San Jose scale and its nearest allies


Material Information

San Jose scale and its nearest allies a brief consideration of the characters which distinguish these closely related injurious scale insects
Series Title:
Technical series / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
31 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Cockerell, Theodore D. A ( Theodore Dru Alison ), 1866-1948
United States -- Division of Entomology
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Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Scale insects   ( lcsh )
San José scale   ( lcsh )
San José scale   ( fast )
Scale insects   ( fast )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by T.D.A. Cockerell.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 27899541
lccn - agr90003098
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Full Text

Technical Series No, 6.





Prepaire~ 1 iiider thle dii ]1c tii o )f li1 E tlotg)~i st By

T1. 1). A.(O(1 I? L,
Entntltb t o( thie Xctv -1gr ~yIicultior(( 1 xpci-ientI~~ wI( L ( 0tt'cs,
-New Metxi(co.

18 9 7


Washington,. D. C., April 2r, 1897.
Sin: I have the honor to submit for publication the accompanying technical bulletin, which it is hoped will enable all entomologists as well as all other persons who have access to a compound microscope to distinguish definitely between the San Jose scale and its closest allies. This bulletin has been prepared under your authorization by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, whose long technical study of the scale insects has especially fitted him for the work. Although the specific characters of the San Jose scale have been given in a number of different publications, they have not been displayed by exact contrast to those of the most closely allied species, and it has resulted that almost all of the entomologists in the United States have felt themselves unable to decide authoritatively as to the identity of suspected forms, and have always forwarded specimens either to this office or Professor (Cockerell in New Mexico for certain determination. It is the hope and expectation of the author of the bulletin and of the writer that by the aid of this account of the insect and its allies all of this uncertainty will be done away with and that much valuable time will be saved.
Hon. JAMES WILSON, Enttomologist.
Secretary of Agriculture.


The preliminary examination ............................................... 3
The study of the scale ...................................................... 4
The microscopic characteristics of the adult females--------------------......................... 5
The subgenera and sections of Aspidiotus ................................... 9
The relationships of the San Jose scale...................................... 14
Habits of the species ........................................................ 18
Annotated list of the species of Aspidiotus ................................... 18
Postscript .................................................................. 31

Suppose that sonime objects suspected to b)e San Jose scales have been found upon a fruit tree. Tlhe first thing to do is to ascertain whether they are scales (Coccidwe) at all. I have known fly marks to be taken for Coccide, and occasionally the lenticels on the young growth of trees are supposed to be scale insects by those whose exI)erience ought to have taught them better. It is really remarkable how the lenticels on cottonwood twigs in the Mesilla Valley, N. Mex., resemble a scale prevalent in that locality, Aspidiotusj uglans-regia' var. albus. From a short distance the deception would be complete but for the fact that the lenticels are arranged at approximately equal distances from one another and not massed like scale insects. Still more like coccids are certain fungi; I have on occasion been obliged to use a lens to ascertain which I had before Ime. At Mlesilla, N. MIex., I found on the dead wood of an apple tree a fungus which closely resembled the second stage, or immature male scales of the San Jose scale. This fungus was kindly identified for me by Mr. J. B. Ellis as the cytispora stage of Valsa ambiens Persoon. It is presumed that no entomologist will be misled for more than a moment by lenticels or fingi, but for those who are not entomologists it may be recommended to scrape the object with the finger nail or a knife blade, when, if it is a scale insect, it will readily come away, leaving at most only a pale film.
Granting now that we certainly have a scale insect before us, it is to be learned whether it belongs to the subfamily Diaspine. A mealybug has no scale-only some mealy or cottony secretion; a Lecanium or shield scale is itself the scale-that is, the insect becomes hardened and scale like, but has no scale separable from its body. But the Diaspinme are small soft insects, in the adult Y stage withoit legs and unable to move, which secrete a scale separate from themselves, much like the shell of an oyster. With a lens it is easy to make out the insect and its scale, the latter having first been overturned with the point of a knife. The scale, it is further seen, carries the exuvie of the two first stages, or only one if it be a male.
Now, then, if we are sure that we have a Diaspine is it an Aspidiotusthe genus of the San Jose scale? In Aspidiotus the female scales are round, or nearly so, and the male scales vary from round to oval, according to the species, but are always of a similar texture to those of the female. Therefore we shall not be misled by Mytilaspis, in which


the female scales are elongate, p)ointed at one end; nor by Chionaspis, whbich have the leiiiale scales more or less pyriform in. outline, and the male scales liniear, sot. white, with the usually yellow larval skini at one end; nor by Diaspis, which has the female scale much like Asp~idio.
t?1s, but the male scale like (iiaspis.
We may be misled by Diaspis itf, as soiaietiies happens, we find only fedo inale scales. I Europe two similar
0 species, oIIC ani Aspidlwtit (A. ostrece- */ori~s), the other a I)-iaspis, were long
confounded under onie name. The
Q A sidiottus piricola recently described
~ (5~~by Del Ouercio, which I have recogC+--~4 izved ii sp~ecimnens found ont Prunus ini Fi(-;. I.-halflptr4d characters of fe Califoria. is sai(l by Berlese to be ini

reality the Iiaspis ,just mentioiied (see rr. ) I formerly saw only female scales, but have lately receivedl those
ot he iiaewhich are as ini Ih*isp is. A 4hire is givent so that the insect may b~e recoognizedl by those who come across it.'


With an ordinary pocket lens the characters of the scale call be madle ouit. The following table maty be found( utseful: A. 'Scale qu ite con\-ex. about I Vnin. dIiainiiter, whitish with an. (clreouis or grayish
tinlt, with a contrasting dark spot inarking the exuvia'u, which are toward
the sidle.
1. Scale, sonmw\ihat translicent,. so that it has a decided orange or yellowish
ti uug wheni covering tht, living insect; a species ]lot extending above the lowe-r autstral /zonle.................................----.4. rapax Conist.
2. Scale muove opaqtie, tinis appearing i viter ; a species coinnon in the upper
aiustral zonew, foiud mainly on poplairs and willows 1. conrexi Conust.

tAttelitioii is called to the four riidimentary lobes oni each side, bces h ag
mlediallons which are dairk -colored. There is a wvell-niarked inedian. or aInterior
gopof ventral glan(ls. ii ii lueriig-t least eigh lt. As. Mr. A. C.F1 Mor-,au renake
ill :1~pdiotus ostre(U~orlolo the inner la.teral Inar-~ins of the medlian lob~es are produced to enicircle thle nuwhile there is nothing of the kind in the Iia.~pis. There has b)(en ,omil question as to what 1iiame this Diaspi8 should bear. l'itch's ;lspidioteis circuiiaris (Tr. N. 1'. A gr. Soc., 1856) from stalks of currant at Albany, N. Y., has been thought referable to it, and would be the oldest name; but it doubtless belongs to A. ancylus, whlichi Dr. Lintner has found onl black currant in Albany. I do not recommend its use for auneqb8, however, as it is an llnrecogutizablenfomcit 8cminudamr, so far as; Fitch's publication goes. The names pyri and ostrewformi8, as applied to the JPiaqpib, by Boisduval anid Si gnoret. respectively, can have no claim, being merely inisidentifications of Lininean and Cnrtisian species. We are thus obliged to fall back oU IPel Guerejo's, specific name, and call the insect Dia~pis piricola (Del Guere.); unless it caui he proved identical with 1). pyri Colv~e, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Bull. 1881, p. Iii. The if ficulty with regard to Colv~c's insect arises from his account of the grouped ventral glands; he gives, caudolaterals 18 to 20, cephalolaterals20 to 24, median nerer more than six, sometimes less or even none. In the Dia8pis the median group is larger, while the others are smaller, viz, median 8 to 12, caudolaterals 8 to 14, cephalolaterals 12 to 13.


B. Scale flattened, but comparatively large, diameter 3mm., or nearly; exuvi'e forming a slight prominence between the middle and the side, when rubbed so as to remove a thin filhn of secretion, appearing shining orange or foxy-red.
1. Scale grayish-brown.........................A. jjuglans-regie (Comist.
2. Scale white ...............................1. .juglanls-regiw v. albus Ckll.
C. Scale flattened like the last, but smaller; diameter 2min. or less.
1. Scale pale grayish, with a slight reddish tinge, the male scales suffused with
blackish, exuvia3 of the 9 scale somewhat to the side of the center, dull orange............................... .............. I 'ardi Ckll.
2. Scale blackish or dark gray to dull black, the exuvi. when exposed a deep
orange-red, their position somewhat away from the center.
a. Scale usually very dark, first skin hardly raised or nipple-like; a species
colmmion in the transition zone, often on maples...... ancylus Putn.
b. Scale somewhat paler, first skiii somewhat raised and nipple-like, with
faint indications of a dot and ring ..................A. forbe.i Johns.
3. Scale of female gray, with the exuvia, central, or nearly so, yellowish, J
scales showing a distinct dot surrounded by a ring, which is not the case
in A. howrardi.
a. g scale all black, the dot and ring not distinguished by color, but distinctly sculptured; a Japanese species....... an1dromela8s (kll. n. sp.
b. & scale grayish, hardly black, with :a light dot and ring.
A. pern iciosuo. Comst. (San Jos, scale).
c. g scale grayish black, the light d(lot and ring very conspicuous; occurs
on orange and plum in Japan...... 1. perticiosu. v. albopulnctatus Ckll.
The scale of A. cydoniw Comst., found on quince in Florida, resemnibles that of rapax. A. cra wii Ckl. n. sp., a Mexican species, has also a convex scale, but the exuvia' are not dark. The European A. ostreafiormis Curt. has a black scale with deep orange exuvia, and could easily be taken for ancylus.
It has been a matter for dispute whether the San Jose scale can be certainly recogiiized in the field. Its effect on the tree. killing the branches, is characteristic, but hardly in any true sense diagiiostic; while the reddening.of the tissues of the plant adjacent to the scale is sometimes well marked with A. ancylus as well as with Jrn)icios A little experience, ho-vwever, eiialb)les one to reco)ognize the ashy-gray, generally thickly massed scales of pcrniciosus, with the dot and ring of the male scale; as against the dark scale and contrasting reddish-orange exuvie of ancylus, or the similar scales of outreaformis and fo/brbesi. Nor will the very pale scale of howardi, found singly on plums, be likely to cause confusion. At the same time it is to be recommended that the diagnosis made in the fieldbe in every case continued by examination of the insect under the compound microscope, if either locality or plant is new.
A. forbesi was only recently described from Illinois, but I have this year found it on apple trees in Mesilla, N. Mex, and it will probably be detected in other parts of America if looked for.
The female insect should be carefully removed from beneath the scale and boiled for a moment iii strong liquor p)otassa'. It will then be transparent, and can be examined with a compound microscope. It


