H. -L. -F GUERMONPREZI
B.O0,K,.OF THE- WORLD.
Priatcd Iy R. and A. Taylor, Shoe Tpe, Londm -
A BOQJK OF THE WORLD,
FOR~ THE~ USE OF CRLLDRETS-r
BEING AN ATTIEMP~T TO RENDER THE FIRST PRINCIPLES Oil
EWLEDGE EASY,~ BY MEANS 5F SUCH A SIMPL!IITY
~FLANGA'GEAND'11INUTENESS OF DETAIL AS
itXvx NOT PREVIODP&T BEEN BROUGHT
By WTLLIAM TAYLOR, Es-Q. M.A.-F~ORMERLY OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.-4
The Text of this little Work is illustrated by tnany' ppropriate Cuts; ard,. tog either with the subseqnent Parts, is intended to' promote the advancement of, knowledge at a small pride.
PUBLISHED BY Al. J. GODWIN AND CO.
AT THE CITY JUVENILE LIBRAILTs 41, SxNNEE STREET;
ANiD MAY N3B HAD OF ALL BOOBE&LLER9.
-Price Is. 6d.-itc4
A full allowance to the Instrnctors of ,the National ad al other Schools.
TIHE expedition and accuracy- with which the elements of knowledge are conveyed to young minds, by, means of the Bell and Lancaster plans and.sehools, afford a well-grounded hope of improvement in the mental condition of a nfnmerous class of our fellow creatures.
If, as experience and deduction lead us to believe, the increase of comfort and happiness is inseparably connected-with the diffusion ofknowledge,-no benevolent mind but must rejoice in the opportunities that present themselves of giving aid to so desirable ah object.
Man is, as his mindis; his grand characteristic as an animal, is his power of thought; and the criterion of the higher value of the individual, is the superiority of his mental endowments. His corporeal qualifications are valuable chiefly as they contribute to the improvability of his mind. Well therefore has Watts said,
Were I -as tall to reach the pole,
Or grasp the Ocean in my span,
I most be measnr'd by my soul :- lie mind's the standard bof the man."
Those who are aware of the extensive discove.a 2
ries of science, and the proofs resulting from cautious experiments, and accurate demonstrations of the real and relative condition of things, and of their mutual effects on each- other, have great cause to wonder at the prevalence of opinions, which the enlightened part of mankind have lon'6 since ceased to entertain.
The immense number of almanacs annually. published,* with prophecies of future events, both as to the weather and the fates of nations, proves' that a great number of individuals are still the dupes of the fooleries of astrology.
Nothing appears more likely to destroy Such absurd opinions, than that a manual, descriptive of the real state of the earth, its materials and prod *uctions, and the connection that exists between it and the heavenly bodies, should be 'introduced into the national schools, as the means of, giving it the greatest possible diffusion.
A little treatise, which will form a subsequent Part of the present, was with these views prepared, but mature reflection suggested to the autothat something preparatory was necessary.. ,It appeared advisable that some minor objects should be treated of first, for the purpose of training the mind to grasp at things of higher reach. This, besides, would give the opportunity of explaining many terms usedin the subsequent work; and thus, by gradually familiarizing the mind to comparing the descriptions of -small objects with. their prototypes in nature, it might be led up to
the same consideration of the world. The habit of comparing the account of a cart, and a wheel and its motion, might lead the mind to the same consideration of the earth, the cause of eclipses and other phenomena.
The necessity for using scientific terms in describing accurately the most common objects, to. gether with the conviction of the great utility of giving children correct ideas of some of the common geometrical figures, prevailed against the objections of the novelty of beginning with descrip. tions usually postponed to a more advanced stage of education.
But the forms only of some geometricalfigures are spoken of, without reference to the scientific properties; and as representations are given of each, together with examples of common objects, it is hoped that this necessary part will be intelligible to very young persons, and that it may even be found to interest them.
Many of the descriptions are very minute,-but the author thinks that the desire this is likely to epxcite in young minds to put in practice what they read, when they find that things succeed as they proceed, is so valuable that no opportunity should be lost of creating it.
In the present attempt much pains have been taken to draw up the lessons in as plain and perspicuous language as possible: variety of expression has been avoided, as apt to cause confusion in the mind,-an inexperienced pupil often sup-
posing that, by a difference in the terms, some difference in the sense is intended. His object has been to instruct not only children but adults whether in a savage or a civilized state, who la bour under the misfortune of ignorance. With thpse pupils in view, he has kept as. much as pos. sible to words of general import, that did not relate to the customs or manners of any particular nation or people. For instance: he has not spoken of yards, feet, and inches; but referred to the usual dimensions of a man, "a foot's length ", &c.
The topics treated of in the following little book, relating.chiefly to the production of the necessaries of life, may it is 14opedbe useful and interesting to all; and if such were introduced into the national schools, they would greatly tend to imbue the minds of the young learners with just notions of the value of industry and perseverance, and contribute towards rendering them virtuous, good, and useful.
The author begs to remark in this place, rather than at the end of the Examnination Questions, (where it might naturally be expected to 'stand, but which for obvious reasons, he has avoided,) that in most instances the succeeding questibn will suggest to the examiner the answer to. that immne. diately preceding.
MANKIND, being able to think better and to speak, are better than other living things or animals. Many animals can make some sounds with their mouths, which those of their own kind know and answer to. And some make sounds which animals of other kinds know and are frightened at. But the different sounds which each kind of animals can make, are very few; so that one animal can make another know, or teach it, vety few things: and although mankind can teach some animals more than any of their own kind can teach them, yet. the taught ones cannot teach others what they have been taught. So animals that ai:e alive now, cannot make those which have to come after them any better; and the nests and the dens that are made now, are no better than the dens and nests that were made some thousands of years ago. But mankind by speech can tell all they know to one another ; and when
one finds out or knows a good thing, and tells it to others, those others may be able to better themselves and others; and so mankind become better and better, and do better and better; and, instead of living, like wild* beasts, in dens or caves, or feeding on wild fruits, and roots, and animals,, which are not always to be found or caught when wanted; they'make houses for themselves to dwell in, and till the earth, and tame animals, to have good kinds of food always ready.
By speaking, those only who are near can be told, and they may not hear rightly, and may forget what has been told; so there have been found out some marks called letters, which have been made to stand for different sounds; and which, being joined in different ways together, stand for different words.
The making of letters and joining them into words with the hand, is called writing. And learning to know the letters and words readily is called reading.
By writing, mankind can let one another know what they think, though at a great distance from.one another; and whatis written, if forgotten, can be read again ; and one by
INTRODUCTION., reading aloud what is written may let all who are near know. But it takes a deal of time to write much ; and to make what-is written known at more distant places tharn- one, the writing must be sent to all places where needful, to one after another; or the same thing must be written over again on something else, which is called copying; and the new writing a copy; and many copies may bemade 'and sent to many distant places. The best way'of writing is by using a black watery matter, called ink; to mark white paper. Paper is made by pieces of stringy mniatter-s beiig. chopped, and torn, and bruised very small; then mixed with water, and thinly and evenly 1preadon things through which thewater passes away ; then what is left, when greatly pressed and dried, becomes paper.
Copying by writifig takes up a gieat deal of time; and it has been found out that letters being made the contraryway on pieces of wood or metal, the wood or metal being taken away little from the letters, and leaving them standing up a little from the rest of the pieces, which are made to fit to each other, and are called types, that- letters and words may be B2
so joined and fastened together as to lie all so plain and even, that being daubed with some fit ink, and then paper pressed hard on them, many hundreds of words may be marked at a time, which is called printing; and co-pies of long writings may be printed, as fast as the printers can daub the types and press the paper on them ; and many hundreds may be printed in a little time.
And large pieces, called sheets, of paper being printed in a fit way, may be folded and bound together so as to make a handy bundle called a book.
Ever since printing was found out, in places where it has been much used, things have become better and better far faster than before, and than in other places. Wlhatwas known, or, as it is called, knowledge, became known to very many; so better things and better ways of doing were faster found out; and the more that learn to read, and so get knowledge, the more liklihood there will be that things will become better and better still.
And there are so many books printed now in the English speech or language, that teach almost all kinds of knowledge, that those who
can read-well may, by-the help of books, become their own teachers in the kind of knowledge most fit for them.
It is good for, those who are learning to read, at bthe same time to get some useful knowledge. So it is meant by this littlebook to shew to learners, first, the exact meaning of some words which are very useful in speaking of otherthings; then, how common dwellings and the most useful vessels and utensils are made; then,.how the earth may be tilled; and some animals tamed for food, and some other animals taught to help mankind by labour : then, to shew what them ain matters in the world are, and how they move and act one upon another.
A BOOK OF THE WORLD.
First Ideas of some useful Things. ,
ONE way of knowing one body from another, is by knowing its figure. Figures are bounded by lines; and solids by surfaces. There are some figures, lines, and surfaces, which are so often met with and talked About, that they have names. It is very useful to know these; for it saves many words, and makes what is meant more plain.
Descriptions and Examples of Lines often mnet
with, and which are Bounds of dgfJrcnt Fi
A straight line is the shortest line that can be drawn from one point to another. The ends of a line are points.
-8 ,FIRST IDEAS OF
A curve is a bended line.
