gienow-Hecht (ed.) Decentering America: Culture and International History II; Race, Labor, and Security in the Panama Canal Zone, in Philip Muehlenbeck (ed.) Race, Ethnicity, and the Cold War: A Global Perspective; and Harry S. Trumans Latin America Foreign Policy 1945-1953, in Daniel S. Margolies (ed.) A Companion for Harry S. Truman. Dr. Donoghues book, Borderland on the Isthmus: Race, Culture, and the Struggle for the Canal Zone, will be published by Duke University Press in May 2014.


13 Carlos Espinosa Pea and Choc Darin, based in Panama. He has worked in the Darin region since 1992, and has participated in diverse initiatives to support conservation of natural resources of the region. He is a forester, graduated from the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and has a Masters in Ecology and Conservation from the Universidad Catlica Santa Mara La Antigua in Panama. In addition, he is a doctoral student in the Social Sciences Doctoral Program of the Universidad de strengthen forest governance at the local level, and how to share those models so it is possible to strengthen territorial governance in Panamas Darin region. He is author or co-author of numerous reports and presentations about forests and communities in Panama, with a particular emphasis on the Darin region. Simon Ferro Simon Ferro is a former U.S. ambassador to Panama (1999-2001). He was born in Cuba and raised in the United States where he has been a professional and civic leader in South Florida for decades. An accomplished and well-known zoning and land-use attorney, Mr. Ferro has been active in numerous professional and charitable organizations. He maintains strong ties in Latin America, where he regularly represents clients seeking business relationships and access to government procurement opportunities. Ambassador Ferro was appointed by President Bill Clinton to lead the U.S. diplomatic mission in Panama during the historic hand over of the Panama Canal and numerous military installations to Panamanian control in 1999. He was also appointed by President Clinton to the Board of the Overseas Private Investment Florida (1978) and a BA in political science from the University of Miami (1975). Brian Gendreau Brian Gendreau is a Visiting Professor of Finance at the Warrington College of Business Administration of the University of Florida. He is also the specialization coordinator for the Business and Economics program in Latin American Studies. Prior to coming to UF in 2009 he was an Investment Strategist with ING Investment Management and a member of its asset allocation committee. Dr. Gendreau has a PhD in Business Economics from the Wharton School and has taught economist with the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. Later, he was head of emerging markets economic research at JP Morgan, an emerging market strategist at Salomon Smith Barney, and partner at Heckman Global Advisors (now part of the Roosevelt Investment Group). Dr. Gendreau consults as a market strategist for Business television, and Bloomberg Radio. His research and teaching interests are Emerging Markets, Asset Allocation, and Financial Crises. Bob Graham three-term U.S. Senator, Mr. Graham has had a role in nearly every major public policy issue in modern Floridas history. After serving two terms as governor (1979-1987), Mr. Graham joined the U.S. Senate in 1987, carving out a career known not on foreign policy and intelligence. One of Mr. Grahams most important contributions came during his last term, when he was named chairman on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. He co-sponsored the bill to create the Director of National Intelligence position and co-chaired the Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001. Graham later authored 2004s Intelligence Matters, revealing serious faults in the U.S. national security system. A political science major at UF, where he was inducted into the Hall of Fame, Mr. Graham subsequently graduated from Harvard Law School. After completing his senate career, he created the Bob Graham Center for Public Service at UF to continue his legacy of leadership and train the next generation of Sunshine State leaders


14 Julie Greene Julie Greene specializes in United States labor and working-class history. Her research and teaching interests span across immigration and political history, the history of empire, and transnational approaches to the history of the Americas. the Organization of American Historians 2009 James A. Rawley Prize for the best book on the history of race relations. Greenes articles include Spaniards on the Silver Roll: Liminality and Labor Troubles in the Panama Canal Zone, 19041914, in International Labor and Working-Class History (Fall 2004) and The Labor of Empire: Recent Scholarship on U.S. History and Imperialism, in Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas (Summer 2004). She is also University Press, 2011). Dr. Greene has received fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the American Council of Learned Societies, among others. She was founding Reviews Editor in 2004 of Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas, and continues to serve as an editor of the journal. Greene was founding CoChair of the Labor and Working-Class History Association in 1997-1999, and she is currently President of the Society for Historians of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. For 2013-2014 she is a fellow at the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. Francisco Herrera Born in Panama City, Panama, Francisco Herrera received a bachelors degree in history and philosophy from the University of Panama and an MA in Latin American Studies from the University of Florida (1989). His research and service have focused on Panamas indigenous population, studying state-Indian relations and working in projects concerning indigenous and peasant communities, mainly related to development projects. For two decades he has worked as a professor at the University of Panama. He helped develop the plan for the comarca territorial system, the most important achievement concerning indigenous land issues in the last 30 years. He has worked extensively with two NGOs, including more than 35 years with the Centro de Estudios y Accion Social de Pana (CEASPA), and the Alianza para la Conservacin y Desarollo (ACD). He has also volunteered with NATURA, a foundation that gives economic support to environmental projects developed by local organizations. Carlos Jaramillo from the University of Florida at Gainesville, his MA in geology from the Missouri University of Science and Technology at Rolla MO, and his BA in geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia at Bogot. His research investigates the causes, patterns, and processes of tropical biodiversity at diverse scales of time and space. He is also interested in CretaceousCenozoic biostratigraphy of low latitudes, developing methods for high-resolution biostratigraphy and the paleobiogeography of Tethys. Osvaldo Jordn Ramos Osvaldo Jordn studied Biology at Universidad de Panam and California State University, Chico, and obtained a Master of Arts in Latin American Studies (MALAS) at the University of Florida (2000) and a PhD in Political Science at the University of Florida (2010). He has worked as a consultant for the Government of Panama and national and international non-governmental and international organizations on biodiversity conservation, indigenous rights, community organization, and public participation. He has also taught university courses on Ecology and Environmental Issues at Universidad Santa Maria La Antigua (USMA) and School for International Training (SIT) in Panama, and Latin American Politics and Latin American Studies at the University of Florida, Gainesville. His research has focused on regional autonomy and He is a founding member of Alianza para la Conservacion y el Desarrollo (ACD), an organization that has been supporting the Naso and Ngobe struggle for protection of their indigenous territories and natural resources in Western Panama.