is the hind extremity of the insect which presents the characteristic features. I do not know whether it is the same with other people, but the writer can always judge best of the form of the parts when the tail is pointing upward, as in the accompanying figures. This is explained by the th1t that the eye is more accustomed to judge of convexities (e. g., mountain ranges, tree tops, &c.) than concavities.
Having prepared the specimen, an examination shows various caudil structures, known as lobes, plates, and spines. The lobes are more or less rounded projections from the margin, of which there is a welldeveloped pair (the median lobes) at the caudal extremity, and varying numbers of outer ones, according to the species.
The plates, so called, are gland hairs, and form a delicate fringe L adjacent to the lobes; they are
often branched. The spines are A.. o *, --" fine bristles, placed at intervals
hd I O 1on the margin, projecting more nearly at right angles than the i)lates.
Scattered over the surface of the hind part of the insect will be found oval glands, theposition X and number of which is often of
impnl)ortance. li connection with the glands at the bases of the Sa lobes are found chitinous processes, which remain d(lark after boiling the insect in caustic potash, and( are rel)resented as dark fusiform objects in the figures. The oval glands just men0tioned are on the dorsal surface; <0but by changing tihe focus there
A. IAtAt can o ,. will come into view, when presS eit four or live groups of cirFio. 2.-Aspidiotus perniciosus and A. howardi : entr urcharacters of female (original). clar glans te ventral surface, arranged about the genital opening. When well developed, these ventral grouped glands consist of an anterior or median group and two groups on each side, known as caudolateral and cephalolateral. Their function has long been doubtful, but Mr. E. E. Green (Ent. Mo. Mag., April, 1896, pp. 85-86) has hit upon what is almost certainly their true purpose, namely, to secrete the waxy powder which dusts the surface of the eggs. In accordance with this view, we find them to be very numerous in those forms which produce numerous eggs; less numerous in those which produce a few eggs at a time, which rapidly hatch; and wanting in


those which are ovoviviparous, and give forth their young in an active state. They are also wanting in the immature females and the males. The San Jose scale is viviparous, and wholly lacks these ventral glands, while they are present min the adult females of the allied Aspidiotus forbesi, ancylus, ostreajformis, juglas-regia)c, &c. They are wanting inll A. rapax, which however will not be confounded with perniciosus, having a strongly convex scale, with dark sublateral exuv e. If the grouped ventral glands are found, it may be assumed at once that the insect is not the San Jose scale; but it does not always happen that we have adult females under examination, so their absence, even though the scale be flattish, may not be conclusive. A little study of the

c! I

A, --( drn\

.FIG. 3.-Aspidiotus juglans-regia, A. ancyluts, A. ostretrfornis. A. peraiciosus, and A. forbesi (original).
accompanying figures will, it is hoped, remove all difficulty. It will be seen that in the true San Jose scale (A. perniciosus) the median lobes are large, upright, notched on the outer margin, though a little variable in form, as the different figures indicate. The second lobes are small but distinct, quite close to the first, variable in shape but inclined to be pointed, and notched also on the outer margin. The chitinous processes at the interval between the first and second lobes are well developed, close together, and of nearly equal size. Fig. 2 is designed to show the glandular hairs or '1 plates; attention should be called to the fact that they are spine-like, at most feebly serrate, not branched; there is a large pair at a and three smaller pairs are shown at b. While the

small pairs of plates are quite characteristic, there is a fair amount of variation in these organs, and it is worth noting that if the specimens are boiled too l)ng they are apt to be destroyed or detached.
In A. ancylus (fig. 3), the species most commonly confounded with per iciosii, it is seen that the shape of the median lobes is different, though these organs vary somewhat, and that there is nothing but the merest rudimenit of a second lobe. It is further seen that the interval between the median lobe and the rudimeniit of the second is very wide, and that the chitiniious processes are for apart and not of equal size, the innermost being the largest. There is also a gland orifice just below the interval. The plates of atcylus, not shown in the figure, are fringed aniid of the tyle shown iin howardi, though less developed.
A. hor'ardi (fig. 2) is of the type of ancylus, but the rudiment of the second lobe is somewhat more developed. The figure, from one of the type specimens,
sufficiently indicates the
/ characters and includes
,/\ l the oval dorsal glands.
.f It must be admitted
k that howardi is very
A close to ancylus; per(\i haps only a variety of it.
t" A. forbesi (fig. 3) is
) really a good deal nearer
A. ~-to perniciosus than is
Q-' anlcylus. Itwillbenoted,
". '! m however, that the me- A diai lobes are more or
less oblique, and espe0 cially that the chitinous
processes of the interA. '. val between the first and
Fit;. 4 -A spidiitu/ 1. al a i N lP r. (.ix A. crawi, nid second lobes are very
A, 1'1':ea. ()ni gi 11;11.
unequal, the inper being
rery large and currod, the outer rery small. The second lobe is quite distinct; Mr. Johlinsoi figures it as entire, but it is almost always deeply notched.
A. ostreaf/ormis (fig. 3), which has been found at Alameda, Cal., has the first a(l second lobes quite wide apart; but the second lobe, though small, is distinct. The form of the median lobes is somewhat peculiar.
A. julan's-regia (fig. 3) and its var. albus (fig. 4) ought not to be confounded with pernicios us on account of large scale, but figures are given in case of any difficulty. The difference in the shape of the median lobes shown iii the two figures is not a constant one, as between the type and variety. This species will be further known by the very well-developed rows of' oval dorsal glands, which are extremely conspicuous in mounted specimens.


A. albopunetatus, now regarded as a variety of perniciosus and A.
andromelas (fig. 4), both Japanese, do not differ from perniciosus by any marked structural characters; an dromelas is easily recognized byits scale.
A. obscurus, which Mr. G. McCarthy reports as occurring rarely on
peach in North Carolina (N. C. Exp. Sta., Bull. 138), belongs to a differeit section of the genus from the above, and is distinguished at once
by the dark gray scale, with exuvie appearing pitch-black when rubbed. There are five groups of ventral glands, the med(liaii of as many as six.
The figure of A. craiwii (fig. 4) illustrates the group of rapax, contcexus, cyIdoniW, etc. (subg. Hemiberlesia Ckll.), in which the mediall lobes are
large but the others practically obsolete, or at best very minute. The plates are branched and crowded up toward the median lobes, making quite a (lense fringe.
The following table of the grouped ventral glands may b lbfound useful:

Median. Cephalo- Caudolaterals. laterals.
A. per ........................................................ None. None. None.
A. an(drmelas.......................................................... -------------------------------------------------------None. None. None.
A. rapax................................................................. -------------------------------------------------- one. None. None.
A .j"glati-regite --------------------------------------------------...... 0 to 4 7 to 16 4 to 8
A.jorbesi -------------------------------------------........................................................-----.... 1 to 3 3 to 7 3 to 5
A. ostr efornus (from Englaniid) ........................................ 6 11 9
A. conexus-------------------------------------------------...................................................--......... None. 7 4
A .ancylus.........................0.................................... O to 6 6 to 14 5 to 8
A.cydoi............................................................. ----------------------------------------------------------None. 8 to 9 5 to 7
A .eildoiii------------------------------------------------------------ None. 8t 5 4o
A cra i i ............................................................... N one. 5 4
A. uvrWe (on grapevine)-------------..............-................................... -------------------------------0 to 2 4 to 9 3 to 8
A.ob::ciru ---------------------------------------------------------............................................................. 6 12 8
A hwo ardi ............................................................. N one. 6 to 7 3 to 4
A.patavi us (on cherry in Italy) ...................................... 0 to 2 4 to 9 7 to 10


Professor Comistock, in his second Cornell report (1883), gave a table of the American species of Aspidiotus known at that time. It ran
somewhat as follows:
A. Last segment of female with six groups of ventral glands. This includes A.
sabalis, which is now placed in the genus Ciomstockhiella.
AA. Last segment of female with less than six groups of ventral glands. B. Last segment of female with three pairs of well-developed lobes, and with
elongated thickenings of the body wall terminating at or near the bases of the lob)es. This is the subgenus Chrysomphtalus Ashmead (type A. ficus), with the related groups Melanaspis n. subg. (type A. obscutrus), Mycetaspis n. subg.
(type 1. personatus), and Aonidiclla Berl. & Leon. (type A. autrantii).
BB. Second and third pairs of lobes smaller or wanting; caudal margin with two pairs of incisions, with thickened edges. This includes the subg. Diaspidiotus Berl. & Leon., with the related group HIemibcrlesia (type A. rapax).
BBB. With neither elongated thickenings of the body wall nor incisions with thickened edges. This includes subg. Aspidiotus s. str. (type A. nerii); Comstock also placed here A. p)arlatorioides, which belongs to Pseudoparla toria. Afigure is given of a Mexican specimen of this, showing some of the details more precisely than that of Comstock. It will be seen that it differs widely from any Aspidiotus in the characters of the female as well as those of the scale.
Another species of this genus, P1'. ostreata, is very destructive to Acalypha in

A. nerii Bouch6 must be regarded as the type. It will be observed that the scale is light colored and the exuvihe are not covered by secretion. The terminal lobes of the female are wide apart, and the plates (or glandular hairs) are well developed and strongly fringed. There are no deep depressions between the lobes, and the chitinous processes at their bases are absent. The dorsal glands are very well developed (see fig.6, A.putearius)and in form and position differ from those 0 1 of other sections of Aspidiotus.
3 0 It will be noticed at the outset that in the fringe, and especially in the dorsal glands, there is indicated some relationship to those remarkable genera, Parlatoria, SyngenasS. *. ^" pis, and Leucaspis. These
three genera are exclusively Fl. 5.-Pseudoparlatoria paratorioi~s (original). natives of the Old World, the nativ-es of the Old World, thle recent determination of Parlatoria pergandii front China and Japan (specimens quarantined by Mr. Craw) showing that the one apparently American species, if regarded as valid, is of foreign origin. This tolerably obvious affinity would of itself indicate that Aspidiotus s. str. belonged to the Old World; and a careful survey of the genus reveals the fact that there is no good reason for supp)osing that any species of this subgenus is a native of America. A. destructor, so common in the West Indies, 1*,
is unquestionably a native of the eastern tropics, whence it was originally described. A. abietis, a modified form of this subgenus, might be thought surely native of America, being found in New York and Georgia, but it proves to be a A. ,/. cywell-known species of Central FIo. 6.-A spidiotus putearius (original).
Europe; and against the probability of its being a native of both continents is the fact that it does not occur in the coniferous forests of the West, as does the really native Chionaspis pinifolii. It can not be doubted, I think, that A. abietis (incl. pini) is an introduction from Europe.
There are two peculiar West Indian species which represent a modified type of Aspidiotus s. str., viz: A. sacehari and A. hartii. The

I 11

former occurs on sugar cane, the latter on yams, and I have not the least doubt that they were both introduced from the tropics of the Old World, though they have not yet been detected there. In certain features, and strikingly in the peculiar light purplish-brown tint of the scale, they are recalled by the CeyI - lonese A. trilobitiformis, which, however, departs more than they do from typical AspidiotusN. I am inclined to
A \ suppose that these resemblances indi/ Vcate some real affinity.
We therefore dismiss Aspidiotus s.
str. as not American. In the Old
A.. o World it is quite abundant; espeo. c cially, it would seem, in the warmer
FIG. 7.-Aspidiotus cyanophylli of Green parts of the temperate zone. Just orignal).parts of thie temperate zone. Just how many species are known can not be stated, since several of those described are more or less questionable, either as to their validity or their position. There would seem to be about a dozen in Europe.
)IASPIDIOTUS (Berl. and Leon.) Ckll. This subgenus was founded by Berlese and Leonardi for a mixture of species belongiOng to diflfereiit groups. No type is designated, but A. ancylus is included, aid may be taken as the type. This is the group in which the scale is usually dark-colored; the exuvia, are covered; the median lobes of tmhe female are usually quite close together and much larger than the others, and there are between the lobes 1incisions, with thickened edges." This is a circumpolar subgenus of the north temperate zone, living mostly on deciduous trees. Its foodplants and range coincide to a great extent with the subgenus Eulecanium of Lecaniitm.
In America this subgenus "
has several known species, and no doubt several await discovery. As wve enter the /
tropics it almost disappears, . ,
or is replaced by the modi- (ofled type Hemiberlesia; but in the West Indian region A. of"CE11,.
aretwo convex species which FiG. 8.-Aspidiotus trilobitiformnis (original). must be referred to Diaspidiotus-A. punicw and A. diffinis. It is unfortunate that we know so little of the coccide of the south temperate zone of the New World, but in Chile is found at least one native Aspidiotus, A. latastci, which must be regarded as a much modified Diaspidiotus.