The ends of a curve are also points.
O A circle is a figure formed by an unbroken line bent continually round
till its two ends meet.
There is a point in the middle called the
centre, from which point all straight lines drawn to the outside are equal in length, and
called radii: one by itself is a radius.
The outside is called the circumference.
A straight line drawn quite across
a circle through the centre'is called
the diameter, and the part on each
side of the diameter is'e callect a semi-circle.
The wheel of a cart is a circle. Half the diameter is a radius.
The outside of the wheel is thd circumference. In the middle of the wheel is a small opening or pipe; a long pole or bar of wood goes into this pipe, and is called the axle. the.axle joins the two wheels; and the two wheels turn on it. The place where the wheel turns is called the-centre.
A piece of string stretched across the wheel
over the centre to the circumference or out-
SOME USEFUL THINGS. 9
side of the wheel, is the diameter, and-is astraight line. A piece of string stretched from the centre or middle of the wheel to the outside of it is a radius.
Any. part of the outside of a wheel, or of a bow to shoot'with; is a curve.
Examples and Descriptions of different useful
and common Figures.
When one straight line falls upon
another, the parts or corners between the lines where they meet are angles.
If theangleswhichone linemakes in falling upon another are equal, they are right angles.
The upright line that makes the right angle, is a perpendicular.
If the angles are not equal, the
larger i's called 'an obtuse angle;
the lesser an acute angle.
Straight lines every, where at the same distance from each other are parallels.
A space within four straight lines
of the same length and with four
right angles is a square.
10' FIRST IDEAS OF
If two of the opposite lines are
S longer than the other two, it is called an oblong.
A straight line drawn across a
square from the opposite corners is a
A space- inclosed within three A straight lines, is a triangle.
A diagonal line drawn across a square, divides it into two triangles.
Most rooms, or the tops and bottoms of boxes, are oblongs, but some are squares., Most of the corners of rooms o boxes are right angles; but some are obtuse angles, and some are acute angles. A piece of string fastened in one corner of a'room and drawn across to the opposite corner of the room, is a diagonal, and then the room is divided into two triangles.
Part of the circumference of a circle is an arch. The straight linegoing across it is a chord, and makes the part of the circle cut offa segment.
SOME USEFUL THINGS. 11
The arches of some bridges and some churches are segments of a circle.
An ellipsis is a circle stretched in
two opposite directions. If you fix two pins ,in- aboard, and strain a.
string with a pencil round these pins, you will draw an ellipsis.
A hen's egg is very like an ellipsis, and would be one, if it were as big at one end as at the other.
A solid like a dice with six square
sides equal to each other is a cube.
Each of the sides is a surface.
A solid like a ball or a marble is a globe: Every part of the outside of a globe is surface.
A solid like a round ruler or a telescope or a caleidoscope or a tankard is a cflihder, and each end is a
S The figure made by a right-angled
triangle, turned round upon one of the sides that make the right-angle, is S 4 a cone. The bottom part, which is a
circle, isthe base. The top part is the apex. A sugar loaf is a cone.
12 FIRST IDEAS OF SOME USEFUL THINGS.
A solid of three or more sides or
surfaces and each of the surfaces triaggles, standing on a broad bottom, and evenly lessening to a point at the top, is a pyramid. The bottom of a pyramid is the base; the top is. he ape..
Some of the marble ornaments that stand on chimney-pieces are paniids.
There are many other figures and solids not so common, made out of these. But those above described are the most useful.
IT is not good for man to be alone.
k Mankind should live near to each other, that they may help'each other.
ON DWELLINGS. 13
The place to fix dwellings in should be dry ground, near good. water for drinking, and where the mists do not stay long; it should be sheltered from very bad weather, and from great cold, and from great heat; and it should not be far from where fod and .fuel can be had.
Dwellings may be in caves or holes of the earth; or their sides niay be made of clay, or ofwood, or of clay and wood; and they may be covered with leaves, or with stalks, or with plants, or with wood. But they are better made of stone; of which there are many kinds: that which is the most useful, is a kind of sandy stone (like kneaded and hardened sand,) calledi'eestone, as it is easily wrought or made usefiR, and fitted to what is needful.
Chalk is a stone which, being softer, is more easily wrought; but it is lik y tobe crushed, and does not last long enough when open to the weather.
Limestone, and marble (a finer kind of limestone), will last longer; but they are hard to be wrought and made useful in- the state of Stone.
But by butrning chalk, or marble, or lime-
14 ON DWELLINGS.
stone, and throwing a, little water on what has been burnt, it will fall into powder; which being.mixed with sand and more water to make it soft, and kneaded so that it maybe easily spread, it becomes mortar; and being evenly spread between stones fastens them together, by hardening again and sticking to each stone. By which means walls and houses may be made.
Where fit stones cannot be readily enough had, and fuel and clay chn be had,-by making bricks a good hard -and lasting matter for building may be made. Clay is a kind of earth, which when wetted becomes sticky, and this, mixed with some sand, and wetted and well kneaded, may be made into different figures. To make common bricks for building with, a mould should be made. by. fastening four pieces of flat wood together, two longer arid two shorter at right angles; so that when laid on a flat place, and kneaded clay, pressed into it andsmoothed on the upper side, a brick may be made of such a weight, when dried and burned, that it may be easily handled by grasping it between the fingers' hnd thumb of one hand across the breadth;
ON DWELLINGS. 15
the length being a little more than double, and the thickness little less than half the breadth, thatbricks may fitin differentways when some mortar is put between.. When the clay, is thus pressed into the, mould, or moulded, it is to be laid on its'side to dry, then turned over to dry more, then many built loosely into walls to dry and harden still more, and then built into large heaps (called kilns), with fuel between the bricks, which is to be fired and to burn them till they become as hard as stone.
"lUlJJJ il I
To make houses or other' buildings with bricks, they are to be laid in layers; with mortar between each brick and each layer, so that the joinings or joints of one layer be not in a line with joints of the layer next to it: the width of each layer to be as is fit for the strength of 'the building meant to be made.
16 ON, DWELLINGS.
I f for. -a house, when the walls are high enough, long pieces of wood called rafters are 'set up on the top of the wall, on each side, leaning against each other at their other ends: and. to hinder them from slid ing out at the bottom or thrusting out the walls, they are fastened together by along piece of wood called a fie-beam, The pairs of rafters are joined by smaller pieces of wood, on which
is astnedthe covering, which, with what upholds it,, is called the roof; the top of which i's the ridge, and the bottom edges the eaves. When the covering is of plants or stalks of plants, it is called -thatch: sometimes it is made of thin flat wood called boardssometimes of thin pieces of burnt brick-earth called tiles-and sometimes of thin pieces of stone called slates. When the covering is of a kind that the rain dces not run readily off it, the rafters must meet at the ridge at a more acute angle, which makes what is called the pitch of the roof so much the higher-thatch must'have a higher pitch tban tiles or slatq,.
ON DWELLINGS. 17
Openings are left in the walls of buildings for windows and 'doors. What is above these is upheld by pieces of wood or stone, called lintels: but the same may be done by making the opening at the top of the door or window an arch. This is done by making something, for the time, with an arched top, called a centre, to uphold the stones or bricks, which must be carefully laid on it, rising from each side one row after another, till they meet at the top and are closed by the top row called keystones. Then the centre may be taken away, and the arch will remain to uphold what is to be built above. Arched roofs of stone or brick may be made in a like way. But the main use of arches is, to make bridges or ways over rivers, as they canbe made very wide and very strong, where filt centres can be made to buildthem on.
The art of the mason (or builder with
18 ON DWELLINGS.
stones) is to make his matter for his work, to uise it in a like way with the bricklayer (or builder with bricks). But the stones made cubical or rectangular, like bricks, are the best fo'r building with: yetgood and strong walls may be made of unwrought stones, by laying them in layers as level as may be, with plenty of mortar between the layers and between each stone in the layers. It is useful thatthe chimneys (or pipes through which the smoke rises out of the house from the fireplaces) should be made of bricks; and also often the inside walls, or walls between one room and another, though the house be made of stone.
DWELLINGS serve to shelter mankind from bad weather : but vessels are wanting to keep matters for food in, and to make it ready; and also for .cleaning and for washing in.
ON POTTERY. 19
,Pottery vessels are fit for these doings; and the materials and means for using them may be had almost every where.
Vessels made of brick-earth or clay hardenedby fire, after much fining and kneading, are called Pottery. By kneading the brickearth or clar with very muchl-water, and theta putting to it still more water, and stirring it and mixing it much, till the whole becomes like muddy water; then letting it rest for a little time, that the coarsest parts may sink to the bottom; then removing the muddy watery part to a place where the water may be dried, or steamed away by being heated; the fine clay left after much k6neading again, will be fit for making pottery.
It may then be figured by the hands into such pots or vesselsas arewanted. These, after
20 ON POTTERY.
being dried in the air, may be baked or burned in ovens or kilns, a great many together, being kept from touching the fuel, or one another, by guards called sagars, which are mainly made of coarser matters which havebefore been burned.