15 Marixa Lasso Marixa Lasso is Associate Professor of Latin American History at Case Western Reserve University. She is the author of the book Myths of Harmony: Race and Republicanism during the Age of Revolution, Colombia 1795-1831. Professor Lasso is a contributor to numerous books and has published in journals like the American Historical Review and Citizenship Studies. She is currently working on a book about the depopulation of the Panamanian towns of the Canal Zone, for which she received grants from the American Council of Learned Societies and the National Humanities Center. She has also held fellowships from the Social Science Research Council, Fulbright, and the Werner Gren Foundation. Her work has been translated to Spanish and Portuguese. A native of Panama, Lasso received her PhD in History from the University of Florida in 2002. Paul Losch Paul S. Losch is an Associate Librarian in the Latin American Collection of the George A. Smathers Libraries, University of reference, outreach and collection management. Bruce MacFadden Bruce J. MacFadden is a Curator and Professor in the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH). He has been on the faculty at UF since 1977. He received his B.S. from Cornell University (1971, Agriculture) and M. Phil (1974, Geological Sciences) and Ph.D. (1976, Geological Sciences) from Columbia University. From 1976 to 1977 Dr. MacFadden was a Gibbs Instructor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. He has specialized in the evolution of extinct New World mammals, in particular horses and other herbivores. Dr. MacFadden is the author of 175 articles in peer-reviewed journals and the 1992 book Fossil Horses: Systematics, Paleobiology, and Evolution of the Family Equidae (Cambridge Univ. Press). (Panama Canal Project) PIRE (Partnerships in International Research and Education) funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (0966884). Along with the research in Panama, Bruce is involved in disseminating the results of the PIRE Terry McCoy Terry McCoy is Professor Emeritus of Latin American Studies and Political Science at the University of Florida and Caribbean Studies and Lemann Institute of Brazilian Studies at the University of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign. He has taught, conducted research and consulted professionally throughout the Americas, beginning as a Fulbright Scholar in Chile. He is the author of numerous scholarly publications and a contributor of commentary on Latin America events to various newspapers. At the University of Florida, Dr. McCoy was Director of the UF Center for Latin American Studies, 1985-96, and Associate Director of the Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) in the Warrington College of Business Administration, 1999-2010. He founded the Latin American Business Environment Program in 1999 and served as its director until 2013. Since the mid-1990s McCoys research, teaching and consulting have focused on business and investment in Latin America. He publishes an annual assessment of the business environment in the region and taught an MBA course on this topic. He also directed the UF Business in Brazil study program at the Catholic University in Rio de Janeiro. At the University of Illinois, he teaches a business honors course that incorporates a business case competition in Brazil in collaboration with the University of So Paulo. In addition to speaking to business and professional groups in the U.S., under sponsorship of the U.S. State Department he has done speaker programs throughout Latin America. He has served as a consultant on Latin America for Boeing and Russell 20-20 and other clients. Terry McCoy received his Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and taught at The Ohio State University. In 2006 the University of Florida honored him as its Senior Faculty International Educator of the Year.