It is of interest to :Jsk how far south Diaspidiotus? goes in the Eastern Hemisphere. Mr. (Ireii SeIlls me a species found onu (ycas in Ceylon, which lie (al1s A. (ylanophylli. B~ut Sigiioret's (ymiophylli belongs to A~pidiotus s. str., or at any- rate is very close thereto, while Mr. Green's Ceylon species is a modified type of -Diasp d'iots, largely comparable to the neotropical J)imiberlesia. I give a figure of the Ceylonese so-called cyanophylli (fig. 7) It inay be named A. !precnii.
Attention must also be directed to certain types which seem intermediate, more or less, between A.spidiots s. str. uld Diaspidiot us, while at the same time they recall 4 (]kirysoniplwlus. Such are A. trilo~ ij ~ d'/~i ) bitjr is fr om Ceylon (6fcg. 8) and ( /iA~. {V* -~~-* -in apparently niew species from 1/ ~En-gland which Mr.Newstead has 4 4 \taeni for A. /tcdece (fig. 9). No
one could take trilobitiformis for a i(asidiof us, but the so-called hedoerw looks more like one at first T z sight. It may be said that as Aspidiotts s.,str. is to Parlatoria,, etc., so is Diaspidiotus to Mytilasis and Ch iowtspis. The parallel is niot exact, butt it is approximate.
-V This name replaces the preoccu//p1 pied., ApiditcsBerl. and Leon., but
.Y with ai veryv different significance.
The type is A iapax; and p)erniA. ~ ~ei At~4 cioN11, lcnebrwoSHS, sMilacis, and FIG.~~~~~~~~~ 9.- pdif "eeE(atrNwtd) wiMYS, Ileferred -to Aspidites by F u~. 9 -A pid of g l he era ( ft r~ e st nd) l i lese aiid LC on a r dl i, all b ~elo n g elsewh ere-the first to Dmtspidiot s, thle ii ext twNo to Chrysomiplalus, and the Last to 4.v(Ypidiotits s. str. This subg.enus really represents a southern muoification of Piaspidiot s, Nvitli a convex scale aid large media-fn lobes.,, the others being su'Ppressed. It appeartis to be exchvsively American, ,(nd b~elonigs to the tropical and lower austral regions, except that one species (A. cowirexws) occurs the upper Sonoran, and another (A. 0d)0) in the corresponding zone in Illijnois.

This subgenus must be credited to Ashmead, as at the time of publi-cation Riley expressly disclaimed responsibility, though he had written the name first in. his MSS. The first definition was given by Berlese and Leon ardi; the type is A.itcs. In this subgenus the characters of the female are somewhat as in Aspidiotus s. str., but the chitinous


processes or tubular glands at the bases of the lobes recall the thickenings of a similar nature in Diaspidiotus, though they are much more developed, and are not accompanied by incisions. The scales are usually large, dark, and have covered exuvia,.
The distribution of Chrysomphals is quite remarkable. It seems to be quite at home in the neotropical region, but, very curiously, it sends northward a branch along our Atlantic coast, even to Washington (A. tenebricosus) and Massachlusetts (A. smiilacis). These northern forms lack the groups of ventral glands, and so are presumably viviparous. In the Old World it is significant enough that it appears in several very well-marked forms in Australia, but in Asia and beyond it seems to be lost, or greatly altered. It appears 1)robable that in such types as trilobitiformis and the so called hedcrw, al)bove alluded to, we see how it arose front Aspidiotus s. str., probably in the oriental or Australian region; while at the same time we have an iiNdistinct hint of the manner of origin of Diaspidiotts to the northwa'd.
From the point of view of geographical distributionn, however, tlhe striking thing is that while Diaspidiotus evidently reached America from the north, Chrysomphalus almost as evidently reached it from the south, and so may be taken as sUil)portiiig the view that there tforimerly existed more land in the South Pacitic Ocean. IHad it been otherwise it seems incredible that there should be no native Chrysomphalus in Europe (unless the so-called hcdcrw be 1)laced there) or on our Pacific slope.
It is to be observed that the male scale in A. fictus is almost round, a character which separates it at once froth the similar .. bitormis. In the Australian A. cladii the & scale is consider ably elongated.
Type A. obscures. This is a modified Chrysomphalus of American origin, with the exuvie black and the female with five distinct groups of ventral glands. Berlese placed it in Diaspidiotius, to which it is not related. The Mexican A. uiropJtuctatuts also belongs here.
Type A.personatus. This appears to be a greatly modified Chrysomphaltus. The small convex scale is very peculiar, as also are the characters of the Y Although this is a cotnmion West I l(ndian insect, it is just possible that it had its origin somewhere in the Old World. Mr. Green's A. artocarpi from India, by the small very convex scale, the white scar with a black ring it leaves when removed, and some other characters, seems to be allied to personatus.
AONIDIELLA Berl. & Leon.
Type A. aurantii. This shows a decided affinity with Chrysomph'alus, but yet is very distinct in some of its characters. Its place of origin is uncertain, but I incline to the opinion that it represents a northward extension of Chrysomphalus in the Chinese region.

Type A. siqnoreti. This seems to be a modification of Aspidiotus s. str., but I have never seen specimens.
Type A. secretus. A peculiar oriental type, of uncertain affinities.
Type A. duple.xr. Includes also A. there and A. trilobitiformis. A remarkable Asiatic type. The "lattice-work" patch of the Y is shared by the genus Ischnaspis.
Type A. occultus. A form discovered by Green in Ceylon, living in leaf-galls on Grewia.
Type A. articulatus. Common in the West Indies, but very likely of African origin. Its similarity to Aouidiella is but superficial.
Type A. prosop)idis. An extraordinary little form found in Arizona; superficially it recalls Mycctaspis.
There are some other subgenera indicated by species which I have not seen, or have but partially examined. The above need not now be discussed in detail; it will sutffice to separate them out, so as to leave the larger groups fairly homogeneous.

Having now cleared the way by the separation of the subgenera, we can more intelligently discuss the position of the San Jose scale, A.perniciosus, in the system. Berlese and Leonardi placed it in Aspidites, but it is, nevertheless, a Diaspidiotus, as that subgenus is now defined.
On comparing it with the other species of the subgenus, we arrive at some interesting conclusions. It is now to be shown, for the first time, that A. perniciosus is, with little or no doubt, a native of Japan. For it is in Jal)an that there occur two varieties or subspecies of perniciosus: andromclas and albopu status. These agree almost exactly in structural features with perniciosuts, but the first differs markedly in the color of the scale; the second slightly in the scale, and more noticeably (from an economic point of view) in attacking Citrus. Mr. Alex. Craw, however, says (in litt., Feb. 11, 1897): "The only time that I have found A. perniciosus on imported stock was -from Japan on some apple trees, the grafts of which were purchased in America." Mr. Craw has examined great quantities of fruit trees from Japan, so it must be admitted that his experience carries weight. But there are various Japanese scales which Mr. Craw has found only once, and several found by Mr. Takahashi on cultivated plants in Japan have not yet

come into Mr. Craw's hands. It is only quite lately that Mr. Craw came upon andromelas. Further, if Japan is the native country of the San Jose scale, it is to be expected that it has there various natural enemies which keep it in check; it is not to be expected that it is found everywhere in quantities, any more than our native Diaspine are with us. Indeed, next time an economic entomologist goes to Japan he should make it his particular business to look up A.perniciosus, and see if there do not exist such natural enemies as are suggested, and whether, perhaps, one or more of them can be introduced into this country. It has been shown that Diaspidiotus enters the neotropical region, and this might be thought to favor the supposed Chilian origin of A. perniciosus. But even in the West Indies (
the type becomes largely modified as to the scale (A. punic(, A. diffi is), a
and greater still is the divergence of the Chilian A. latast(ci-all this not at all in the direction of perniciosus. o
While it is true that certain of our nearctic types (do appear in a striking .
fashion in the southern parts of South A. o rse '.
America, I should be greatly surprised to receive from thence such a scale as A. perniciosus.
Still less can the supposed Australian origin be supported, as none of the native Australian species seem to belong to the same subgenus. Whether Maskell's "Aonidia" fusca is introduced Asp. perniciosus, it is A .
pe n ,ostsit s cht.. Nut. 1. 3. difficult to say, but it would seem ,
probable from what he has written on the subject. I am quite convinced, however, that the supposed FIG. 10,-A spidiotus betula and A. epurcatus (original).
variety of perniciosus recorded by (original).
Maskell as on Eucalyptus in Australia is not that insect; the description reads more like A. forbesi, but it is very likely something else.
It would seem that our native U. S. species of Diaspidiotus are not so very nearly related to those of Europe. An examination of such European types as ostre(formis (fig. 3), betulce (fig. 10), spurcatus (fig. 10), etc., shows a group not to be well matched in this country, noticeable for its broad, low, median lobes. The difference, indeed is not very great-not so great as between some of our own species-but yet it is sufficiently obvious. In our species the median lobes are narrower, and usually more inclined to be notched on the outer margin. Thus they seem nearer to the Japanese type of perniciosus, etc.


Of the American species, A. forbesi seems most to resemble perniciosus in the form of the lobes, etc., as will be evident from the figures. This insect i so tar known only from several points in Illinois, and Mesilla, N. Mex. It is just possible that it also reached this country from Japan, since it was only described last year; but there is at present no good evidence in favor of such a supposition. There is a tendency noticeable in our American Diaspidiotus to throw off a group with pallid, usually flatter scales, which occur on the peripheral parts of trees, the leaves, and even the fruit. Thus, from the type of A. ancylus we get A. howardi. I have lately received from the Division of Entomology a specimen of howardi (fig. 11) out of the original Canyon 7T iCity lot, apparently more adult, and cerJ tainly better developed, than those Prof.
o Gillette, the collector, sent to me. In the
/figure the great development of the second
a lobe will be noted, so well is it developed
Sas to suggest a different species on comparison with fig. 2, but I have found similar A. differences in the second lobe in coloratus
(even from the same tree) and uvw. In all of the species the second lobe seems to vary more or less. The well-developed ,j second lobe of howardi has led to its being n confounded with comstocki. This latter inn sect, occurring on the leaves of maples, is
very much like howicardi in many respects,
but is curious for the median and second
lobes having their tips on the same level A. (fig. 11), or the median lobes even being
FI. A. o exceeded by the second. This character FIG. 11.-Aspdiotus ho ardi and A.
comAtocki (original). is found also in the tropical A. destructor, which, however, is an Aspidiotus s. str. The figure of co'mstocki given is from a specimen on sugar maple, Champaign, Ill.
A. juglans-regi is certainly a very distinct form, its scales almost suggesting a Chrysomphalus. It seems to have been described from Europe as juglandis, but I believe it is a native of America, more especially since it has a marked color variety (albus) found in New Mexico.

