A digest of information on toxaphene

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Title:
A digest of information on toxaphene
Physical Description:
85 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Toxaphene -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Organochlorine compounds -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Insecticides   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 53-81) and index.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"June 1950."
General Note:
"E-802."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030339969
oclc - 21609910
Classification:
lcc - SB952.C44 R6 1950
System ID:
AA00026084:00001

Full Text
LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD
June 1950


United States Depcrtment of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomolcgy and Plant Quarantirne



















A DIGEST OF INFORMATION ON TOXAPHENE

By

R. C. Roark

Division of Insecticide Investigations


E-802






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C CONTENT,
Page
"ne rrl try of to x ph<:;. p ........ ................................ 4
orr)lation .......................... ......................... 5
C'ompati' ility ..,.4 t *. 6
0 F are.ti I. I i t ..... .. . ... . ...... ....... ... . ..
Freteht calssification .*........... ... ..... ..................... 7
Effect on plants ................................................. 7
Effect on animals .. . . . . ... ..... . . . . ... .... . . 9
Use of toxaphene as an insecticide ............................... 12
Isoptera:
Kalotermitidae ... .. ... .. ... .............. .. .... ......... 13
Rhinotermitidae ..................... ... .................. 13
Orthoptera:
Acrldidae ........................................... .... 13
Blattidae ................................................... 15
Gryvllidae ......... .... ................... . ............ 16
Anoplura:
Haematopinidae ...... .................. ..................... 17
Pedi culidae ................................................. 17
alloinharea Trichodectidae ....................................... 18
opera Thripidae ....... ....... ............. *..... 18
Hre x, pteraI
S didae . .... . . ..........19
Apheidae ...................... ..... ..... ......... 19
Cercnt tpidae ............ . ......... .................................. 21
Cicadellidae ............. ...................... ...... ... 21
Cicadidae ......................... ... .................... 22
Coccidae ..... .... ................... .. ...................... 22
Psy lidae ....................... ............................. 22
Hemiptera.
Cimicldae .................................................. 23
Coreidae .................................. .............. 23
LygaeIdae .. ......... .............. ..... ........... 23
Miridae ..................................................... 23
Pentatomidae ................. .................... .... ... ... 25
Coleoptera:
Carabidae .................................................. 25
Chrysomelidae . .......... . ..... . .. .. ............... 26
Ccccinellidae ............................................... 27
.. .. .. .. .. ...ni. .. .. .. 28
airoc an .idae ...... .. ..... .................. .. .. ........... 31
Sr ae .................. ............... ........... .... 31
al a bser iS f: . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ** .. .. .. ... 0 32
colytidae ................................................ # 3
Tenebrionidae ............................................... 33
Lepi d op t e ra:
Aererlidae ................................................. 34
Crambidae ............................ .. ............. ..... 34
Laciocam-idne ..............................................o 34
Lvmsintrildae ................................................ 34
Olethreutidae .............................................. 34






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Page
Lepidoptera: continued
Phalaenidae ............................................ .... 35
Pieridae ............................... .............. ... 38
Peychidae . .......................................... 39
Pyralididae . ................ .. .. .... ................... 39
Pyraustidae ................................................ 39
Sphingidae ..................................................... 4
Tineidae .................................................... 40
Tortricidae ......... ........ ................. ........... 40
Hymenoptera:
Apidae ... ............... .. .... ............ ........... 41
Cephldae ..... .............. ............. ................. 41
Formicidae ...... ..... ..... ........ ...... ....... ....... ... 41
Diptera:
Agrowrzidae ... ....... .. ................ .... ..... 42
Calliphoridae ... .. ..... ................................. 42
Culicidae ................. .................. ............ 43
Hippoboscidae . . . . ......................... .. 45
Hypodermatidae .. .. .............. ..... 0.. ................... 46
Itonididee .* .. ...... ...... ............... 46
Muscidae ........,.. ........ .. ............ ... ...... ...... 46
Sim liidae .... ..... ............ .......................... .... ...... 50
Tabanidae ....... ...... ...... ........... ........ .. 50
Acarina:
Argasidae .. .. ...0......... .......... ............... ...... 50
Ixodidae . ............ ............ .... .... ... .. ......... 51
Tetranychidae ...................... ....................... 52
Trombiculidae ...................................... .......... 53


The Interdepartmental Committee on Pest Control announced on January 17,
1949, that the word toxaphene had been accepted as a coined com-on name for
the insecticidal chemical referred to as chlorinated camphene having a
chlorine content of 67-69 percent. The term toxaphene applies to the tech-
nical chemical produced and meeting the standard described above. acceptance
of the word toxaphene as a coined name for this insecticidal chemical be-
came possible as a result of action taken by the Hercules Powder Cc',vai,y to
surrender the trade-mark name Toxaphene.








CHEMISTRY OF TOXAPHEDZ
Toxaphene is a yellow waxy solid with a mild piney odor; it melts in
the range of 659 to 90 C.; its density is 1.6 g./cc.; it is insoluble in
water but readily soluble in organic solvents. For example its solubility
in refined kerosene is over 280 grams per 100 ml. at 27 C. Technical
trade DDT has a solubility in this solvent of only 4 grams per 100 ml.

Toxaphene is made by chlorinating camphene to a chlorine content of
from 67 to 69 percent which results in a material having the approximate
empirical formula C10HI10C18. Camphene is made by isomerizing alpha-pinene,
a major constituent of turpentine. The structural formulas of pinene and
camphene are shown belowv

CH H
C I\

Bc CH H2C / C=CH 2

3 iH3l C/C3

H2C CH2 H2CZ C
\/ \!/ o

H H

alpha-pinene, CIoH12 camphene, C10Q12

It is apparent from the structural formula of camphene that when chlo-
rine ie added to it the reaction may be substitution, addition, rearrange-
ment, or a combination of these. It is not surprising, therefore, that
the structural formula of toxaphene is not known.

Like DIDT toxaphene slowly splits off HC1 upon heating, the rate de-
pending upon temperature and the presence of impurities such as certain
iron compounds that catalyse the dehydrochlorination. Holding toxaphene
for 24 hours at temperatures from 100" to 155* C. causes a slight loss of
HC1. When exposed to ultraviolet light toxaphene splits off HC1 faster
than does DIDT under the same conditions. In the absence of moeiture a 5-
percent toxaphene solution in kerosene did not attack commonly used con-
tainer materials, but a 50-percent water miscible concentrate corroded all
metals except black iron coated with a special lacquer.-Parker and
Beacher (231).

Analysis

There is no specific qualitative or quantitative chemical test for
toxaphene. The total chlorine content of toxaphene may be determined by


-i*.






-5-


refluxing an isopropanol solution of it with metallic sodium and titrating
the chloride formed as is done with DDT and other chlorinated insecticides.
The factor used in the laboratories of the Division of Insecticide Investi-
gations of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant quarantine to convert total
chlorine to toxaphene is 1.46. This factor is based on a chlorine content
of 68.54 percent in toxaphene, the theoretical amount demanded by the
formula C10H10Cl8.

Ard (11) has observed that when 100 mg. of toxaphene is refluxed with
25 al. of isopropyl alcohol and 2.5 grams of sodium, a perceptible graying
develops, also a strong odor of crude methylnaphthalenes. Chlordane gives
similar reactions.

FORMNULATIONS

Toxaphene is sold for insecticide use in the form of solutions, dusts,
wettable powders and emulsions. These are made in the same way that
corresponding chlordane formulations are made.

Mail (193) has pointed out that the extreme solubility of toxaphene
in a wide variety of solvents makes emulsification a relatively easy
matter. Many of the emalsifiers that work well with chlordane give good
results with toxaphene when formulated in the same proportions, but
finished emulsions may not have the same appearance or physical properties.

Frear et al. (95) have compiled a list of trade-marked insecticides,
including those that contain toxaphene. The name of the manufacturer and
the composition and use of each of these is given.

The Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station (12) has published a list
of 1004 economic poisons registered in that state by 101 registrants and
presents the results of analysis of 4 toxaphene formulations.

The kind of formulation affects the amount of toxaphene residue re-
maining on various plants. Data on alfalfa have been published by Laakso
and Johnson (173). All samples for these analyses were taken within 24
hours after application. Every precaution was taken to minimize the loss
of toxaphene from the foliage through handling.

Deposition of toxaphene on alfalfa


Formulation Bate of application Average deposition
lb./acre Percent


Water emulsion 1-4 29

Wettable powder 2 24

Oil solution 2 14


1.5-?






-6-


The water emulsion consisted of 1 pound of technical toxaphene, 1/4
gallon of kerosene, 25 ml. of extra high concentrate of Igepal (a poly-
meri7ed ethylene oxide condensation product) and water to make 8 gallons;
the wettable powder contained 25 percent of toxaphene; the oil solution
cnirsisted of 1 pound of technical toxaphene in 2 gallons of kerosene; the
dust contained 10 percent of toxaphene. The oil solution of toxaphene
gave the most persistent residues. On the Bozeman, Montana, plots, losses
of toxaphene up to 72.9 percent 31 days after application were noted for
the water-emialsion type of formulation. The rate of loss of toxaphene was
greatly decreased after the alfalfa had been baled and stored.

COMPATIBILITY

Tables and charts s- owing the compatibility of toxaphene with the
c mon srray materials have been published anonymously in the American
".-jt '--,'.vr (1, 4) and by Frear (,), whose table is as follows:


Lead JErsenD&


t~none
4_ '-,r- r __ i y ***l~




ru
.." cotinfi \1-. e



rLo.' r e h e
. h

*rjp.'nl& hexpchlor~ide
e,'raethyl pyrophosphate
P;%rathion
Summer oils
D-rmant oils
DInitro compounds
Lime sulfur
Wettable sulfur
Lime
Fixed coppers
Bordeaux
Di thiocarbamates


Co mpp.. t: i b i1i. ty

.ully compatible
compati i lity questionable
fult c.zpatile
H| #


compatibility questionable
fully compatible
compatibility questionable
fully compatible
compatibility questionable
fully compatible


G'lvoxalidinee are listed as doubtfully compatible with toxaphene by
the Aericanr Fruit Grower (4). Zinc sulfate plus lime also is considered
to have doubtful c'.mpatibility with toxaphene (4) but Griffiths and King
(123) consider the combination to be compatible. Ewing and Parencia (Q2)
reported that toxaphene appears to be compatible with parathion.

Weather factors in spraying and dusting pome fruits and stone fruits
with toxanhene are considered by an anonymous writer in the American
Fruit Grower ( 5). Toxaphene is represented in a chart as safe to use
on apples, pears, and stone fruits under five weather conditions:
temperature above 85, temperature 85 to 65, temperature 659 to 40,
light rain; and high humidity with slow drying.






-7-


FREIGHT CLASSIFICATION

Beginning June 1, 1948, toxaphene was shipped under a new item--
"Polychlor agricultural insecticides and fungicides" in the consolidated
freight classification. Polychlor is a name selected by the Classification
Committee for a group of compounds, including DDT, benzene hexachloride,
toxaphene and chlordane, which contain three or more chlorine atoms. This
name is used only for shipping purposes, not for labeling. It was selected
to avoid confusion among carriers as well as shippers over the long chemical
names of this group of products, whose importance is increasing, and to
avoid numerous requests for exceptions for individual products. All items
in this group now will enjoy the same freight classification in their
territory. Shippers should note that this new item does not cover the
technical chemicals which should still be described as "chemicals, noibn";
likewise it does not cover liquid preparations, or dry formlations in
excess of 50 percent of the chlorinated chemical. Such formulations will
continue to be described as "insecticides or fungicides, noibn."--Anon. (2).

EFFECT ON PLANTS

When added to the soil

At Bpltrville, Md., the effect of toxaphene on plants was tested ;! greenhouse conditions in Chester clay loam, Sassafras sandy loam, Evesborc
fine sand and muck. Toxaphene depressed plant growth when applied to the
soil at relatively low levels without causing any obvious symptoms. Soil
type and character, especially the quantity of organic material or colloi-
dal clay present are important factors in determining the toxicity of
organic insecticides. The toxicity to plants of toxaphene added to the
soil appears to decrease with time. This compound is evidently destroyed
by soil fungi or bacteria.-Cullinan (52, 2).

When added to greenhouse soil toxaphene stimulated the develor.pment
of the bacteria and fungi, with and without cottonseed meal; evidently
these organisms were using it for food.--Smith and Wenzel (2_5).

Toxaphene appears to be decomposed in the soil and rendered nontoxic
after several months.--Foster (92).

Toxaphene 5-percent dust was added to soil at the rate of 27.5 pounds
of toxicant per acre, equivalent to 1.01 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet.
Twenty-nine different vegetables planted in this treated soil showed no
evidence of plant injury.--Morrison et al. (206).

In preliminary tests in South Carolina in Grady sandy loam, a moder-
ately heavy soil, 36-percent toxaphene applied to the soil at rates as
high as 2,000 pounds per acre at the time of seeding caused no apparent
injurious effects to any of nineteen crops.-Watts (310).






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When applied directly to plants

Toxaphene sprays were applied to 52 species of trees and shrubs and
to 19 species of evergreens commonly present in ornamental plantings. It
was tested for phytotoxicity, on tender new growth in the spring
(Connecticut) and under mid-summer conditions of high temperature and
high humidity (Delaware), at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 pounds per 100 gallons of
water. It proved completely safe at these rates on all species, except
two Imperial Gage plum and sugar maple.-Stearns et al. (282).

A 25-percent wettable toxaphene at 2 pounds per 100 gallons caused no
injury when applied on apples, grapes, peaches, and on string and liom
beans, but produced severe chlorosis followed by necrosis on cucumbers and
on cantaloupes and a slight yellowing of the terminal growth on potatoes.
The 50-percent water-dispersible formulation at the rate of 1 pound per
100 gallons, although apparently safe on apples, grapes, and peaches, pro-
duced severe chlorosis on potatoes. When used as a dust, no difficulties
were experienced on string and lima beans; cucumbers, cantaloupes, and
squash, however, were adversely affected.-Stearns et a1l (281).

Results of phytotoxicity tests indicate that 25-percent wettable
powder and 32-percent water miscible and 50-percent water dispersible for-
milations of thiR compound are safe on potatoes at the concentration of 1
pound per 100 gallons of water.-Parker et al. (23).

Toxaphene spray, prepared from an emulsion to give 0.5 pound per 100
gallons of water appeared to be safe to use on Kalancho globulifera
coccinea (referable botanically to Kalanchoe blossfeldiana).--Lumsden and
Smith (185).

Toxaphene practically destroyed a crop of cucumbers and squash in
Florida.--Xelsheimer (15_).

Additional observations of the effect of toxaphene on plants have
been recorded as follows: No injurious effect on tobacco (66, 21), beans
(231), clover (166), cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli (62, 2); caused
temporary chlorosis of potato terminal leaflets (221); injured potato
plants (jA, 296) and decreased yield of tubers (296); caused potato
foliage to be greener and increased yield of tubers (20Q); produced an
off-flavor in potatoes (120, 122); burned pear leaves when applied with
or following mineral oiT (37): no injury to pear fruit or foliage (M.,
128); no injury to peach fruit, foliage, wood, or buds (60, 277); did not
adversely affect the flavor of fresh or canned peaches (26); injured
peach leaves but wettable sulfur prevented this injury (80,. 268); caused
noticeable injury to peach fruit and foliage (115); no injury to sugar-
cane foliage (14.): decreased yield of cane (70); severely burned concord
grape foliage (48); injured cucurbits ()8, ., 23) except the variety
Umatilla Marblehead in eastern Oregon (49).






-9-


Effect on germination

Toxaphene at 5, 15, or 30 pounds per acre (mixed with an 0-12-16
celery fertilizer) had no effect on the germination of cabbage, pepper
tomato and bean seeds and did not give an undersirable taste to the
cabbage.--IHayslip (135).

EFFECT ON ANIMALS

Earthworm

Toxaphene as a 25-percent wettable powder, 1 pound of toxicant per
100 gallons of water, reduced the earthworm population of the fairway of
a Florida golf course but the control was not considered satisfactory.-
Hayslip (135).

Fish

Laboratory tests made by the Fish and Wildlife Service at Leetown,
West Virginia showed that toxaphene is considerably more toxic to fishes
than is DIDT and is lethal to silverling minnows, spotfin shiners, creek
chubs, fallfish, and black-nosed dace in concentrations of less than 0.04
ppm. In outdoor ponds an application of 0.125 pound to an acre (0.22 ppm.)
killed all these species, but goldfish survived. Repeated tests on blue-
gill, sunfish and young rainbow and brown trout indicated that bluegills
were less sensitive than trout, which were killed even at concentrations
of 0.005 ppm. (one part in 200,000,000). The threshold limit for bluegills
was 0.01 ppm.--Linduska and Surber (180).

The U. S. Public Health Service tested the effect of toxaphene on 32
species of fish in ponds and found it to be very toxic, giving complete
kills at 0.2 and 0.1 pound per acre after two and three applications in
deep ponds. Kills were obtained at dosages of less than 1 part in 27
million, indicating that this material is as toxic or more toxic to fish
than rotenone and may be useful as a substitute for it in fish management
work.--Tarzwell (288).

In Alaska, experiments with toxaphene in running water indicated
strong toxicity, but not to the degree that the still water work did.
Toxaphene in xylene emulsion produced substantial mortalities with salmon
and trout after 15-minute exposure periods at all strengths over 3 ppm.
in streams and over 5 ppm. in troughs. When toxaphene was tested in
acetone suspensions, kills were noted above strengths of 5 ppm. Fuel oil
solutions and Velsicol solutions were tested at strengths of 2 ppm. and
below, causing no significant lethal effects. In the stream work done in
Alaska in 1947, it was found that the dominant fish food items, the
caddice larvae, were more resistant to every insecticide tested than were
the trout and salmon. These insecticides were DDT, BHC, toxaphene, and
chlordane and were applied as emulsions, acetone suspensions, and, in
some cases, as fuel oil solutions and Velsicol solutions.--Cope (44).






-10-


In Alaska toxaphene was toxic to rainbow trout at 0.5 to 5 ppm. de-
pending on the formulation.-Gjullin et al (112).

Birds

In 1948 the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission determined the LD-50 of
toxaphene to the chukar partridge, the pheasant and the sage grouse to be
50, 200 and 90 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. It was calculated
that to obtain this dose a chukar partridge must eat 285 grams, a pheasant
2,890 grams and a sage grouse 1,160 grams of grasshoppers containing 100
ppm. of toxaphene. The danger of toxaphene broadcast for grasshopper con-
trol to game brids and other forms of wildlife is pointed out.--Post (238).

Mammals

Toxaphene was dissolved in cottonseed oil and this solution in a gel-
atin capsule fed to dogs that had been starved for 24 hours. The smallest
dose of toxaphene given was a total of .636 grams of 25 percent active
ingredients or 20 mgm./kgm. This did not produce death but did cause con-
vulsions. Because of the high toxicity of toxaphene it is not recommended
that this insecticide be used on dogs.--Batte and Turk (16).

At Kerrville, Texas, toxaphene emulsions and suspension of wettable
powder were applied as sprays and dips containing 1.5 percent of the
technical material to cattle, sheep, goats, hogs, and horses. Two series
of tests were made, the treatments being applied eight times at 4-day
intervals. In addition to these tests, toxaphene has been widely used,
sometimes at high concentrations, in field work, and no apparent injury
has been noted.--Bushland et al. (31).