16 Paul Morgan Dr. Paul Morgan was born and raised in the Panama Canal Zone. Following his graduation from Florida State University with a B.A. degree in Philosophy, he received a Master of Divinity degree from the Divinity School, Vanderbilt University, and was ordained into the ministry of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in 1971. Dr. Morgan served as a chaplain in the U. S. Army from 1971 to 1991 in the continental United States, Korea, and Germany. While on active duty, he attended at Florida State University, while teaching courses in both U.S. and Latin American history. His doctoral dissertation was Morgan joined the faculty of the University of South Florida in 2003 and taught U.S. history until his retirement as Senior Florida. He and his wife, Stacia, a third generation Zonian whose grandfather came to Panama during the construction of Ambler Moss Ambler H. Moss, Jr. has been Professor of International Studies at the University of Miami since 1984. He was the founding Dean of the Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Miami, and held that position from 1984 to 1994; he was Director of the Dante B. Fascell North-South Center from 1984-2004. From 1977 to 1978 he Secretary of State for Congressional Relations. He served as Ambassador to Panama from 1978 until 1982, having been appointed successively by Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. He also served as a member of the U.S.Panama Consultative Committee from 1978-1982 and from 1995-2001. Previously, as a member of the career Foreign in the Department of State. Mr. Moss received his B.A. from Yale University in 1960 and J.D. in 1970 from the George Legion and Navy League. He is a member of the Bars of Florida and the District of Columbia. From 1972-1976 he was a acquisitions, European anti-trust law, international sales transactions, and international franchising transactions. He was courses at the University of Miami on Major Issues in U.S.Latin American Relations, Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy, the United Nations, and Diplomatic Negotiation. He was awarded a Fulbright Senior Lectureship to teach at the University of Barcelona and the Autonomous University of Barcelona from January to June 2009. He is a member of the Council Studies (London), and the Institute of Catalan Studies (Barcelona). He has received decorations from the governments of Catalonia, Spain, Panama, and Argentina. He has also received the Harold Weill Medal from New York University School of Law, and the U.S. Department of the Army Commanders Award for public service. He was also awarded the Lawyer of the Americas citation by the Inter-American Law Review of the University of Miami. Paul Ortiz Paul Ortiz serves as Director of the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program and associate professor of history at the University of Florida. He is the vice president of the Oral History Association. Paul has written widely on African American and Latino studies as well as labor history. He is the recipient of the Southern Regional Councils Lillian Smith Book Prize, The Florida Historical Societys Harry T. and Harriet V. Moore Book Prize as well as the Multicultural Reviews Carey McWilliams Book Award for outstanding scholarly work on cultural diversity in the United States. Professor Ortiz served in the United States Army from 1982 to 1986. He was a paratrooper and combat radio operator with the 82nd Airborne Division and the 7th Special Forces Group in Central America between 1982 and 1986. He was stationed at Fort Davis, Panama. Ortiz was awarded the Humanitarian Service Medal for service in the wake of the Nevado del Ruiz volcanic disaster in Tolima, Colombia in 1985. He is completing a book titled Our Separate Struggles Are Really One: African American and Latino Histories that will be published by Beacon Press as part of its ReVisioning American History book He is a member of the United Faculty of Florida and he serves on his unions membership committee. He is the recipient of the Florida Education Associations 2013 Csar E. Chvez Action and Commitment Award. Paul Ortiz holds a BA from the Evergreen State College with an emphasis in history and the sociology of science. He earned his PhD from Duke University.


17 Orlando Prez Orlando J. Prez is Professor of Political Science and Director, Cultural and Global Studies Programs at Central Michigan University. He received his B.A. in political science from Florida International University and a Masters and Ph.D. in political science from the University of Pittsburgh. He teaches courses in comparative politics, Latin American politics and U.S.-Latin American relations. He has worked with the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) since the early survey in Panama and Honduras. He is the author of the Americas Barometer national reports for Panama (2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012) and Honduras (2010 and 2012). As a consultant, he has worked on public opinion, democratization, civil-military relations, and anti-corruption issues for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the UN Development Program (UNDP). Dr. Prez is the author or editor of Political Culture in Panama: Democracy after Invasion (Palgrave-Macmillan 2011); Latin American Democracy: Emerging Reality or Endangered Species? (with Richard Millett and Jennifer Holmes) (Routledge 2009); and Post-Invasion Panama: The Challenges of Democratization in the New The Latin Americanist, Political Science Quarterly, Journal of Political and Military Sociology and Revista Latinoamericana de Opinin Publica (Latin American Journal of Public Opinion). Dr. Prez is currently working on two books: Civilforthcoming, 2014) and Political Behavior in Latin America: The Citizen in Transition (Routledge Press, forthcoming, 2015). Jorge Quijano Jorge L. Quijano is the CEO of the Panama Canal Authority, the autonomous agency that manages the Panama Canal, the leading interoceanic waterway that serves world maritime commerce. He started his career with the Panama Canal in 1975 and climbed through the professional and managerial promotion ladder to the position of Maritime Operations Director in 1999, the largest department of the Canal organization, directly involved in the operation and maintenance of the principal infrastructure and equipment of the waterway. In September 2006, was designated to manage the Panama and Programs Management Department. Jorge L. Quijano is the recipient of international awards for his achievements and contributions to the world maritime industry. These are the following: The Texas Industrial Engineering Lifetime Achievement Award presented on February 15, 2013 by Dr. Brian Craig, chair of the Department of Industrial Engineering of the College of Engineering at Lamar University and Honorary Citizen of Texas, presented on February 15, 2013 by the Texas Senate. Angeles Ramos Baquero Angeles Ramos Baquero is the Executive Director and Chief Curator of the Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panam. She earned a Doctorate of Art History from the University of Sevilla, Spain, and a Masters of Art History from the From the beginning, she has been in charge of the acquisition and organization of the Museums Collection, and the administration of all the exhibition projects. Over the last 16 years, she has been the creator and the curator of more than three hundred exhibitions, including permanent, temporary and itinerant exhibitions in the Museo del Canal. Dr. Ramos Baquero has established important international ties, enhancing the Museo del Canals recognition within the International community of Museums. As Director, she has led the Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam to become has encouraged the active participation of Panamas diplomatic community in the production of exhibitions and cultural