It may be said that A. perniciosus mainly affects rosaceous trees and shrubs. It is quite bad upon garden roses. Fearing that some of the published records might not be reliable, I asked Dr. Howard for a list of the food plants on which the scale had actually been. seen at the


Division of Entomology. Here is the list ais given: Apple, crab apple, quince, pear, Bartlett pear, dwarf' Duchesse pear, plum, Japan plaium, Satsuma plum, Prunuspiss rdi, Prunus m a ritim a, peach, apricot, almond, cherry, Rocky Mountain dwarf cherry, currant, black currant, Citrus trifoliata (this should have been albopunctatus), Osage orange, grape, elm, cottonwood, European linden, American chestnut, P1yrus japouica, Catalpa bignonioides, walnut, Japan walnut, loquat, red dogwood, juneberry, rose, sumac, Photinia glattuca (does this refer to andromelas ?), Carolina poplar.
Thus the habitat on rosaceous plants is confirmed. As to the exceptions, too much stress should not-be laid upon them, unless, perchance, some indicate the beginning of a new race, such as albopunetatus. I do not find the scale to infest the Osage orange nor the grape .vines in the Mesilla Valley, even when they are grown abundantly in the vicinity of scaly orchards.
So far as we know, A. forbesi has similar food habits, but A. aicylus is different. This last is especially a maple species, and will flourish also on Populus, Quercus, etc.; it does not seemni to take very kindly to fruit trees as a general rule. A. ancylus also does well (probably best) in the transition zone, whereas A. perniciosis belongs to the upper Austral.
As to the time of hatching, I have not statistics for the various species. At Las Cruces, N. Mex., I found A. periciosus to begin producing young as early as April 26. A somewhat later date is given for other localities.
The manner of attack is different, more or less, in the various species under discussion. A. anm(ylts, on fruit trees, will be found upon the smaller branches, but iin my experience more or less scattered, rarely in any great quantity. A.perniciosus is found largely upon the branches, becoming very abundant, covering and killing them. On the young shoots the reddening effect is very marked, though ancylts will also produce reddening. A. frbcsi, as seen on apple trees in Mesilla, occurs largely under loose bark on the trunk, wintering there in numbers, and only invades the branches in limited (uantity. Thus, there may be quite a lot of forbesi on a tree without its being noticed. A. juglansregice occurs on the trunk and twigs, more or less scattered, or in little groups.
16742-No. 6- 2



A. (Aspidiofu8 s. 8tr.) abietis Schr.- 9 scale dark gray, margin lighter, exuvimr covered.
Y with three paiirs of lobes, plates divided at ends, ventral grouped glands present. orange, with the thoracic hand very dark. Europe and N. Y.
A. pitti ('oiiist. is the sane, species.
A. (Aipidiotits 8. Oir.) afflnis Targ. -!9 scale circular, with central exuviw; 6 lobes;
scale-like plates; grouped glands present. On JRuscas acileatius. Italy.
A. (Diaspidiott.s) betuale Baer.- 9 scale pluieous, with an orange spot indicating
the place of the covered extivin. The scale is mnuch like that of A. ancylus.
On lbark'of birch in Europe. 8aid to occur in New Jersey.I
A. (As pidiottn8 s. 81r. ?) caldesii Targ.- 9 scale thin, circular, plclulcid, white; exuvive
central; iiied ian lobes very large; grouped glands wanting. 01 scale ellipticail. On Daphnle.
A. (Aspqidiotus S. Or.) ceratonioe Sign. -Allied to 'ncrii, but differs in the S, which has
the thoracic baud almost invisible, etc. On Ccratoiiia at N ice.
A. (Aspiiholuts s. sir.) eric~e Boisd.-Rescnibles nerii. On Erica vtedilcrranea in
France. (Nouien seininudum.)
A. (As8pidiotioi 8. sir.) denticulatus Targ.- 9 scale thin, transparent; grouped glands
wantiiig. On Ibibia peregria. Italy.
A. (.481idlotu8 8. Oir.) genist~e Westw.-Uu Genisia. Similar to A. nerii. (Nonien
seminud un. )
A. (Ae8pidiolits s. Oir.) gnidii Sign .-( n 1)aploe gnidiuw. Similar to A. nerdi. (Nomen

A. (A4spidiots R. str.) hederee Vall.- 9 scale yellow ish -brown, exuvive central and
yellow. 5? with 6 lobes. On ivy-, holly, and box.
A. (Diaspidiot us) hippocastani Sin-9scale, circular, blackish, extiviam central and
yellow. with the median lobes large; grouped glands p~resent. On horsecheStD u1t.
A. (Diaspidiotas?) ilicis Sigu.-9 scale, grayish-yellow, exuviT. nearly marginal;
gr-oupedglandlsfouirininumber. On Querets ilevr. France. (Essai, 1869, p. 123.) A. (Dia 81pidio ft*) juglandis Colv.-!9 scale small, reddish, almost always isolated; i. e.,
not massed. y with two pairs of lobes, the median ones much the largest; four groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals 8 to 12, caudolaterals 6 to 9; a single orifice iiarking the mnedian group. The rows of dorsal glands, four in number, are very well marked; the first of 3 or 4, the second of 7 or 8, the third of 22 to 24, and the fourth of 16 to 18. Pound in Catalonia, NE. Spain.
I think this is the samne as A. juglans-regicr; both were published in 1881. I do -not know which has priority. This is not A. juglandis Fitch, 1856, which is
Afyti la8pi8 pomorurn.
A. (A8pidiolu8 8. 8tr.) lentisci Sign. 9 scale yellowish-brown; all ied to nerii. S. France
and Algeria.
A. (Aspidiotus 8. str.) minimus Leon.- Y scale isuboval. 9 yellow, very large median
lobes, a smaller second pair, no groups of ventral glands. The small Y scales, less than a mm. diam., are found on the leaves of Quercus ilex. Portici, Italy.
(Riv. Pat. Veget., IV) 350.)


A. (Diaspidiotus) niger Sign.- 9 scale circular, black, exuvime yellow; two lobes; no
grouped glands. On willow. France, (Essai, 1869, p. 130.)
A. (Aspidiot us s. str.) olee Colv.-O-)n the olive in Spain, producing yellow spots on
the fruit at the points attacked. Through the kindness of Dr. Howard I have been able to see the Gaceta Agricola del Ministerio de Fomento," Vol. XIV, No. 2 (1880), containing Colvie's description. The insect is said to most resemble A. nerii, ceratoni(, and cillosus, and we are told how these three differ from it, without any direct statement of its specific characters. It seems to be nearest to necrii, differing only in the J. It is worth while to remark that in the same paper there is described a Diasp)is olete Colv., which has escape the notice of coccidologists. This may not be a Diaspis, as the 9 scale has a black spot in the middle marking the exu\ i e, and S scale is dirty gray. The
9 itself is of an intense mulberry color.
A. (SubU. ?) oleastri Colv.-Description not seen. Described ini "Nuevos Estudios
sobre algunos insectos de la fainilia de los Coccidos." ( Valencia, l82.)
A. (Diaspidiotuas) ostreaeformis Curt.-9 scale, similar to that of -. ancylus. Y with
four lobes, the median pair much the largest. Western Europe. A..pyri Licht., is the same. See Douglas, Ent. Mo. Mag., XXIII, 239; Morgan, lEnt. M. Mag, XXV, 350. It occurs on apple, plum, cherry, and Calluta rllgaris. Also on peach at Isleworth, England (G. M. Fenn.). I found English specimens of this species to be attacked by a fungus similar to that which destroys American
species of D)iaspidiotus. I have seen it from Alameda, Cal. (Div. Ent., 351k.) A. (Diaspidiotus) oxyacanthe Sign.-9 scale blackish-gray, exuvi, yellow; median
lobes large; grouped glands present. (O)n Crata'e s oxyacantha.
A. (Dia.pidiotus) patavinus Berl.- 9 scale oval, fuscous or fuliginous, exuvie not
central, length of scale nearly 11 n1m. 9 much as in A. sparuatus or A. citis, median lobes large and broadly, second lobes low, separated by a wide interval from first, plates serrate, four or five groups of ventral glands. On bark of
cherry. Italy. (Riv. Pat. Veget., IV, 350.)
A. (Targio nia) signoreti Conist.-y scale black. very convex, exuvia, central. On
Cineraria maritima. France. (Sign., Essai, 1870, p. 106; Comst., Cornell Rep.,
1883, p. 82.) Tarlionia nigra Sign. is the smiie.
A. (Diaslpidiotus) spureatus Sign.-9 scale blackishl-brown, exuviam yellow. (rouped
glands present. On poplair. France. Essai, 1869, p. 138. A variety on Platan us orientalis in Italy. (Berl. and Leom., ('herm. Ital., Fase. 1.)
A. (Diaspidiotus) tilim Sign.-9 scale gray; only two lobes; grouped glands present,
lateral groups of 9 or 10, median group of 7 or 8. This species is probably widely distributed in Central Europe; Dr. M. lhollrung has a reference to it
in his Halle Bulletin of 1891.
A. (Diaspidiotusj villosus Targ.- scale circular, grayvish, depressed, exuvite not
central. 9 with two lobes; groups of ventral glands of about 3 each. On
leaves of olive.
A. (Diaspidiotus) vitis Sign.- 9 scale dark gray, exuvite more or less covered; when
rubbed the exuvize are brilliant black. 9 with only two lobes. On fitis,
near Nice; on raisins from Algiers.
A. (Diaspidiotus) zonatus Frauenf.-9 scales gray or even nearly black, exuvia reddish-yellow. 9 with two pairs of lobes; grouped glands usually absent, but once reported as present by Morgan. The 9 scales occur upon the branches, the & scales upon the leaves, of oak. Widely distributed in Europe. 4A.
quercus Sign., is the same. See Morgan, Ent. Mo. Mag., XXIV, 207, and XXV, 120; and Newstead, Eut. Mo.,Mag., N. S., IV.279. 1893. Morgan figures
the &.


A. (Diaspidiotis) andromelas Ckll.-Resembles A. perniciosus; exuvie of male scale
wholly black, without any light dot and ring. On "Phlttenia glauca"-I find
no such name in the Index Kewensis.
A. (P iadauiidia) duplex Ckll.- 9 scale subcircular, moderately convex, dark blackish brown; exuviw nearly at the side, orange. 9 with very large median lobes, and three other pairs of very small lobes; plates scale-like; four large groups of ventral glands, and two orifices representing the median group; lattice-work pattern as in A. them. Japan. On camniellia, orange, camphor, azalea, tea, Oleafragrans, etc. On azalea in Washington, D. C. (Div. Ent.) A. (Diaspidiotns) perniciosus var. albopunctatus Ckll.-S scale with the pale dot and
ring very distinct. Japan. On orange. Also found by Mr. Craw on plum
from Japan.
A. (Odonaspi8) secretus Ckll.-9 scale white, shiny; exuvite exposed, shiny, rather
large, very pale yellow, placed rather to one side. 9 when adult with a single (median) lobe, as is the case also with A. uniobis; two elongated groups of ventral glands, with 80 to 90 orifices in each. On bamboo in Japan; on
Arundinaria in Ceylon. (Green, Coccidie of Ceylon, p. 47, P1. XV.)