In California samples of vegetation taken 8 to 15 days after treat-
ment with toxaphene at rates from 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per acre contained 6
to 70 ppm. Dairy cows were allowed to graze on Ladino clover known to
carry an average of 22 ppm. of organic chlorine. This amount was the
average residue on half-acre plots, covering an entire field, treated with
chlordane, toxaphene, TDE, BHC, and DIDT. No ill effects on the dairy cows
were observed or reported.-Wilson (320).

In Montana 14 yearling steers and 14 ewe lambs were divided into 7
lots of 2 steers and 2 lambs each. Six of these lots were individually
fed alfalfa hay which had been treated with toxaphene at different rates,
varying from 1 pound per acre to 8 pounds per acre. One lot used as a
control received untreated alfalfa hay. None of the animals showed any
toxic effect except the two steers receiving hay treated with 8 pounds
toxaphene per acre. These steers developed temporary nervous symptoms,
but recovery was rapid and complete.--Marsh (194).

Mature sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and swine showed no harmful
effects from eight external applications of 1.5 percent toxaphene at 4-
day intervals. Young calves were more susceptible than mature animals.
One- to two-month-old calves showed toxic symptoms after a single spray-
in- with 1.5 percent toxaphene emulsion containing xylene or kerosene or
wettable powder. Single or repeated treatments with 0.75 percent concen-
tration had no harmful effect on calves.-U. S. Bur. Animal Indus. (297).






-11-


ToxaDhene in animal tissues

Fatty tissues from animals fed four months on alfalfa hay which had
been sprayed twice with toxaphene at the rate of 1 and 2 pounds per acre
(1.5 pounds per acre is the spray application rate recommended by the
United States Department of Agriculture in 1948 and 1949 for grasshopper
control) showed toxaphene concentrations of about 25 and 300 ppm.,
respectively. The concentrations of toxaphene in the commercial meat cuts
from these same animals were relatively low, the rib roasts giving an anal-
ysis of less than 1 ppm. and 7 ppm., respectively. Fatty tissue of the
steer fed hay which had received two applications of 4 pounds per acre
(more than 2.5 times the recommended rate) contained about 700 ppm., while
lean meat from the same steer gave an analysis of 35 ppm. Biopsy fat
samples taken from steers at 11, 19, and 23 weeks after termination of.
feeding treated hay showed that most of the toxaphene had been eliminated
by the eleventh week. By the nineteenth week there was no significant
difference in organic chlorine content of biopsy samples from control
animals and those fed treated hay. The results with sheep were generally
similar to those with steers but the distribution of toxaphene within the
animal tissues was somewhat different. The quantity of toxaphene in the
commercial meat cuts of the sheep was higher than in the corresponding
cuts of steers and was lower in the abdominal and subcutaneous fat. No
measurable quantities of toxaphene were found in sheep slaughtered seven
months after termination of the feeding of toxaphene-treated alfalfa bay.
-Diephuis and DTnn (61).

Cows were sprayed with toxaphene wettable powder suspension at 0.5
percent concentration equivalent to an average of 10.3 grams of insecti-
cide per animal. The cows were sprayed 4 times from May 15th to August
29th. The maximum organic chlorine content of the milk was 0.6 ppm. and
the average was 0.1 ppm., an amount so small as not to definitely indi-
cate the presence of toxaphene in the milk.--Carter et (39).

Toxicology of toxaphene

When applied to the skin of rabbits toxaphene in solution was fatal
at a dose of 780 mg./kg. In multiple dose experiments toxaphene produced
fatalities at 200 mg./kg./day. In acute oral toxicity to rats toxaphene
is 4 times as toxic as DDT; its LD-50 is 60 mg./kg. as compared to 250 for
DDT. Toxaphene at 1200 ppm. in the diet can be tolerated by rats for 2
months. Higher levels have not been fed. Toxaphene distribution studies
in fat and tissues have not been carried out because no analytical method
is available. Toxaphene is principally a liver poison.-Lehman (176).

The acute oral toxicity of toxaphene is 4 times that of DDT. Acutely
it is the most toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. On the
skin toxaphene causes moderate irritation. In chronic toxicity to rats
1200 ppm. for 8 weeks produced no effect whereas 330 ppm. in the diet of
dogs caused death in 33 days. Liver necrosis is observed in animals
chronically poisoned by toxaphene. The hazards of aerosol formulations
of toxaphene can only be surmised.--Lehman (177).






-12-


Toxaphene is absorbed by the animal, but its fate and whether or not
it is excreted in the urine is unknown.--Woodard et al. (J28).

Because of the poisonous nature of toxaphene the Insecticide Division
of the Production and Marketing Administration, U.S.D.A. (306) on May 5,
1947 suggested a caution statement to be ueed on the labels of insecticides
containing toxaphene.

USE OF TOXAPHENE AS AN INSECTICIDi

Published references have been found giving the results of tests of
toxaphene against 158 species of insects. Arranged according to the
zool-'-ical order to which they belong, these include the following numbers
of insect families, genera and identified species that have been experi-
mented with:

Order Families No. Genera No. Species No.

Isoptera 2 2 2

Orthoptera 3 8 14

Anoplura 2 3 5

Mallophaga I 1 ?

Thysanoptera 1 5 6

Homoptera 7 14 17

Hemiptera 5 11 12

Coleoptera 9 27 29

L-ridoptera 13 28 31

- -ernootera 3 6 6

,i otera 9 16 24

Acarina 4 8 12

Summaries of the results of insecticide tests with toxaphene against
many species of insects have been published by Bishopp (18, 19), Bishopp
and Knipling (20) and Woodbury (329). Detailed results of tests against
identified species of arthropods are presented in the following part of
this direst; the information being classified according to the order,
family, and genus to which the species belongs.






-13-


ISOPTERA

Kalotermitidae

Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), the West Indian dry-wood termite

Wood submerged for 10 minutes in a 1 percent solution of "chlorinated
terpenes" remained uneaten for 420 days. A 0.1 percent solution protected
the wood for 296 days.-Wolcott (326, ).

Rhinotermitidae

Reticulitermesfjavipes (Kollar), the subterranean termite

In laboratory tests in Florida, 1 part of toxaphene mixed with 10,000
parts of sandy soil remained toxic to termites for 3 years, but 1 to
20,000 failed after 6 months. Toxaphene was less toxic than benzene
hexachloride and chlordane to these termites.--Hetrick (l3).

ORTHOPTERA

Acrididae

The U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant (iarantine recommends toxa.
phene for the control of grasshoppers at the rate of 1 to 1.5 pounds per
acre when applied as a spray or 1.5 to 2.5 pounds when applied as a dust.
For use in the poison bran bait 1 pound of toxaphene may be used in place
of 6 pounds of sodium fluosilicate.--Wakeland and Parker (308).

The state entomologists of Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri,
Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin have also recommended toxaphene for
the control of grasshoppers in the form of sprays or dusts at do-ares
ranging from 1.5 to 3 pounds of toxicant per acre.

The experimental work upon which these recomm-endations are 'a'd is
described by many investigators, especially Hinman and Cow,:n (13) List
and Hoerner (181), Parker (228), Shotwell (267), Weinman and Pecker (?)
and Wilson (320).

Comparative toxicities of toxaphene and other insecticides to grasshopi-rL

Various investigators have reported that toxaphene kills grasshoppers
more slowly than BHC (26, 2 248), dinitro-eocresol (227) and parethion
(16, 248) and that it is less toxic than BHC T 117Z. 319), chloriane
(98. 117Z 243, =97 212), parathion (98. 212). and TEPP (3M). Toxaphene
is more toxic tanDDT to adult grasshoppers (Melanoplus differentilalis).*-
Weinman and Decker (319).

In laboratory tests with M. femur-rubrum nymphs it was found that
toxaphene acts principally as a stomach poison. It does not repel grass-
hoppers. Toxaphene deposits on glass plates were less toxic to nymphs






-14-


than were those of BHC (37 percent gamma isomer), chlordane and DDT. This
PHC was more than 62 times as toxic as toxaphene as a contact poison. As
a stomach poison chlordane was nearly 7 times more active than toxaphene.
The speeds of action of chlordanre, 37 percent gamma-benzene hexachloride,
and t-'xaphene as stomach poisons at dosages above their LD-50's were almost
uniform.--Weinman and Decker (18).

In laboratory and field tests of insecticides in dust form in Brazil,
their efficiency versus Schistocerca cancellata (Serv.), in decreasing
o-wr, was ae follows: parathion (0.25 percent), gamma isomer of BHC (1
pfrcrnt), F{rTF (2 percent), TEPP (2 percent), chlordane (5 percent), 4,6-
cinitro-o-cresol (10 percent), 2,4-dinitrophenol (10 percent), 4,6-dinitro-
o--T'clohe'",lIphenol (10 percent), and toxaphene (20 percent).--Lepage et al.


in tests :f emulsion sprays as contact poisons against the differential
.REsshopper the median lethal dose of certain insecticides as pounds of
toxicant p'r acre was: toxaphene, 1.17; chlordane, 0.49; parathion, 0.05;
benzene hexachloride 0.04 and lindane 0.08.--Geines and Dean (10u).

Testr made in South Dakota in 1947 showed that a spray of toxaphene,
1.5 ponds per acre pave as good control of the differential grasshopper
in corn as did 32 pounds of poisoned bait (3 parts of sawdust and 1 part
of br.on by voliume plus six pounds of sodium fluosilicate per 100 pounds,
dry w--iiht, of the mixed bait).--Shotwell (267).

C?.e and field tests made in Texas during the spring of 1948 showed
that as contact poisons benzene hexachloride and parathion were more
effective than toxarhpne or chlordane. The action of the four materials
represents a combination of contact and stomach poison. Due to the con-
tact action, benzene hexachloride and parathion gave a quicker kill than
either chlordane or toxaphene. In order to obtain maximm benefit from
the contact action the materials muast be applied under good dusting
conditions.--Gaines and Dean (102).

Mixtures of tozapherne with DDT or with chlordane displayed no
synergistic effects a.aisF.t M. differentialis.--Weinman and Decker (319).

Tests of tcxaphene against specific kinds of grasshoppers are re-
corded as follows:

Camnulla pellucida (Scudd.)

Armitape (l3), Hinman and Cowan (138), Wilson (320)

Chortoicetes terminifera Wlk.

AlImrn and Wright ()

Melanoplus bivittatus (Say)

Prett and Rhoades (26), List and Hoerner (181), Munro et al. (209),
Rhoades and Brett (2h48).






-15-


Melanoplus mexicanus devastator Scudd.

Hinman and Cowan (138)

Melanoplus differpatialis (Thos.)

Armitage (13), Gaines (98), Gaines and Dean (102), Graham (117),
Hinman and Cowan (138), List and Hoerner (181), Rhoades and Brett (248),
Shotwell (267). Weinman and Decker (319). Wilson (320).

Melenoplus femur-rubrum (Deg.)

Armitage (12), Graham (117), Hinman and Cowan (138), List and Hoerner
(181)

Melanoplus mar inatus Scudd.

Armitage (12), Wilson (320)

Melanoplus mexicanus (Sauss.)

Armitage (12), Brett and Rhoades (26), Hinman and Cowan (138), Munro
et al. (209), Rhoades and Brett (248)

Schistocerca americana (Drury)

Griffiths and King (123), Griffiths et al. I24). King and Griffiths
(158) ..

Schistocerca cancellata (Serv.)

Lepage et al. (1.)

There seems to be no species variation among grasshoppers in their
susceptibility to toxaphene; all species in the same growth stage are
killed by it at approximately the same dosage. Approximately 35 species
of grasshoppers in North Dakota were killed by toxaphene spray.--Severin
(264, 266).

Blattidae

Blattella germanica (L.), the German cockroach

A 2.5-percent wt./vol. solution of toxaphene killed 100 percent of
the adult male German roaches, and a solution of DDT of equal strength
killed 95 percent.--Parker and Beacher (231).

In a study of the factors involved in poisoning German roaches by
exposing them to surfaces treated with several chlorinated hydrocarbons,
toxaphene did not show the sharp drop in rate of paralysis found with
DDI, chlordane, and benzene hexachloride when the dosage was reduced to






-16-


the minimum that caused paralysis. The toxicity of toxaphene compared
favorably with that of DDT on constant exposure. However, an exposure
period of more than 1 hour was necessary for it to be highly effective.
-Hamnan (129).

A talc dust containing 50 percent of toxaphene applied at the rate
of 100 mg. per square foot proved toxic to roaches, killing 26 out of 30
exposed for 10 seconds and 29 out of 30 exposed for 20 seconds.--Kruse
(164).

Among the more promising materials tested as dusts against the
German roach in the laboratory and in infested buildings were BHC,
toxaphene, and chlordane.--Gould (116).

In laboratory tests on adult cockroaches DDT and toxaphene were
relatively ineffective even when freshly applied.--Gahan et al. (97).

Periplaneta americana (L.), the American cockroach

Tested against adult American cockroaches, toxaphene in a urea'-
formnaldehyde surface coating exhibited no toxicity in 48 hours.-Block
(22).

Same as for Blattella germanica.--Gahan et al. (2Z).

Gryllidae

Acheta assimilis F., the field cricket

A 10-percent toxaphene dust at 20 pounds per acre gave satisfactory
although slightly lower control than was obtained with a 5-percent chlor-
dane dust. The applications were made in late afternoon to plots which
were heavily infested.--Mtunro et al. (209).

Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudd., the short winged mole cricket

Wheat bran baits containing 0.8, 3.2, and 6.4 percent toxaphene when
sprinkled on top of the soil in pots killed 45, 60, and 50 percent
respectively 10 days after treatment.-Hayelip (1.n, 136).

Scapteriscus acletus R. & H., the southern mole cricket

Toxaphene, 8 pounds of 25-percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of
water caused 100 percent mortality after 8 days. The insecticide spray
was applied to the surface of the soil at the rate of 1 gallon per 10
square feet.--Hayslip (135, 136).






-17-


ANOPLURA

Haematopinidae

Haematopinus adventicius Neum., the hog louse

Only one test, involving a few animals, has been run with toxaphene
against the hog louse. A wettable powder spray at 0.2-percent concentra-
tion gave apparently complete control of the lice.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and
Plant Qgar. (Q300).

Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitz.), the short-nosed cattle louse

H. quadripertusus Fahr., the tail louse

Linognathus vituli (L.), the long-nosed cattle louse

When tested at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 percent, toxaphene gave
results that were comparable with those obtained with DDT, BHC, and chlor-
dane against both short- and long-nosed cattle lice and the tail louse.--
U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qiar. (300).

Toxaphene controlled the tail louse, Haematopinus quadripertusus
with a single treatment.--Laake (1Z2).

Pediculidae

Pediculus humans corporis Deg., the body louse

When tested against bodyv lice, as a powder and when impregnated in
clothing, toxaphene was found to be slightly superior to DDT in all
respects, including minimum toxic concentration, speed of action, and
persistence.--Knipling (159).

In tests at Orlando, Florida, toxaphene applied to cloth and evaluated
by the beaker test method was effective at a concentration of 0.0025 per-
cent, whereas DDT and 2-pivalyl-l,3-indandione did not adversely affect
all the test insects at 0.005 percent. Lice exposed on cloths impregnated
with 1 percent of insecticide were paralyzed within 15 minutes by crude
and gamma-benzene hexachloride and 2-pivalyl-l,3-indandione, but toxaphene
required 5 hours. In arm-and leg tests toxaphene, which was the most
effective treatment, remained lethal to lice after four 15-minute boiling
in a 1 percent soap solution. Crude and gamma-benzene hexachloride with-
stood only one boiling, whereas 2-pivalyl-l,3-indandione was rendered
ineffective by one laundering.--Eddy and Bushland (76).

Toxaphene is the most promising of the new materials for bodv louse
control. It is as effective as DDT in dust form and when impregnated into
garments withstands laundering better than DDT. Toxaphene is highly
effective against various species of biting and suckig lice.--Bushland (30).






-18-


MALLOPHAGA

Trichodectidae

Bovicola spp., the goat lice

Toxaphene appeared to be at least equal, and perhaps superior, to
DPT, chlordane, and BHC against red and yellow goat lice. In limited
tests aoDarpntly complete control was obtained with dips containing 0.05
percent or a slightly lower concentration of toxaphene. Dips at 0.2-
_ercent concentration have kept goats free of lice for at least 4 months.
--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qiar. (300).

THYSANOPTRRA

Thripldae

yrankliniella fusca (Hinds), the tobacco thripe

In small plot tests in Louisiana, three applications of 20-percent
toxaphene dust to seedling cotton at the rate of 10 pounds per acre at
weekly intervals, beginning with the appearance of the first true leaf,
gave satisfactory control...-Newsom et al. (221).

Frarn:xiniella tritici (Fitch), the flower thrips

A 20-percent toxaphene-sulfur dust proved effective against thrips
on cotton at College Station, Texas, in 1947 and was superior to a 5-
percent DDT-eulfur dust.--Gaines et al. (106).

Heliothripe haemorrhoidalis (Bouche), the greenhouse thrips

In laboratory tests with adult female greenhouse thrips 0.0025 per-
cent concentration of toxaphene was required to give fifty-percent kill.
--Metcalf (197., 198); Metcalf et al. (199).

Scirtothrips citri (Moult.), the citrus thrips

In California toxaphene was not promising for the control of citrus
thrips.--Ewart (81).

Taeniothrips eimilex (Mor.), the gladiolus thrips

A 20-percent toxaphene dust was very effective in killing thrips
within the leaf folds and flower buds in tests in Florida.-Magie and
Kelsheimer (192).

A 5-percent toxaphene dust and a toxaphene emulsion, 0.5 pound per
100 gallons of water, were effective in small field tests, producing from
82 to 90 and from 86 to 95 percent clean flowers, respectively.--Smith
(272); Smith and Boswell (273).






-19-


Thrips tabaci Lind., the onion thrips

In tests on seedling cotton at Bayview, Texas, in the spring of 1947
the greatest reduction (99 percent) 5 days after application was caused by
a 20-percent toxaphene dust applied at the rate of 10 pounds per acre, and
the least reduction (63 percent) in the same time was caused by a dust
containing 2.5 percent of DDT plus 0.25 percent gamma BHC.-.-Fife et al. (87).

In tests made at Twin Falls, Idaho, in 1946 and 1947 to control thrips
on bulb onions, toxaphene, 1 pound of a 50-percent emulsion per 100 gallons
of water, reduced the thrips population 79 percent.-Douglass and Shirck
(68).

Unidentified thrips

In Alabama thrips on peanuts can be controlled with 10-percent toxa-..
phene dust applied at the rate of 20 to 25 pounds per acre. Yield increases
from the use of this material have varied from nothing to 92 pounds per
acre.--Wilson and Arant (321).

HOMOPTERA

Aleyrodidae

Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, the citrus blackfly

In experiments performed in Mexico preparations containing 1.67 per-
cent of light-medium emulsive oil with toxaphene at the rate of 0.9 oui.nce
of toxic element per gallon of oil were not so effective as derris powder
in oil containing 0.225 ounce of rotenone per gallon of oil.-Plummer and
Shaw (23Z).

Toxaphene exhibited low toxicity.--Woglum et al. (32).

Aphidae

Aphis gossypii Glov., the cotton aphid

A spray of toxaphene wettable powder gave good results against aphids
(chiefly this species) on celery in Florida.--Wylie (333).