After the pottery has so been burned, it is called biscuit : being in the state of bricks or tiles, it is not well fitted for holding water or watery matters : -but this is helpedby glazing.; which is done by burning them again, when common salt is mixed withthe fuel, which hardens and glazes' over the surfaces of the vessels, so that they are fit to hold any kind, of watery matter. There are other ways of glazing' pottery, by mixing together some rusts of metals, and some salts with water and powder of-flints which have been burnt and bruised. Flints are very hard stones, through thin pieces of which, light may be seen. The biscuit being dipped into a watery mixture of these, so that the surface be covered with it in a very thin layer, by being burnt again it.will be glazed. The glazing by common salt is the most useful, though by some ofthe other matters the pottery may be made to look better.
ON POTTERY. 21
Pottery vessels so made, may be used not only to bold and keep watery matters as well as other matters, but to melt, boil, and bake them in.
Pottery may be figured by the hands alone, or by moulds. But the most ready way of making the .most useful vessels is by having an upright axle, with a broad flat top, running in a groove or hole at the bottom, not far above which is fastened a rim, by which the workman (or potter)-turns the axle round with his foot. Having put on the middle of the top a piece of clay ready for figuring, he presses the middle of it with one hand and the outside of it with the other, while- he turns the axle or wheel round; and so makes round vessels of any useful height and width: pieces of wood may be used in either or both hands to help. When finished in the figure wanted, the 'vessel is cut from the top by a thin tool; and handles and spouts of the same clay may be readily fastened on before drying, or spouts made by bending in fit places the edges of the vessels.That vessels may be easily cleaned, they should be made smooth both on the outside and on the inside; and though at the bot-
toms they be made flat for them to stand,
- yet the inside should be made evenly smooth,
without an angle. Such as are to be used for boiling, or baking, or melting, should be as evenly thick as may be, that'they may not readily break with the heat. Such as are deeper than the length of the fingers, should be made wide enough at the ijouith to' let the hand in to clean them; excepting such as are to be used for matters which are to be closely stopped up; and the narrow-topped ones used for such things had better be made like hollow cones, that they may be easily
The vessels of pottery are well suited for
holding watery matters; but for holding and carrying things which are dry, useful vessels called baskets may be made. Fix, at small distances- from each other, in the figure and size Wanted, long pieces of light and tough wood, of such a strength as not to
-7"~' ~ ~
be broken by the loads meant to be carried; then take long, small, tough branches or twigs7 and putting one, end of the branch between two of the fixed pieces, and keeping the end there, pass the twig half round one of the fixed pieces, putting it in between that and the nest fixed piece; then, bending it back again, between that and the next to it; and going on, in the same way, first round one side of one, then-round the other side of the next fixed piece, till the end of the twig be come to: then take another twig, and laying the end of it upon that which has been last handled of the other in between the fixed pieces, bend it backward and for, ward, and in between the fixed pieces, as before, which is called wcattling.: -then wattle in more twigs, round and round, the second. layer and every other layer crossing the first: in between the fixed pieces, and pressing the twigs of one round close upon those of the other, till the ends of the fixed pieces be come to;-and they will be found to be all well fastened together, and making a basket.
Handles may be fastened on at suitable places; or holes left in thewattling, at some
layers from the top, to let the hands in to lift the basket by.
Such, though fit for holding and carrying, many things, are not fit for holding and carrying things that are in powder or bruised into small pieces, which would pass through the wattling. To bold and carry such, make boxes, by fastening together at their edges, pieces of wood sawed flat and thin, called boards, and so inclosea three-cornered space, with three boards at the sides and one at the bottom; or asquareor rectangled space, with four at the sides and one at the bottom, leaving the top open, which may be covered by like boards, for a lid.-Handles may be fastened on, or holes made in fitting places, to lift by.
1- IAN D1-I3A ftito'W. 2
To carry loads' or th~lqs -that would be too heavy for one workffi-'n-jdbarrA o, niaybeused. It is made of two piecesof wood, about six times a man's footlength I ougof at thickness ,at the ends readily to be grasped
-by the hands of -tbe-Workme~n, aind the rest of a thickness arid, strength. "suited to bear the loads. These are to be joined by flat Pieces. of wood, or.-boards, of about Ifour of a mnan s foot-length long, being fastened at their ends.
.26 ON TILLAGE.
MANKIND get their food from what the earth brings forth and maintains,
Many animals are fit for food, and many seeds, and roots, and leaves, and fruits of herbs and of trees.
The earth may be made to bring forth more and better food by tillage and care; choosing what is most fit for food as being healthful and well tasted; and not only sUAias is to be used now, but some that will bear to be kept for after use.
The best is corn; of which there are many kinds, the best'being wheat. Corn, when
ON TILLAGE. 27bruised into a powder called meal, and mixed with water into.a paste, and kneaded and baked, becomes bread ;--food fit for all mankind.
But corn will not grow to be good without tillage, making the earth'fit for it, and taking care that it be not hurt while growing by animals, or useless herbs growing among it. Therefore the place where corn or other useful herbs are reared, should be either watched -or fenced.
The main work in tillage is loosening the earth on the surface as deep as is fit' for the roots of the herbs-to be reared; and breaking the lumps or clods, and killing the ,use. less herbs, or weeds, where doing harm. The plough is the best tool for doing this, where there is a great deal to be done for rearing corn ut a plough must have labouring animals to work it. And there are other herbs fit for food,4of which enough imay be reared by the handwork of mankind only; such are potatoes, the root of which may be kept along time, -nd when put for a little while to a heat not less than that of boiling water, will do instead of meal of corn and bread.
28 T -I' L L A' G E,
ON TILLAGE. 29
There are hand toolsuseful in this tillage.
To break up the earth when hard, a mattock is useful. It has a long stronghead about the length of a man's leg, and in the middle about the thickness of his wrist, with a hole there, in which is fastened the handle, about half as long -again as the head, which tapers from the middle to a sharp point at one end, and to a flat edge perpendicular to the handle, at the other;. both ends being bent a little toward the handle, which is of a thickness to be easily grasped, and is made of strong and tough wood.
Where the earth is not so hard, the work may be quicker done by a spade, with a rectangular mouth of flattened iron, about the breadth of a man's foot's length, and about half as long again, having the edge of one end sharpened: at the middle of the other end is a strong sheath, or socket, wherein a strong handle of -tough wood is fastened, about three times the length of- the breadth of the mouth; having across the top a short piece about the length of a'breadth and a half of a man's hand; and both it and the handle of a thickness that may be easily grasped ; or better with the hole at the top
30 ON TILLAGE.
like a segment, its chord being the part to take hold of. At the top of the mouth, on each side of the handle, there is room to put the foot on to help to..dig by pressing the spade into the earth. The mouth is a little curved; and the hollow of the curve is called the front, and the other side the back. When the spade is pressed into the earth, by pushing back and downward the handle, what is before the spade maybe lifted on it, and turned upside down, and chopped by it into small pieces; and the weeds on it being covered will rot and become manure, which helps the earth to bring forth more and better things, and to maintain them better.
To make the earth still smaller, and fit it for smaller seeds, a rake is useful, which has a long handle, about twice the length of that of a spade, of light wood, fastened into the iron socket of an iron head, at right angles to it,- about three times the length of a man's foot: into this head are fastened, at equal distances, about ten small iron spikes, called its teeth, about a hand-breadth long, at right angles to it, and at right angles to the handle: this serves, beside. breaking the clods, to gather off from the surface dug,
ON TILLAGE. 31
any useless or hurtful thing, leaving the useful earth behind.
Small seeds are evenly scattered, or eown; larger seeds, and roots, and young herbs, are set into the earth one by one, or, as it is called, planted.
A hoe has a handle of light wood, about the length of that of a spade, fastened into an iron socket, on the middle of a segment of flattened iron, whereof the sharpened edge is as its chord; this segment or head of the hoe is a little rounded off atthe corners, and is bent a little toward the handle; and is used in chopping up weeds or useless young herbs, or when too many come forth; and in heaping the earth up toward the growing plants.
A tool very useful for cutting and splitting wood is an ave; the head is of iron, and the handle of strong tough wood: the head is about a hand-breadth and a half broad, and about two hand-breadths long, and about a finger-breadth in thickness, sloped off to a sharp edge at one end : it tapers in breadth from the edge to a little less than a hand-breadth at the other end, wherein is
32 ON TILLAGE.
a socket, throughout the breadth, in which the handle is fixed, which is about two and a half.of a foot-length long, and of a thickness easy to be grasped. The head is square on the end opposite the edge, that it may be used to., knock with; the edge is used to chop with.
To cut wood evenly into thin pieces, or large pieces quickly and evenly across, a handsaw is useful. It is made of iron with a wooden handle; the iron is about two and a half feet long, and about one and half hand-breadthl broad at the handle, tapering, to a little less than a hand-breadth atthe other end. All along one edge and close to one another, are teeth, the points sloping, with one edge sharp, from the handle, made by cutting out notches in the iron; and one after another they are all bent a little to the different sides. The handle is made of strong hard wood, which does not readily split, of nearly two hands breadth square, with a hole in it large enough for the fingers to go into it readily, and rounded at the side opposite the end, that it may be easily grasped. The handsaw is used by rubbing the teeth on the part where the wood is to be cut, the work-
ON TJLLAGE. 33
man pressing it down a little, and pushing it strongly from him.