A. (Diaspidiotts) esculi Jolhns.- 9 scale about 2f num. diamt., dirty gray, exuvie covered, orange-red when rubbed. 9 yellow, only one pair of lobes, plates simple, spines prominent; four groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals 5 to 17, candolatcrals 4 to 11. On bark of .E1aculs californica. California. (Bull. Ill.
Lab. N. II., IV, 387.)
A. (Diaspidiotas) ancylus Puttn.- scale nearly circular; exviye sublateral, reddish
when the covering tilm is removed. The 9 has ventral grouped glands. On ash, maple, beech, linden, oak, osage orange, peach, hackberry, bladder nut, and water locust. Iowa, New York, etc. Putnam, in Trans. Iowa Hort. Soe., .1877, p. 321, says the scale is usually of a light drab color, which certainly does not accord with what we commonly know as ancylus. However, he probably examined old scales, which eventually b.ome pallid; and from the rest of his writings on the insect there can hardly be any doubt as to what was
intended, lie refers to the eggs.
A. (Hemibcrlcsia ?) bigelovie' Ckll. n. sp. (Fig. 12.)- 9 scale on twigs, like that of a Hemi.
berlesia, size and shape of A. rapax, but dull grayish-brown; exuvie placed to one side as in rapax, when rubbed shining black, but more or less covered by a film of white secretion. Removed fromni twig the scales leave a white patch.
9 circular,deep brownish-orange:; no groups of ventral glands; no plates; lobt s subobsolete. See the figure, which is from a 9 full of embryos. Los Angeles, Calif., on Bigelorl'ia brachylupis. (Div. Ent., 4973, coll. by D. W. Coquillett.) I do not know whether or not to consider this an extremely degenerate type of
IHemiberlesia ; it is certainly very peculiar.
A. (Dia8pidiotus) coloratus Ckll.-9 scale about 1. mm. diam., broad oval, flat, dull
pale orange-brown; exuvite concolorous, tirst skin somewhat paler. 9 much like uw; ventral glands present. On Chiloptsis in the Rio Grande Valley,
N. Mex.
A. (Diaspidiotus) comstocki Johns.- 9 scale rather flat, cream-buff, the part covering
the exuvite brownish or concolorous. 9 pale yellow; two pairs of well-developed lobes, the tips of the median pair below the level of the tips of the second pair, after the manner of A. destructor; 4 groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals of 6, caudolaterals of 4. On leaves of sugar maple. llhinois
and New York. (Bull. Ill. Lab. N. H., IV, 383.)
A. (Hemiberlesia) convexus Comst.- 9 scale similar to that of rapax, but more opaque.
Grouped glands present. On poplar and willow.


A. (Hemiberlesia) cydoniae Comst.- 9 scale like that of rapax. 9 with four groups of
ventral glands, differing from convexus in having only two pairs of interlobular incisions, and the plates more prominent. On quince in Florida. MAlaskell reports it on Citrus from Samoa, and Green on fig, Citrus, etc., at Pundiloya, Ceylon. Dr. Howard informs me that it has never been received at the Department of Agriculture since 1880, so it must be rare in America.
A. (Diaspidiotus) forbesi Johns.- 9 scale much like that of A. ancylus. 9 yellowish,
with two pairs of lobes; 5 groups of ventral glands. On cherry, apple, pear, plum, quince, currant, and perhaps other trees. Illinois, and Mesilla, N. Mex. A. (Diaspidiotus) howardi Ckll.- 9 scale flat, circular, pale grayish; exuvie covered,
dull orange. 9 very similar to that of A. ancylus, but two pairs of
lobes. On plum, Canyon -"
City, Colo.; Albuquer- L
que, N. Mex. '-.,,
A. (Diaspidiotus) juglans-regia
Comst.- 9 scale circular, flat, grayish-brown,
exuvia covered; d(iam.
of scale, 3 mm. 9 with iv. t,-. 4q7A
two or three pairs of o, tovio..
lobes; grouped glands d'a. 9't*v*.CI.
present. On En g l is h FIG. 12.-Aspidiotus bigelori (original).
walnut in California;
on locust, pear, and cherry in New York and District of Columbia.
var. pruni Ckll.- 9 with the oval pores more numerous, the fourth or external
row of about 20. On plum, Las Cruces, N. Mex.
var. albus Ckll.- 9 scale white; exuvise orange-red, covered by white secretion.
Mesilla Valley and Las Vegas, N. Mex.
A. (P1seudodiaspis nii. subg.) larree Ckll., n. sp. (Fig. 13.)- 9 scales abundant on a stem of Larrea tridentata; scale about 2 mm. diamin., flat, irregular, round
I 'r ,to suboval, dull white \witha slightly creamy tinit; exuviw( not visible in the nature scale, but in younger
scales the elongate-oval, pale straw, colored first skin is exposed, subr lateral or even quite lateral. 9 cir'i t.. 7-. cular, not chitinous; only one pair
A, rtona., of lobes; these broad and low, close

A together but not touching; no (s.e.ssao .) plates; no groups of ventral glands.
Fra. 13.-Aspidiotus larrer (original). The 9 's contain embryos, which even after boiling remain sepia brown. A dried 9 is oval, orange, with prominences on the margin. & scale small, elongate, mytiliform, white, with the elongate first skin projecting at the sitmall end, like a Mytilispis. Yuma, Ariz. (Div. Ent., 7502, coll. by I. G. Hubbard).
This curious species is for the present'left in Aspidiotus, because it seems to have points in common with the Indian A. mioorei, Green. Pseudodiaspis will, however, no doubt eventually be regarded as a distinct genus, on account of
the mytiliform & scale and other characters.
A. (Melanaspis) obsearus Comst.- 9 scale very dark gray, only slightly convex; exuviae
sublateral, covered; diameter of scale 3 mm. ; o scale oval. 9 with three pairs of well-developed lobes; 5 groups of ventral glands. On willow-oak at
Washington, D. C.


A. (Chrysomphalus) persee Comst.- 9 scale circular, flat; exuvie nearly central and
covered; outer part of scale dark reddish-brown, that covering exuvia from dark gray to black; diam. of scale from 1i to 2 mm. Has a general resemblance to A. ficus. 9 with 4 groups of ventral glands. On Persea carolinensi8s,
Florida. Mexico, on cocoanut palm.
A. (Xerophilaspis) prosopidis CkIl.- 9 scale about 4 mm. diam., slightly convex, circular to very broad pyriformn, pitch-black, with large uncovered exuvim, which may be slightly greenish or brownish. 9 with four small lobes, no groups of ventral glands; a cephalic protuberance after the manner of personatus.
Near Phoenix, Ariz., on P'rosopis.
A. (Chrysomphalus) smilacis Comst.- 9 scale circular; exuvir central; color brown to
very dark gray; exuvie marked by a white dot and ring. No grouped glands; 3 pairs of lobes, median smallest, second and third pairs notched. On Smilax
at Woods IHoll, Mass.
A. (Chrysomnphalus) tenebricosus Comst.-9 scale very dark gray; the protuberance
indicating the position of the exuviau marked by a white dot and concentric ring, but smooth and black in rubbed specimens. The scale is very convex,
dian. 1. mm. 4 scale oval. On Acer rubrim ; Washington, D. C.
A. (Diaspidiotus) townsendi Ckll.- scale 1 mm. diamn., circular or slightly oval, quite flat, thin, grayish-white;
exuvia, covered, pale orange. 9
orange; 2 pairs of rounded lobes,
four groups of ventral glands,
cephalolaterals 4 to 8, caudolaterals 5. On leaves of some tree.
Coahuila, Mexico. (Bull. 4,
Tech. Ser., 1D)iv. Ent., p. 32.)
A. (Hemiberlesia) ulmi Johns.- 9 scale
quite convex, whitish, exuvia
A. mke c. orange-yellow. 9 lemon-yellow,
f (sr. ma ski) only one pair of lobes, no groups
Fi. 14. A ~pidwtns maskell (original). of ventral glands. On trunk of
FIG. 14.-A )neltkellt (original).
Ulimus americana at Urbana, Ill.
Although Jolhnson fIMund no ventral grouped glands, hlie alludes to eggs.
A. ( uv ('Const.- 9 scale flat, nearly circular, light yellow-brown; exuviab bright yellow, covered with a white secretion. 4 scale elongated. 9 with second and third pairs of lobes obsolete; grouped glands present. On grapevines, Indiana, etc. ; on hickory in Florida.

Sandwich Islands.

A. (Morganella, n. ,qhg.) maskelli Ckll. n.sp. (Fig. 14.)- 9 scale 1mm. diam., tolerably
convex, circular to broad oval, pitch-black; exuvie concolorous, very inconspicuous, placed toward the side. 9 with no groups of ventral glands. Differs from A. longispinus by the contiguous lobes, the first pair of spines short, three following pairs very long, and thirteen strongly serrated and divided plates on each side of the lobes. It is evidently what Maskell recorded as A. longispa in Trans. N. Z. Inst., xxvii, 38. Div. Ent. 6086, "on Ohia tree, from W.
S. Wait, Kailua, N. Kona, Hawaii, 23 Dec., 1893." The subg. Morganella (after the describer of one of the species) will be known by the closely adjacent or contiguous median lobes, which are long and slender, the absence of other
lobes, the anal orifice at base of lobes, and especially the very long spines.