A 20-percent toxaphene dust applied weekly six times at the rate of
16 pounds per acre was equal to calcium arsenate plus 2 percent nicotine
sulfate in reducing high aphid infestations on cotton but was inferior to
parathion. Doubling the dosage (32 pounds per acre) did not increase the
effectiveness of the treatment.--Loden and Lund (183).

In one case aphids on cotton increased to damaging numbers following
applications of toxaphene-sulphur.-Gaines (99).

In Texas in 1947 toxaphene-sulfur dust gave poor control of cotton
aphids.-Gaines and Dean (100).






-20.-


The U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Qjarantine (M02) in April
IQ!^ recommended for the control of this insect a 20-percent toxaphene
dust applied at the rate of 10 pounds of the dust per acre in every
apolicatlon.

Aphis rumicis L., the bean aphid

IDists containing 3 and 5 percent of toxaphene permitted 10 and 4
percent of the flower stalks of lima beans to be infested with the bean
au-hLd as compared to 16 in the check. In the form of sprays toxLphene
wettable powder and toxaph-ne emulsion were effective. Flower stalks
treated with toxaphene 25-percent wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100
e 'eIons of water were 6.5 percent infested; those treated with a 50-per-.
cent concentrated emulsion 1:400 were 4 percent infested as compared to
35 e-.. t infestation in the untreated stalks.--Iuckett (146).

Toxaphene was about as effective as chlordane against the bean aphid.
-Sun et al. (2L).

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), the cabbage aphid

Toxaphfne dusts at 3- and 5-percent strengths showed considerable
toxicity to the cabbage aphid (62 to 95 percent reduction) and some
toxicltv to the green peach aphid (54-to 58-percent reduction) in limited
tests, but were slower acting than nicotine or benzene hexachloride.-
Reid and Cuthbert (247).

Macrosiphum pisi (Kltb.), the pea aphid

Chlordane was more toxic than toxaphene to the adult pea aphid.-
Sun et al. (287).

MscrBslnhum solanifolii (Ashm.), the potato aphid
In tests on potatoes in New Jersey in 1947 toxaphene, 0.5 pound per
100 Pallons of water gare poor control.-Campbell (^.).

!4v j e persicae (Sulz.), the green peach aphid

FTp!riments conducted in a tobacco seed bed in Florida showed that
s3-e containin- 10 percent toxaphene with and without 20 percent Fermate
gave excellent control of aphids without any injurious effect upon the
plants.-Wilson et al. (323).

In Florida in the spring of 1948 toxaphene, 25-percent wettable powder
at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water reduced the number of aphids per 50
tomato leaves from 314 to 91 and the percent of mature leaflets with leaf-
miner damaee from 81 to 9. Of 5 other insecticides tested only parathion
was better than toxaphene against these insects.-Hayslip (136).






-21-


An aerosol of 5-.ercent DDT with 5-percent toxaphene in 40-percent
methylene chloride-50 percent methyl chloride was less effective thon a
1-percent TEPP aerosol or a 0.66-percent TEPP duet or a 1-percent para,-
thion dust. Tobacco foliage burn resulted if the outlet nozzle of the
bomb was held too close to the plant.-Kulash (169).

See under cabbage aphid.--Reid and Cuthbert (247).

Rhopalosiphum rufomaculatum Wilson, the green chrysanthemum aphid

Air currents influenced the toxicity of toxaphene to these aphids.
Toxaphene 1:2000 killed 98.3 percent in the absence of air movement and
64.5 percent when the air speed was 3.2 miles per hour.-Duetan et al.
(74).

Siha flava (Forbes), the yellow sugarcane aphid

The number of yellow sugarcane aphids present following treatment
with 10-percent toxaphene dust for second-generation sugarcane borer
control was significantly less than in the plots dusted with cryolite or
50-percent sodium fluosilicate.--Ingram et al. (147).

Toxaphene 5- and 10-percent dusts effected a near perfect control of
the yellow sugarcane aphid.-IDuagas et al. (63, 70, Z2).

Unidentified aphids

Ten-percent toxaphene dust was less effective than 1-percent parathion
dust and 1.5-percent gamma benzene hexachloride against aphids on tobacco
in an infested seed bed, but it had very little residual action.-Turner
(294, 29).

A 25-percent wettable toxaphene at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water
gave a good reduction of 7 species of aphids.--Hayslip (15).

Cercopidae

Philaenus leucophthalmus (L.), the meadow spittlebug

In tests to control spittlebug on alfalfa in Wisconsin in 1945,
toxaphene either in eamulsion or water suspension was superior to DOC,
chlordane, benzene hexachloride and parathion. A dosage of 1.5 pounds per
acre was as effective as dosages up to 6 pounds per acre.-Chamberlin and
Medler (40).

Cicadellidae

Circulifer tenellus (Baker), the beet leafhopper

In Utah curly-top disease of tomatoes, transmitted by the beet leaf-
hopper, was not effectively controlled by application of toxaphene duet to
tomatoes. The leafhoppers fed upon the tomatoes thus transmitting the






-22-


Beaeee :'-fre recelvir.' a lethal dse. Four applications were made at
we-klv intervals, r'.-irn; with date of planting and during the period
of leafh-op-,er mov-ment.-Dormt and Peay (L).

'-.noaece fabae (Harr.), the potato leafhopper

Toya:hsrn -rove! equal to DDT in leafhopper control on Irish cobbler
potatoes in 1945.--Perer and Beacher (231).

Tw pTaundE of 25-percernt toxaphbne per 100 gallons of water gave poor
c ,i.fl of all !neects.--Campbell (35).

.entfld leafhoppere

In Alabama four applications of 10-percent toxaphene dust at the
rate of 2' to 25 pounds per acre per application were effective in
cor.tro-llin the leafhopper on peanuts.-Wilson and Arant (321).

Cicadidae

Ya)lcidadia eeptendecim (L.), the periodical cicada

In cape tests in Virp.nia in 1948 the application of 6 pounds of
tczashxnr 25-percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of water killed about
2/3 of the cicadae.--Woodslde ()3.0

T .a '-.ner 50-percert wettable powder at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of
vater was unsatisfactory in tests in orchards in eastern Ohio in 1948.-
a trirht (5).)

Coccidae

Cocc'e peeudomagnoliarum (Kuw.), the citricola scale

To7aphene d-d not Pive promising results in California.--Ewart (81).

Pseudococrjs maritimuie (ahrh.), the grape mealybug

A 5-percent toxaphene 4dust killed 50.6 and 33 percent of these mealy-
bips on yew in two tests at Perry, Ohio.-Neiswander (214).

Psyllldae

Peylla pyricola Foerst., the pear peylla

In tests made in British Columbia in 1947 and in Chelan County,
aeshninpton, in 1948, toxephr-n proved very effective as a foliage spray.--
Carleon and Newcomer (27): Newcomer (216, 2).

In field tests m&dp near Poughkeepsie, N. Y.,in 1947, toxaphene 25.-
p





-23-


kill of the nymphs and also showed promise from the standpoint of residual
effectiveness. Immediate kill of adults was low.--Hamilton (127, 128).

HEMIPTERA

Cimicidae

Cimex lectularius L., the bedbug

Toxaphene was toxic to nymphs and adults when combined with Thanite
(isobornyl thiocyanoacetate with related terpenes). A mixture of 0.2 per-
cent toxaphene plus 0.8 percent Thanite killed 43 percent of the eggs.
As a residual toxicant (100 mg./sq. ft.), toxaphene is somewhat slower
than DDT in its initial action, but equals or surpasses it in final kill.
-Parker and Beacher (231).

Coreidae

Leptocoris trivittatus (Say), the boxelder bug

A 2-percent toxaphene emulsion spray killed 90 percent of the bugs
within 48 hours and displayed residual properties.-Munro and Post (211).

Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.), the leaf-footed bug

A 20-percent toxaphene dust at 25 pounds per acre gave favorable
results against this bug on citrus in Florida.--Thompson and Griffiths
(290).

Lygaeidae

Blissus leucopterus (Say), the chinch bug

A dust containing 10 percent of toxaphene killed 100 percent of the
bugs after 3 days; a duet containing 5 percent of toxaphene killed 100
percent after 4 days; a dust containing 1 percent of toxaphene killed 42
percent after 4 days. A dust containing 1 percent of dinitro-o-cresol was
the fastest acting of all materials tested, killing 100 percent of the
bugs in one day.--Kearns et al. (152).

Miridae

Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze), the alfalfa plant bug

A. rapidus (Say)

In Wisconsin a dosage of 1.5 pounds toxaphene (either in emulsion or
water suspension) was very effective.--Chamberlin and iedler (40); Nedler
and Chamberlin (196).






-24.


Dicyphus minimum Uhler, the suckfly

In the lower Rio Grande Valley in 1949 a 10-percent toxaphene plus
40-percent sulfur dust reduced the number of euckflies in 20 net sweeps
from 601.7 on untreated tomato plants to 3.7 on treated plants nine days
after dusting.--Wene (314).

Lygue hesperus Knight

A dust containing 12.5 percent of toxaphene and 50 percent of sulfur
was as effective as a 1-percent parathion dust. These dusts were applied
at the rate of 20 pounds per acre on cotton in California in July.-Smith
(274).

Lygus oblineatus (Say), the tarnished plant bug

Tests were made in 1948 to control the cat-facing of peaches near
Staunton, Va. A spray of toxaphene, 4 pounds of 25-percent wettable pow-
der per 100 gallons of water applied at petal fall resulted in 5 percent
of the peaches being scarred as compared to 8.2 percent in the check and
3 percent in the plot sprayed with DDT (2 pounds of 50-percent wettable
powder per 100 gallons of water).-Woodside (32).

In cage tests on cotton a 20-percent toxaphene dust was equal to 2-
percent parathion dust, superior to 20-percent chlordane dust and inferior
to 5-percent BHC dust. In another series of tests against the tarnished
plant bug a 10-percent toxaphene dust was inferior to a 2.5-percent para-
thion dust and a 3-percent gamma BHC dust but superior to a 10-percent
chlordane dust.-Scales and Smith (2M).

Same as for Adelphocoris limeolatus.--Medler and Chamberlin (196).

Lyus spp.

DDT applied at the rate of 1.25 pounds per acre of seed alfalfa in
Arizona gave slightly better Lygus control than did any of the other
treatments tested, although 1.5 pounds of toxaphene were almost as effec-
tive. The chlordane and toxaphene treatments controlled grasshoppers as
well as Lygus pp.--Russell (258).

Psallue seriatus (Beut.), the cotton flea hopper

In tests in Texas during 1947 control 24 hours after treatment was
approximately as good from 5-percent toxaphene as from 5-percent DDT;
and the residual control from 10-percent toxaphene was about equal to
that from 5-percent DDT. In large-scale experiments at Port Lavaca
gains in yield were greater from 10-percent toxaphene than from 5-
percent DDT. At Waco cotton dusted with toxaphene began fruiting amuch
quicker, and matured and was ready for harvest several weeks earlier
than cotton duested with sulfur. The increase in yield over the check was
30 percent from sulfur alone and 67 percent from both 20- and 10-percent
toxaphene.--Parencia and Ewing (226).






-25-


In Texas experiments in 1947 a 5.-percent toxaphene sulfur dust was
effective. Sulfur alone was less effective. One application of these
materials gave an economical increase in yield.--Gaines and Dean (100).

In April 1949 the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Q(arantine
(304) recommended for the control of this insect a dust containing 10 per-
cent of toxaphene. Two applications will control fleahoppers throughout
the season.

Pentatomidae

Easchistus servus (Say)

A dust containing 10 percent toxaphene 5 percent chlordane 85
percent pyrophyllite was highly effective in controlling these stinkbugs
on spring planted cowpeas on the Texas Gulf coast. A dust containing 18
percent toxaphene 5 percent DDT 77 percent pyrophyllite was even more
effective.-Biherd (250).

]kschistus spp.

Same as for Lygus oblineatus.-Woodside (D2).

Murgantia histrionic (Hahn), the harlequin bug

Laboratory tests on adult bugs indicated that the median lethal dose
of a 10-percent toxaphene dust was 8.7 pounds per acre. In cage tests a
10-percent toxaphene dust caused 100 percent mortality 5 days after
application in 1947 and 65.1 percent mortality in 1948.-Gaines and Dean
(101).

Nezara viridula (L.), the southern green stinkbug

Same as for Euschistus servus.--Riherd (250).

Unidentified pentatomids

In preliminary field tests toxaphene proved effective for the control
of cat-facing insects.-Enna (80).

COLEOPTEBA

Carabidae

Agonoderus comma (Fabr.)

A 5-percent toxaphene dust applied to soil caused 100 percent of the
beetles (introduced into the soil 7 days after dusting) to be moribund
after 22 hours. Parathion, chlordane and BHC acted faster than toxaphene
and DDT.-Johnson (151).

LARY BOARD
STATE PLANT BOARD






-26-


Chrysomelidae

Diabrotica longicornis (Say), the northern corn root worm

Plot tests made in Nebraska in 1948 showed that toxaphene as a
xylene-kerosene enilsion, 1, 2 or 4 pounds toxaphene per acre or 2 pounds
toxaphene plus ammonium nitrate (40 pounds N) per acre gave some reductions
in root worm populations and lodging but the reductions were not drastic
and did not significantly affect yields.-Muma et al. (207).

Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, the spotted cucumber beetle,
the southern corn rootworm

Laboratory and field tests indicated that toxaphene sprays and dust
were highly toxic to cucumber beetles.-Parker and Beacher (231).

At Beltsville, Md., In 1947 a spray of toxaphene 25-percent wettable
powder (0.1 percent tozaphene) was ineffective in preventing injury to
peanut pods by coleopterous larvae including this species.--Dobbins and
Fronk (J).

Toxaphene dust at the rate of 10 pounds of toxicant per acre reduced
the percentage of corn plants damaged by rootworms from 27 (check) to 19.5.
-Kulash (168).

During 1948 significant control of the southern corn rootworm in
southeastern Virginia was obtained with toxaphene dust broadcast by hand
at the rate of 40 pounds of toxicant per acre over the soil of small
plots and raked into the upper 1-2 inches by means of a garden rake on
June 3 or July 7-8. At Beltsville a dust mixture containing 10 percent
toxaphene applied three times to the foliage at the rate of approximately
2.3 pounds of toxicant per acre-application gave excellent control but a
0.75 percent toxaphene emulsion was of little value. No toxaphene was
found in peanuts. Foliage that had received seven applications of 10-
percent toxaphene duet (1.9 pounds of toxicant per acre application)
contained 17.5 ppm. of organic chlorine.--Fronk and Dobbins (96).

Same as for D. longicornis.-Muma et al. (207).

D. virgifera Lec., the western corn root worm

Same as for D. longicornis.--Muma et al. (207).

Diabrotica vittata (F.), the striped cucumber beetle

Same as for D. undecimpunctata howardi

Ipitrix cucumeris (Harr.), the potato flea beetle

In field teFts in Delaware during 1947, toxaphene and DDT gave
approximately equal control of the potato flea beetle on early potatoes.
-Parker et al. (2M).






-27-


Toxaphene (2 pounds of 25-percent toxaphene per 100 gallons of water)
gave poor control of all insects on Katahdin potatoes in New Jersey in
1947.- Campbell ()).

Toxaphene spray (4 pounds of 25-percent wettable powder per 100
gallons of water) reduced flea beetle damage to Katahdin potatoes in
Connecticut in 1947 72 percent compared to 86 percent reduction produced
by 0.5 pound of micronized DDT spray powder.--Turner and Woodruff (296).

Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsh.), the tobacco flea beetle

In Virginia in 1947 1 pound of toxaphene 25-percent wettable powder
plus 3 pounds of Fermate per 100 gallons of water applied to tobacco plant
beds produced 94 percent uninjured plants as compared to 17 percent in the
check. Toxaphene did not injure the plants.-Domlinick (66).

Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle

Loxite (a 50-percent toxaphene) controlled the Colorado potato beetle
in Manitoba.--Mitchener (205).

In laboratory tests in France toxaphene was about 1/5 as active as
technical benzene hexachloride against Colorado potato beetle larvae. In
the field it was necessary for a dust to contain 10 percent of toxaphene
to combat this insect.--Eaucourt (245).

Coccinellidae

Epilachna varivestis Muls., the Mexican bean beetle

Toxaphene dusts and sprays reduced the beetle population more than
did DDT, but neither was equal to rotenone.--Parker and Beacher (231).

Mexican bean beetle adults were very resistant to dust mixtures con-
taining 5 percent toxaphene. Chlordane was about as effective as toxaphene
against Mexican bean beetle larvae.--Sun et al. (2a7).

Toxaphene dusts (3 and 5 percent), wettable powder and emulsion, were
only slightly effective against Mexican bean beetle on lima beans on Long
Island.-Buckett (146).

A dust containing 5-percent toxaphene (30 pounds per acre) gave 85
percent control of the larvae; a dust containing 10 percent toxaphene and
25 percent sulfur (26 pounds per acre) gave 75 percent control.--Brannon
(ni).
UTnidentified lady beetles

Toxaphene was more destructive to beneficial species in Louisiana than
any other material included in the tests.--Newsom et al. (220, 222).






-28-


Curculionidae

Anthonoms grandis Boh., the boll weevil

Ten pounds of 20-percent toxaphene dust per acre is recommended for
the control of the boll weevil in Alabama, Georgia (109). Louisiana (184,
e223, Mississippi, North Carolina (4u), Oklahoma (283. 284), South Carolina
42, 28, M2), and Texas.-Natl. Cotton Council Amer. 2T12, 213); U. S.
Bur. Ent. and Plant Qiar.--(298, 2M).

The experimental work upon which these recommendations are based has
been described by:

Arant (9), Bondy (24), Ewing and Parencia (82, , 84), Fife et al.
(88), Gaines and Hanna TI00), Kulash (165, 167), Walker et al. (IM), Young
(234), and others.

In Texas in 1947 a 20-percent toxaphene sulfur dust was inferior to
a 3-percent gamma-BHC-5-percent DDT-sulfur dust in controlling boll weevil.
-Gaines and Dean (100).

In cage tests a 20-percent toxaphene dust was more effective against
the boll weevil than parathion (2-percent), chlordane (20-percent), benzene
hexachloride (5-pprcent gamma isomer), or calcium arsenate dusts.-Scales
and Smith (W5).

In cage tests with boll weevils, high temperature and high humidity
had less effect on the toxicity of 20-percent toxaphene than on that of
the other organic, although its toxicity was reduced appreciably by high
temperatures. In tests conducted at a constant temperature, high humidity
reduced the toxicity of calcium arsenate, 20-percent toxaphene, and 20-
percent chlordane. Delay in releasing weevils 24 hours after dusting the
plants and exposure of the dusted plants to the sun for 4 hours reduced
the toxicity of 20-percent toxaphene.--Gaines and Dean (103).

Treatment of cotton squares with 20-percent toxaphene dust killed 36
percent of the boll weevils in the squares; 10-percent toxaphene dust
killed 16 percent.-Rainwater (244).

The boll weevil emergence from cotton squares exposed to the vapor
of toxaphene was 72 percent compared to 84 percent in the check. Weevils
emerged from 63 percent of the squares which had been dusted 4 times with
a 20-percent toxaphene dust as compared to 57 percent for the check.--
Gaines and Scales (108).