A man may rear much food by the help of these tools; and mainly potatoes, which are the knob rootsof an herb, and grow best from these knob roots being put into earth made fit for rearing their : they are unevenly ball-like, with many siall hollows on the surface, out of which the branch and root of the young herb grow.
In parting a potatoe to be set into the earth, or planted, care is to be taken that two or three of these hollows be ip each part. They grow best in dry earth, which has more of sand and rotten herbs in it than of clay. JManure too will help them to grow well. Almost every thing when rotten-becomes useful for manure; and all kinds of filth, that which comes from animals being the best: therefore all matters of the kind should be often gathered and laid into a heap, which helps tp make them into better manure. Doing this will make other places clan, and so t.e more healthfulj; aund if the manure heap be covered with earth, it will hinder bad smells, and its goodness from being wasted c5
34 ON TILLAGE.
in the air. By mixing different kinds of filth well together the whole will be made better manure. The ashes of most kinds of fuel are good manure: if the fuel be of wood or herbs, or of earth mixed with roots of herbs, the ashes, till they be used for manuring, should be put in a dry place and sheltered
Some -plants reed manure that is more rotten than others do. That which is light, and not very rotten, and not very wet, does best for potatoes.
When the earth is made ready (by digging) for planting them, a straight trench, or long hole, is made with a spade, and, if the earth be of a very dry and light kind, the sets, or parts cut for seed, whence the new plants are
to come, are laid along the bottom of it, at about a man's foot-length from each other; then upon them some manureis laid, which is then to be covered with earth. Then, at the distance of two foot-lengths from each other, more straight trenches are made, and gone on with in alike way. If the earth'be not of a light or very dry kind; the manure should be laid 'at the bottom, and the sets
ON TILLAGE. 85
upon it, and covered with earth. If the earth be heavy and wettish, the manure should be laid both below and above the sets, covering .with earth; and the, manure may be used when less rotten and more dry. The young plants will come up in rows.:-hoe up the weeds, which will help to loosen the earth.; and, when the weeds are dead, hoe up the earth toward the plants from the sides of the rows. Potatoes may be eaten before they be fully ripe, but it is wasteful to do so. There are early kinds, that should be first used ; and later kinds, to be reared for keeping for winter and after-eating.
Potatoes are very good for food; and being, like bread, of little taste themselves, will readily take and give the taste of any thing mixed with them.
Onions are the roots of another kind of herbs, and have much taste, and will readily give it to any other food they are mixed with.
Onions are reared from seeds which grow on the top of the plant. To rear them the earth should be well dug, and the clods much broken, and much very rotten manure, co.
6 ON TILLAGE.
vered nearly a man's foot-length deep in it; and, after it is so made ready with the spade, the surface should be marked out by paths of about a spade and a half breadth wide, into parts; or' beds, about five foot-lengths broad, taking with the spade, in marking the paths, about a Ihand breadth deep of earth, and spreading it upon the beds, the surfaces of which are to be made even with the rake; and then the seed to be evenly scattered, or sown, upon them, and evenly pesspd down with the feet of the workman; 4ad then well raked. The seed should be sown when the earth will readily break with the rake, and so dry That it will not stick to the feet or rake.
When the plants come up, the weeds, and smallest plants, where too many'are too near together, are to be picked away with the hand.
There are a great many more kinds ,of herbs fit for food, whichare to bewadebetter by tillage and care; some to which hot countries,,and some to which cold ones aresuited,. But there are not many countries so.,bot or so cold es.not to be suited for bringing forth potatoes and onions.
Both potatoes and onions inay be kept a long time after being taken from the earth, in a dry cool place, and from-frost.
All that is fenced need- not be used for potatoes and onions only : other herbs may be reared there beside, which. are fit for food.
On Tame Animals for Food.
IF more than the earth fenced in is to be had, it will likely without tillage bring forth food for some tame animals, from which may be had food of their eggs, or milk, or flesh, fit for mankind.
Like comes from like; and the young of every pair of animals will not only be of the same kind, but, almost always, will be .more like the pair they come from than any others of the same kind. So pairs to have young ones from, or to breed from, ought to be the best of the kind to be had; and when both cannot be had good, and one may, that one should be had,
38 ON TAME ANIMALS
Cock is-the name of the male, and hen of the female of a useful kind of tame birds. They feed chiefly on corn and the seeds of herbs; and on some roots, and some insects. 'They will seek food for themselves, and so pick up much that would otherwise be lost; they wil I eat also of many kinds of the refuse of the food of mankind. Good water should be near for them. There need be-only one cock to six or seven hens. Hens brood, or sit upon their eggs to bring forth young, about twenty-one days. Qld hens are the better brooders, and young hens the better layers of eggs. Hens to lay many eggssbould not at the laying time be made fat,
FOR FOOD. 39
Ducks are birds which live much in water; they feed on the same things as hens do; and also much on insects, matters they get from water, and from mud, and on dead aniMal matters, which readily fattens them. The male of the female duck is called a drake. One drake is needful to four or five ducks. The duck broods about thirity days.
Geese are birds which also live much in water. The male is called a gander, the female a goose. There should not be above four or five geese to a gander. They feed on grass or the seeds of grass, and on corn, and onmat-
40 ON TAME ANIMALS
ters which they get in the water and in mud. A goose broo4 about twenty-eight days.
All the three kinds should have places of shelter made for them to come to at night and in bad weather, where nests, or sitting places, should be made for them to lay their eggs and brood in. The nest should be made of the dry stalks of corn, or straw, or of the dry stalks andleaves of other herbs; and a little hollow, so that the eggs may not roll out when turned or moved by the birds. The nests of ducks and geese and brooding hens should be near to the earth; but those for hens to lay their eggs in may be higher ; and cocks and hens should have long small poles laid across their houses to roost or sleep on, at some height from the earth. The houses of all should be kept clean; and, by often taking away the dirtied,.and putting in clean straw or dried herbage, much good manure may be gathered. That from cocks and hens is very good and strong, and should be mixed with weaker. Those of each kind, chosen for breeding from, should be -plump on the breast, and on the sides behind the wings; and the females should be good lay-
FOR FOOD. 41
ers of eggs. IHens and ducks will lay many more eggs than they can brood upon; but geese hardly ever more, Eleven or thirteen eggs are the number that these females best brood upon; and, when brooding,they should have food and water and some sand placed near, that they may no be long off their nests to seek food. :When the,young come forth, they and thle old one should not be.let go far from shelter till the young have got strength to follow to a distance.
Eggs may be eaten alone or mixed with many other kinds of food: and the flesh of all the three kinds of birds is best when full grown, but before the young ones be a year old. Many other kinds of birds may be tamed, but none so usefully.
Pig eons are a kind of birds that may be tamed, and will find food for themselves ; and the young are food for mankind. But
42 ON TAME ANIMALS
they should not be kept where they can get at corn, or they will do much harm. Their dwelling should be made high with many nests on. the side of it, and should be kept very'clean. Their dung is a very strong manure, and may be well mixed with weaker kinds before it be put into the earth. There are many kinds of pigeons; that which is most like the stockdove kind is the best for food. They brood many times in a year, on two eggs at a time. They like podded corn, or pulse, better than any other food.'
After earth has been once dug over, a man may afterwards, year. after year, dig so much of it in about forty days as will bring forth potatoes to serve five persons for food, instead of bread, for a year, if there be the means of getting the quantity of manure needful, and the kind of earth be commonly good.
Where some more grass growing earth may be had, though not fenced, in the neighbourhood of a dwelling, other animals very useful for food may be kept.
FoR FooD. 43
Of these the kind easiest to be reared are hogs. The males are called boars, and the females sows.- They will feed and fatten upon almost any kind of food, and seek it for themselves; they will eat roots, and leaves, and stalks, and seeds, and fruits of herbs and of trees, and almost any kind of animal matter, dead' or alive.- If there be plenty for them to get, larger-sized ones or greater numbers maybe kept: if there be little for them, a smaller kind; if very little, only one small one. But, living on the same kind of food as cocks and hens, and ducks and geese, a hog may leave too little for them. Hogs like roots of many herbs: they have a hard and strong nose, by which they pierce the earth to get at them; so the hog often does harm where the surface of the earth should not bebroken; to hinder this, a piece of iron should be put through the
44 ON TAXlfJ ANIMALS
hard part of the nose and fastened there; but then this takes away so much of their means of getting food. Care should be taken of the young of hens, ducks, and geese, or hogs will eat them. A hog often does harm too in breaking fences; a pole fastened across his neck will hinder him.
There are different kinds of hogs of different sizes; but of whatever kind pr size, the best are those which have, for their size, small and short legs, a small tail, small ears, and small nose, little hair, thin skin, short neck, and short roun4-made body from before the shoulders to behind the buttocks or hams. Hogs with these marks are more healthy, and feed and fatten on less fc.d than those of other makes. An hog-stye, or house for hogs, should have one part of the floor higher than the other, and on the higher the bedding should be laid, and this part of the stye should be kept very clean to make it healthful; and the other part should be often cleaned for the manure in it. Hogs should be kept from great cold, and carefully so when young. There need be but one boar to many sows. A sow goes with young about four months, and will have
from eight to twelve young ones at a time, and that twice or thrice a -year; so, few breeding hogs need be kept; and the rest, to make them more quiet, and to fatten faster, and their flesh better, should, when young, he maimed so that they cannot breed.