18 Frank Robinson W. Frank Robinson is an Assistant Professor of History and the Associate Director of the Center for Latin American Studies at Vanderbilt University. He specializes in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean, with a focus on twentieth century political and social movements, nationalism and populism, and Caribbean diaspora communities. He completed his undergraduate studies with honors at the Johns Hopkins University and then went on to receive an M.A. in African history from the University of Florida and a Ph.D. in Latin American history from Auburn University. Professor Robinson has lived and researched for extended periods in Europe, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. He is a contributing author to Populism in Latin America (Alabama, 1999; 2nd edition 2012) and is currently completing a manuscript that examines twentieth-century Panamanian political history. Grants and fellowships from the IIE Fulbright Program, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the National Defense Education Act Title VI have helped fund his studies, research, and writing. Maricarmen Ruiz-Jaen Maricarmen Ruiz-Jaen is coordinating the Forest National and Carbon Inventory for Panama with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and strong collaboration with the National Environmental Authority (ANAM) of Panama. She began her studies in the University of Panama earning a BA in Biology with specialization in Rico. She then earned a PhD in Biology from McGill University studying the spatial variation of carbon in forests along graduate studies, Dr. Ruiz-Jaen did postdoctoral work with Oxford University and the Center Euro-Mediterranean for Climate Change establishing a network of permanent plots to measure carbon cycle along a precipitation gradient in Ghana and Gabon. She is currently involved in preparing Panama to enter the mechanism on Reducing Emissions from Peter Sanchez Peter M. Sanchez is professor of political science and Graduate Program Director at Loyola University Chicago. He earned his PhD and MA in government from the University of Texas at Austin, and his BA in political science from the University of Florida in Gainesville. Dr. Sanchez is the author of Panama Lost? U.S. Hegemony, Democracy, and the Canal (University Press of Florida, 2007). He is also author of articles published in numerous journals such as Journal of Latin American Studies, International Politics, The Latin Americanist, Annals of Tourism Research, and Journal of Developing Areas. Dr. Sanchez was a Senior Fulbright Scholar in Panama in 1997-1998. He has also conducted research in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Peru. Prior to teaching at Loyola, he taught at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado. Dr. Sanchez is currently working on a new book, Priest under Fire: Padre David Rodrguez, the Catholic Church, and El Salvadors Revolutionary Movement, about a Salvadoran priest who joined the armed insurgency in the 1980s and after the war was elected to the Salvadoran congress. Rachel Schipper Dr. Rachel Schipper, University of Florida Associate Dean, has worked for over 28 years in academic libraries and is currently co-PI of the Institute of Museum and Library Services Collaborative Leadership Grant for the Panama Canal Museum Collection (PCMC). She is chair of the UF Panama Canal Centennial Celebration. Dr. Schipper was previously library, Senator Paul D. Coverdell Library, computer labs, online instruction, University TV/AV, and the campus museum. Serving as the Dean of Libraries and Information Sciences at Shepherd University, she coordinated the construction of the Senator Robert C. Byrd Library and the renovation of the Ruth Scarborough Library and Galleries. She taught art at Curundu Junior High in Panama, and is a member of the Executive Council, Friends of the PCMC, and a Governors Club member of the Panama Canal Society. Rachel Schipper holds an Ed. S. and Ph.D. from Florida Tech in Computer Science, an M.Ed. in Museum Studies from Pennsylvania State University, and a Masters in Library Science from the University of Maryland.


19 Margaret (Peggy) Scranton and MA in Political Science from the University of Pittsburgh, and her BA, with honors in politics, from the Randolph1955-1978, won the American Political Science Associations 1981 Helen Dwight Reid award for the best dissertation John Booth and Mitchell Seligsons Elections in Central America Revisited, an entry on the National Civic Crusade in Middlebrooks Electoral Observation and Democratic Transitions in Latin America, and a chapter on Panamas Electoral Tribunal in Orlando Perezs Electoral Observation and Democratic Transitions in Latin America, and of articles on of Political Science. Dr. Scranton held a Foreign Policy Fellowship for dissertation research at The Brookings Institution during 1997-1978, was a Fulbright Scholar in Panama in 1991 and 1998, and held an a US Institute of Peace Fellowship (1991conducting research on threats to democratization in post-invasion Panama. Daniel Sokol D. Daniel Sokol is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Florida Levin College of Law. He is co-editor of the Global Competition Law and Economics book series (Stanford University Press), the Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics (Oxford University Press, 2014) and the Global Antitrust Compliance Handbook regulators from around the world. He was the author of the OECD/Inter-American Development Bank country peer review of Panamas Competition Policy. Peter Szok Peter Szok teaches Latin American history at Texas Christian University. He received a PhD from Tulane University and has specialized in art, intellectual history, and popular culture. He is the author of Wolf Tracks: Popular Art and ReAfricanization in Twentieth-Century Panama (2012) and La ltima gaviota: Liberalism and Nostalgia in Early TwentiethCentury Panama (2001). His current projects include on a book on indigenous intelligentsia in contemporary Panama and a manuscript on Murphy Antoine and New Orleans folk art. Brijesh Thapa Brijesh Thapa, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at the University units. Overall, his research theme is within the nexus of tourism, conservation and sustainability. He has been involved in numerous projects in various capacities in over 30 countries. Additionally, Dr. Thapa has been involved in a range of projects at UNESCO World Heritage Sites with respect to tourism, cultural heritage, and natural resources management issues. Recently, Dr. Thapa has been focused on numerous capacity building and institutional development projects through curriculum development, research, and training in tourism, nature and cultural heritage conservation, and natural resources management. As a PI and CO-PI, he has been involved in several long-term federally funded projects in Armenia, Turkey, Russia, Nepal, and the Southern Africa region. He has received funding from U.S. Federal Agencies such as: Department of State, Department of Education, Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Millennium Challenge Corporation.