In large scale tests in Texas 20-percent toxaphene dust gave slightly
better control of the boll weevil and 10-percent toxaphene dust gave
slightly poorer control than calcium arsenate. Aphids caused considerable
damage in most of the plots dusted with calcium arsenate, but not in those
dusted with tnxaphene. As a result of the combined control of both weevils
and aphids, both strengths of toxaphene effected higher yields than the






-29-


calcium arsenate. In experiments in which the dusted plots were strictly
comparable, 20-percent toxaphene produced a gain over the check of 539
pounds as compared to a gain of 360 pounds from calcium arsenate, and 10-
percent toxaphene a gain of 494 pounds as compared with 211 pounds from
calcium arsenate.--Ewing and Parencia (82).

Toxaphene gave excellent control of several of the most important
cotton insects in laboratory, cage, and field-plot experiments at Waco,
Texas, during 1946. In cage tests a dust containing 20 percent of toxa.
phene applied at the rate of 8 pounds per acre controlled the boll weevil
as well as did calcium arsenate or benzene hexachloride.--Ivy et al. (148).

As a result of field tests made in the Brazos river bottom, Texas,
during 1948 it was found that special calcium arsenate (lime free) mixed
with either parathion or benzene hexachloride and 20 percent toxaphene-
sulfur were equally effective against the boll weevil. These materials
were more effective than either the benzene hexachloride-DDT-sulfur or
chlordan-DDT-sulfur under the conditions of a hot season and heavy
migration.-Gaines and Dean (104).

In tests made in Louisiana in 1947 calcium arsenate-nicotine was
superior to toxaphene, and DDT-BHC-sulfur mixture (3-5-40) for the control
of boll weevil, bollworm, cotton aphid, cotton fleahopper and tarnished
plant bug.--Newsom et al. (223).

In April 1949 the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Qiarantine
(301) recommended a dust containing 20 percent of toxaphene plus 40 pr-
cent of sulfur applied every 4 or 5 days at the rate of 10 to 12 pounds
of the dust per acre until weevils are brought under control or until a
crop of bolls is set.

Anthonomus signatus Say, the strawberry weevil

In field tests made in New Jersey in 1948 standard lead arsenate-sulfur
dust and 5-percent toxaphene dust reduced injury over the untreated check
approximately 50 percent, whereas the reduction with 1-percent benzene
hexachloride and 5-percent chlordane dusts were 93-5 percent and 85.5 per-
cent respectively.--Christ and Driggers (41).

Toxaphene, 1 pound per 100 imperial gallons of water used with
bordeaux 10-10-100 was not particularly effective against the strawberry
weevil in Canada. It was less effective than DDT and cryolite but more
effective than chlordane, HETP and BHC.-Maxwell (1U).

Brachyrhinus ligustici (L.), the alfalfa snout beetle

A 10-percent toxaphene dust applied by hand reduced the infestation
76 percent in 144 hours; applied by helicopter the reduction was 55 percent
in the same time.-Gyrisco et al. (126).






-30-.


Chalcoderms aenus Boh., the covpea curculio

In tests on Purple Hill peas in Texas a 5-percent toxaphene dust
applied three times at a dosage of 25 to 30 pounds per acre per applica-
tion reduced the percentage of infested pods to zero.-Wene (312, 212).

Conotrachelus nenuphar (Hbst.), plum curculio

A toxaphene wettable powder (26.3 percent tozaphene) at 4 pounds per
100 gallons of water was as effective as parathion and benzene hexachloride
in orchard experiments in Georgia when the results were measured by the
infestation in peach drops.-Snapp (277).

In tests made in Delaware in 194? plum curculio damage was decidedly
more severe with toxaphene than with lead arsenate.--Parker et al. (2).

In North Carolina in 1947 toxaphene (29 percent material) at the rate
of 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water decreased the curculio population on
peaches as much as or more than 4 pounds of BHC (6 percent gamma isomer)
but required a slightly longer time.--Smith (268).

In Missouri one of the promising materials for the control of cat-
facing insects, including the plum curculio, is toxaphene.-Enns (80).

Two applications of 2 pounds of 25 percent toxaphene were as effective
in reducing total injury to the fruit as two applications of lead arsenate.
--Dewey and VanGeluwe (60).

Toxaphenp was ineffective.--Parker and Beacher (231).

In cage tests made in Ohio in 1949 a 25-percent toxaphene wettable
powder at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water proved superior to both
technical and refined benzene hexachloride but less effective than chlor-
dane, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin. The phosphorus insecticides were
much more rapid in lethal action and exhibited better residual toxicity
to plum curculio than did any of the chlorinated insecticides.--Rings (252).

Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), the sweetpotato weevil

In laboratory tests a dust containing 1 percent of toxaphene in pyro-
phyllite killed 100 percent of the weevils in 7 days. Used in poison-bait
tests 1 part of toxaphene in 80 parts of sweetpotato killed 48 percent of
the weevils in 7 days.--Harrison (131).

Hypera postica (Gyll.), the alfalfa weevil

A spray of 2 pounds toxaphene as an emulsion concentrate per acre on
alfalfa in Montana in April 1948 caused 68 percent mortality in 24 hours
and 92 percent mortality in 14 days.-Hastings and Pepper (1I2).


Recommended in Colorado for lIQ4.__List and Hoerner (182).






-31-


Trichobaris micorea (Lec.), the tobacco stalk borer

A spray of toxaphene (2 pounds of 50-percent wettable powder per 100
gallons of water) was less effective than BHC in preventing eeg laying.
Toxaphene was the slowest of any of the insecticides (DT, BHC, chlordane)
in paralyzing and killing the beetles.--Woodside (331).

Sitophilus granarius (L.), the granary weevil

As a contact poison toxaphene was 1/6 as toxic as DDT.--Stringer (280).

Tyloderma fragariae (Riley), the strawberry crown borer

In laboratory and field tests made in Kentucky in 1949 a 20-percent
toxaphene dust gave excellent control.--Ritcher (24).

Dermestidae

Anthrenus vorax Cdaterh.), the furniture carpet beetle

Toxaphene was effective against these pests and little or no loss in
toxicity in the treated cloth occurred during one year. Toxaphene resists
removal from cloth by soap and water but dry-cleaning fluids remove it.-
Parker and Beacher (2D).

Attagenus piceus (Oliv.), the black carpet beetle

Woolen cloths impregnated with six chlorinated hydrocarbon insecti-
cides at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3 percent by wight of cloth
were exposed to larvae of the black carpet beetle for 28 da,-. The
following mortalities were obtained: Chlordane 75 to 100 percent; Z'HC (6
percent gamma) 0 to 100 percent; toxaphene 25 to 52 percent; DDT 15 to 47
percent; TDE 3 to 14 percent; and methoxychlor 1 to 6 percent. According
to the visual damage and frass weight noted during these tests, the greatest
protection to woolen cloth was obtained with DDT, TDE, chlordane, methoxy-
chlor, toxaphene, and BHC in the order named. Washing and dry cleaning
seriously affected the toxicity and the protective value of all tne treated
cloths, with the exception of those treated with DDT, which resisted one
washing at all concentrations.--Laudani and Marzke (174).

Same as for Anthrenus vorax.--Parker and Beacher (231).

Elateridae

Aeolus spp.

The results from one experiment made in Louisiana in 1947 indicate
that most of the wireworm injury to fall-planted cane may be prevented by
applying 400 pounds of dust containing 1 percent of toxaphene per acre in
the furrow with the seed cane at the time it is planted.-Bymum et al.
(4).







-32-


Agriotes mancus (Say), the wheat wireworm

Toxaphene ?ave very poor control of these wireworms in up-.state New
York and was not regarded as having promise.--Rawlins et al. (246).

Conoderus spp.

Same as for Aeolus spp.--Bynum et al. (14).

Horistonotus uhlerili Horn., the sand wireworm

Toxaphene, 5 pounds per acre, applied by hand in the row Just previous
to the 1947 planting of corn gave promising results; the yield per acre
was 14.5 bushels as compared to 21 bushels following the treatment with 1
pound gamma BHC per acre and 9 bushels in the check.--Floyd (89).

Limonius aeonus (Say), the eastern field wireworm

Same as for Agriotes mancus.--Rawlins et al. (246).

Melanotus sDD.

Same as for Aeolus spp.--Bynum et al. (34).

Unidentified Elateridae

Toxaphene has been found to kill wireworms but its use for this pur-
pose is still in the research stage and therefore cannot be recommended
at the present time.--Severin (25).

In a laboratory test in Florida toxaphene 25-percent wettable powder
at 20 pounds per 100 gallons of water was ineffective against wireworms in
sugarcane seed pieces dipped into the mixture immediately before planting.
-Hayslip (121).

In tests in Connecticut toxaphene applied as sprays and dusts at 1.
2, 4, and 8 pounds of technical compound per acre was inferior to BHC and
chlordane.--Greenwood (120).

Same as for Diabrotica.--Dobbins and Fronk (5).

Scarabaeidae

Cotinis nitida (L.), the green June beetle

In laboratory tests made in Kentucky in 1948 a 20-percent toxaphene
dust was ineffective.--Kv. Agr. Expt. Sta. (156).






-3-3-


Popillia Japonica Newm., the Japanese beetle

The application of 24 pounds of toxaphene per acre reduced the grub
population 92.2 percent in 4 weeks and 3 days. Toxaphene gave good control
at the end of 18 months.-Schread (260, 261).

Strigoderma arboricola (F.)

Same as for Diabrotica.--Dobbins and Fronk (65).

Scolytidae

Hylaetinas obecurus (Marsh.), the clover root borer

Toxaphene dust at the rate of 4 pounds of toxicant per acre gave 50-
percent control and was inferior to dieldrin, aldrin and benzene hexachloride
in tests at Fulton, N. Y. in 1949. One application left a residue of 1 ppm.
on the clover.--Gyrisco and Marshall (125).

Tenebrionidae

Tribolium confusum Duv., the confused flour beetle

Toxaphene in suspensions and in carbon tetrachloride solutions remained
effective on glass surfaces for more than a year. On cement surfaces the
duration of effectiveness was very short.--Cotton et al. (47).

The mortality of flour beetles exposed to residues from toxaphene
formulations 12 days after application of the sprays to unpainted and
painted wood at a dosage of 50 milligrams of active ingredient per 1/4
square foot is shown in the following table:

Percent Kill on Wood Surfaces
Formulation Exposure Unpainted Cold-Water Paint Flat Oil Paint Enamel
(Hours)
Emulsion 24 33 3 3 53

Wettable 24 100 60 20 83
Powder

--Cotton and Frankenfeld (_).

On glass surfaces the emulsion form of toxaphene was most effective.
On unpainted wood surfaces the wettable-powder formulations were by far
the most efficient in both initial kill and lasting quality.-Cotton and
Frankenfeld (46).






-34-


LEP I IXPTERA

Aegeriidae

Melittia cucurbitae (Harr.), the squash vine borer

In experiments at Geneva, New York in 1947 a 2-percent toxaphene dust
was effective against the borers.--Carruth and Howe (38).

Cr mbidae

Diatraea saccharalis (F.), the sugarcane borer

In Louisiana in 1946 a 10-percent toxaphene dust proved superior to
cryolite but a 5 percent toxaphene dust was less effective.--Ingr&u o.t &l.
(147). In 1945 it was found that toxaphene, 5 and 10 percent, was equal
to undiluted cryolite in effectiveness.--Dgas et al. (69). In 1948 and
1949 toxaphene accounted for significant increases in borer infestations
following second generation dusting, due apparently to its injurious
*w--f-4 i- i-n th natural anemip of thip )-p-t. At one location toxaphene
accounted for losses in yields of cane of 2.72 tons per acre, while
crvolite produced an increase in yields of 2.33 tons.--Dugas et al. (70,
72).

Lasiocampidae

MalacoFoma americana (F.), the eastern tent caterpillar

In Delaware in 1947 toxaphene, 1 pound per 100 gallons of water, gave
100 percent control on wild cherry growth within one week.--Stearns et al.
(Z82).

Lymantriidae

Euproctis terminalis

In laboratory tests of 5-percent dusts applied at the rate of 10 and
15 pounds per acre, toxaphene was more effective than BHC, chlordane, DDT
ar.d lead arsenate.--Petty (236).

Olethreu t i dae

Carpocapsa pomonella (L.), the codling moth

Toxaphene as a 25-percent wettable powder and as an emulsion concenr-
trate at 1 o'urnl of toxicant per 100 gallons of water was ineffective in
::otecting Winesap apples in Illinois from worm entry or stings.--Weinman
(316).

As a reEult of orchard tests made at Yakima, Wash. during 1947, Newcomer
(215) concluded that toxaphene had some effect on the codling, moth.






-35-


Toxaphene proved inferior to DDT in producing clean apples (75 vs.
95.5 percent and 85 vs. 99 percent in two schedules).--Perker and Beacher
(231).

Toxaphene wetteble powder, 1 pound of toxicant per 100 gallons of
water, was ineffective in California even when used in a two-spray program.
--Michelbacher and Middlakauff (201).

Tests made in Delaware in 1947 showed that toxaphene alone and toxa-
phene with lead arsenate were approximately 15 percent less effective than
lead arsenate alone. This reduction is due wholly to wormy rather than to
stung apples. The combination of toxaphene and lead arsenate was no im-
provement over toxaphene alone. There was no significant difference be-
tween treatments in the size of the picked apples. Drop and harvest data
eree closely.-Parker et al. (232).

Toxaphene was rather highly effective against codling moth, without
any resulting build-up in red mite population.--Stearns et al. (281).

Grapholitha molesta (Busck), the oriental fruit moth

The substitution of toxaphene for lead arsenate in the early-season
peach sprays did not influence twig injury by the Oriental fruit moth or
the activity of its parasitic enemies.--Parker and Beacher (231).

Toxaphene decreased twig injury by second-brood Oriental fruit moth
somewhat but, at the same time, was responsible for a reduction in the
numbers of parasites of this rpest.-Stearns et al. (281).

Polychrdsis viteana (Clem.), the grape berry moth

A spray of 3 pounds of toxaphene per 100 gallons of water gave 65.9
percent control in Pennsylvania in 1947, which was regarded as ineffective.
--Cox (48).

Stilonota ocellana (D. & S.), the eye-spotted bud moth

Toxaphene, 2 pounds of 50-percent wettable per 100 gallons of water
proved inferior to parathion, TDE, DDT, and basic lead arsenate for the
control of this insect on prune in California.--Madsen and Borden (191).

Phalaenidae

AMrotis orthogonia Morr., the pale western cutworm

When dissolved in oil and sprayed in various concentrations on the
larvae in a spray tower the LD-50 of toxaphene was 28 and the LD-90 was
50 micrograms per square centimeter. DDT was less toxic, but gamma benzene
hexachloride and chlordane were more toxic.--Brown et al. (27).






-36-


Aprotis ypsilon (Rott.), the black cutworm

A 5-percent toxaphene dust gave good control of Agrotinae during one
spring and one fall season in South Carolina. A suspension spray provid-
ing a comparable dosage of active ingredient gave excellent reduction of
these species. r.- heree dusts of 3- and 5-percent strengths were, in
general, about as effective as similar strengths of DDT. In a fall experi-
ment at the time of thinning, there were significantly fewer caterpillar-
damaged plants on plots receiving a 5-percent toxaphene dust than on those
riven a 5-percent DDT dust. This difference was not so apparent during
later observations.--Beid and Cuthbert (247).

Alabama argillacea (Hbi.), the cotton leafworm

The U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (305) in April
1949 recommended a 20-percent toxaphene dust for the control of leafworms.

Anticarsia gemmatilis (Hbn.), the velvet bean caterpillar

In Alabama in 1947 a 10-percent toxaphene dust applied at the rate
of 25 pounds per acre gave 97-5 percent control of these caterpillars on
soybeans 24 hours after dusting and 100 percent control 48 hours after
dusting. Toxaphene was faster in action than cryolite.-Arant (10).

Against a heavy population of full grown velvetbean caterpillars,
the following controls were obtained on the first and fifth day after the
insecticidal application: 10-percent toxaphene, 92 and 94 percent.--
Dugas et al. (71).

The velvet caterpillar and army worm attacking peanuts are known as
peanut worms. Preliminary investigations indicate that the dusting of
peanuts with DDT or toxaphene in sulfur-copper for combined leafhopper-
leafepot control during the summer months may greatly reduce or even
eliminate the need for later dustings for the control of peanut worms.-
Wilson and Arant (321).

Feltia subterranean (F.), the granulate cutworm

Same as for Aprotis ypsilon.--Reid and Cuthbert (247).

Heliothis armigera (Hbn.), the corn earworm, the bollworm, the tomato
fruit worm

In tests made in 1946 in New Jersey a 3-percent toxaphene talc dust
was inferior to a 3-percent TDE dust, equal or superior to a 20-percent
lead arsenate dust and superior to a 3-percent methoxychlor dust in con-
trolling corn earworms on early sweet corn.--Pepper and Wilson (234).

In the Everglades area of Florida a 5-percent toxaphene dust proved
ineffective in preventing corn earworm damage.--Hayslip (115).






-37-


A 10-percent toxaphene dust produced 47.3 percent marketable sweet-
corn ears as compared to 13.9 percent in the check.--Kelsheimer (154).

In tests made on Long Island in 1948 a 10-percent toxaphene dust
applied three times per ear (4, 6 and 8 days after the mean silking date)
produced 75 percent or more noninfested ears at harvest.--Butler and
Carruth (32).

A 25-percent wettable toxaphene at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water
was effective against the tomato fruit worm in Florida.--Heayslip (3)

Toxaphene, 1- and 0.25-percent solutions in refined mineral oil in-
jected into tips of ears of Golden Cross Bantam sweet corn was about as
effective as DDT. Applied as high pressure aerosols 1-percent oil solu-
tions of DDT, TDE, toxaphene, and chlordane all gave good control (87 to
97 percent wormfree ears).-Anderson and Hashe (7).

Toxaphene talc dusts (both 5-percent and 10-percent) applied 4 times
in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in 1949 did not give commercial
control of the earworm feeding in the whorls of sweet corn. Of the materials
tried (DDT, chlordane, toxaphene, methoxychlor, aldrin and parathion) only
parathion as a 1-percent dust gave good control.--Wene and Blanchard (315).

In tests made in Louisiana ih 1947 toxaphene, DDT and parathion when
applied once to the maturing ear gave significant controls over check
plots; however, the oil-pyrethrum treatment gave a control that was gip-
nificant over all other treatments and checks. Untreated plots contained
only 18 percent of the ears free of worm injury, whereas, the oil-pyrethrum
treatment gave 74 percent of the ears free of injury. The degree of con-
trol secured by the other insecticides ranged between that on the untreated
plots and that on the oil-pyrethrum plots.--Floyd and Smith (90).

In North Carolina in 1947 a 5-percent toxaphene dust gave less than
50 percent worm-free ears.--N. Car. Agr. Expt. Sta. (224).

Good control of the bollworm with toxaphene has been reported by:
Fife et al. (88), Gaines and Dean (100, 104), Ivy et al. (148), Newsom
et al. (223), N. Car. Agr. Expt. Sta. (22, and Sparks (27-)T

For the control of the bollworm on cotton the U. S. Bureau of
Entomology and Plant 4iarantine (02) in April 1949 recommended a 20-per-
cent toxaphene dust. Whenever the red spider must also be controlled the
dust should include at least 40 percent of sulfur.

Same as for Agrotis ypsilon.--Reid and Cuthbert (24).