If they do not of themselves get food to make them fat before they are to be killed, they must be put up in a stye, and fed there till they be fat; for this stye-feeding, coarse or refuse corn, if to be had, will do best; if.. not, potatoes, or other roots boiled; if not these, boiled herbs and the refuse of mankind's food.
Hogs are killed by sticking in the throat; the blood is kept to be cooked, or fitted for food: then the hair is slightly burnt or singed off, or scraped off after scalding, or having boiling water poured upon it; or the skin may be taken off with a knife: then the entrails are taken out, and the flesh left to cool and stiffen before it be cut into useful pieces. Hogs-flesh is called pork if it be not dried; when dried it is bacon. If eaten soon after killing it need not be salted; but, if to be kept for some time before it be eaten,
46 ON TAME ANIMALS
it must be well salted, by rubbing salt uponeach piece and sprinkling salt upon it afterward: if it be to be kept a long -time, it must be well salted and hung up in a dry place for bacon.
The best way of making use of a fat hog will be to make as much of it as may be into bacon, as a small piece of bacon will make potatoes, or any thing else more tasteful than a larger piece of pork. The lard, or loose fat in the inside, should be carefully gathered together, and put inLo a vessel set into water in another vessel, and the water be made to boil tillall the lard be melted; when' it is to be put into skinny hollow vessels of the entrails, after their being :ell cleaned.; then closely tied up from the air and kept for use. It will thus keep good a long time, a small part being enough to make much potatoes or other such food tasteful. Mixing some of the lard and blood with meal, and filling other skinny vessels of the entrails with the mixture, and tying up from the air, and boiling, makes good food, which may be long so kept; which may be also done by mixing some lard and other parts of the entrails, chopped small and well salted, and tied from
FOR FOOD. 4.7
the air in the skinny vessels. So, very little of the hog will be useless after death, though during life care be needful that it do no harm.
...........Another animal which maintains itself well is the goat. The goat's flesh is not good, yet when salted and dried it -is eatable; but the flesh of a kid, or young goat, is very good food; and the females bring forth twice a year, having two and sometimes three kids at a time. The milk of the goat is good .food; as is the cheese made of it. Milk is curdled by putting something sour into it when a little warmed; then pressing the curd into a hard matter, and salting it while drying, it becomes cheese; which is very tasteful food, and will keep good a long time. There need be only orie male to above a hundred females; so, very few male kids need be kept to be full grown.- Goats, male and
48 ON tAMEl ANIMALS
female, should have small legs and small heads, their bodies should be straight and broad on the back, with large and fully rounded thighs and thick shoulders, and their bellies straight; the females should have large dugs. Besideilk and kid's flesh, which are got from goats, theirskins with the hair on may be made into clothing; or the hair may be taken off and twisted find made into clothing; and the skins without the hair, by laying them for some time in water with oaken-bark, or other matters suitable for tanning, may be turned into tough soft leather, and will be fit fol some kinds ofclothing.
Goats need not much care, and yet it is well for them to have a place of shelter to come to, for the manure they make they iluit not have any bedding, but the place must be often cleaned.
Goats can get food in places very hilly and very rocky, where it cainiot be come itt by other animals that might feed upon it; and they eat some kinds of food which other animals do not eat. They feed rtiainly on the young branches of trees, "and on coarse herbs which other animals do not eat; so great care should be taken that they do no
FOR Foot. 49
harm to fruit-trees and plants that are useful. In countries where there is very bad weather' in the winter, (before which all the kids not to be kept for breeders should be killed) some herbs should be gathered and dried for" them, and kept for after food.
If more and better herbage can be got than is enough for some goats, then they may be givenipU, and a cowgot instead. A cow may be fed in the summer time without any part of the herbage being fenced off; but it were better that some be fenced off, and made into two parts with a fence between them; one of these should be a meadow, wherein the herbage is allowed to grow till it be mostly in flower; when it should be cut down, and dried, when it 'becomes hay; and must be heaped together as tight as may be, and covered from the wet, and kept for winter food for the cow; which in the summer feeds on the herbage of the other part, then called paslu'e. The next year the pasture should be meadow and the meadow pasture, and so change every year. The grass which grows in the meadow after the hay is' taken off is called aftermath; which, in places where herbage grows fast, may be again cut and
50 ON TAME ANIMALS
made into hay; and the second aftermath may grow some food for the cow.
The herbage of a meadow is best cut with a 8cyllhe, made of a thin piece of iron, about a man's handbreadth broad, and about four times the length of a man's foot long; and in thickness about a finger's breadth at the back, tapering to a sharp edge on the other side, and curved a little toward the point. The haft, being a pole of light wood about twice the length of the iron part, is fastened to one end, so that when the scythe iron is lying fiat on the earth, the pole slopes toward the other end of the iron, and also toward the edge. The back tapers off at the other end to a point at the edge. Perpendicular to the pole are two handles, which are fastened to rings which go round the pole, and may be fixed at such places and distances as suit the workman; who, holding by these handles, puts the point of the scythe about a footlength into the meadow, and keeping the iron of the scythe fiat to the earth, swings it from right to left, and so cuts, or 7nows, the herbage, and gathers it heaped in rows toward his left hand; mowing about a foot's leDgth at a time, in 'a curve about six foot-
FOR FOOD. 51
lengths long, (the distance between the rows,) he mows down the whole meadow. The heaped rows are afterward spread abroad to dry and wither; and so made into hay; and raked clean off the carth.
A cow is the female, and a bull, the male
of a kind of animntls the most useful of all others to mankind. The cow gives very much milk of the very best kind, and is of themost healthful kinds of food. If cows' milk be put into vessels and left to rest a little while, a yellowish white matter comes to the top, called cream; it is thicker than ,the milk below, which has become of a blueDt
52 ON TAME ANIMALS
ish white. Cream, by being much stirred, parts into two kinds of matter; butter, a yellowish, oily, lumpy matter; and butter milk, a smooth curdlike milky matter. The butter must be well washed and kneaded in water till all the milk be pressed out of it. There are very few of mankind' who do not like butter very much; and itgives a taste that is liked to a very great many other kinds of food. By mixing butter well with salt it may be kept good many months. The butter milk is fit for food ;as also the blue milk, that is left after the cream is taken off. By mixing some watery sour matter with milk, a little warmed, it parts into curd, a white lumpy matter; and into they, a watery, yellowish green matter; both of which are fit for food. Curds when very much broken, and very hard pressed into moulds, or cheesevats, and salted and dried, become cheese, which may be kept good for food for a year or two. Cheese made of milk while the cream is yet in it, is better liked.
There are many kinds and many sizes of bulls and cows. Of whatever kind, the best have small heads; and if they have horns,
FOR FOOD. 53
small horns, thin necks, mall legs, thin and soft skins, broad breasts, straight and broad backs, full fleshed behind the shoulders on the to'p, and the ribs rounding much out. The cow should have a large udder. There need be but one bull to, many cows; a cow goes with young about forty weeks; and, after the birth of her young, called a calf, will give milk till within a little time of her having a calf again. There should be a cowhouse for shelter, and bedding of straw or other dried plants; and by keeping the house clean, which will be healthful to the cow, much good manure will be had.
As few bulls are oeedful, most of the male calves, when young, are so maimed as to hinder them from breeding. Thus a calf will bIecome tamer, and may more readily be taught to become a beast of labour. When full grown he is caUed an Ox. He more readily fattens, and his flesh becomes better food.
The flesh of bulls andeows and oxen is called beef. Cow and ox beef are very good, but bull beef is very hard and tough. Whenany of the kind are killed; the flesh, fat, blood, and entrails are used much in the same way
54 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.
as those of hogs; but the loose fat among the entrails, instead of lard is called tallow: and, beside being put to the like uses as the lard of hogs, it miay be made into candles, by putting pieces.of long spongy plants, or long pieces of small stringy plants twisted togethlier and called wicks, into melted tallow, and letting it stiffen and cool on the wicks; then when cool putting them in again ; and letting what sticks stiffen, and cool; and so on again till the tallow becomes on the wicks, of such a thickness that they will burn evenly together when the wick is set on fire; which will give light in dark places, and may be easily carried where wanted. The skin, being much stronger and thicker than that of goats, takes a much longer time in tanning, and is chiefly useful where very strong clothing is needful for the feet.
On Beasts of Labour.
MANKIND may get great help in drawing and carrying matters, by teaching some animals to become beasts of-labour.-An ox may be
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 55
taught to carry and to draw heavy loadswhat is carried or drawn is called a load. But the ox ought not to be made to labour till he be three years old; and if he be of a fit thriving kind, it will be better to kill him for food then, than to keep him for work or labour : for though he be strong, he is slow and be eats a great deal of good food, which would be better turned into milk by being given to cows. ,He must not be ,wrought long at a time, for he has not only to eat and to sleep, but must rest to chew the cud. Horns are worse than useless on beasts of labour.