20 Julie Velsquez Runk Julie Velsquez Runk is an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Georgia, and a research associate of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. She earned her joint Ph.D. in forestry and environmental studies and anthropology from Yale University and the New York Botanical Garden, her M.E.M in ecology and Latin American studies from Duke University, and her B.A. in biology and Latin American studies from Grinnell College. She is author of a dozen articles in journals such as American Anthropologist, Conservation Letters, Journal of Latin American Geography, Conservation and Society, and Economic Botany, and is lead author of Pueblos Indgenas en Panam: Una Bibliografa. Dr. region. In addition to her Panam research, she also has worked in Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil, Honduras, and Costa Rica. She began her career as a conservation and development practitioner. Richard Wainio Richard Wainio has held executive positions in the global transportation industry for over 35 years working in countries throughout the world. He was employed for 23 years at the Panama Canal as senior economist, director of corporate marketing and director of executive planning. His responsibilities included strategic and treaty planning, trade forecasting and economic research, and global marketing. He was the primary advisor to the canals bi-national Board of Directors during the transition of the canal to Panama. Subsequently, Mr. Wainio held executive positions with several international ports and shipping companies including eight years as CEO of the Port of Tampa. Presently, he is a trade and transportation consultant. Mr. Wainio has an M.A. degree from the Thunderbird School of Global Management and a B.A. degree from Davidson College. Additionally he did graduate work in Latin American studies at the University of Florida and in economics at the University of Oklahoma. He has served as an advisor to the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Chairman of the Florida Seaport Transportation and Economic Development Council, and was President and Executive Director of the American Chamber of Commerce in Panama. He taught for 25 years as an adjunct professor of sociology and marketing for Florida State University (Panama) and serves on several boards including SunTrust Bank and Tampa Tank/Florida Structural Steel. Kendra Walker Kendra Walker is a Postdoctoral fellow at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. She earned her PhD in natural resource management from the University of Michigan and BS in ecology from the University of California in San Diego. Her research interests focus on socio-political processes underlying conservation success via a combination of modeling approaches including GIS, economic modeling and game theory. Prior to her work in Panama, Dr. Walker lived in Sonja Stephenson Watson Sonja Stephenson Watson is an Assistant Professor of Spanish at the University of Texas at Arlington. She has published numerous articles on Afro-Panamanian identity in journals such as the Afro-Hispanic Review, the College Language Association Journal, the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies Journal, PALARA, Callaloo, and alternativas: Latin American Cultural Studies Journal. Her forthcoming manuscript, The Politics of Race in Panama: Afro-Hispanic and West Indian Literary Discourses of Contention (University Press of Florida, April 2014), deals with the forging of AfroPanamanian identity from the nineteenth century to the present.


21 Panama Considered: Presentation Abstracts Ruben Berrocal, SENACYT Advancing Science in Panama the history of making science in Panama and will go through the work done by the National Secretariat of Science, as the construction of the Panama Research Institute for Science and Medicine; and plans to ensure continuous top Stephanie Bohlman, UF Current tree cover and opportunities for reforestation in the highly deforested Azuero Peninsula of Panama Here we quantify the degree that tree cover in areas of non-forest, or agriculture and pasture, have important for identifying opportunities for augmenting tree cover, and their associated ecosystems services, via reforestation, is partly due to the limited ability of satellite images, used to map forests, to distinguish dispersed tree cover that species and structure of individual trees and tree clusters, to estimate species diversity and carbon of trees in nonconservation planning analysis tools to use both biophysical features, such as forest cover, and socioeconomic factors, we also included organizational support from government and non-governmental organizations in considering where reforestation is most likely to occur and identify other areas where additional organizational support may be needed. Laurel Collins, FIU Investigating Panamas Rise from the Sea and its Eects on Marine Life The Isthmus of Panama has long fascinated biologists and geologists because of the enormous changes in land, oceans and life caused by its rise from the sea. For over 50 years, evidence has been collected from rocks of the ancient foraminifera were studied. The shells were found mostly in rocks of Bocas del Toro, the Panama Canal, and Darin, Panama; Limn, Costa Rica; and NW Ecuador. Results were combined with studies from NW Colombia to construct snapshots of the isthmus through time. Deep oceanic straits became shallow by 13 million years ago (mya), deepened a bit around 6 mya, and then all straits were shallow around 5 mya before closing completely about 4 mya. The fossil isolation and environmental change. The isthmian faunal divergence began at least 4 million years before the Isthmus of Panama was complete.