Lavhygma frugiperda (A. & S.). the fall armyworm

A 5-percent toxaphene dust applied to field corn in July at Norfolk,
Va., reduced the infestation 56 percent after 24 hours and 72 percent
after 48 hours. Toxaphene was used successfully by many growers in the
Norfolk area.--Hofmaster and Greenwood (44).






-38-


A 10-percent toxnuhene dust gave effective control of this insect on
corn under the most severe conditions of infestation.--Tissot and Kuitert


Fifteen percent to-xaphene gave very little control of a heavy
infestption in Louisiana in 1948.--Dugas et al. (2).

A 20-pRrcent toxiphene dust applied at the rate of 10 pounds per acre
was effective in controlling armyworws in a Ladino clover pasture in North
Carolina.--Kulash (166).

At the Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Fla., a 25-percent
wettable toxaphene at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water reduced the per-
contape of infested buds of corn from 80.5 to 7.4 four days after the
second treatment. A poisoned wheat bran bait containing 5-percent of tox-
aphene reduced the percentage of infested buds from 94.9 to 13.1 in one
block and from 94.8 to 2 in another block four days after treatment,-
iLayslip (134, 1U).

Same as for Agrotis ypsilon.--Reid and Cuthbert (247).

Platvysenta sutor (Gm.)

A 20-percent toxaphene dust killed 93.7 percent of these worms on
celery in Florida one day after treatment.-Hayslip (l35).

In Florida toxaphene (3 pounds of 40-percent wettable powder per 100
Gallons of water) is recommended for the control of green cutworm on
celprv.--Hayslip (136).

Tri hoplusia ni (Hbn.), the cabbage looper

Toxaphene was inferior to DDT but the differences were not significant.
--Dills and Odiand (64).

See also under imported cabbage worm.-Reid and Cuthbert (247).

Pieridae

Colias philodice eurytheme Bdv., the alfalfa caterpillar

A lO-oarcent toxaphene dust applied at the rate of 2.2 pounds of tox-
icant per acr. eave 83.9 percent control in 24 hours and 97.8 percent
co-ntrol in 96 hours.--Smith and Allen (276).

teris ranae (L.), the imported cabbageworm

In tests aade in Pennsylvania toxaphene, at 3-percent, was found to
very effective. At 2-percent it did not give significantly different
results from DLT.--Dills and Odland (64).






-39-


In the one experiment in which they were compared, a 5-percent tox-
aphene dust was superior to a 3-percent one against the imported cabbage
worm at the time of the first of two insect counts and tended to be
superior against the cabbage looper at the third and most important count.
-Reid and Cuthbert (24).

Psychidae

Acanthopsyche junodi (Heyl.), the wattle bagworm

In laboratory tests a 5-percent BHC dust appeared to be slightly
more effective than toxaphene and chlordane against the first two instars
but there was some evidence that toxaphene was more toxic than BHC or
cryolite against third and fourth instar larvae.-Petty (236).

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.), the bagworm

Toxaphene gave a 92 percent control in one week and 59 percent control
over a four-week period.--Stearns et al. (282).

Pyralididae

Cnephasia longana (Haw), the omnivorous leaf tier

In tests on the San Francisco peninsula in 1948, toxaphene 60-percent
emulsion at 1 quart per 100 gallons of water was ineffective in controlling
these caterpillars on asters.-Pritchard et al. (23).

Ilasmopalphus lignosellus (Zell.), the lesser cornstalk borer

Toxaphene, 1 pound per acre, was less effective than DDT, 10 pounds
per acre.-Dugas et al. (D).

Pyraustidae

Desmia funeralis (Hbn.), the grape leaf folder

In 1947 a dust containing 5 percent of toxaphene and 50 percent of
sulfur applied at the rate of 30 pounds per acre at Exeter, California
was less effective than a 50-percent cryolite, 5-percent DDT, 40-percent
sulfur dust, or a 1-percent parathion, 55-percent sulfur duet.-Frazier
and Barnes (93).

Hymenia fascialis Cramer, the Hawaiian beet webworm

A 10-percent toxaphene dust applied at the rate of 40 to 50 pounds
per acre to fall spinach at Norfolk, Va., gave highly satisfactory control,
no living larvae being found after 72 hours. At the end of 24 hours the
effect of the treatment was not sufficiently pronounced to distinguish
affected larvae from normal larvae.-Greenwood and Hofmaster (121).










Pyraueta nubilalis (Hbn.), the European corn borer

A 5-percent toxaphene dust applied at the rate of 20 pounds per acre
was lees effective in tests made in Illinois in 1947 than 5-percent DDT
dusts.--Apole and Decker (8).

Toxaphene gave fair control in 1946 field tests in Illinois on yellow
sweet corn.--Decker et al. (56).

In tests in Maine in 1948 toxaphene dust was somewhat less effective
than Byania and DDT dusts applied in the same manner and in comparable
amounts.-Hawkins and Thurston (3).

Sphingidae

Protoparce sexta (Johan.), the tomato hornworm

P. quinquemaculata (Haw.), the tobacco hornworm

Toxaphene was tested as a 10-percent dust, as a 5-percent toxaphene
plus 3-percent DDTI dust and as a 40-percent wettable powder, all in com-
bination with sulfur for the control of the sulfur mite. The 10-percent
toxaphene dust at the rate of 30 pounds per acre gave satisfactory control
of caterpillars and the toxaphene-DDT combination gave excellent control.
Toxaphene residues on tomatoes were less than 1 ppm. following the appli-
cation of dusts and 4.4 ppm. following the application of a concentrated
Pray (7.5 pounds of 40-percent wettable to 12.5 gallons of water). Wash-
in.- the tomatoes reduced this residue to 1.9 ppm.; 0.8 ppm, was found in
the juice and 15.3 ppm. in the tomato pomace.-Michelbacher et al. (202).

See under Heliothis armigera.--Hayslip (i35).

Tineidae

Tineola bisselliella (im.), the webbing clothes moth

Same as for Anthrenus vorax.--Parker and Beacher (231).

Tortricidae

Argyrotaenia citrana (Fern.), the orange tortrix

A 10-percent toxaphene dust gave 82 percent control. The best control,
94.5 percent, was piven by a 5-percent TBE dust.-Rosenstiel (255).

Argyrataenla velutinana (1i9k.), the red-banded leaf roller

In tests in New York in 1948 a 25-percent toxaphene wettable powder
at 3 pounds per 100 gallons of water gave 77.9 percent control (based on
feedin.z areas per 100 fruits). The best control, 100 percent, was given
by TDE, 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water.-Glass and Chapman (114).






-41-


In tests in a plum orchard in Ohio in 1948 the extent of leaf roller
injury was less in plots treated with parathion, acid lead arsenate, tox-
aphene, and refined benzene hexachloride, whereas it was more severe In the
technical benzene hexachloride and chlordane plots.-Rings (251).

HYMENOPTERA

Apidae

Apis mellifera L., the honeybee

Toxaphene at a dilution of 1:4000 showed little toxicity to bees.
The time required for a 100-percent mortality of bees treated with toxB-
phene was about the same as that of the unsprayed bees.--Butler and Shaw
(22).

Eckert (a.) determined the comparative toxicities of the newer in-
secticides to the honeybee. Of the 9 materials tested toxaphene was the
least toxic. The LD-50 in 72 hours was 22 micrograms per bee.

In laboratory tests bees in cages were dusted with a pre-determined
dose of insecticide at 40 pounds pressure. The dust was allowed to settle
for 30 seconds after which the bees were immediately transferred to other
cages for observation. Toxaphene was practically non-toxic, 20 percent
toxaphene-40 percent sulfur giving only 2.5 percent mortality at 36 pounds
per acre.--Weaver (311).

Cephidae

Cephus cinctus Nort., the wheat stem sawfly

A 10-percent toxaphene dust applied at the rate of 20 pounds per acre
to hard spring wheat permitted a 66 percent infestation as compared to 68
percent in the check plot.--Munro et al. (210).

Formicidae

Lasius niger alienue americanus Emery, the cornfield ant

Toxaphene in the form of a 29.3 percent wettable powder applied at
the rate of 1.7 pounds of toxicant per 1,000 square feet caused only 1.4
percent reduction in the number of ant hills after 47 days.--Kerr (i57).

Pogonomyrmex barbatus (F. Smith), the red harvester ant

Strong, well established colonies located in a typical Texas ;ulf
Coast pasture were selected for the test. Each nest was treated five
times during the test by strewing the dust over and around it. The
duration of the test was 83 days. At the end of the test no colonies had
been eradicated. Of the five colonies treated with 20-percent toxaphene
three were in a weakened condition, one showed very little activity, and
one was normal.--Riherd (249).






-_42-


SolenopslE saevissima var. richteri Forel, the imported fire ant

Experiments were conducted at two locations in Alabama. The most
effective treatment of individual hills was opening the mound and mixing
insecticide with soil in the mound. Two ounces of 20-percent toxaphene
dust applied in this manner was effective.-Eden and Arant (79).

In Mississippi in 1947 several chemicals, including 25-percent toxa.
phene dust, were found very effective in laboratory tests when blown
through the tunnels in the mounds with a small plunger duster having a
short spout to penetrate the outside crust of the mound.-Lyle and Fortune
(186).

Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), the little fire ant

An emulsion of toxaphene (0.5 pound of toxicant in 0.5 gallon of
No.2 fuel oil per 100 gallons of water) was as effective as chlordane or
DDT when sprayed on citrus trees. Fuel oil alone was ineffective. The
infestation was held to a low level for 12 weeks.-Osburn (225).

DIPTERA

Agromyzidae

Liriomyza flaveola (Fall.), the serpentine leaf miner

In 1947 field tests to control this leaf miner on asters in southern
California, toxaphene 50-percent emulsifiable spray, two applications at
a dosage of 1.25 pounds toxicant per 100 gallons of water, permitted 9.9
miners per stem as compared to 32.6 in the check. Toxaphene proved more
effective than chlordane or parathion and did not injure asters.-
Jefferson and Pence (149, 150).

Calliphoridae

Callitroga macellaria (F.), the secondary screw-worm

Phormia refine (Meig.), the black blow fly

Toxaphene was the most promising of six materials tested as fleece
worm larvicides at Kerrville, Texas during 1947. Artificially infested
shepp were treated with benzene solution, water suspensions, and emulsions
of toyxaDhene and other insecticides. The sheep were infested by implanting
the npwly hatched larvae of several blow flies, principally these species,
on a very small piece of ground beef which-had been rubbed into the wool
on the animal's rump. Each of the chemicals was used at a concentration
of 2 percent. Eight of the 10 sheep treated with toxaphene were protected
aealnFt reinfestation for the entire time they were in test, 55 to 82
dvayv.-Grqh&m and Eddy (119).






_.43.


Little is known about the value of this material for controlling
either of these parasites under practical conditions..--U. S. Bur. Ent. and
Plant Quar. (300).

Culicidae

Aedes ae, ypti (L.), the yellow-fever mosquito

A single dose of toxaphene, undiluted at 300 meg./kg. and as a 10-
percent solution in corn oil at 5 mg./kg. was given rabbits. Of mosqui-
toes feeding on these rabbits 10 percent died after 2 days when the rabbit
was eriven undiluted toxaphene and 25 percent died after one day when the
rabbit was given toxaphene in oil.--Knipling et al. (163).

Toxaphene was very much less effective than DDT, BHC, and chlordane
when tested as space sprays against adult mosquitoes and was less effective
than DDT as a residual poison after 36 weeks on plywood.--Gehan et al. (9?).

Toxaphene, chlordane, BHC, and methoxychlor are less toxic to mosquito
larvae and are more toxic to gold fish than DDT.--Ginsburg (110).

Aedes sollicitans (Wlk.), the salt-marsh mosquito

In laboratory and field tests toxaphene compared favorably with DDT.
--Parker and Beacher (231).

In favorable weather four insecticides when sprayed on the ground re-
duced mosquito populations for 11 days, and their comparative value as
residual treatments appeared to be in the following order: DDT, BHC,
chlordane, and toxaphene.--Fluno et al. (91).

Toxaphene and DDT proved equally and highly toxic to larvae and pupae
of Aedes sollicitans. At the rates of 0.2 and 0.4 pounds per acre, no
adverse effect on other aquatic life was observed from either material.
At the rate of 1.0 pound per acre, however, a kill of predaceous diving-
beetles (Dytiscidae), small fish (up to one and one-half inches in length),
and fiddler crabs was recorded for both insecticides, with a greater
mortality of all forms in the case of toxaphene.--Stearns et al. (280).

Aedes spp.

In laboratory tests DDT and gamma BHC were about equally toxic to
mountain species and toxrphene, chlordane, and methoxychlor were somewhat
less effective.--Roth et al. (2M).

A fuel oil solution of toxaphene applied at the rate of 0.1 pound
toxicant per acre caused an average mortality of 80 percent of the larvae
in 48 hours; a similar application of DDT gave 93 percent mortality.
Toxaphene was inferior to DDT applied to the surface of the streams
against black fly larvae.-Travis (292).






-44-


In prehatehing treatment toxaphene dissolved in fuel oil applied at
the rate of 1 pound per acre gave 46 percent control of the larvae: the
same dosage of DDT in fuel oil pave 83 percent control.-Travis et al.
(2_3).

A fuel oil solution of toxaphene was less effective than either a
fuel oil solution or a water emulsion of DIDT against larvae of both Aedes
and Culiseta. Five-percent toxaphene in fuel oil at 0.2 pound toxicant
per acre killed 74 percent of Aedes larvae in 48 hours; the same dosage
of DDT killed 98 percent. These tests were made in Alaska.--Gjullin et
al. (111)-

In tests against arctic species of Aedes larvae made at Ft. Churchill,
Manitoba, Canada in 1948 and 1949, toxaphene was less toxic in oil solution
than DDT but gave a comparable kill as an emulsion at a dosage of 0.1 pound
per acre.--McIDuffie et al. (188).

Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, the common malaria mosquito

Toxaphene was one of 175 compounds out of 6,000 tested which caused
50-percent mortality of larvae in 48 hours at 1 ppm. or less. Comparative
tests of DDT and toxaphene yielded the following results:

Concentration Mortality
ppm. in 24 hrs. in 48 hrs.

DDT .01 100 -
Toxaphene .01 28.3 98.3

DDT .005 96.6 98.3
Toxaphene .005 3-3 58.3

DDT .0025 58.3 85.0
Toxaphene .0025 1.6 30.0

-Deonier et al. (57).

Field tests in occupied and unoccupied structures indicate residual
toxicity of three months or longer with toxaphene. The irritant effect
produced by DDT is much less apparent with toxaphene.--Cutkomp (54).

The order of diminishing residual effectiveness of various insecti-
cides over a 26-week period is DDT, BHC, chlordane, toxaphene, and TIlE.--
Fay et al. (86).

Same as for Aedes aegypti.--Gahan t1 al. (7).

Insectary-reared Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes were released
in rooms which had been sprayed with insecticides at the rate of 200 mg.
of the active ingredient per square foot. Toxaphene, whether applied as
a 5-percent xylene emulsion or as a 5-percent suspension from a 25-percent
wettable powder was very slow acting and seemed to have a comparatively
short residual life.-McCauley et al. (187).









Unidentified mosquitoes


In laboratory tests toxaphene proved highly toxic to larvae of eleven
species of California mosquitoes.--Michelbacher (200).

When employed in space sprays toxaphene is less effective than DDT
against both flies and mosquitoes, and considerably less effective when
used in aerosols. It has very little knockdown action and acts slowly.
Although highly toxic to mosquito larvae, it is slightly less active than
DDT.-Knipling (M. 1609 6,. 162).

Tests on the control of mosquito adults during the 1948 season in
Alaska were conducted to determine the size of area necessary to treat in
order to prevent infiltration in annoying numbers from the surrounding un-
sprayed areas, to obtain information on the number of times an area mist
be treated to protect a community from mosquitoes, and to establish the
minimum effective dosage of DDT. Formulations tested included standard 20
percent DDT airplane spray containing either 40 percent toxaphene and 40
percent fuel oil; 28 percent toxaphene and 52 percent fuel oil; or 15 per-
cent toxaphene and 65 percent fuel oil. Fuel oil was used as a diluent to
obtain reduced dosages. It was concluded that a dosage of 0.1 pound of
DDT per acre is adequate if applied under suitable wind conditions.-
Blanton et al. (21).

Hippoboscidae

Melophagus ovinus (L.), the sheep tick

Puparia were dipped in 0.5 percent suspension of insecticide and held
at room temperature (67-80e F.) or at a constant temperature of 80e F. and
a relative humidity of 50 to 70 percent. Toxaphene caused little if any
mortality of pupae and the addition of a wetting agent did not enhance its
effectiveness.-Hoffman (140).

Ticks were placed on cloth patches treated with an acetone solution
of the insecticide. Of the 20 insecticides evaluated 15 failed to give
100 percent mortality in 24 hours after 30 minutes exposure on cloth
treeted at the rate of 25 mg. of insecticide per square foot. Among the
insecticides that failed were DDT, TID, methoxychlor, chlordane, toxa-
phene, cube powder, crude benzene hexachloride and its alpha, beta and
delta isomers. Parathion was the most effective material tested, causing
100 percent mortality in 24 hours at 1.5 ig. dosage per square foot.-
Gjullin (111).

Sheep ticks exposed for 120 minutes to 24 mg. toxaphene per square
foot at 70 F. suffered 57-percent mortality and at 90 F. they suffered
94 percent mortality. Toxaphene and BHC killed more ticks at the higher
temperature, whereas DDT, THE and methoxychlor caused considerably higher
mortality of sheep ticks at 700 F. than at 90 F.--Hoffmn et al. (143).









Dipping tests with wettable powders showed that 0.2 and 0.5 percent
concentrations of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons caused complete to
nearly complete control of sheep ticks during the entire 110-day period
of the test. Wool samples collected from the treated sheep and exposed
to houseflies showed a high degree of toxicity for all chemicals at the
0.05-percent concentration. When Shropshire ewes in heavy fleece were
sprayed with 2.7 quarts of the chlorinated hydrocarbons at 0.2-percent
strength, none of the treatments consistently killed all the sheep ticks
during the test period. Chlordane, BHC, toxaphene, and methoxychlor gave
better results than DDT and TDE.--Falrchild et al. (85).

Against the sheep tick toxaphene was superior to DDT when used as
either a dip or a spray, but less effective than BHC and chlordane. In a
few tests complete control was obtained with dips containing 0.05, 0.2,
and 0.5 percent of the insecticide. However, its action appeared to be
slower than that of the other insecticides.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant
QCar. (300). Hypodermatidae

Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.), "Berne", the human bot fly

Toxaphene had no effect on encysted larvae.--Laake (172).

Typoderma bovis (L.), the northern cattle grub

H. linatum (De Vill.), the common cattle grub

Toxaphene was tried in 5 formulas all of which gave zero mortality
except one (50 percent lanolin, 25 percent toxaphene and 25 percent lin-
seed oil) which gave 80 percent mortality when applied by spatula.--
Telford (289).

In small-scale tests toxaphene did not control larvae of the common
cattle grub.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qaar. (300).

In laboratory tests a 1.5-percent aqueous suspension of toxaphene
prevented the eggs from hatching. In tests at Kerrville, Texas during
1948 nine applications at two week intervals beginning in January of a
2-percent suspension of toxaphene reduced the average number of grubs per
animal from 39.9 in the untreated check to 23.1.--Graham (118).