There are oxen withoutphorns: but it is better to have asses to do the work of an ox: and though the ass be iot nearly so strong, yet the number fit to do the same work will be more easily maintained than the ox ; for an ass will live chiefly upon matters refused
66 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.
by other animals; and, according to its size and the quantity of food it does eat, it is much stronger than the ox. An ass ismore healthy and not so likely to be lamed as an ox. It may be wrought longer at a time, and a great deal longer on the whole throughout the day.' It may take four asses to carry as much, or to draw as much, as an ox: but four asses will not eat so much food as one ox, and not nearly so much of the good food which makes milk when eaten by cows. The cloven foot of the ox is often hurt by stones or other hard matters getting into the cleft, which does not happen to the uncloven foot of the ass.. Each 'foot of an ox has to bear about four times the weight of each foot of four asses, and therefore'the ox is more likely to be harmed by often treading and drawing, than the ass. If one foot of an ox be lamed, all his work is stopped; but if one ass be lamed there are still three others fit for work. It does not need the whole strength of an ox to do every kind of work. One or two asses may do much that is to be done, while the others rest. But if the strength of one leg only of an ox be wanted, the other legs are wearied at the same time.
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 57
The best made asses are those which have the smallest heads and necks, widest breasts, highest shoulders, straightest backs, broadest loins, roundest sides, and straightest and strongest legs. The ass goes with young eleven months, and should not be hard worked when near the time of her bringing forth. The milk of assesis not often used for food; but is sometimes taken as a cure for some diseases.
Asses should have. good clean water to drink, and be well sheltered from bad weather and great cold. When wrought they should have plenty of food and be kept clean, and much rubbed with straw or othersuch matter.
Lest the load should hUrt the back of- a beast of labour, some soft matter should be laid between the load and the. back of the beast: this should be made to fit and lie evenly upon both sides of the back and ribs. Some straw or other such matter twisted together into a long thick string or rope, and layers of the rope plaited or twisted and doubled so as to fit the back' and sides ; or the skin of some animal, or other such matter, doubled'and stuffed with straw or the like, D5
58 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.
and made so as to fit, is called a pad. And sometimes when the load is-hard and likely to hurt the beast by long pressing on one or two parts only, some wood should be joined together or cut out in such a way as to fit upon the pad ; so that when the hard load is put upon the wood, the pad will press evenly on the back and sides of the beast-the wood so made with the pad fastened to the under side of it is called a saddle. A pad or'saddle is fastened on the back of a beast by a flat tie passing under the belly, called a girth: and to prevent them moving too forward, a tie is fastened to the hinder part and passed under the upper end of the tail, which is called a cr-upper.
To guide a beast of labour, a rope or thick string, or a long flat piece of strong skin, called a strap, about two finger breadths broad, is fastened round the top of the head behind the ears, and again round the lower part of the head just above the mouth, a long end being leftloose to hold by ;-tis is called a halter. When a piece of tough hard wood or iron is put into the mouth, and a rope or strap fastened at each end of it, and passed round the top of the head behind the ears, so
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 59
as to hinder the piece of wood or iron (which is called the bit) from coming out of the mouth, and another long strap or rope(called the rein) fastened too at each end of the bit, for the guider to use, it is called a bridle, and is better suited to guide with than a halter. But a halter not being put into the mouth, the beast can eat more easily; and can with it be fastened near his food to be ready when wanted.
Beasts of labour ought not to be made to work before they are three years old; but the sooner they are taught, or trained to the use of the halter and bridle, the better. They may be trained to draw loads after them, by having a kind of pad made to fit round the bottom of the neck fitted with wood or iron in the front (called a collar); so that when about the middle of the iron or wood on each side, just where the jutting point of tlhe shoulders, ropes or straps or such like (called traces) are fastened, and are long enough to be fastened to a load behind, and so fastened, by leading or driving the beast forward, it will thrust its breast and shoulders against the collar, and draw the load, if not too heavy,
60 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.
after it. To binder the traces from falling down among the feet of the beast, they ought to be upheld by a flat tie or strap passing over the middle of the back: this is a backband, and is fastened at each of its ends to the traces ; and to hinder both traces from sliding over to one side, a like tie or strap, fastened in a like way, and passing under the belly, is called a bellj-band.
That different kinds of loads way be drawn more easily, it is well to have a sledge made, by joining, together two long pieces of wood, rounded on the under side of the front end of each, and fasteningthem together by pieces about three of a man's foot-length long, making a flat on which all kinds of loads may be laid: the traces being fastened to the sledge at the rounded ends, the whole will be more easily drawn forward, being made to slide along -as the beasts are made to thrust against their collars.
But the rubbing of a sledge, where the road is rough, is a great hindrance. So if two longer pieces of wood, as long as the sledge and the beast together, be joined as in a sledge, by cross pieces from one end, as
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 61
far. as about the length of the sledge, making a. flat for the load to lie on, and have fastened across, on the under side; about the middle of the flat, a strong piece of wood, longer on each side, so that a wheel may be fastened on to any of its ends, which will thus become the axles of the wheels on W which they turn,--a
Cart will be made. And by fastening the long pieces of wood, called the shafts, one on each side of the beast, it will be able to draw a much greater load than on the sledge, the rolling of the wheels needing much less strength to get forward with, than the rubbi.ng of the sledge.
The height of the axle from the earth shuld ,be about the height of the shoulder point of the beast. But this height is too great for wheels made from pieces sa.wn off from round trees, as is done for Wheel-barrows:
62 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. therefore a piece of hard and tough wood is made into what is called a nave, round or cylindrical, abouta man'sfoot-lengthinthick. ness, and a man's foot-length and a half long, a hole being made through the middle or centre of the cylinder, which should be lined with sockets of iron arid the ends of it hooped or encircled with hoops or flat rings of iron; and the axle ends, which are to fit into these, should be made of iron or covered with iron: and, at equal distances round the middle of the outside of the nave, should be made about twelve holes, in which should be fastened pieces. of strong and tough wood about the thickness of a man's wrist and about the length of nearly half the height of the shoulder point of the beast which has oftenest to draw the cart; all should be equally longthey are called the spokes, and must be, at their other ends, fixed into strong pieces oT wood, called the felloes, which, being segments of a circle, when alljoined close together at their ends make the circumference or rimn of the wheel, and should have iron fixed onroundthe outedge of it. Thebetterto carry many kinds of loads, it is well to have the flat of a sledge or cart wattled round, about
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 63
the height of a man's leg, on the front and two sides, with strong basket work, or boxed so with flat pieces of wood or boards, ithehind part being a kind of moveable door ofboard.
But were plenty of good food can be had, the beast of labour most useful to mankind is the-horse. There are horses of very different sizes, measuring from the top of the shoulder to the earth, fromten hanid-breadthshigh to sixteen. Those that are used mainly for theirgoing fast and nirnbloness, are of a slim make; and those used mainly for carrying and drawing loads are stronger. Theseshould have short legs; but the make of the bones and sinews or stringy parts, as well as of the fleshy or muscular parts of the limbs should be seen through the skin (which is called cleanness of make): the fore parts should be upright, and the shoulder high; with ashort thick body and broad loins,
64 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.
They ought to be trained when young, like asses, to the use of the halter and bridle the pad and the saddle, and to draw and to carry; but not be made to labour till after they are three years old.
They are not so hardy as asses, and must have better kinds of food; they will eat straw, but should have good grass, and hay, and corn : they must be well sheltered ; and must be kept' very clean, and much rubbed when wrought: theirharness,--as the traces, collars and other things by which they carry and draw, are called-is like thatof asses and other beasts of labour, and should be made to fit them well. Aind to these should be added ,when in a cart a breech-band fastened to the middle of the shafts on each side, passing behind the buttocks, and upheld by a tie over the back, to hinder a cart going too fast down hill.
The mare, 'as the female of the horse is called, goes with young a little more than eleven months. Of asses and horses there need be only one male to many females; and most male asses and horses, when young are so maimed as to hinder them from breed-
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 65
ing, and it makes them more easily trained, and more quiet when working.
Mules are a kind of animal, bred between the horse and ass, and may be trained to labour, and managed in the same way.
To save the feet of beasts of labour, they should have flat pieces of iron for shoes fastened to the under side of their hoofs, as the thiek hard matter (like the matter of nail,) which covers their feet is called. The beasts have no feeling in it, more than mankind have in the matter of their nails ; -and the out edges of the hoofs are so tbick, that, with care, iron pins pointed, Or nails coming through holes in the iron, may be knocked through them and fastened, by the points, being taken off a little fiom the outside of the hoof,. and what remain above, bent down or riveted on the outside; while the other ends or headsof the nails, being too large to come through the iron, it is also made fast on the under side. Theshoes of oxen are thin flat pieces of iron nailed on to the point, or toe, on each side of the cleft of each hoof'. The shoes of horses, mules, and asses, are to be fited to each foot of each, and are to be put
66 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.
round the under side of the foot where the hoof is hard, but left without iron behind. According to the size of the hoof, the shoes are from a finger's breadth long, to two, and froma quarter to halfa finger's breadth thick.
So mankind may be greatly helped by beasts of labour; and by many .dwelling near each other they may greatly help each other: and all by carefully thinking may greatly help themselves. When labouri ng or resting, while awake, one may think: and it is good to think of things, as to what they are, and how they are, and how they do or act, both as to the things themselves and as to other things:- and when we so think we think rightly; but, if we think of things as they are not, or not as how they are, or not as they do or act, we think wrongly.