22 What happens when the United States gives a small country what it wants? have. Those who had opposed giving Panama the canal warned that the new owners would break it or fail to maintain it adequately. In fact, however, the republic has done very well in the decade and a half since gaining ownership of the canal, and indications point to continued good news from the Isthmus. Michael Donoghue, Marquette University Borderland on the Isthmus: The Panama Canal Zone as Imperial Borderland The Panama Canal Zone formed a non-contiguous imperial borderland that bisected Panama for a century and and accommodations among the various peoples who strove for ascendance within the vortex of this borderland, forms the subject of this paper. Besides the issues of race and identity, always at odds in borderlands, additional disputes that both strengthened and damaged U.S.-Panamanian relations to the point where Washington agreed in the late 1970s to vacate the isthmus at the end of 1999. While not emphasized as much in earlier works on the subject, the enclave. Brian Gendreau, UF Beyond the Canal:Finance and Tourism as Sources of Panamas Growth being a fully dollarized economy, which has spared it from the currency crises that have wrought damage on so many without increasing its vulnerability to external shocks such as those that rocked global markets in 2008-09. Julie Greene, University of Maryland at College Park The 13th Labor of Hercules: Myths and Erasures in the History of the Panama Canals Construction This talk will examine the history of the Panama Canals construction, exploring the origins of the triumphalist imagery associated with it, as well as the erasure of certain key aspects of the project. Key elements in the construction project that have been strategically erased over time include the role of laborers from around the world, the complex use of racial and ethnic segregation as a tool of labor management, and the very critical support provided by the Republic of Panama. Francisco Herrera, University of Panama Demographic Aspects Related to Social and Economic Development of the Indigenous Population in Panama last hundred years (1911-2010). These factors include population increase, displacement, and migration associated with social and economic development. Demographic indicators such as decreased mortality rates and rising fecundity rates (higher than the national average) are the main contributors to a population increase of over 43 per cent in the last twenty years. These processes are also related to an increase in economic and educational participation at the national level. Formal schooling, wage labor, and new social and cultural demands have stimulated migration and During the colonial times, Indian populations were located in marginal territories, in the northwest and north and east of the country. Mestizo populations were growing in the southwest and central part of the isthmus, becoming to cooperation, but the indigenous maintained control of their territory. Low population growth of the mestizo society and an economy based on the transisthmian transportation of goods and people, reduced the value of rural development, and reinforced the cultural development of the indigenous groups until the 1970s. Thereafter other demographic and economic forces, such as peasants, began to occupy territory neighboring that of the indigenous


23 related to territorial demarcation, which began early in the 1930s and have continued in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, under the category of indigenous reservations, comarca system and collective lands. Paradoxically, these gains have not stopped migration to the cities, cultural changes, political dislocation, poverty, and other social and economic processes, all of which casts doubt on their future based on the arguments that maintain the possibility of economic development and maintaining cultural tradition. Carlos Jaramillo, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Expansion of the Panama Canal and the Rise of the Isthmus Even though the uplift of the Panamanian isthmus was a small-scale geological event, it separated two oceans and joined two continents producing large-scale biological, climatic, and paleoceanographic changes. It has been traditionally accepted that the rise of the isthmus happened ~3.5 ma ago. Over the past four years, given the Panama Canal expansion, we have had access to a vast amount of fresh rocks, otherwise covered by tropical rainforest, and the opportunity to collect more evidence about the timing and consequences of Panamanian isthmus uplift. Paleontology, thermochronology, provenance, geochemistry, petrography, magnetostratigraphy, global circulation/ Neodymium modeling and structural analyses indicate three major exhumation events that occurred during the late Eocene (~38 Ma), the earliest Miocene (~20 Ma), and the late Miocene (~10 Ma) intervals. There is no record of corridor along the tectonic boundary between the South American plate and the Panama microplate) shut down by the late Miocene (12-10 Ma ago) and an active exchange of sediments between both blocks was initiated. Neodymium and only shallow waters (<200 m deep) could mix across the isthmus. This 12-10 Ma event could be associated with the onset of AMOC circulation. Fossil evidence and genetic analyses of a number of clades including monkeys, bats, migration of terrestrial elements across the isthmus started by 10 Ma ago. Shallow water communication between marine molluskan faunas. Mammalian migration is very limited, only increasing until around 2.7 Ma, suggesting that a barrier, other than a physical connection, did not allow a large mammalian exchange both continents. Migration also varied along latitude, with North American taxa reaching temperate areas of South America earlier than tropical areas. Perhaps the onset of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation at 2.7 Ma and the vast climatic changes that it than the establishment of a continuous land bridge. Osvaldo Jordan, CATHALAC Clashing Worldviews in the Crossroads of the World: Competing Visions of Development in XXI Century Panama. the last two hundred years, a hegemonic view prevailed in the XX century in which the country was destined to become a capital of world commerce and crossroads of the world. This vision has engulfed previous competing national projects that vied for power in the XIX century, yet it has clashed violently with ancient belief systems and concepts of good life in the early XXI century. This controversy is usually portrayed as simple confrontations of large development projects actually raise fundamental questions about inclusiveness, quality of life and social Marixa Lasso, Case Western Reserve University Depopulating La Zona: Erasing Urban History at the Panama Canal Utterly transforming a complex human space, the creation of the Panama Canal Zone erased an old commercial route dotted and 1914, canal authorities dismantled entire Panamanian towns located in the ten miles of American territory, forcing 40,000 people to abandon their houses, shops, and lands. In lieu of the existing pattern of settlement, the U.S. federal government created an idyllic tropical space, in which the jungle served as background to manicured suburban towns miraculously cleaned of poverty, unemployment, and even most forms of private property. These new towns of the Zone created an entirely new space, which was physically, ideologically, and culturally disconnected from Panamas rich urban past.