Itonididae

Monarthropalpus buxi Lab., the boxwood leaf miner

Toxaphene, 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water gave 100 percent control.
--Stearns et al. (282).

Muscidae

Hylemy brassicae (Bouche), the cabbage maggot

A 0.05 percent spray of toxaphene reduced the average infestation. in
radishes from 52.4 to 12.2 percent.-Dills and Odland (62, 63).






-47-


Toxaphene dusted on cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli in Washington
three weeks after the plants were up gave poor maggot control. This dust,
when applied by a fertilizer or duster attachment on the transplanter,
gave practically no control. Toxaphene caused no plant injury.-Stitt and
Eide (285).

Hylemya cilicrura (Rond.), the seed-corn maggot

A 5-percent toxaphene duet used at the rate of 0.5 pound per bushel
of boen seed was without value; also when applied to the soil at 80 pounds
per acre.--Ristich and Schwardt (253).

Muscidae

Musca domestic (L.), the house fly

The effect of temperature on speed of knockdown and mortality of
houseflies exposed to residues of several chlorinated hydrocarbons was de-
termined by exposing houseflies (1) continuously at constant temperatures
of 70 and 900 F. and (2) for predetermined periods (1 to 20 minutes) at
700 and 90 and then holding them for 24 hours at the same temperature at
which they were exposed. At a dosage of 50 mg. per square foot toxaphene
required 299 minutes for knockdown at 70. F. and 191 minutes at 900 F.-
Hoffman and Lindquist (142).

As a space spray toxaphene was considerably less effective than DDT,
chlordane, and BHC.--Gahan et al. (2Z).

In Brazil spraying barns and stalls with 0.5-percent toxaphene emulsion
quickly eliminated heavy population of house flies and kept the buildings
practically free from flies for 6 weeks, when the observations were
discontinued.--Laake (172).

In residual toxicity tests DDT and gamma BHC were initially the most
toxic compounds followed by chlordane, TJE, and toxaphene. BHC gave the
most rapid knockdown, followed by DDT, TDIE, chlordane, and toxaphene. The
order of persistence of the residual treatments was, from the most to the
least, DTI, TDE, toxaphene, chlordane, and BHC.--Bruce (28).

When tested as a fumigant toxaphene caused high mortality.--Hoffman
and Lindquist (141).

DDT proved superior to toxaphene as a space spray at all concentra-
tions less than 0.10 percent and Pt all volumes less than 0.30 milliliters.
Toxaphene does not give knockdown. As a residual toxicant, toxaphene com-
pares favorably with DDT. However, DDT causes paralysis of the flies in
a considerably shorter period of time than toxaphene. There was no differ-
ence in the efficiency of the DDT and toxaphene deposits after nearly 12
months' exposure to diffused lifht in the laboratory.--Parker and Beacher
(231)-









Toxaphene was less effective than DID against house flies from the
standpoint of both initial killing action and residual action.-U. S. Bur.
Znt. and Plant Quar. (300).

Nitrocellulose and urea-formaldehyde surface coatings containing 20-
percent of toxaphene were more toxic after 26 to 35 weeks than when first
applied, probably due to migration of the toxicant to the surface.--Block
(MJ).

Various surfaces, including pebbled glass, unpainted wood, Celotex,
Texolite water paint, whitewash plus toxicant, and whitewash on which the
toxicant was sprayed after drying, treated with comparable 10 percent (by
weight) water emulsions of toxaphene and DIT to give a theoretical deposit
of 100 mg. of toxicant per sq. ft., were compared for residual effective-
ness against the housefly over a period of 225 days. DDT proved superior
to toxaphene in speed of knockdown and in six-hour mortality for all
surfaces tested.--Beacher and Parker (12).

See also under Unidentified mosquitoes.-Knipling (21_, 160).

See under Anopheles Quadrimaculatus*.-Fay e_ al. (86). In these
tests against adult house flies the water-wettable toxaphene was somewhat
superior to the toxaphene-xylene emulsion, but neither combination was
entirely satisfactory.

Resistant houseflies

Wilson and Gahan (322) found that a special strain of houseflies that
was comparatively resistant to DDT space sprays was also resistant to
other insecticides including toxaphene. On the other hand Barber and
Schmitt (14, 15) in residual toxicity tests (144 mg. toxicant per sq. ft.)
found that flies of the Ellenville, N. Y. line that were highly resistant
to DDT and related compounds showed no resistance to certain other
unrelated chemicals including toxaphene.

The susceptibility or resistance of the various strains of flies
studied was determined from data obtained by topical applications of the
toxicant to the thorax of female houseflies. Acetone solutions of the
insecticides were used in all tests. The dosage-mortality data were used
to calculate the LD-50 values in terms of micrograms of toxicant per gram
weight of fly. The 24-hour LD-50 of toxaphene to the NAIDK strain of
flies was 29.16 (DDT = 16.8) whereas to flies that had become resistant
to DDT (18,728) this value was 76.4 micrograms per gram weight.-Bruce
(29).

In Denmark DDT-resistant and control flies reacted uniformly toward
toxaphene.--Keiding and Van Deurs (153).

Siphona irritans (L.), the horn fly

Toxaphene wettable powder at a concentration of 0.5 percent protected
dairy cattle for an average of 31 days and was equal to DDT. Of all of
the materials tested toxaphene gave the slowest knock-down of horn flies.--
Smith (270).


-48-






-49-


Toxaphene wettable powder spray at 0.5-percent concentration gave
excellent horn fly control. In Kansas the average days' protection was
27 and in Missouri 42 because the Missouri test herds were less exposed to
untreated cattle than were the Kansas herds.-Laake (171). These tests
were made on beef herds, using high-pressure sprayers and two quarts were
applied to the topline of each animal.-Cuff (50).

Cattle sprayed with 0.5-percent toxaphene wettable powder on the top-
line went 50.2 days before the fly count averaged 25; those sprayed on both
the topline and under went 62.4 days. The corresponding figures for the
0.5-percent DDT wettable powder spray were 41.5 and 42 days.-Cuff (1).

Toxaphene at 0.5-percent concentration has given results similar to
DDT for the control of horn flies. Although it is somewhat slower in killing
flies coming to treated animals, and under certain conditions might appear
to be inferior, final control has in general been comparable with that
obtained with DDT.--U. S. Bdr. Int. and Plant Quar. (300).

In laboratory knock-down tests against the horn fly, small screenwire
cages were dipped in preparations containing 0.5 percent of different
chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. The methoxychlor caused complete
knock-down in 5 minutes, DDT in 8, TIM in 17, chlordane in 53, and toxaphene
in 73 minutes in tests made 24 hours after the cages had been dipped. After
2 months' exposure the methoxychlor, DDT, TDE, toxaphene, and chlordane
caused complete knock-down of flies in 12, 62, 152, 248, and 360 to 720
minutes, respectively. The knock-down of flies exposed to animals treated
with the insecticides was the same as that determined in the laboratory,
except that a longer time was required. In semi-field tests best results
were obtained with DDT and toxaphene. In most of the tests wettable powders
proved superior to emulsions regardless of the concentration of insecticides
tested.-IEddy and Graham (77).

In tests at Kerrville, Texas during 1948 DDT, TIE, methoxychlor and
toxaphene applied as 0.5-percent emulsions to Jersey cows performed simi-
larly. The protective values were about equal, whether 1 or ?2 quarts of
the insecticide were applied over the entire body or 1 quart over the
dorsal half of the cow's body. When herds were sprayed on the under line
only, fly-free periods were diminished.--McGregor (190).

Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), the stable fly

The speed of knockdown and kill, and the duration of effectiveness of
11 of the more recently developed organic insecticides were studied in
laboratory tests against the stable fly. Two 14-mesh copper-wire cages were
dipped in a 1-percent solution of each test material in acetone. One cage
was held indoors while its duplicate was stored outdoors, fully exposed to
the effects of the weather. In the tests made 24 hours after the cages were
treated, DIDT and methoxychlor proved to be the fastest acting compounds and
toxaphene and chlordane the slowest acting.--Eddy and McGregor (7).






-50-


Under comparable practical conditions DDT, TDE, methoxychlor, toxa-
ph'ne, and chlordane in barn and premises treatments seem to be equally
effective in reducing the number of houseflies and stable flies that enter
the milk barns on treated farms.--MaIma and Hixon (208).

See under Tabanidap.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (300).

Similiidae

Simuliiur latipes Fries

S. venustum Say

S. vittatum Zett.

Toxaphene as an Palsion was effective against black fly larvae at a
concentration of 4 pp..; DDI was effective at about 1/6 this concentration.-
G4illin et al. (112).

Toxaphene, tested in the form of a 25-percent emulsion concentrate with
65 percent xylene and 10 p,-rcent Triton X-100 against blackfly larvae in
streams was ineffective at 2.46 ppm./min., or 1:6,000,000 for 15 minutes.-
Hockiri' et al. (139).

See irnder Aedes spp.--Travis (292).

Tabanidae

The effect on horse fly populations of aerial sprays applied to wooded
areas was studied. The insecticides were applied from a plane equipped with
a standard spray boom. Ten-acre plots were treated with 2 pounds per acre
of one of the following insecticides, dispersed as a 10-percent solution in
a mixture of cyclohexanone and No. 1 fuel oil: methoxychlor, DDT, toxaphene,
and chlordane. The effectiveness of the materials was determined by counting
flies attacking draft horses led through the test plots 1 day before spraying
and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after treatment. The results appeared somewhat
erratic, and no appreciable effect on fly populations could be demonstrated
for any of the insecticides tried. Tabanus abactor and T. sulcifrons were
the two most abundant species. T. atratus, T. vittiger, T. mularis, and T.
venustus were present in small numbers. A few species of Chryss and
Silvius were also present.--Howell et al. (145).

Toxapn'i-ne as a 2-percent spray did not protect animals from attack by
tabanids or stable flies.--U. S. Buir. Ent. and Plant Qar. (3OO).

ACARINA

Argasidae

Ctobius megnini (Dupaes), the ear tick

Toxaphene was superior to DIDT and comparable with chlordane and BHC
for controlling the ear tick.--l'. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qpar. (300).






-51-


Ixodidae

Amblyommia americanum (L.), the lone star tick

Toxaphene proved superior to DDT and equal to chlordane, but less
effective than BHC against the engorppd forms of the lone star tick. Toxa-
phene sprays at 0.75-percent concentration gave good control of all stages
and protection against reinfestation for 2 weeks, comparable with that
given by DDT and chlordane.--U. S. Bur. Xnt. and Plant 4ar. (300).

Amblyomma maculatum Koch, the Gulf Coast tick

Good control of all stages resulted when cattle were dipped or sprayed
with 0.5 to 0.75 percent of toxaphene and protection against reinfestation
lasted for 2 to 3 weeks.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (300).

Boophilus annulatus (Say), the cattle tick

Extensive tests conducted in South America have shown that sprays con-
taining 0.5 percent of toxaphene are highly effective against all stares of
the cattle fever tick present on animals. Complete protection was obtained
for 3 weeks and good control for 4 weeks. Protection after 3 weeks was
comparable with that obtained 11 to 13 days after treatment with a spray
containing 0.5 percent of DDT plus sufficient BHC to give 0.025 percent of
the gamma isomer.-U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qgar. (300).

Toxaphene applied as a spray destroyed all stages of the fever tick,
Boophilus annulatus var. microplus, attached to cattle at the time of treat-
ment and prevented reinfestation for 3 to practically 4 weeks, depending
somewhat on the breed of cattle involved. The toxaphene e uilsion was used
in spray tests in concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 percent and in dip
tests at 0.53 percent active principle and was ao liied to four purebred
breeds and several grades or mixtures of dairy breeds, including :oung and
very young purebred and grade calves, without any visible injury to the
animals or to the personnel har:Iin", or applyirn the e.mulEion.--1avke (172).

In Australia Cooper TO. (65 percent toxaphr-ne in emulsified form) at
strengths of 0.65 percent and 0.55-percent toxaphene concentrations gave
practically a 100 percent kill of all ticks on heavily infested cattle.
Toxaphene arrests the development of female ticks at once. Within a few
hours they detach themselves from the host and die within a relatively short
period. No untoward effects on the animals have been noted.--Le-g (1).

Dermacertor albipictus (Pack.), the winter tick

Toxaphene was superior to DDT and comparable with chlordane agnir- It
the winter tick on cattle and horses, when employee' either as a spray or as
a dust. lood control of all sta-es was obtained with sprays containi. as
little as 0.75 percent and this concentration -.rotected a Inst relnfesa-
tion for about 2 months. A 0.5 percent spray failed to control all the
engorged forms, but prevented further reinfestations for 6 to 6 weeks.-
U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant uar. (302).






-52-


Tetranychidae

Paratetranychus citri (McG.), the citrus red mite

Toxaphene proved nontoxic at 1 percent to mites.--Metcalf (1);
Metcalf et al. (9 2).

Paratetranychus pilosus (C. & F.), the European red mite

The application of a 0.125-percent toxaphene spray (as a 25-percent
wettable powder) to soybeans permitted only 25 percent of a normal
population of mites and eggs to develop.-W-Vingo and Thonmas (324).

On apples in Delaware the red mite populations with DDT alone and with
DDT and lead arsenate were moderately large; and with toxaphene and lead
arsenate and with toxaphene alone, small to negligible.-Parker et al. (232).

Orchard tests in British Columbia showed toxaphene to be fairly
effective against European red mite.--Boss and Armstrong (256).

Tetranychus bimaculatus Harvey, the two-spotted spider mite

Dusts containing 3 to 5 percent of toxaphene were effective in con-
trollin' this mite on lima beans on Long Island but were less effective
than dusts containing 1 percent of parathion or 10 percent of azobenzene.
Toxaphene 25-percent wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water,
and toxaphene 50-percent concentrated emulsion at 1:400 also were effective,
yielding an increase of clean pods equal to that produced by hexaethyl
tetraphosphate l:800.--Huckett (146).

In the greenhouse, toxaphene had considerable acaricidal value at
high rates, e.g. 1 to 4 pounds per 100 gallons. There was little ovicidal
action but the residue effectively destroyed the young of two-spotted mite
hatching after spraying.---Ross and Armstrong (256).

Same as for Paratetranychus piloeus.-Wingo and Thomas (324).

Tetranychus pacificus McG, the Pacific mite

In 1947 at Yakima, Washington, five applications of a 50-percent
water miscible toxaphene at 1:800 controlled the mites and caused no
injury to apples.- Newcomer (215, 217); Newcomer and Dean (218); Oarlson
and Newcomer (2).

Vasates cornutus (Banks), the peach silver mite

In washington in 1947 toxaphene 1 pint (sic) to 100 gallons of water
reduced the average mite population per peach leaf from 395 to 21.5.--
Carlson (36).






-53-


Trombiculidae

Trombicula (Eutrombicula) splendens Ewing

Trombicula (Eutrombicula) alfreddugesi (Oud.), the common chigger

In tests made near Savannah, Ga., in 1946, toxaphene applied as an
emulsion spray at 8, 4, and 2 pounds per acre gave control equal to that
of hydroyvpentamethylflavan at 4 pounds per acre throughout the 17-day
period of observation.--Smith and Gouck (271).


LITERATURE CITED

(1) ANONYMOUS
1948. Compatibility chart for insecticides and fungicides. Amer.
Fruit Grower 68(2): 40-41.

(2)---
1948. New freight classification. A.I.F. News 6(5): 3.

(3)
1949. Weather factors in spraying and dusting pome fruits. Amer.
Fruit Grower 69(2): 24-25.

(4)---
1949. Compatibility chart for insecticides and fungicides. Amer.
Fruit Grower 69(2): 36-37.

(5)--
1949. Weather factors in spraying and dusting stone fruits. Amer.
Fruit Grower 69(3): 21.

(6) ALLMAN, S. S., and WRIGHT, J. A.
1948. Grasshopper control. Recent developments. Agr. Gaz. N. S.
Wales 59: 233-236, 283-288, 345-349.

(7) ANDESRON, L. D., and HASHE, J. W.
1949. Control of corn earworm on sweet corn in southern California.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 933-941.

(8) APPLE, J. W., and DECKER, G. C.
1949. Insecticidal dust formulations for corn borer control. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 88-92.

(9) ARANT, F. S.
1947. Results obtained from use of various insecticides in cotton
insect control at Alabama Experiment Stations. Southeastern
Cotton Insect Control Conference, Columbia, S. C.,
Dec. 8-9, 1947. pp. 23-25.






-54-


(10) APANT, F. S.
1948. Preliminary field tests with new insecticides for control
nf velvetbean caterpillar. Jour. Icon. Ent. 41: 803.

(11) ARD, J. S.
1948. Detection of chlordan (octachloro-4,7-methanotetrahydro-
indane) in insecticide oil sprays. Analyt. Chem. 20:
858-859.

(12) ARIZONA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
1948. Third Annual Report, Economic Poisons. Sp. Bul., 45 pp.

(13) ARMITAGE, H. M.
1947. State of California, Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Q(iarantine, 28th Ann. Rpt. 36(4):
141-201.

(14) BARBER, G. W., and SCHMITT, J. B.
1948. Houseflies resistant to DDT residual sprays. N. J. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bul. 742, 8 pp.

(15) --- and SCHMITT, J. B.
1949. Further studies on resistance to DDT in the housefly.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 287-292.

(16) BATTE, E. G., and TURK, R. D.
1948. Toxicity of some synthetic insecticides to dogs. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 41: 102-103.

(17) BEACHFB, J. H., and PARKER, W. L.
1948. Residual toxicity. Soap and Sanit. Chem. 24(6): 139, 141,
143, 163.

(18) BISHOP, F. C.
1946. New insecticides. Agr. Chem. 1(6): 19-2?, 39-40.

(19)
1948. Large scale insect control problems. Soap and Sanit. Chem.
24(2): 143-145, 169.

(20) --- and KNIPLIN3, E. F.
1948. Insecticides applied on livestock. Indus. and Engin. Chem.
40: 713-716.

(21) BLANTON, F. S., HUSMAN, C. N., TRAVIS, B. V., and WILSON, C. S.
1949. Control of Alaskan mosquito adults by aerial sprays. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 106-109.

(22) BLOCK, S. S.
1948. Insecticidal surface coatings. Soap and Sanit. Chem. 24(2):
138-141, 171; and (3): 151-153.






-55-


(23) BLOCK. S. S.
1948. Residual toxicity tests on insecticidal protective coatings.
Soap and Sanlt. Chem. 24(4): 155, 157, 159, 161, 207, 213.

(24) BODY F. F.
1947. Results obtained from the use of various insectlcideB in
boll weevil control, 1946 and 1947. Pee Dee Experiment
Station, Florence, South Carolina. Southeastern Cotton
Insect Control Conference Proc., Columbia, S. C. Dec. 8-9,
1947. pp. 10-17.

(25) BRAKNON, L. W.
1949. Tests of some new insecticides to control Mexican bean
beetle. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 928-930.

(26) BRETT, C. H., and RHOADES, W. C.
1948. Grasshopper control with parathion, benzene hexachloride,
chlorinated camphene, and chlordane. Jour. Econ. Ent.
41: 16-18.

(27) BROWN, A. W. A., HOPEWELL, W. W., WENNER, B. J., and McDONALD, H.
1948. Laboratory assessment of organic insecticides for control
of certain lepidopterous larvae. Can. Entomologist 79;
161-166.