A. (Selenaspidus) articulatus Morg.- 9 scale very flat, grayish-white, appearing orange
or rufous in the miiddle, mainly from the insect showing through. The scale looks like that of A. aurantii, but if it is lifted up, the fiat orange 9., with a deep constriction between the cephalothorax and the abdomen, is easily seen with a hand lens sufficiently for identification. It occurs on the leaves of palms and on a variety of other plants. West Indies, Demerara, Mexico, and lately reported by Newstead from Lagos, W. Africa. (Ent. Mo. Mag., xxv, 352.) A. (Cl rysouphaluts) biformis Ckll.-9 scale about 2 nmn. diam., very dark brown,
circular to broadly oval, depressed, granulose; exuvie nipple-like, dark redbrown, placed to one side of center. g scale elongate. 9 with three pairs of lobes. On orchids. Jamaica and Trinidad. Also from Central America; the specimens showing four groups of ventral glands, rather scattered, cephalolaterals 4 or 5, caudolaterals 5.
var. cattleyae Ckll.-Exuvia black. On Cattleya bowringiana. Jamaica. (Gard.
Chron., May 6, 1893, p. 548.)
var. odontoglossi CkIl.-Exuvie pale, black when rubbed. On Odontoglossum
grande. Jamaica. (Gard. Chron., May 6, 1893, p. 548.)
A. (Chrysonmphalt.) bowreyi Ckll -Y scales crowded on the plant, elongate, gray,
with the blackish exuvi, toward one end. 9 with three pairs of lobes, none very prominent, margin serrate beyond the lobes; four groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals about 7, caudolaterals about 8. On Agave rigida. Jamaica.
(Ent. News, 1894, p. 59.)
A. (IHeniiberlesia) crawii Ckll.-9 scale about 2 mm. diamn., circular, moderately convex, dull reddish-gray. rather pale; exuviw nearly marginal, concolorous, inconspicuous, except the first skin, which is marked by a little shining yellowish prominence. Scales largely covered by the red-brown epidermis. Removed from the twig they leave a conspicuous white mark. 9 similar to cydoniw; four groups of ventral glands, candolaterals 4, cephalolaterals 5. On twigs of grapevine from Mexico. found by Mr. Alex. Craw in the course of his quarantine work. The passenger who brought the plants said they were sarsaparilla, but
Mr. Craw thinks it is grapevine, and I amn of the same opinion.
A. (Chrysomphalts) dictyospermi Morg.-9 scale grayish-white. depressed, oval, exuvia central, light yellow, center of larval skin dark orange. 9 with three pairs of lobes; a conspicuous pair of long. serrated plates laterad of third lobe.
On Dictiosper m m album. Demerara. (Ent. Mo. Mag., 1889. p. 352.) There are four groups of ventral glands, cel)llalolaterals 3 or 4, caidolaterals 2. It occurs
as a hothouse species in the United States.
var. arece Newst.- 9 scale more circular, deeper colored, with a nipple-like
prominence surrounded by a depression. beyond which is a strong circular
ridge. On Areea triandra. Demerara. (Eut. Mo. Mag., 1893, p. 185.)
var. jamaicensis CklI.-9 scale more circular, red-brown, no conspicuous central
depression or ridge. Jamaica. On (Cycas and rose.
A. (Diaspidiotus) diffinis Newst.- scale convex, slightly elongate, grayish-brown,
exuviw covered, brown when rubbed. 9 with three pairs of lobes, plates and
ventral grouped glands wanting. Demerara. (Ent. Mo. Mag., 1893, p. 186.)
var. lateralis Ckll.-9 with distinct plates-. Jamaica, on Jasminium. This is
very near to puniew, but the scale is brownish-white to brown, with the exuvite away from the center, and the groups of ventral glands seem to be absent. A. (Chrysonmphalus) ficus Ashm.-- 9 scale circular, 2 mm. diam., black or blackish,
with the covered exuvit reddish or orange. 9 with three pairs of welldeveloped lobes and four groups of ventral glands. On Ficus nitida and Citrus.
Florida, Cuba, Mexico, Australia, Ceylon, Egypt. It lives on a great variety of plants. Mr. Pettit sent it to me from the Shaw Botanic Garden, St. Louis, on Laurus cirginiana. It is common in the West Indies. Mr. Hy. Tryon states


that he bought in Brisbane some imported A merican appleawbich I] admimcron8 A. ficas oil the rind; but di'd lie perliaj s, mistake the species? Its food plants at Brisbailelie savs are oran11_1,e,, '11yrt its h I Ili i, camphor laurel, Atlantia buxijblia,
,md Castaiico.,q)crmioa.
A. Isj4diotits -8h% ') hartii CIM.- 9 scale subeircular to oval, about 11 mm. diain.,
nioderate1v convex dall brownish-gray, with a slight purplish tint (8acchari is similar), cxilN-he shining pale straw-color. 9 with two pairs of well-developed lobes, branched plates, five groups of ventral glands. Oil yarn tubers. Triuidad, W. 1.
var. lantii Ckll.-Median lobes entire, -is in hartii: no grotips of ventral glalads.
Trinidad. The median lobes of saccharin, whicli this resembles, are'very distinctly notched.
A. (n. latastei C,1 11.- 9 ,Ae about li mni. di:itn., circular, strongly convex,
colirwitrical1v ri(N-etl, 1vilite, with the covered pale oninge extivi.p to one side.
-%vitli illedian lohes ]arl(re, wi(h, apart, second small, third almost obsolete;
four -roup,; of venfr-il -1:iiids, of 5 eacli. Chile.
A. (,Vor.tioioll(t) longispinus Morl-,.-9 scale (larl convex, less than a mm. broad;
exiivi;i, central, covered, inc(,nsj)ivtion,,, witli only oue pair of lobes, these lon-, notcheJ I-vitliolit. Ion- simple platesand very long spines. On Ctipaitia
S01tid(l. 1)('lllerar.i. J'nt. Mo. 'Mig., xxv :152.)
A, (Chrys(iwplwlio mangiferae MI.- Y, srale circular, flattened, with central, covered,
ililyle-Ilke cxllvll Wlli(.Il are reddish. Median lobes largest, secon(I pair ne:11-1 N- ns hir"'e, third 1),tir small. l'ourth rn(limentary; a pair of' very large
plates ill t1w rel-ion of' :1rd :md 4th lobes. On leaves of mango.
Jm llaica. (joill.n. Illst. 1:1111:licn, i 255.)
A. (Chrimnyhaleis inimosa- C(mist.-Y sc.ile, reseniWing that of tciiebricosus; very
dark gra.%- C(A]Vex, CX1lVlj, COVVIT(l, its position marked by a wliite dot and
1):ilrs of' lolws: no gi-mip of' ventral glands. On Alimosa; Tainpico,
Mexico. (2nil Coriiell Pe])., ls,, 3. 1). 62.)
A. ngropunctatus ChIl.-Much like A. ob8cierits., genle 3 min. diam.,
dirty -rnv: (1\1lVL1, sl11)1:1tvri1. pitch-blte1c,-NA-ith a ilarrow reddish margin; at first cm'Cred liy a filin ct' \vlii1Ph secretion. witli five gronps of ventral glands, ceplmlolater:il W or more, caudolater.As 10 or 11, inedian 7 or 8. On
1. -ill Luis P()tosi, Mexico, (Btill. .1, Teel Ser N V. 1,',iit.y p. 31.) A. (HrmilcrIcsia palmae Morg. ('kll.- Y sc:tlo nincli like tli:it of' rapa.r. differill,,, I)Y tll(, distillct illoll,-11 siwill ecoiid -ind 11iii-d lohes, niedian lobes Wider
.tliail, p1mes lon-cr and imicli br-iiielied at lips, 4 groups of' vei tral g
()it coco(inut izi(i 1);, an(l r.ircl y (ill otlier phnts. W (,st Indies.
A. personatus Conist.-Y sc:ile si-will and convex, circular, (lark
flr;tv or 14ack. 'No (r,,,onps of ventr;il glan(Is. West Indies.
A. (Di(ispidiof its) puniew Ckll.- sc:ile circular or iie;irly so, wliite, first s1cin Aini niet,1111c. onill(re, ille(lian lobes lar(,e :in(l prominent, second pairsinall, flilrd rudimvnfar\-; (,roiiped -Linds present. dull yellow. On pomewranate ill Jim:ilCa*1 Oil CoCWHilit Ili Dominica. (Jourti. Inst. Jmnaica, 1, 255.)
(jriety of tliis ona palin at flie Departinentof AgricnIture, Wasliington, D.C.
(lAv. Ent., 6982),bas broader lobes and a flatter scale. It appears tobeidentic,ilxvitbtlieforitifoiiiidb.7 Ir.l'larberoneoco.iiiiitiiil)olliinictt. Tllisisagooll deal liketbe Ceylonese form, wliieli Green calls A. eydan ix; and w1jilepti it iew and ( Ijdoni(r seem sufficiently distinct, with the var. of pnnic(r. and the Ceylouese cyttwtio, there is forined a stitliciently continuous series to call for further invest ligation. Whatever may be the final result as to the stabs of the species concerned, the interesting fact remains that here we have Pia sp idiot its riuming completely into J1cviibcrIc8ia as it passes southward. Anotlier related species
is A. grrc;iii.
A. (Chryso.,)ipliahis) reniformis Clffl.- 9 scale circular, diam. 2 nim., flat, pale reddisbbrown; CXUVia! C011colorous or sli-litly darker, covered, but both skins very


distinctly visible, large, laterad of the middle; first skin when rubbed shining coppery. 9 reniform, with four very low, broad, inconspicuous lobes, 4 groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals 8, caudolaterals 4 to 7. Tehuantepec
City, Mexico Collected by Prof. Townsend.
A. (Aspidiotus s. sir. ?) cacchari Ckll.- 9 scale white, becoming grayish, more or less
oval, first skin brown, second orange. J scale elongate. 9 very pale yellowish, with a slight pink tinge; median lobes rather large, 2nd pair smaller,
3rd rudimentary. On sugar cane, Jamaica. (Journ. Inst..Jamaica, i. 255.)
A. (Chrysomphalus) scutiformis Ckll.- 9 scale superficially rather like A. ficu8, but
large, very flat, with large orange exuvi:e, not nipple-like. The scales are occasionally nearly white. 9 very much like persecr. On Citrus, etc., Mexico. A. (Hemiberlesia) tricolor Ckll.-9 scale 1-i mm. diameter, approximately circular,
very little convex, white with a brownish stain; exuvise central or sublateral, covered by a film of secretion; first skin black or d(lark brown, second skin deep orange. 9 with only a single pair of lobes, these large; no groups of ventral glands. Allied to ulmi and rapax. Salina Cruz, Mexico. Collected by
Prof. Townsend.
A. (Chrysomphalus?) yuccae Ckll.- 9 scale oval, dirty whitish; exuivise covered, inconspicuous, pale brown; when rubbed becoming very conspicuous, dark brown or black. 9 with three pairs of lobes, only the median well developed. On
Yucca. Coahuila, Mexico. (Bull. 4, Tech. Ser., Div. Ent., p. 32.)

Fiji Islands.

A. (subg. nor. ?) vitiensis Mask.-9 scale grayish white, occurring thickly massed;
exuvie snbcentral, yellow. 9 with very large, widely apart, median lobes, and others smaller; four conspicuous forked plates; four groups of ventral glands, ca udolaterals about 15, cephalolaterals 6 to 10. On various forest trees.
(N. Z. Trans., xxvii, 40.)
New Zealand.

(Most of the New Zealand and Australian species seem not to fit well in the
subgenera of the Northern Hemisphere It will be necessary to make a special
study of them before they can he classified subgenerically.)
A. (stubg. ?) atherosperme Mask.- 9 scale circular, flat, brown; exuviae forming a
lighter protuberance in center. 9 light yellow; several lobes, the two median pairs largest; scale like serrated plates; four groups of ventral glands. The
Scale is oval. On Atherosperma. New Zealand. (N. Z. Trans., xi, 198.)
A. (Aspidiotus s. str. ?) carpodeti Mask.- 9 scale usually light brown but rather vari
able, convex, circular; exuvias central. 9 with large median lobes, second pair much smaller; four groups of ventral glands. ; scale narrow, with
parallel sides. On Carpodelus and Vitex. (N. Z. Trans., xvii, 21.)
A. (subg. ?) corokim Mask;- 9 scale circular, slightly convex, yellow or (rarely) white;
exuvie central, yellow. 9 with no distinct groups of ventral glands. On
Corokia. (N. Z. Trans., xxiii, 2.)
A. (subg. ?) dysoxyli Mask.- 9 scale circular, somewhat convex, brown. 9 bright
yellow; six lobes, of which only the median two are conspicuous; four groups of ventral glands. j scale oval. On Dysoxylon spectabile. (N. Z. Trans.,
xi, 198.)
A. (subg?) sophore Mask.-9 scale nearly circular, flat, bluish gray. 9 greenishyellow; median lobes conspicuous, plates as in erii, five (sometimes four) groups of ventral glands. S&scale oval. On Sophora letraptlcra. (N. Z. Trans.,
xvi, 121.)