24 Paul Losch, UF Latin American Collection Integrating the Panama Canal Museum Collection into the University of Florida Libraries thanks to work being done here to organize, preserve, digitize and display the collection. Bruce MacFadden, FLMNH Discovering Fossils and Ancient Biodiversity along the Panama Canal: A Once-in-a-Century Opportunity The Republic of Panama is currently expanding the Canal on a scale not seen since the original excavations a century fossil discoveries of extinct vertebrates and invertebrates. These animals lived on land and in marine habitats during the Miocene, about 5 to 20 million years ago, prior to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. From these discoveries we are elucidating the kinds of ancient biodiversity that was the precursor of what we see today in the New World the ancient ecology and biodiversity of this region. It also will discuss ongoing education and outreach programs developed as part of the NSF-funded Panama Canal Project, as well as explain how we are training the next generation of globally competent scientists and educators in Latin America. Terry McCoy, UF The Business Environment in Panama the paper traces the evolution of the environment for business and investment in Panama from one of the most expansion of the Canal concludes in 2015. Paul Morgan, US Army (Ret.) and University of South Florida The Panama Canal Museum: History in the Attics, Trunks, and Closets In 1998, a group of former residents of the Panama Canal Zone organized the Panama Canal Museum in order to preserve the story of the American era of the Panama Canal (1904-1999). Telling this story, though, meant going Panama Canal Zone was and is found in memories, diaries, artifacts, personal mementos, and newspaper columns in the history of Panama lay in the attics, closets, and trunks of those who had lived through the era. Having a more central depository of these materials now makes any research easier. It assists both historians in their scholarship and genealogists in researching their familys contribution. As volunteers receive and catalogue items, keepsakes, and Paul Ortiz, UF Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Oral Histories and Historical Memories of the Panama Canal Zone Working in cooperation with the Panama Canal Museum, George A. Smathers Libraries, and UFs Center for Latin residents of the Panama Canal Zone. These oral history interviews will serve for generations to come as a vital source discuss the process of conducting, preserving, and promoting this invaluable collection. We will also discuss themes and potential research questions that the interviews help to illuminate.


25 Orlando J. Prez, Central Michigan University Political Culture of Democracy in Panama: Evidence from the Americas Barometer Using the 2004-2012 Americas Barometer surveys this paper examines the evolution of democratic values in Panama. The paper will focus on the demographic, social and attitudinal factors that explain support or opposition to democracy. Mass support for the basic principles of democratic governance is critical to the consolidation of stable democracy. The key questions this paper seeks to answer are: To what extent do Panamanians adhere to basic democratic principles? And how have those opinions changed over time? Values that will be explored include: political tolerance, system support, institutional legitimacy, and support for authoritarian values. The results of the analysis suggests that support for democracy as the preferred system is widespread in post-invasion Panama, but that weak institutional legitimacy and declining political tolerance diminish the quality of and satisfaction with democratic governance. Jorge Quijano, CEO Panama Canal Authority (ACP) The Panama Canal Expansion Program: A Story of Challenges, Innovation and Commitment The Panama Canal is the result of human ingenuity. From its inception, back in the 15thth Century, when the Spaniards the Americas, the opportunities this exploit would bring forth could scarcely be imagined. Hundreds of years later, under the leadership of the United States, the Panama Canal opened its gates to world shipping, forever changing the ways of global trade. Today, as the centennial structure approaches its maximum capacity, history repeats itself with to once again setting shipping standards and improving cargo movement worldwide. Angeles Ramos Baquero, Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panama Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panama, 100 Years of the Panama Canal and the Reclaiming of our Historical Memory The history of the Panama Canal has been traditionally narrated through a foreign perspective. This foreign point of view stresses the perception that Panamanians do not own that part of their history and that they were only exceptional witnesses to their destiny. This misconception also nurtured in many Panamanians a profound need to search and vindicate its national identity and, in others, a sense of inadequacy before the imminent reversion of the Canal to Panamanians in the year 2000. Considering the national importance of this matter, the Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panama was opened to the public in 1997 with a broad mission. The core of it was to create a museum the canal strengthening its cultural identity. During the past 16 years the museum had served this mission through permanent exhibits, the building of its collection, temporary and traveling exhibits, educational and cultural activities. The community has joined the museum in the development in this mission creating strong boundaries through the years. Frank Robinson, Vanderbilt University Panama for the Panamanians: Arnulfo Arias and Defensive Nationalism Using the slogan Panama for Panamanians, Arnulfo Arias, one of Panamas most prominent twentieth-century statesmen, insisted that his nation needed a homegrown doctrine that addressed the particular needs of the and ambitious approach to politics captured the imagination of voters, and by stressing themes deeply rooted in Panamanian history, Arnulfo forged a broad-based following that has persisted in the political landscape. Panameismo succeeded because it appealed to emotion. Arnulfo Arias raised uncomfortable issues that directly addressed Panamas national inferiority complex. He sought to stir peoples consciousness and at the same time compel them to action. At its core Panameismo represented defensive nationalism and an authoritarian style of government. This paper, based on research undertaken in Panama and at the United States National Archives, seeks to examine the dynamics of Panameismo within the context of changing Panamanian conceptions of race and nationality.