(28) BRUCE, W. N.
1949. Characteristics of residual insecticides toxic to the house
fly. Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey Bul. 25, Art. 1, 32 pp.

(29)----
1950. Current report on housefly resistance to insecticides.
Pert Control 18(4): 9-10, 19.

(30) BUSHLAND, B. C.
1948. Insecticides for the control of lice attacking man and
animals. Internatl. Cong. Trop. Med. and Malaria.
Abs. 4: 138-139.

(31) --- WELLS, R. W., and RADELEFF, R. D.
1948. Effect on livestock of sprays and dips cont&inine new
chlorinated insecticides. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41:
642-645.

(32) BUTLER, G. D., Jr., and CARRUTH, L. A.
1949. Corn earworm control with DDT and other insecticides.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 457-461.

(33) ---- and SHAW, F. R.
1948. Comparative toxicity of various insecticides to the honey-
bee. Gleanings Bee Culture 76: 348-3%49.






-56-


(34) BYNUM, 2. K., INGRAM, J. W., and CHARPENTIER, L. J.
1949. Control of wireworms attacking sugar cane in Louisiana.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 556-557.

(35) CAMPBELL, J.
1948. Promising new chemicals for the control of potato diseases
and insects. Amer. Potato Jour. 25(2): 48-49.

(36) CARLSON, F. W.
1948. Tests of toxicants for the peach silver mite. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 41: 836.


(37)


and NEWCOMER, E. J.
1949. Control of pear psylla in the Pacific Northwest. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 338-342.


(38) CARR.UTH,
1948.


L. A., and HOWE, W. L.
Factors affecting use and phytotoxicity of DDT and other
insecticides for squash borer control. Jour. Econ. Ent.
41: 352-355.


(39) CARTER, R. H., WELLS, R. W., RADELEFF, B. D., SMITH, C. L., HUBANKS,
P. E. and MANN, H. D.
1949. The chlorinated hydrocarbon content of milk from cattle
sprayed for control of horn flies. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42:
116-118.

(40) CH iBPLIN, T. R., and MEDLER, J. T.
1949. Tests of insecticides against the meadow spittlebug on
seed alfalfa. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 653-656.


(41) CHRIST,
1949.


E. G., and TRIGGERS, B. F.
Strawberry weevil control with new organic insecticides.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 559.


(42) CLEMSON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE
1949. Cotton production and insect control. South Carolina 1949.
Clemson Agr. Col. S. C. Ext. Serv. Cir. 324, 8 pp.


(43) CONNER,
1948.


J. T., Jr., and KULASH, W. M.
Cotton insect control in North Carolina. N. C. Agr. Col.
Ext. Cir. 312, 7 pp. Reprinted for 1949.


(44) COPE, 0. B.
1948. Toxicities and tolerances of new insecticides in relation
to wildlife and fish. Calif. Mosquito Control Assoc.
Proc. & Papers 1948: 26-29.

(45) COTTON, R. T., and FRANZENFELD, J. C.
1948. Laboratory experiments with residual sprays for control of
confused flour beetles in the flour mill and warehouse.
Assoc. Oper. Millers Bul. Apr. 1948, pp. 1660-1665.






-57-


(46) COTTON, R. T. and FF.dT'fTLD, J. C.
1948. Residuals, toxicity studies with new typse of Insecticidc .
sprr.vP. Amer. id-ller and Processor 76(4): '-'6; and
(7): 16, 38.
(47) .- FRANK ETLD, J. C., and TENNIS, N. M.
1948. Residual sprays for use ,?.-kinst the confused flour beejlie
U. S. Bur. Ent. ':d Plant Eiar. E.-766. 15 pp.
[Processed. I

(48) cox, J. A.
1949. Field experiments for control of the grape berry moth.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 507-514.

(49) CROWELL, H. H., and MOREISON, H. E.
1930. The phytotoxicity to cucurbits of some new insectic'it...
Jour. Ercnn. Ent. 43: 14-16.

(50) cU17, R. C.
1948. Report farm tests of new fly killers. Succeieful Faraid).g
46(7): 94.

(51) .
1949. Cattle sprays to use for flies, lice and grubs to pt
best results. Natl. Live Stock Prod. 27(9): 3, 12.

(52) CULLINAI,, F. P.
1947. Effects of some of the newer organic chemicals on pint
life. Agr. Chem. 2(5): 18-20.

(5?)
1949. Some new insecticides their effect on plants and soils.
Jour. 'Econ. Ent. 42: 387-391.

(54) CUTKOMP, L. K.
1947. Residual Fpravs to control Anopheles quadrimaculatus.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 40: 328-333.

(55) CUTRIGHT, C. R.
1949. Combating the periodical cicada with insecticides. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 359-362.

(56) DECKER, G. C., APPLE, J. W., WRI;HT, J. Mi., an P1'::, H. .
1947. European corn borer control on canninp corn. Jour. c: .
Ent. 40: 39-40CO.

(57) DFC'T'IFR, C. C. JONf(f) H. A. and I NCk-iO, H. H.
1q46. 0reanic compounds effective against larvae of A; -.LL>:
qiadrlmrculatuii laboratory tests. Jour. Econ. t.
39: 459-462.









(sE) DESALEFRFS, L. and LAPRATJT, R.
1947. Insecticides nruveaux, lee derives chores de la series
ternenique. Clhim. & Indue. [Paris] 58: 443-448.

(59) and RACHE, J.
1'148. Lea ter-penes polychlores et leurs proprietes insecticides.
Chim. & Indus. [Paris] 59: 236-239.

(60) DE'TWFY, J. E., and VAN.;ELUWE, J. D.
1948. Some orA'pnic insecticides for control of plum curculio
on peaches. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 235-239.

(61) DIEPHIUS, F., and DUNN, C. L.
1949. Toxaphene residues. IV. Toxaphene in tissues of cattle
and sheep fed toxaphene-treated alfalfa. Montana Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bul. 461, pp. 22-26.

(62) DILLS, L. E., and ODLAND, M. L.
1948. Cabbage maggot insecticidal tests. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41:
98-101.

(63) --- and ODLAND, M. L.
1046. Several chemicals better than mercury compouondp in combatting
cabbage maggot. Sci. for the Farmer Penn. State Agr.
Expt. Sta. Supplement No. 2 to Bull. 488, pp. 9-10.

(64) ---- and ODLAND, M. L.
1949. Cabbage caterpillar insecticide experiments. Market
Growers Jour. 78(6): 19.

(65) DOBBINS, T. N., and FRhONK, W. D.
1948. Insecticide tests for the control of coleopterous larvae
attacking peanuts in the soil. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41:
815-816.

(66) DOMINICK, C. B.
1949. New insecticides for tobacco flea beetle control. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 148-149.

(67) DORST, H. E., and PEAY, W. E.
1949. Insecticides not effective in control of curly top in
tomatoes. Farm and Home Science. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta.
10(1): 16.

(68) DOUGLASS, J. R., and SHIRCK, F. -i.
1949. Experiments for control of onion thrips. Jour. Econ. Ent.
42: 68-72.

(69) DUGAS, A. L., SMITH, C. E., and CONCIENNE, E. J.
1947. Three new insecticides--benzene hexachloride, "3956"11 and
Ryanex compare favorably with cryolite for sugarcane
borer control. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1945-
1946: 53-54.






-59-


(70) DUGAS, A. L., S;'iTH, C. E., sand CONCIENNE, E. J.
1948. Sil-arcane insect control. Louisiana Agr. FLqt. Sta. Ann.
Rpt. 19-;46-1947: 54-55.

(71) --- S:.-4TH, C. E. and CONUGINILE, E. J.
1948. Velvetbean caterpillar. Louisiania Aer. Expt. Sta. AM..
Rpt. 1946-19)4: 55-5<

(72) ---- SMITH, C. E., and CONCiFDJNE, E. J.
1949. The new organic insecticides are unsafe to uEe on sugar
cane in Louisiana for sugar cane borer control. La.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1947-1948: 69-70.

(73) --- SMITH, C. E., and CONCIENNE, E. J.
1949. Parathion found effective against the fall armyworm and the
lesser cornstalk borer. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept.
1947-1948: 70-71.

(74) DUSTAN, G. G., ARMSTBRONG, T., and PUTMAN, W. L.
1947. The influence of air currents on the insecticidal action
of DDT, benzene hexachloride, Hercules Toxicant 3956,
and Velsicol 1068. Canad. Ent. 79: 45-50.

(75) ECKERT, J. E.
1949. Determining toxicity of agricultural chemicals to honey
bees. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 261-265.

(76) EDDY, G. W., and BUSHLAND, R. C.
1948. Compounds more toxic than DDT to body lice. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 41: 369-373.

(77) --- and GRAHAM, C. H.
1949. Tests to control horn flies with new insecticides. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 265-268.

(78) ---- and McGREGOR, W. S.
1949. Residual action of organic insecticides against stable
flies. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 547-548.

(79) 2EDEN, W. G., and ARANT, F. S.
1949. Control of the imported fire ant in Alabama. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 42: 976-979.

(80) ENNS, W. R.
1949. Insecticides to control cat-facing of peaches. Mo. State
Hort. Soc. Hort. News. pp. 8-9. May.

(81) EWART, W. H.
1949. The present status of the use of new insecticides on citrus
in central California. Part I Citrus thrips and
citricola scale. Univ. Calif. Citrus Expt. Sta. News
Letter 39: 2-6. [Processed.1







-60-


(82) EWING, K. P. and PnFINCIA, C. R., Jr.
1948. Control of boll weevil and cotton aphid with dusts con-
taining chlorinated camphene, benzene hexachloride, or
other new insecticides. Jour. Fcon. Ent. 41: 558-563.

(a3) -- and PARENCIA, C. R. Jr.
1949. ExpEriments in early-season application of insecticides
for cotton-insect control in Wharton County, Texas during
1948. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qjiar. E-772, 6 pp.
[Processed. ]

(5L) ..-- and PARENCIA, C. R., Jr.
1949. Early-season application of insecticides for cotton-insect
control. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qjar. E-792. 9 pp.
illus. [Processed.1

(85) FAIC- EILD, H. E. HOFFMAN, R. A., and LINDQUIST, A. W.
1c-. A comparison of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides
for control of the sheep tick. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42:
410-414.

(86) FAY, R. W., COLE, E. L., and BUCk2-R, A. J.
1947. Comparative residual effectiveness of organic insecticides
za.anst house flies and malaria mosquitoes. Jour. Econ.
Int. 40: 635-640.

(,-7) FIFE, L. C., CH. ,MN1, A. J., and SHILLER, I.
1948. Toxicity of several chlorinated hydrocarbons to thrips
on cotton. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 665-666.

(88) ---WALKER, R. L., and BONDY, F. F.
19h4. Poll weevil control with several organic insecticides
during 1948. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 682-684.

(89) FLOYD, E. H.
1949. Control of the sand wireworm in Louisiana. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 42: 900-903.

(90) --- and SMITH, C. E.
1948. rceK crop insect studies. La. Agr. 7xpt. Sta. Ann.
Rept. 1946-1947: 56-67.

(91) T\.-L0, J. A., RATN, 7. S. DECN17F, C. C. and 'FAULJ7L, F.
1949. Comparative toxicity of DDT and some of the newer insocti-
cides to adults of Salt-marsh mosquitoes. Mosquito News
9(1): 15-18.

(02) ?-QTvEF., A. C.
I'; '". ?.ytotoxic effect of DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides. Assoc. Southern A-r. Workers Proc.,
45: 143--144.










(93) FRAZIER, N. W., ad a PJ,;7L D. F.
148. Mxperiments or control of the .rape leaf foi ...r tn
iifornioi. Jour. !0-on. Trt. 41: 4^JI.4-2.

(94) TREAR, D. E. H.
1949. What the dealer e' 1-d k-:,)w about irisecticideR. Akr,
Chem. 4(5): 2",-:', 85.

(95) ----- HILBOEN, M. T., and Pi". C., A. E.
1949. Pest control materials, 1949. Malin- Arr. rxpt. Sta, Misc.
Publ. 613; Pa. Agr. Zxpt. Sta3 '-" Pa '7 t. '.. 110 pp.

(96) FRONK, W. D., and DOBBINS, T. N.
1949. Insecticide tests for control of southern corr. root-
worm in Panuts. U. S. Bur. t. an'' ?aint jur. 2-e7r,
10 pp. LProce9?pd.]

(97) GAH.AN, J. B., GILBERT, I. H., PE FLY, .. L., and WILSON, H. G.
1948. Comparative toxicity of four chlorinated organic compounds
to mosquitoes, houseflies, and cockroaches. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 41: 795-801.

(98) GAINES, J. C.
1947. Tests of insecticides for control of giass. _-rs. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 40: 896-899.

(99) .--
1948. New organic insecticides for controlling insects. v.tton
Gin and Oil Mill Press 49(4): 15.

(100) --- and DEAN, H. A.
1948. Tests of insecticides for the control of several cotton
insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: Y-S-^..

(101) ----- and IEAN, H. A.
1948. Comparison of insecticides for control harl -uin UgL-B.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 808-809.

(102) --- and EAN, H. A.
1948. Comparison of insecticide iusts for f ..rsho r control.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 'o-5-)48.

(103) --- and UAN, H. A.
1949. Effect of temperature nr. hudiid1 on vt1 ox ity of
certain insecticides. Jc,'x. Econ. t *, -

(104) --- and IAN, H. A.
1949. Insecticide tests for boll weevil control !-.rir.'- l .
Jour. Econ. Ent, 42: 795-790.

UBRARY
STATE PLA T BOA -D


-.61--










(10Q) 3AINES, J. C. and DEAN, H. A.
194'. Comparison of p'rays and ducts for grasshopcper control.
Jour. r ra. ;. t..4.,(S:^
Jour '2: 56- 959 -

(iO0) .---. l H. A., Wl'-i-'"T R.
19L8. Control of rp on cotton. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 510-
512.

(1r7) -----a~-* ^?;A B. L.
ic10'. C-,-,nparison of diluents in insecticide mixtures for cotton
insect control. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 811-812.

(?7.) -iL.irS, R. C., anid SCALES, A. L.
19&9. EffectiveneEss of insecticides on the boll weevil in cotton
squares in 1947. Jour. Fcon. Ent. 41: 519-520.

(l,',) OREgRIA CaOAST..L PLAIN XEBIM;EI' STATION
1949. Cotton inspcL control recommendations for 23orgia. Univ.
System of Georgia Mimeo. paper No. 2 (revised) 2 pp.,
Jan.

(110) TGI~MfLB J. M.
1' --. ets t dth new toxicants in comparison with DDT on mos-
quito larvae and fish. N. J. Mosquito Extermin.
A' :'-c. (1947) 34: 132-135.

(i .) .. TT-._:,. C. M
IC-'4.%. La-oratoary tests with v:.rious new insecticides against
the ep ttick. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 984.

(7') ... .J). B2 TI. .::.7 ".. Y, 2. F., and DuiC'-N1OIS, F. B.
1.'-',-i.. effct so< f'.r-ter.ticideb on black fly larvae in
.'-'-, '-4- es. Jour. L-"on. Ent. 2': 100-105.
(113) ------ W -W_.'", C S. -Q; S B7 V., '-.. ,T. G. L.
19, T ela e effectiveness f several ins8-ticides
***inBt 1 .to" '-c.a..... ':, ;a~ka. ,'noequito 'e a 9(4):
I'- : .

ZE. H, a: 1 : -:- 2.L
I^'-" -- -i roller .b-em in New York, Jour. Econ.
Ent. '-: y -35.

(115) ;OUL., E., and lY1LO-, C. ..
1949. Effect of insecticidal' sprays on incidence of peach scab
in Wr-qt Vir^.nia. Plant Disease Reptr. 33: 16-17.

(116) XULD, G. E.
1947. New insecticides show promise in roach control. Ind. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. (1947) 60: 72.






- 6-


(I)17 GPHAMi, C.
1948. control of zra&he.-.,; prs in apple and 'ea: orcnrd. ur.
Econ. Ent. 41: 111.

(118) GRAAM., 0. H.
1949. An attempt to protect cattle from grub ir.festati-j & use
of insecticides. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: P37.

(119) .--- and EDDY. G. W.
1948. Persistence of chlorinated cpinphene as a fleece worm
larvicide. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 521.

(120) GREENWOOD, D. E.
1948. The states of wireworm control, Connecticut, 1947. Conn.
Agr. Expt. Sta., Spec. Bul., Feb. 15, 1948. 3 pp.

(121) .--- and HOFMASTER, B. N.
1950. The efficiency of several new insecticides for the control
of Hymenia fascialis on fall spinach. Jour. Econ. Ent.
43: 108.

(122) GREENWOOD, M. L., and TICE, J. M.
1949. Palatability tests of potatoes grown in soil treated with
the insecticides benzene hexachloride, chlordan, ai.d
chlorinated camphene. Jour. Agr. Research 78: 477-482.

(123) GRIFFITHS, J. T., Jr., and KING, J. B.
1948. Comparative compatibility and residual toxicity of organic
insecticides as based on grasshopper control. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 41: 389-392.

(124) --- KING, J. B., and THOMPSON, W. L.
1947. Grasshopper control in citrus groves in Florida. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. (1947) 60: 80-86. Also in
Citrus Ind. 29(4): 20-22, 26. 1948.

(125) GYRISCO, G. G., and MARSHALL, D. S.
1950. Further investigations on the control of the clbvei root
borer in New York. Jour. Econ. Ent. 43: 82-86.

(126) N--- EWSOM, L. D., MARSHALL, D. S., and SCHWARIX, H. H.
1949. New advances in alfalfa snout beetle control. Jour. Fccn.
Ent. 42: 311-314.

(127) HAMILTON, D. W.
1948. Pear psylla control in the Hudson River Valley in 1947.
N. Y. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 93(1948): 171-179.

(128) ---
1948. Summer control of pear psylla during 1947. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 41: 244-248.







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(I.'- ) R A;-L"_4N, Z. Z.
1948. Factors involved in -,,isoning Gerrnan roachpe by ?xpoeinrL
them to -irfaces t'.ea:ed with chlorinated hydrocarbons,
Jour. c.-n. Ent. 41: 516-517,

(Ii0) HARKED, R. W.
10o'. Insecticides for cotton. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook, 1943-
1947, pp. 655-658.

(31) HARRIS30., P. K.
l14'. Laboratory tests of new cormpourds as insecticides against
the sweetpotato weevil. U.S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Qjar.
F,-770, 5 pp. [Processed.

(12) HASTINGS, E., and PEPPER, J. H.
1949. Field tests with new insecticides for control of the
alfalfa weevil. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 554-555.


(133) HAarfINS,
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(134) HAYSLuIP.




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(137) HST1ICK,
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J. H., and THUBSTON, R.
Some phases of European corn borer control in Central
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N. C.
Recent advances in the control of animal, pasture and corn
pests. Mimeographed Rpt. No. 12. Everglades Expt. Sta.,
Belle Glade, Fla. 8 pp.


A report of insect control investigations for the fiscal
year July 1, 1947-1948. Mimeographed Rpt. No. 17.
Everglades Expt. Sta., Belle Glade, Fla. 26 pp.


Insect control investigations. Vegetable Crops Field Day,
Ir.diantown, Fla. April 29, 1948. pp. 3-12 [Processed.]