Now we think most about things which are near us, and which we often see; and, if we think carefully about them, we are likely to think rightly: but we think often of things which we have not often seen, and of things at a great distance, and of things which we have only heard of; and it is not likely, without great care, that we should think
rightly about such. For there is but one way to think rightly about a thing,-to think of it as it is; but we may think wrongly about it in every other way but that one. It is only by thinking rightly about things that we can think usefully; for if we think rightly about many things we may be able to make one thing act upon another so as to do much good: and often the thinking wrongly about some things does much harm; therefore we should be careful not to think wrongly about them.
A BOOK OF THE WORLD.
By whatare mankind better than other animals?
Can other animals do aught to serve instead of speech ?
What is the main use of speech ?
To whom can thoughts be told ?
How are those out of hearing to be told ?
What is writing?
How is writing known ?
What is reading?
To whom can what is written be made known ?
Is there no other way of letting a still greater number of folks know in less time,?
What is printing ?
What has come to pass since printing was found out in places where it has been used ?
What has come to pass in places where the English language is known ?
What use may readers make of books which teach knowledge ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 69
How is a, straight line drawn?
What are the ends of a line ?
How does a curve differ from a straight line ?
How must a line be bent to form a circle ?
How is the centre of a circle known ?
What is a'radius of a circle ?
What is the circumf'erence of a-circle ?
How may a semicircle be drawn ?
Now if a wheel be shown to you, can you point out which, parts of it answer to the lines and figures you have just named ?
I-ow will one straight line make an angle with another?
How are right angles known ?
Whitt is the difference between an acute an d a -righ t angle-an d between an obtuse and a right angle ?
How must one straight line fall upon another so that one may be perpendicular to the other ?
What makes one straight line parallel to another ?
How many straight lines, and what sort of straight lines,- and what sort of angles, make a square ?
70 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
What is the difference between a square and an oblong ?
What is a triangle ?
How may a square be divided into two triangles ?
Tell me some rooms, or show me some boxes, which are squares, or oblongs; which have right angles, or obtuse angles, or acute angles;-,-and now with this piece of string show me the diagonal of this room, and tell me what the figure is on each side of it?
What is an arch ?
What is the chord of an arch ?
What part of a circle is made by these two?
How may an ellipsis be drawn ?
What common object is it like ?
What is the name of a dice-shaped figure? How many sides has it? What figure is each of the sides ?
What other likeness have the sides of a cube ?
Which part of acube is the surface ?
Which part of a globe is surface.
What common objects are like a globe ?
What figure is a telescope ?
What figure is each end of a cylinder?
72 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
In what manner is a cone formed, and what common object is it like ?
Which part is the base, and which the apex ?
What object is like a pyramid?
What figure is each of the surfaces of a pyramid ?
On what does a pyramid stand?
What is the top of a pyramid called ?
Where ought dwellings to be fixed for mankind ?
What kind of dwellings may there be ?
What had they better be made of ?
What is freestone ?
How is mortar madce?
How is it used ?
In places where fit stones cannot easily be bad, what is to be used instead of them ?
How are bricks made ?
How are buildings to be made with bricks ?
How are houses to be covered or roofed ?
With what may houses be covered ?
How are windows and doors to be made ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 73
How is an arch to be made ?
What is the main use of an, arch ?
What is the best make of stonesand bricks for building?
What is the kind of vessels easiest made for keeping food in and making it ready for eating?
Of what are pottery vessels made ?
How is the clay made ready ?
How are the vessels figured ?
How are they baked?
How are they glazed?
Are there more ways than one of figuring them ?
How is the potter's wheel made?
How is it used?
How ought -vessels to be made to be easily cleaned?
How ought those to be made which have to be greatly heated ?
Though pottery vessels are well suited fo, holding watery matters, are-there not others better suited for holding and carrying niatters that are dry ?
How are baskets made.?
74 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
But baskets will let matters in powder or in small parts go through them, what vessels are fitted for such ?
How are boxes made ?
But how are things to be.carried too heavy foi' one ?
How is a band-barrow made ?
How is it to be used ?
From what do mankind get their fo d ?
What things are fit for food?
How may the earth be made to bring forh good food ?
What are the main matters aimed at b. tillage and care?
What is there now knownas best worthy choice ?
How is corn best made fit for food ?
How is good corn best come at ?
When apart is fenced and made sure from harmin by animals, and made ready for tillage,
-Whatis the main work in tillage? .How is it best done? How are ploughs worked ?
Is there no other way of tilling. the earth than by ploughing ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 75
What is the best kind of food to be tilled for, when only handy work cain be used ?
How do potatoes do instead of corn ?
What are the most useful tools for hand tillage ?
What is a mattock, and its use.?
A spade and its use?
A rake and its use?
A hoe and its use?
An axe and its use?
A handsaw and its use ?
What are potatoes?
How are they to be made ready for plant ing ?
What is the best kind of earth to plant them in ?
Can any thiling be put to the earth to make it better ?
What is manure ?
Does the same kind of manure suit all kinds of plants ?
What kind best suits potatoes?
How are potatoes to be planted?
What is to be done to them while growing?
How are potatoes good for food ?
'76 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
Are there any herbs which having much taste can give it to other food ?
How are onions reared?
Are there no other herbs to be made bet-ter by tillage ?
What countries are potatoes and onions suited to, as to heat and cold?
How are potatoes and onions to be kept after being taken from' the earth ?
What other use can be made of what is fenced for tillage ?
Can no use be made of what is not fenced ?
What is the use of tame animals'?
What parts of tame animals are fit for food for mankind?
How are tame animals to be bred?
Speak of some of the most useful kinds ?.
Say what kind of. animals the cock and hen are ?
Say of ducks ?
And of geese?
How are all the kinds to be taken care, of?
How are those to be chosen which are best to breed from?
Howare theyto bedone to whenbrooding ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 77
How are the young-ones to be done to ?
How are eggs useful for food?
At what age is the flesh best for food?
Are there other kinds of birds which eay be tamed ?
Speak as to pigeons ?
After so much earth as will bring forth potatoes enough to serve fiye persons for food instead of bread in a year, has been fenced and once dug over-about how many days will it take a man to dig it again ?
Where some more grass-growing earth can be had, though unfenced; what other useful tame animals may be reared?
Speak of hogs, their food, and way of living?
What is the best make of a hog ?
Speak as to a hog-stye ?
How are hogs to be done to when young?
How are they to be fatted ?
How are they to'be killed?
What is to be done with the blood?
What with the entrails ?
What with the flesh?
What is pork?
What is bacon?
S EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
What is the best way of making use of a fat hog ?
Speak as to lard, and keeping it?
How is the blood to be made ready and kept for food ?
And as to making ready and keeping the entrails for food ?
What other animal will readily maintain itself, and serve-to make foodfor mankind in unfenced places ?
Speak of the goat and its young?
What food is got from goats ?
How is cheese made?
When is the flesh of goats best?
What is the best make of goats ?
What are their-skins good for?
Speak .of their food and. way of living ?
How are they to be sheltered?
What is to be done as to them in countries where there is very bad weather in winter ?
If more and better herbage can be got than is enough for goats, what better kind of animal should be kept in their stead ?
How is a cow to be maintained?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 79
What is a meadow? What is hay'? How is it-made? What is pasture? What is aftermath? How is the herbage of a meadow best- cut? What is a scythe? How is it used? What is the male of a cow called? What food is got from a cow? Speak of the milk? Cream ?
Butter-milk? Blue milk ? Curd ?
What is the best make of the cow kind? What is the young called? What is a male calf when maimed so as to prevent his breeding, and grown up, called?
How is an ox more useful?
What is the flesh of bulls, cows, and oxen called ?
Which is the best kind of beef?
80 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
When killed-how are the flesh, fat, blood and entrails used ?
What is the lard-like fat called ?
What is the main use of tallow ?
How are candles made?
What is the use of candles ?
To what uses are the skins put ?
What animals can be taught to labour and to help mankind to work ?
How old should an ox be before he be made to labour
Can there be no better use made of an ox at three years old ?
Why is an ox not so fit to be kept for labour ?
Are there other animnals'that may be taught to do much work which do not need such good food and so much rest?
But is the ass as strong as an ox-?
How many asses may it take to. do the work of an ox?
Why may four asses be reckoned better beasts of labour than one ox ?
What is the best make of an ass ?
How ought asses for labour to be done to?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 81
What is to be done to hinder a load from hurting a beast of labour?
How is a pad made?
Btt some loads may be such as to hurt in parts through a pad,'-what must be used then ?
How is a saddle made ?
How is a pad or saddle fastened on ?
What is a girth ?
How is a pad or saddle hindered from moving too forward ?
What is a crupper ?
How is a beast of labour guided ?
What is a halter?
Is there not a better way of guiding a beast of labour than by a halter ? What is a bridle ? When is a halter to be used rather than .a bridle ?
Can beasts of labour be taught to carry loads only?
By what can they draw loads after them ?
What is a collar?
What are traces?
What a back-band ?
What a belly-band ?"