26 Maria del Carmen Ruiz-Jaen, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Establishing National Forest Inventories for REDD+: The Panama Experience The mechanism for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD +) main goals are the conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks in tropical a voluntary forest-based mitigation, where the participating countries should establish a National Forest Monitoring System (SNMF) with reference baseline carbon content. One part of the SNMF is to have a national forest inventory; Panama does not have current information on their forest resources -the last forest inventory was conducted in conducive to improving forest management and land use. The objectives of this paper are to share lessons learned data sources. We believe that the lessons learned in Panama can serve the countries of the region, as the country has countries. Peter Sanchez, Loyola University Chicago No CMA! The Battle over US Military Bases in Panama One of the longstanding controversies between Panama and the United States, since the 1903 Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty, was the right of the US government to maintain military bases on Panamanian soil. The 1977 Canal Treaties military personnel by 31 December 1999. However, the US Senate had added a condition to the Treaties allowing Washington and Panama to negotiate the permanence of US bases into the new millennium. This paper will focus on this controversy and the US-Panama negotiations beginning in 1997 to enable US military bases to remain on the the US military from keeping a military presence on the isthmus. While skeptics had long argued that Panama would did little to undermine Panamas progress and role in the world. Margaret Scranton, University of Arkansas at Little Rock Senate Debate on the 1978 Panama Canal Treaties: Predicting Shortand Long-Term Eects how well treaty advocates and opponents forecast likely events and outcomes of implementing the changes the was preceded by months of hearings at which administration spokespersons and interest group representatives numerous expert analysts they cited, accurately forecast US national security and commercial interests along with Daniel Sokol, UF Panamas Legal Environment: Country Competitiveness


27 Peter Szok, TCU Blackness and Popular Art in Twentieth-Century Panama Popular art is a masculine and working-class genre, associated with Panamas black population. Its practitioners are self-taught, commercial painters, whose high-toned designs, vibrant portraits, and landscapes appear in cantinas, barbershops, and restaurants. The diablo rojo buses are popular arts most visible manifestation. This paper analyzes the origins of the paintings, connecting them to rebellious, Afro-American festival traditions and to the rumba craze of the mid-twentieth century. During World War II, thousands of U.S. soldiers were stationed in Panama, and elaborately decorated cabarets opened to cater to their presence. These venues often featured touring Afro-Cuban musicians. Painters such as Luis The Wolf Evans exploited such moments of modernization to challenge the elite from modernization and asserted a romantic and mestizo (European-indigenous) vision of the republic, popular artists Brijesh Thapa, UF Eric Friedheim Tourism Institute Tourism Development and Challenges in Panama Tourism has consistently been employed as a tool for economic development in developing countries. Combined is potential to expand this sector in Panama given the destination attributes (e.g., nature and culture) and trends in consumer demand. However, given the importance of tourism to the local and national economy as it encompasses multiple interrelated and interdependent businesses (e.g., lodging, natural and built attractions, restaurants, tour operators, etc.), it is critical for Panama to build, enhance, and strengthen the human and institutional capacity in the tourism and hospitality sector to maintain and further enhance tourism with a sustained strategy for long-term growth. and sustainability of the industry. Julie Velsquez Runk, University of Georgia and Carlos Espinosa Pea, WWF Panama Development, Resources, and Communities in Eastern Panama The recent emphasis on global environmental governance, particularly of climate change, has altered how communities, governments, and the international community relate to landscapes. This is particularly true in eastern Panama, long considered the countrys mythically resource rich region. In this talk we use literature review, interviews, and participant observation to demonstrate the history of development in eastern Panama over the last sixty years, how that history relates to the regions diverse ethnic groups and its terrestrial and marine resources, and how the new emphasis on environmental governance confronts short-term policies with longer-term potentials. We conclude that local participation and existing policy remain challenges to successful environmental governance. Richard Wainio Shifting Trade Patterns and the Impact of the Panama Canal Expansion Canal expansion will be discussed. Kendra Walker, STRI Forest-cover change, population and land tenure in western Panama While it is often hypothesized that more secure land tenure results in more sustainable land use, few empirical studies demands deeper study. I explore trends in population growth and movement, forest cover, and land tenure in a GIS analysis based on detailed census data, land-title maps, and forest-cover estimates from 1990, 2000, and 2010 for the area west of the Panama Canal. In the process, I address challenges in mapping forest-cover change in Panama including to prevalent clouds, a long wet season and rapid regrowth. Despite such challenges, much insight can be garnered from this study of demographic trends and forest cover in the extremely diverse country of Panama.


28 Sonja Stephenson Watson, University of Texas at Arlington The Forging of Afro-Panamanian Identity: Past, Present, and Future Black identity in Panama is one of the most complex issues in Latin America because of cultural, linguistic, and racial West Indians emigrated from the English-speaking countries of Jamaica and Barbados to build the Panama Railroad and Canal during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. Earlier nation-building rhetoric (1880-1920) excluded black identity from the Panamanian national paradigm, which explains why Afro-Hispanics assimilated after centuries of mestizaje and overwhelmingly identify with their Panamanian heritage. By contrast, West Indians clung to their British Caribbean roots and identify as Anglicized subjects in a hispanicized white world. This dynamic unique to Panama has impeded racial consolidation between Afro-Hispanics and West Indians and is manifest in black Panamanian writings.