A. (subg. ?) acacise Morg.- 9 scale circular, convex; exuvime central, orange-yellow;
diam. of .scale about 1 mm. 9 with one pair of lobes, no groups of ventral glands. On Acacia pycnantha. Tasmania. (Ent. Mo. Mag., 1889, p. 353.) Maskell reports it on Eucalyptus from New South Wales.
var. propinquus Mask.-Exuviwe deeper red. & scale elliptical, white. & dark
red. On Acacia and Hakea saligna, New South Wales. (N. Z. Trans., xxv,
A. (subg. ?) bossiese Mask.- 9 scale circular, convex, dirty white to yellow, sometimes
dark brown, soft and woolly looking; exuvia central, very small and inconspicuous, yellow. 9 dark brown, with two rounded lobes, and a second pair rudimentary; no groups of ventral glands. On Bos8iea procumbens. (N. Z.
Trans., xxiv, 11.)
A. (suby.?) casuarine Mask.- 9 scale dark yellowish-brown, circular, rather convex;
exuvie yellow. 9 yellow, 6 lobes, no groups of ventral glands. & scale
elongated. On Casuarina equisetifolia. (N. Z. Trans., xxvi, 66.)
A. (subg. !) ceratus Mask.- 9 scale snow white, circular, convex, usually occurring massed; exuvie central,
faintly yellow, with a white cover1 ing. 9 orange, two lobes only, with a
pair of club-shaped processes arising
from their inner bases; no groups of
ventral glands; a peculiar widely
1" f, 7* bfid plate on the margin some disA. r tance from each lobe. On Acacia
stenophylla. (N. Z. Trans.,xxvii, 39.)
FIG. 15.-Aspidiotus ro8i (original). A. (Chrysomphalus) cladii Mask.- 9 scale rich d(lark brown, the margin orangered, and the central exuviaw dark yellow. S scale elongated. 9 with no groups of ventral glands. On Cladium. (N. Z. Trans., xxiii, 3.) On aloe in Natal, as well as various localities in Australia, where it occurs on Xerotes and Lepidosperma as well as ('ladium.
A. (suby. ) eucalypti Mask.-9 scale circular, slightly convex, dirty white; exuvim
central, very inconspicuous. 9 with large median lobes; no groups of ventral glands, but rows of pores along the margins of the hindmost segments; a deep constriction behind the cephalothorax, after the manner of articulaitus. J scale narrow, elongated; exuvia terminal, as in Diaspis. On Eucalyptus. (Tr. Roy.
Soc. S. Australia for 1888.)
var. comatus Mask.-1)istinguished by the nonincised lobes and the longer hairs
in couples. Found on Eucalyptus riinminalis. (N. Z. Trans., xxviii, 385.)
A. (Chentraspis.) extensus Mask.- 9 scale dirty yellow or brown, convex, first skin
black. 9 dark brown, with a single pair of contiguous lobes, after the manner of (Chionaspis minor; no groups of ventral glands. J dark brown.
On Eucalyptus capitellata. (N. Z. Trans., xxvii, 41.)
A. (Aspidiotus 8. str.) fimbriatus Mask.- 9 scale circular, flat, very thin, first skin
uncovered. 9 yellow, three pairs of lobes, scale-like plates; four groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals and caudolaterals each of about 10 to 14. On Eugenia smithii. (N. Z. Trans., xxv, 208.) Described as a doubtful Diaspi8,
on account of the elongated form of the 9.
A. (Chrysomphalu8) fodiens Mask.- 9 scale circular, slightly convex, grayish or
reddish-brown; exuvie central, bright orange, forming a slight boss, often covered with a thin grayish coating. 9 orange, 6 lobes, scale-like serrated plates; 4 groups of ventral glands, not over 5 orifices in a group. Very near
to cladii, but smaller. On Acacia. (N. Z. Trans., xxiv.)


A. (Phaulaspis) hakeaeMask.- 9 scale circular, slightly convex, grayish-white; exuvioe
dark orange, central. 9 orange-yellow, no lobes in adult, but four lobes in second stage; no groups of ventral glands. S dark red. Related to A. acacite.
On Hakea. (N. Z. Trans., xxviii, 384.)
A. (Chrysomphalus) rossi Mask-Fig 15.- 9 scale normally circular, very slightly convex, deep dull brown, almost black; exuvie central, small, forming a little boss which is sometimes yellowish. 9 with 6 lobes; 4 groups of ventral glands, not over 8 orifices in a group. On oleander, Eucalyptus, Ricinocarpus, etc. Also in
Ceylon, on Capparis. (N. Z. Trans., xxiv, 11.)
A. (Aspidiotus s. sir.) subrubescens Mask.-9 scale reddish-brown, subcircular, flat;
exuvia' central, forming a small slightly elevated boss. J scale white. 9
P with 6 lobes, and serrated plates; four groups of ventral glands. On Eucalyptus (N. Z. Trans., xxiv, 9); on Pittosporum from Australia (Div. Ent., No. 7399).
A. (Chentraspis) unilobis Mask.- 9 scale whitish, but usually blackened by fungus
growth, circular, slightly convex; exuvie central, orange. 9 dark orange, with a single, median, lobe, after the manner of Chionaspis quercus; no groups
of ventral glands. On Acacia. (N. Z. Trans., xxvii, 40.)
A. (subg.?) virescens Mask.- 9 scale suleircular, flat, grayish-white; exuvia subcentral, first skin distinctly green second greenish in middle and yellowish on border. 9 yellow with a greenish tinge; six lobes, not close together; serrated scale-like plates; 4 groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals of 17 to 21,
caudolaterals 8 to 13. On Eugenia smithii. (Tr. N,. Z. uInst., xxviii, 384.)

A. (Mycetaspis ?) artocarpi Green.- 9 scale less than 1 mrm. diam., blackish, very convex; first skin exposed, central, dark brown with a pale reddish margin. .* Scale leaving a white scar surrounded )by a lack ring, after the manner of
personatus. 9 deeply constricted between cephalothorax and abdomen, four pairs of tooth like lobes, no plates, no grouped ventral glands. On leaves of
ArtocarpuIs integrifolius. Bombay. (Ent. Mo. Mag., 1896, p. 200.)
A. (Aspidiotus, s. str.) excisus (ree.- 9 scale convex, of irregular outline, thin, semitransparent, whitish or very pale ochrcous: exuvi% yellow, approximately central. 9 with the median lobes sunk in a deep, squiarely cut recess, an exaggeration of the condition in A. destructor; four groups of ventral glands, cephalolaterals 8 to 15, caudolaterals 7 to 9. On leaves of ('yainotis pilosa. Ceylon.
A. (Diaspidiotus) greenii Ckll.-See fig. 7. This is founded on the supposed cyanophylli found by Green on Cycas at Kandy, Ceylon, specimens having been kindly
sent by Mr. Green.*
A. (n. subg.) inusitatus Green.-9 scale very large. flattish. becoming elongated, even
to 7- mnm. long, brownish white or brownish fulvons: exuvia yellow, more or less concealed. 9 with no lobes, and no grouped ventral glands. On bamboo.
Ceylon. (Coccidae of Ceylon, p. .) I have not examined specimens of this

Since writing the above I have examined specimens of an AspidiotuMs on cocoanut
palms from Mazatlan, Mexico, forwarded by Mr. Alex. Craw. These are evidently Green's supposed typical cyanophylli, but they are allied to Diaspidiotus, having the incisions between the lobes very well marked. The glands in the groups are few, cephalolaterals 4 or 5, caudolaterals 3. After studying these insects, I begin to feel less sure regarding cyanophylli than I had been. They certainly may be the insect described by Signoret, notwithstanding certain discrepancies. They also agree excellently with Comstock's cyanophylli, except that Comstock not only fails to figure the incisions, but in his table places the species in the section without them. If the examination of Signoret's types eventually proves that the present insect really is cya.nophylli, then the name greenii will have to be confined to the variety from Cycas, on which it is primarily based. But in the meanwhile, I should prefer to include
the Mazatlan insect under greenii. The species is probably of neotropical origin.


curious species; perhaps Mr. Green will propose a subgreneric (or generic) nameo
for it.
A. (n. sitbg.) mnoorai Green -9 scale 2 mm. diam., rugose and. colored like the bark
onl which' it rests; exuvhc recNish-brown. 9reddish-brown, skin entirely chitinons, body divided by decp constrictions into three subequal parts, three pairs of lobes, plates apparently absent, no grouped ventral glands; long clhilinous -processes; arising from the -first interlobular interval, but none in the second( or beyond. Onl bark of (irisica Iorntosa. Madras. (1Enit. Mo. Mag.,
1896, P. 199.)
A. (Ci'ylptop~ yl Iasi i) o-.eultus Green.- 9 pale yellow; no groups of ventral glands.
IIIIlinue all ol bmvs ol rciiaorienlalis. Ceylon. The reader should
refer to Green's ('uOc i (:i, of Ceylon," p. 41. and Pl. XI, for au account of this
ver v rcniarka.ble i usiet.
A. (sb.)orientalis Newvt.- 9 scale about UA mmn. diam., brownish-yellow or straw
color; exijvi;e, covered by a nipp~le-like p~rominence which is darker than the, rest. y with three pairs of lobes, plates simple and hair-like, fouir groups of
ventral1 glands of about 5' each. Nhadras. (Ind. Miis. notes, iii, 6.)
A. (Diuspidots) o-,b~cki-e ('rreen.--"-Allied to) iirii," but scale opaque, brownish, and
niarginl-inge of Y (Ii t'Crent. 01 hiSteins Of Usbeekia. Ceylon. The excellenlt figures inl (reenis work1h show that this spccius really belongs with DiaspidiQtige, anid there fore is only supe-rficially li ke verii. The median lobes are fairly wid e apa.rt, andl the secmond lobes well -trilobed ; there are four groups of
vetra;l gIi ids, and i asiwd i ge oifice representing the fifth group.
A. ( Aspidiuts Ns. ) putearias (ien-9 scale round, flat, or slightly concave "formillg ano1ru)ui to the( jIUtjijt ike depre ,sion inl which the insect, rests;* color
ver'y P:11(e brown ish, odin; eons", semiopaquejl; exuviaW. central, p~ale yellow.9
wvithouit grouped( ventrial glandls. ()n Slrobilaoh1est. Ceylon. This insect is of initerest as showmingr the( first stage(, toward grall formation, the advanced, or comple)ItedI staiv 0) the~ S:1"'e 1pi-ocess being exhibited in the extraordiinarv A.
occius. The, Australin -I. fodlcmns, belonging to a dillorent group, formns pits inl the leaves o)f Acuwill, but no gaill- inhabiting A sp idiot a8 is yet k~nowvn from
Auiist raia:.
A. (J'.ceudaoiiidia) thee Ms.-? srcales clustered thickly on twigs, as nearly circular
ais their number's and 1).-1 tlin will permitit, slightly con vex, light browvn, with a very thini coat of' white secetion; exuivia' yellow, very small, near the miargin. browii; f'oir lob(-,, the seconI air smaller; I large groups of ventral glanids. Oiln teai plant. India. The insect has a patch of ''lattice work" on doi sal surface of 9 ,after the manner of Ieips.This is not A1. them, Green, 1Insect p)ests "(1890), 1) 1:3, which conlsists o) t iemale Iloteardia biclavi8, with
the of soine other species, apparently a Cioisaspi.
A. (.lspidioluts s. sir.) transparens Green.-There, are fouir groups of ventral glands,
cephbalolaterTals G to 11, canilolaiterals 4 to 6. Ceylon, on tea, etc., now referred
by G reen to lul o iw (, bu t very II k ehy d isti nct.
A. (1'seadaouidia) trilobltiformis Gr-ee.-9 scale broad and flat, opaque, reddishbrown. 9 Nvith thme seg'_ments strongly niarked, a deep transverse groove behind the cephlal ic portion ; hind portion with a well-miarked reticnhatcd patch. Onh leaves of Ibalhcrgela. Ceyloin. Mr. (Greemi says of this: '' Very closely allied to possiblyy only a variety of) A. them MAlskell." I (10 not think tme affinity is so very close, thoug!il they have some striking features'in common.
I think duplex is closer to themw.