82 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.
What is to be done when it is found that ,some kindsof loads cannot be drawn by traces only ?
What is a sledge?
But.it will be very hard to draw a sledge over very rough places,-what is to be done then ?
What is a cart?
How is a high wheel made?.
What are the different parts of a wheel?
Whatis the nave?
Where better food than is needful for asses can b6 had, is there no -kind of animal as strong as an ox which can be taught to labour?
What is the best make of a horse for labour ?
When and how is the horse to be taught and made to labour?
What is the female of the horse called ?
Beside the ox and the ass and the horse, are there any other animals often taught to labour?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 83What is a mule ?
How are the feet of beasts of labour saved from harm on hard roads ?
How are the shoes of asses, horses, and mules, made* and fastened on ?
Those of oxen ?
Beside the helps mankind get from beasts of labour, whence can they be helped ?
*How can folks best help themselves ? WVhat is thinking~ rightly ?
What is thinking wrongly?
How many ways are there to think rightly about a thing ?
I-ow many to thinkwrongly about a thing?
THE END OF PART L.
Pointed by R. and'.4. Taylor, Shot LtItne, LozdDn.
NEW BOOKS FOR CHILDREN,
PUBLISHED BY M. J. GOD WIN,
AT THE CITY AND JUVENILE LIBRARY,
No. 41, SKINNER-STREET, SNOW HILL,
AND TO BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLERS.
26,000 copies of the following work have recently" been sold. MYLIUS'S SCHOOL DICTIONARY of the EN.'
T is GLISH LANGUAGE.
To which, is prefixed, A NEW GUIDE to the ENGLISH TONGUE, by EDWARD BALDWIN, Esq. The Eighth Edition. Price 2s. 6d. bound in red. The Public is requested to notice, that this Book is constructed asa SERIE OF DAILY LEssONs, and not, like the Dictionaries of Johnson, Sheridan and Entick, to be consulted for the meaning of DIFFICULT OR
UNCOMMON WORDS which the Scholar may meet-,
with-in the course of his reading.
N B. The object of this Work is to shorten the time necessary for obtaining 0 competent knowledge of the English tongue, so that the learner may acquire all the genuine elements of our speech with less than one half the labour commonly employed for that purpose.
THE JUNIOR CLASS-BOOK; or, READING.
LESSONS FOR EVERY DAY.IN THE YEAR: Selected by W. F. MYLIUS. The Fourth Edition
improved. Price 5s. bound.
"This is a very good selection for children; and much pains seem to have been taken in the choice of such Tales, Subjects of Natural History, Historical Anecdotes, &c. &c. as are best adapted to arrest the attention of young minds, and unite sound instruction with innocent delight." Critical Review f.r Nuv. 1809.
THE POET ICAL CLASS BOOK; or, READING
LESSONS FO. EVERY-DAY IN THE YEAR: Selected from the most popular ENGLISH POETS, Ancient and Modern. By W. F. MYLIUS. With
New Booksfor Children.
a Portrait of Shakespear. The Second Edition.
Price 5s. bound.
The propriety of accustoming young persons to read poetry aloud, is generally acknowledged; and the present selection will be useful, not onlyin giving them a taste for this kind of reading, but in teaching them to understand the merits and to distinguish the manner of our most eminent poetical authors, at the same time that they will be enriching their memories with many of the most pleasing and beautiful liassages contained in their works. We think that the methodical arrangement of the extracts must-increase the utility of this work." Monthly Review for A ril, 1811.
"This book may be recommended as a judicious and agreeable selection. None of the poems which are here given are frivolous, or of the cast 'of levity; but afford some opportunity for exercis. ing the judgement and powers of reflection. The author seems altogether well qualified for the undertaking."
B, itish Critic for December, 1810.
THE FIRST BOOK OF POETRY. FOR THE USE
OF SCHOOLS. Intended as Reading Lessons for the Younger Classes. By W. F. MYLIUS. With Two Engravings. The Third Edition. Price Ss. bound.
This volume is a sort of introduction to Mr. Mylius's Poetical Class-Book; and among the variety of poems and extracts which it contains, it has the merit of offering none that can be unintelligible or uninteresting to the very young re ders for whom the work is intended. The compiler has shown as much good sense as taste in the choice of his subjects, arid we apprehend that his industry cannot fail of being rewarded by the improvement of those for whose service it is exerted." Monthly Reviewfor April, 1811.
THE FIVE FOLLOWING WRITTEN
BY EDWARD BALDWIN, ESQ.
OUTLINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR: Price Is. 6d. bouild.
"Mr. Baldwin's Grammar contains much in a small compass. The discerning reader will be convinced of its value, among other circumstances, by comparing the good sense and clearness of the syntactical rules with the perplexing jargon which is found in some other works of a similar kind."
Critical Review for Sept. 1810.
SThis is oneof the cheapest and most complete introductions to English Grammar that we have seen; and although the Abridgement of Lindley Murray's is very useful, we regard the present as more comprehensive."
Anti-Jacbbin Reviewfor July, 1810,
Nero Boolr for Children.
THE PANTHEON: or Ancient History of the
GODS of GREECE and ROME. The Fourth Edition, with an entirely new Set of Elegant Engravings in Outline. Price 5s. 6d. bound.
"Mr. Baldwin has before exercised his talents for the benefit and instruction of young pe6pli, very successfully. His Fables, Ancient and Modern, have had, as they deserved, an extensive circulation; and his History of England, for the use of schools, was exceedingly well calculated to answer the intended purpose." HISTORY of ENGLAND. Stereotype. With Heads
of the Kings. Price 3s. 6d. bound. Best'Edition,
4s. 6d. in extra boards.
"We much approved of this author's Fables, and recommended them accordingly. This also is a very suitable book for children, and we particularly like the short characters of the Kings of England, which introduce the work itself."
British Critic far duly, 1806.
"In this work there is no want either of ability or information; and the bias of the writer is of that sort with which we should least quarrel, since it is in favour of the Rights of the Subject."
Monthly Revaew for Oct,ber, 1806. HISTORY of ROME: From the Building of the
City to the Ruin of the Republic. With aps and
other Plates. The Second Edition. Ptice 3s. 6d.
bound. Best Edition, 4. 6d. in extra.-boards.
"The plan of this history is new, and claims attention. Mr. B. thinks that many details and dates are wearisome to young people, and therefore has taken for the principal objects of his attention the most remarkable examples of Roman virtue, such as the gene. rosity of Camillus, the patriotism of the Decii, the disinterestedness of Fabricius, the continence of Scipio, &c. The work cannot fail to be interesting as well as useful to young readers, since it tends to inspire noble and generous sentiments, and presents history to the imagination under its most alluring and fascinating colours." Monthly Review for October, 1810.
FABLES, ANCIENT AND MODERN. In Two Volumes, 12mo. with 73 Engravings, price 10,,in
extra.boards; or in One Volume, neatly bound, 4s. Also the same work in French, price 2s. bound: which, from its easy and natural style, is peculiarly eligible
as a First Book in the study of that Language.
The Fables here presented to the Public are Little Stories, instead of being compressed in five or six lines each, like those of the Greek lEsop. The learner is interested in the fate of the persoiiages, whether human or brute and the language is familiar,
- ~. New Books for Children.
such as an affectionate parent would employ to a child, without meanness. No leading object is introduced abruptly, but each has an appropriate and distinct explanation; ,and the youthful mind, under the semblance of amusement, is insensibly initiated in the first rudiments of Natural History, Ancient Mythology, and the Knowledge of Life.
"These'Fables are better calculated to excite the attention of Children, to amuse and instruct them, thin any we have ever perused. We recommend them without reserve."
British Critic for November, 1805. mkhey are unquestionably written on a much better plan for making an imprqessional rnveying instruction to, those for whose use they are designed, than any other Fables which have fallen under our cognizance."
Anti-Jacobin Review and Mog.jor December, 1805.
THE FAMILY ROBINSON CRUSOE; or, Adventures of a Father and Mother and Four Sons in a Desert Island : being a Practical Illustration of the firsf Principles of Mechanics, Natural Philosophy, Natural History, and all those Branches of Science which most immediately apply to the Business of Life. Translated from the German of M. Wiss.
2 Vols. Price 12s. bound; adorned with Six beautiftl Engravings, and a Map of the Desert Island.
TALES from SHAKESPEAR; with 20 Engravings,
for Young Persons ; or hot-pressed, with a beautiful Head of Shakespear, for the Library. By CHARLRS LAMB. The Third Edition, 2 vols. los. in extraboards.
"1 We have compared these little volumes with the numerous systems which have been devised for riveting attention at an early age, and conquering the distaste for knokvledge and learning which so frequently opposes itself to the instructor of children ; and we do not scruple to say, that unless perhaps we except Robinson I Crusoe, they claim the very first place, and stand unique without rival or competitor." Citical Revewfur May, 1807.
ADVENTURES of ULYSSES: with a superb Frontispiece. The 2nd Edition. By the same. Price S;. 6d.
Books intended for the use of the juvenile race, have to a certain degree a claim to our indulgence; but the plan and execution of the present work are such as not to stand in need of these allowant es, and display no common portion of art and ingenuity."
European Magazine for Nov. 18081,