A. (subg. ?) mas -ilau News t.- Y scale pure white, rather thick; exuvbe, black, forming
a large, conspicuious, central sp~ot. with two pairs of lobes, median mlinute,' rounded, second pair greatly elon-atedh, plates well developed, no groups of
venralglands. Lalgos. (Emnt. Mo. Mag., 1896, p. 133.)


Patria Incerta.
A. (Aspidiotus 8. tr.) aloe3 Boisd.- 9 scale white; exuviae central and yellow. Median
lobes large; grouped glands present. Allied to nerii. On Aloe unebellutay
Europe. (Signoret, Essai, 1869, p.114).
A. (Aonidiella) aurantii Mask.- 9 scale light gray, but appearing orange or reddish
from the insect showing through; exuvie marked by a nipple-like prominence.
9 reniform, three pairs of lobes, no groups of ventral glands. On Citrus trees in California, Australia, and the western Mediterranean region. On lignuimvitae principally, never on Citrus, in Jamaica. A variety on Podocarpus in Japan, collected by Mr. Takahashi at Tokio. New Zealand, Fi,'ji Is., Sandwich Is., Samoa, Tonga, New Caledonia; on cocoanut in Central America; on Taxuis in Italy; on Citrits japonica at the University of Arizona, sent by Prof. Tourney.
var. citrinu3 Coquill.-A yellow variety. California; Japan. According to Howard, this occurs on the leaves and fruit, never on the bark. See Insect Life, Feb., 1891, p. 228. Howard records three parasites from v. citrin us, all different
from the three bred from typical aurantii.
A. (Aspidiotus 8. str.) buddleige Sign.- 9 scale circular, white; exuvi& yellow. Ventral
grouped glands present. On Buddleia salicina, hothouses of the Luxembourg.
Maskell reports it on Acacia in New Zealand.
A. (Aspidiotus s. str.?) chamgeropsis Sign.-9 scale elongated, transparent; exuvie
yellow and to one side. Lobes terminated by long hairs; grouped glands
present. On Chama rops australis. (Essai, 169, p. 118.)
A. (Aspidiotus s. str.) cyanophylli Sign.- 9 scale circular, brownish yellow; exuvie
central, bright yellow but covered by white secretion. Median lobes large; plates long and branched, 4 small groups of ventral glands, 3 to 5 in a group.
On Cyanophyllum, Paris (Signoret); on Ficus, U. S. (Comstock, Cornell Rep.
1883, p.59.). On palm. and Cycae ill Ceylon, according to Green, but his insect is a different species, A. greenii, n. sp., at least so far as the form sent to me is
A. (Aspidiotus 8. str.) cycadicola Boisd.- 9 scale circular, white; exuvim central, yellow; median lobes large; grouped glands present. & with the thoracic band
large. On Cycas recoluta, Europe. (Signoret, Essai, 1869, p). 119).
A. (Chrysomphalus) degeneratus Leon.- 9 scale greenish, convex, about 11 mm. long.
9 pale yellow, three pairs of lobes; serrated plates; chitinous processes at base of lobes hardly longer than the lobes; four groups of ventral glands, not over 4 in a group. On leaves of Camellia japonica. Italy. (Riv. Pat. Veget.,
IV, 345.)
A. (Aspidiotus s. str.) de3structor Sign.-9 scale circular, flat, yellowish or whitish;
exuvia large, central. 9 with three pairs of lobes, or even a fourth clearly distinguishable, and scale-hlike divided plates; the level of the tips of the median lobes below or at any rate not above that of the tips of second lobes. A. fallax Ckll. and cocotis Newst. are the same. On paluis and various other plants.
West Indies, Demerara, Bourbon, Marquesas Islands, Laccadive Islands.
Distinguished at once from nerii, to which it is closely allied, by the larger
exuvite and the short median lobes not extending beyond the tips of the second lobes. The var. fallax, on mango in Antigua, shows the four pairs of
lobes. (See Ent. Mo. Mag., March, 1894, p. 57.)
A. (Aspidiotus 8. str.) epidendri Bouch6.-Resembles nerii, but differs in the &. On
Epidendrunm, Europe. (Signoret, Essai, 1869, p. 121.) Maskell reports it on
Acacia in New Zealand.
A. (Aspidiotus 8. 8tr.?) kennedye Boisd.-Resemnbles nerii. On Kennedya. (Nomen
A. (Aspidiotus 8. str.) latanis Sign.- 9 scale a little elongated, clear yellow, trans.lucid at center; exuviie large. Median lobes large; four groups of ventral glands. On Latania. A hothouse species in Europe. Green reports it from
Ceylon, but it is not certain that his insect is the true latani aw.


A. (Clzrysomnphalus) minor Bel.-?9 scale brown, convex, very little over 1 mm. diam.
y yellow, three pairs of lobes, serrated plates; a couple of long plates laterad of third lobe, after the manner of dict yosperrni; four small groups of ventral glands. nbt over f to a group. On leaves of Pandan us, in hort. Italy. (Riv.
Pat. Veget., IV, 346.) This seems to me to be identical with J. (iictyo~perini
var.fjaunaicenisi8; if not, it is at least extremely close to it
A. (Aspidioit8 s.8Or.) myrsinx Sign.-Allied to nerii. On Jlyroina ret usa in the hothouses of the Luxemb~ourgr.
A. (A4spidiola8 8. sir.) nerii Blouehti.-9 scale flat, whitish; exuivia exposed, central
or nearly so, dull orange yellow. 9 with three pairs of lobes,' scale-like plates; lour groups of ventral glands. caudolaterals about 7, cephalolaterals about 9.
OnI oleander, Mcfelia, Yu1cca,7 mnd a variety of other garden plants, very widely distributed, buit not universal; very rare in the West Indies, only once found, viz: On olive ill the Botanic, Gardens, Grenada. ElIsewhere in the neotrolpical region. Lataste found, it at SnigChili, while it occuirs inl several localities in .Nexico. It is common enough h in the 1 nited 'States. Berlese appears to have demionistrated what was before suspected, that iwrii is but a variety of
A. hedera,.
var. limonii Sign~. 9 with the end of the abdomen mnore elongated, and the plates
larger, thaii in the type. Found onl lemons in Europe. Also in the Sandwich
Is1lnds. (Essai, lN69. p). 125.)
A. (.14juidiolias s. .Ntr.) palmarum Bloiich.- scale white, Circular; exuviae redldishyellow. Grouped glands present. Onl pahius. Eiurope. (Nonien semiinudui.) A. (siilo. !) pandani Sin-9scile bla'k ish-browi, center whitish. Grouped glands
p)resenit. On hiIandanuis u~l.Essi, 1869, p. 1:31.)
A. (Piax1hdiotui perniciosus ('omist.-l'nitcd State8 (Ala., Ariz., Cal., DeL., Fla., (Ga.,
Mdailo, Id., La., Mass., Md.. N. J., N. Y., N. NM., Ohio, Greg., Pa., Va., Washingtoii, W. Va.), British Coliumbia, Australia, Sandwich Islands. (For fuill pariticuilars seo Butll. 3, n. s., D~iv. Ent. The San Jose scale; by L. 0. hloward
and1( C. L. Malaitt.)
A species perhaps allied topjeriu~iosus, but possibly new, was found by Prot' C. H.
TF. Townsend( on 17-alpw it Browiisville, Texas. The scales were attacii edl by some pa,,rasite, anil it l)rovc.(l iupsi ble to satisfactorily describe or figure the species. Thel scale is more eoiivex than pcruiiciosiis, the extivi-w are (lark; the
median lobes are quiite clong-atedl.
A. (-Aspidiotus 8 sisr..'I phormii de Br(,ie.-9 scale white, circular; exlliviav central.
Onl Pherlimi tc~aax in Switzerland. (Si gnoret, Essai, 1869, p). 130.)
A. (Ilemiberlesia ) rapax Comist.- 9 scale convex, gray, appearing yellowish from the
contained insect; emuviai towNardl one side, marked~ by a dark brown or black spot. 9 with one lpair of larg-e lobes; lbrauched plates; no groups of ventral
glands. (n various trees. etc. ; nearly Cosmnopolitanl.
A. (Chirysomplialus) sphoefioides Cll.- 9 scale circular, rather over 1 mmn. diam. ;
modlerate-ly convex; dark reddish-brown, withl the part covering the exuvho indicated by a pale raised ring; when rubbed the exuvi& appear shining black. y with three pairs of lobes; jive groups of ventral glands, caudolaterals, 3; cephalolaterals, 4; median, 3. Said to be on New Zealand S1ax.
A. (As8pidiotus s. sir.) spinosas Corust.- 9?scale circular, very light brown or dirty
white; exuviw, central and covered. 4 groups of ventral glands, of not over 6 each; median lobes prominent; plates more or less notched; spines large. On
camellia. Washington, D. C.
A. (Aspidiotue 8. otr.) vriescim Sign.-Allied to nerii; scale more elongated, yellowish
gray. On Vriescia 8plefldens.
A. (?) osmanihi Vallot, 1829, a white scale with central exavite, found on Oleafrayrau8, is at best a noincit 8entifludain.



Since this Bulletin went to press I have received an interesting note from D~r. G. Leonardi, to whom I had communicated some of my views by letter. Onie of the subgenera which I had proposed, having for its typ~e A. secrets, proved to be identical with a miew genus (Odontaqpis) of iDr. Leonardi's. I therefore adopt his namne and suplpress my own; though it is to be remarked that if Odonaspis is froin oo'out~y-r's: it is equivalent to Odontasp is, preoccupied by Agassiz. Dr. Leonardi goes on to say that hie would refier Miclanaspis to (hrysomiplalus, Acroplulas,pis to Targion ia, aiid (iryptoj)hylla-sj) is an d &dcenaspulus to A spidiot us, s. str., ihi which they will represent sections. The change of Aspidites to Ilemiberlesia is assenltedI to, and the geiieric value of (Jhrqsowphalus and Awnidiella is iaitained. At the same time Dr. Leonardi has published (lRiv. Pat. Vegret., 1897) a preliminary classiticatioii of ANIpidiots, dividing it into the following groups, whiich are all regarded as geniera : Asp idiotis, Asp idites, Chrgsomphlis, Aonidiella., Targiontia, Odoiwspis, Uk en thasp is, Ph anlasp is-thie last three new-ai ( with Aonidia added. I can not at all agree withi this classification, which throws ito the same genus (Aonidielht) such diverse species as A. a urantii, _pernutuws us,aiin witosc, wifle it places p~ern icios is anmi nclits in separate genera! However, it is ilteil(led offly as a prelimnillary statement, andl no doubt the author will greatly improve it ini his detailed publication and explain away some of the apparent difficulties.