L.A.
The toxicity of some organic insecticides to the eastern
subterranean termite. Jour. Econ. Ent. 43: 57-59.


(138) HIN14AN, E. J., and COWAN, F. T.
1947. New insecticides in grasshopper control. U. S. Bur. Ent.
and Plant Qiar. E-722, 21 pp. [Processed.


(139) HOCKING,
1949.


B., TWINN, C. B., and McDUFFIE, W. C.
A preliminary evaluation of some insecticides against
immature stages of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Sci. Agr. 29(2): 69-80.


(140) HOFFMAN, R. A.
1949. Effect of several insecticides on sheep tick pupae. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 4?: 984.





-65-


(141) HOFFMAN, R. A., and LINDQUIST, A. W.
1949. Fumigating properties of several new insecticides. Jour.
Icon. Ent. 42: 436-438.

(142) -- and LINDQUIST, A. W.
1949. Effect of temperature on knockdown and mortality of house
flies exposed to residues of several chlorinated
hydrocarbon insecticides. Jour. Icon. Ent. 42: 891-
893.

(143) --- BOTH, A. R., and LINDQUIST, A. W.
1949. Effect of air temperature on the insecticidal action of
some compounds on the sheep tick and on migration of
sheep tick on the animal. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 893-
896.

(144) HOFMASTER, B. N., and GREENWOOD, D. E.
1949. Fall arnyworm control on forage and truck crops. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 502-506.

(145) HOWELL, D. E., EDDY, G. W., and CUFF, B. L.
1949. Effect on horse fly populations of aerial spray applications
to wooded areas. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 644-646.

(146) HUCKETT, H. C.
1948. Control of the two-spotted mite on lima beans, on Long
Island. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 202-206.

(147) INGRAM, J. W., BYNUM, E. K., and CHARPENTIER, L. J.
1947. Tests with now insecticides for control of the sugarcane
borer. Jour. Econ. Ent. 40: 779-781.

(148) IVY, E. E., PARENICA, C. B., Jr., and EWINJ, K. P.
1947. A chlorinated camrphene for control of cotton insects.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 40: 513-517.

(149) JEFIMRSON, B. N., and PENCE, B. J.
1948. Aster leaf miner-chlordane and benzene hexachloride
Promising as control insecticides. Calif. A4r.
Calif. Sta. 1 2(1): 11-12.

(150) --- and PENCE, B. J.
1948. Preliminary experiments on the control of the leaf miner
Liriomyza flaveola on astere. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41:
653-655.

(151) JOHNSON, D. B.
1949. Chemical treatment of seed corn for control of A-,n'de
comma. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 801-805.






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(152) KEARNS, C. V., WZINMAN, C. J., and IXCKER, G. C.
1949. Insecticidal properties of some new chlorinated organic
compounds. Jour. 3con. Ent. 42t 127-134.

(153) HIDING, J., and VAN IMMS, H.
1949. DDT resistance in houseflies in Denmark. Nature [London]
163: 964-965.

(154) mKsEIMER, I. G.
1947. The use of some organic insecticides in the control of ear-
worms attacking sweet corn. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
(1947) 60: 121-123.

(155)---
1948. The control of insect pests of cucumber and squash.
Market Growers Jour. 77(12): 16, 27.

(156) KENTUCKY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
1948. Control of green June beetles. Ky. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann.
Rept. 61(1948): 48-49.

(157) ERR T. W., Jr.
1948. Control of the cornfield ant in golf greens. Jour. icon.
Ent. 41: 48-52.

(158) KING, J. R., and GRIFFITHS, J. T., Jr.
1948. Results of the use of concentrated sprays in citrus groves
in Florida. Fla. Ent. 31: 29, 31-34.

(159) KNIPLING, E. F.
1947. Recent developments in insecticides of interest to pest
control operators. Pests 15(2): 10, 12, 14.

(160) ----
1947. Newer synthetic insecticides. Soap and Sanit. Chem. 23(7):
127, 124, 131.

(161) ----
1947. Pests that attack man. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1943-
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(162) ---
1948. New insecticides, acaracides, and repellents for the control
of arthropods attacking man. Internatl. Cong. Trop.
Med. and Malaria. Abs. 4: 141-142.

(163) --- BUSBLAND, R. C., BABERS, F. H., CULPEPPER, G. H., and RAUN, E. S.
1947. Evaluation of selected insecticides and drugs as chemo-
therapeutic agents against blood-sucking parasites.
Jour. Parasitology 34: 55-70.






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(164) 1RUSX C. W.
1948. Roach control. Soap and Sanlt. Chem. 24(11): 131, 133,
135, 137, 139, 169.


(165) KXULASH.
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W. M.
Results obtained from use of various insecticides in
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Dust treatments for fall armyworm control in North
Carolina. Jour. Xcon. Ent. 41: 822-823.


New insecticides for cotton insect control. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 41: 986-987.


Further tests with soil insecticides to control southern
corn rootworm. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 558-559.


The green peach aphid as a pest of tobacco. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 42: 677-680.


New insecticides for grasshopper control. Okla. Agr. Col.
Ext. Cir. 483, 3 pp.


(171) LAAKE, E. W.
1949. Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides for the control of
the horn fly on beef cattle in Kansas and Missouri.
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(173) LAAKSO.
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Livestock parasite control investigations and deimonstra-
tione in Brazil. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 276-280.

J. W., and JOHNSON, L. H.
Toxaphene residues. II. Toxaphene residues on alfalfa.
Montana Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 461, pp. 5-15.


(174) LAUDAJI, H., and MARZKE, F. 0.
1949. Toxicity to fabric insects and the resistance to washing
and dry cleaning of six chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 434-436.

(175) LEGG, J.
1949. A preliminary note on the use of two recently introduced
insecticides, chlordane and toxaphene, in the control
of the cattle tick (Boophilus microplue). Austral.
Vet. Jour. 25(4): 65-66.









(176) LEHMAN, A. J.
1948. The pharmacology of the newer insecticides. U. S. Food
and Drug Adm. 3 pp. [Processed. ]

(177)---
1948. The toxicology of the npwer agricultural chemicals. Bl.
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(178) LEPAGE, H. S., and GIANNOTTI, 0.
1949. Experiments in controlling cotton pests with some modern
organic insecticides. (In Portuguese.) Biologico 15:
10-16.

(179) ----- IA1NOTTI, 0., and ORLANDO, A.
1947. Experiments on the chemical control of the South American
migratory locust Schistocerca cancellata Serv. Inst.
Biol. rsao Paulo Arch. 18(8): 135-160.

(180) LINIfTSKA, J. P., and SURBER, E. W.
1948. Effects of DDT end other insecticides on fish and wildlife -
Summary of investigations during 1947. U. S. Dept.
Interior, Fish and Wildlife Serv. Cir. 15, 19 pp.

(181) LIST, G. M., and HOERNBP, J. L.
1947. IDusts and sprays for grasshopper control. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 40: 138.

(182) --- and HOERIER, J. L.
1949. Spray schedule for 1949. Colorado A. & M. College Expt.
Sta. Misc. Series Paper No. 424, 16 pp.

(18?) LODEN, H. D., and LUND, H. 0.
1948. Experiments with chlorinated camphene and parathion
against the cotton boll weevil and cotton aphid. Assoc.
of Southern Agr. Workers Proc., 45th Ann. Convention
held in Washington, D.C. Feb. 12-14, 1948. pp. 86-87.

(184) LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
1948. Control cotton insects. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. Agr. Ext.
Leaflet 18, 4 pp.

(185) LUMSDEN, D. V., and SMITH, F. F.
1948. Growth responses by kalanchoes to DDT and other synthetic
compounds. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 51: 619-622.

(186) LYLE, C., and FORTUNE, I.
1Q43. Notes on an imported fire ant. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 833-
834.









(187) McCAULEY, R. H., Jr., FAY, R. W., and SIMMONS, S. W.
1948. A comparison of the residual effectiveness of certain in-
secticides against Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Natl.
Malaria Soc. Jour. 7: 294-299.

(188) McIUFFIE, Wk. C., CROSS, H. F., TWINN, C. R., BROWN, A. W. A., and
RUSMAN, C. N.
1949. The effectiveness of DDT and other insecticides as larvi-
cides against arctic species of Aedes. Mosquito News
9(4): 145-149.

(189) --- SHARP, J. F., CROSS, H. F., TVINN, C. R., and WILSOM, W. M.
1949. The effectiveness of prehatching treatments for the con-
trol of arctic mosquitoes. Mosquito News 9: 51-56.

(190) McGREGOR, W. S.
1949. Field tests of insecticides and spraying methods to con-
trol horn flies in dairy herds. Jour. Icon. Ent. 42:
641-643.

(191) MADSEN, H. F., and BORDEN, A. D.
1949. The eye-spotted bud moth on prune in California. Jour.
Icon. Ent. 42: 915-920.

(192) MA6IE, R. 0., and KELSHEIMEB, E. G.
1948. Thrips control test in Florida, 1948. N. Amer. Gladiolus
Council Bul. No. 15, pp. 47, 49, 51, 53.

(193) MAIL, G. A.
1948. Insecticide emulsions easier to ship, safer to use. Chem.
Indus. 62: 238-240.

(194) MARSH, H.
1949. Toxaphene residues. III. Experimental feeding of toxa-
phene-treated alfalfa to cattle and sheep. Acr.tana
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 461, pp. 16-21.

(195) MAXWELL, C. W. B.
1948. Further experiment on the control of the strawberry weevil,
Anthonomas signatus Say. Ent. Soc. Ontario Ann. Rept.
T(17) 78: 51-56.

(196) MEDLEY, J. T., and CHAMBERLIN, T. R.
1949. Low pressure spraying equipment for control of some forage
insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 239-243.

(197) METCALF, R. L.
1947. Relative toxicities of isomeric hexachlorocyclohrao s
and related materials to thrips. Jour. Ecn. Ent. 1:0
522-525.






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(198) METCALF, R. L.
1948. Acarcidal properties of organic compounds related to DDT.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 875-882.

(199) --- CARLSON, R. B., and MURPHY, U. Z.
1948. Development of new pest-control insecticides. Citrus
Leaves 28(9): 8-9, 38: Calif. Citrograph 33: 522,538.

(200) MICHELBACHER, A. E.
1948. Possible effects of new insecticides used in mosquito
control on economic entomology. Calif. Mosquito Assoc.
Proc. & Papers 1948: 20-22.

(201) ---- and MIDDLEKAUFF, W. V.
1949. Codling moth investigations on the Payne variety of English
walnut in northern California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42:
736-746.

(202) ---- MIDDLEKAUFF, W. W., LAMB, F. C., and AKESSON, N. B.
1949. Further investigation of control of tomato insects in
northern California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 666-674.

(203) MISSOURI UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
SERVICE
1947. Spraying suggestions for commercial apple orchards, 1947.
Mo. Agr. Coll. Ext. Cir. 540, 16 pp.

(204) ---
1948. Spraying suggestions for commercial apple orchards, 1948.
Mo. Agr. Coll. Axt. Cir. 553, 12 pp.

(205) MITCHENEB, A. V.
1949. Chlorinated camphene, chlordan, DIDT and calcium arsenate
compared for control of the Colorado potato beetle.
Jour. Econ. Fnt. 42: 152-153.

(206) MORRISON, H. E., CRO'WELL, H. H., CRUMB, S. E., Jr., and LAJIDRALE,
R. W.
1948. The effects of certain new soil insecticides on plants.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 374-378.

(207) MUMA, M. H., HILL, R. E., and HIXSON, E.
1949. Soil treatments for corn rootworm control. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 42: 822-824.

(O )--) --- an HIKSO0, E.
1949. Effects of weather, sanitation and chlorinated chemical
residues on house and stable fly populations on
Nebraska farms. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 231-2?8.

9) J. A., -,'JC SIDA-L, W., and NGEIL, K.
1* t rnd dusts ts-tx-! A ainst grashoprjprs P .n crickets.
r ~ota AC.-. Expt. Sta. Bimonthly Bul. 11(i): 11.






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(210) MUNRO, J. A., NOSTDAHL, W., and POST, R. L.
1949. Wheat stem sawfly. N. Daek. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bimonthly
Bul. 11(3): 85-91.

(211) ---.- and POST, B. L.
1949. Control of boxelder bugs. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 994.

(212) NATIONAL COTTON COUNCIL OF AMERICA
1948. Cotton pest control. Official 1948 State Recommendations,
16 pp.

(213)
1949. Make 1949 a banner crop year through cotton insect control -
1949 State recommendations. 15 pp.

(214) NZISWAHDER, B. B.
1949. The grape mealybug on taxus in Ohio. Jour. Econ. Ent.
42: 41-44.

(215) BJWCOMER, Z. J.
1947. Evaluation of materials for controlling orchard mites and
the whoolly apple aphid. Wash. State Hort. Assoc.
Proc. (1947) 43: 19-23.

(216) --
1947. Insecticides for controlling the pear psylla. Wash. State
Hort. Assoc. Proc. (1947) 43: 45-46.

(217) --
1949. New weapons help in pest fight. Amer. Fruit Grower 6Q(2):
18, 44-45.

(218) --- and DIEAN, F. P.
1948. Studies of orchard acaricides. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 691-
694.

(219) NEWSOM, L. D., ROUSSEL, J. S., and SMITH, C. E.
1948. Cotton insect studies. La. Agr. Erpt. Sta. Ann. Rpt.
1946-1947: 52-53.

(220) --- an4 SMITH, C. E.
1949. Destruction of certain insect predators by applications
of insecticides to control cotton pests. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 42: 904-908.

(221) --- and SMITH, C. E.
1949. Thrips as pests of seedling cotton. La. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Ann. Rept. 1947-1948: 68-69.

(222) --- SMITH, C. I., CLOWER, D. F., and PFFIMMER, T. F.
1949. Chlorinated insecticides are more destructive to beneficial
insects than calcium arsenate-nicotine. La. Avr. Kxpt.
Sta. Ann. Rept. 1947-1948: 68.






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(2?3) NEWSOM, L. D. SMITH, C. E., PfRIk4ER, T. 7., and CLOWEB, D. 7.
1949. Comparison of several insecticides for control of cotton
pests. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1947-1948: 66.

(224) NORTH CAROLINA AGPICUTLTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
1948. Control of earworms in sweet corn. N. Oar. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Ann. Rept. 70(1947): Research and Farming 6(3):
10, 15.

(225) OSBURN, W. R.
1948. Comparison of DIDT, chlordane, and chlorinated camphene for
control of tho little fire ant. Fla. EInt. 31(1): 11-15.

(226) PARENCIA, C. R., Jr., and EWING, K. P.
1948. Control of the cotton fleahopper by chlorinated camphene,
DDT, and sulphur. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 735-738.

(227) PARKER, J. R.
1947. Comments and suggestions on locust control in Argentina.
U. S. Bur. mnt. and Plant Qaar. A-734, 14 pp.
[Processed. ]

(228) ---
1948. Tests of insecticides for grasshopper control, 1947. U.S.
Bur. Xnt. and Plant qiar. 1-774, 18 pp. [Processed.

(229) ---
1949. Toxaphene residues. I. Toxaphene applications to alfalfa
for the study of residues and their effect on livestock.
Montana Agr. Zxpt. Sta. Bul. 461, pp. 3-4.

(230) and WA 2LAND, C.
1948. New insecticides for grasshopper control. U.S. Bur. Ent.
and Plant Qjar. EC-1, 7 pp. [Processed. ]

(231) PAREUR, W. L., and BLEACHER, J. H.
1947. Toxaphene, a chlorinated hydrocarbon with insecticidal
properties. Del. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 264, 27 pp.
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(232) --- STEARNS, L. A., and BBACHER, J. H.
194?. Results with DDT and toxaphene for codling moth control,
Delaware, 1947. Peninsula Hort. Soc. Trans. 61: 26-29.

(233) --- ARRYTN, J. C., and STFARNS, L. A.
1948. Chlorinated camphene on potatoes. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41:
275-277.

(21) PEP?PW., B. B., and WILSON, C. A.
1947. Dichloro-diphe'yl-dichloroethane compared with other
materials for corn earworm control. Jour. Econ. Ent.
40: 731-732.





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(235) PETTY. B. K.
194?. Some properties of new insecticides. Farming in South
Africa 22: 889-896.

(236)
1948. Further laboratory studies with new organic insecticides.
Farming in South Africa 23: 391-397.

(237) PLUMMER, C. C., and SHAW, J. G.
1947. Toxicants in oils for control of the citrus blackfly.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 40: 499-504.

(238) POST, G.
1949. Two new insecticides; the present knowledge of the effect
of toxaphene and chlordane on game birds of Wroming.
Wyoming Wild Life 13(4): 8-13, 37-38.

(239) PRITCHARD, A. Z., BEER, R. I., and ROSENSTEIL, R. G.
1949. The omnivorous leaf tier on field-grown cut flowers in
California. Jour. Icon. Ent. 42: 845-846.

(240) PURIDE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
1948. Greenhouse pests and their control. Purdue Agr. Ext.
Mimeo. 1-20, 10 pp.

(241)
1949. Grasshoppers and their control. Dept. of Ent. Mimeo. E-19
(revised). 2 pp.

(242)---
1949. Spray and dust schedules for commercial fruit planting.
Ext. Bul. 310, 35 pp.

(243) PUTNWM, L. G.
1948. Sprays and dusts for grasshopper control. Canad. Sci.
Serv. Div. Ent. Processed Publ. 73, 4 pp.

(244) RAIIrATER, C. F.
1947. Some insecticides causing boll weevil mortality inside
of punctured cotton squares. Jour. Econ. Ent. 40:
923-925.

(245) RAUCOURT, M.
1949. Actualities phytopharmaceutlques; nonveaux insecticides
organiques de synthese. Rev. Hort. [Paris1 121(2162):
48-49.

(246) RAWLINS, W. A., STAPLES, R., and DAVIS, A. C.
1949. Wireworm control with several insecticides introduced into
the soil. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 326-329.








(247) REID, W. J. Jr. and CUTHFFRT, F. P., Jr.
1949. Field-plot comparisons of DDT and other new materials
for control of caterpillars on cabbage. U. S. Bur.
Ent. and Plant Qiar. Z-787. 17 pp. [Processed.]

(248) RHOADIS, W. C., and BRETT, C. H.
1948. The relation of temperature in the susceptibility of
grasshoppers to synthetic insecticide dusts. Kans.
Ent. Soc. Jour. 21(2): 66-70.

(249) RIHMD, P. T.
1948. Results of tests made with some newer insecticides for
the control of the Red harvester ant, PoxononErmx
barbatus (F. Smith). Fla. Ent. 31(3): 68-70.

(250)-----
1949. Chlorinated insecticides for control of cowpea insects.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 991-992.

(251) RINGS, R. W.
1949. Red-banded leaf roller injury to peaches and plums.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 701-702.

(252)----
1950. Residual action of organic insecticides against plum
curculio. Jour. Econ. Ent. 43: 70-72.

(253) RISTICH, S. S., and SCHWARDT, H. H.
1949. Biology and control of the seed-corn maggot on beans in
New York. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 77-80.

(254) RITCHKER, P. 0.
1949. New materials for control of strawberry crown borer.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 838-839.

(255) ROSEiSTIEL, B. G.
1949. Life history and control of the orange tortrix in Oregon.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 37-40.

(256) T C.-., W. A., and ABMSTBONG, T.
I''. No-tes on some of the newer acaricides. Sci. Ar. 29(2):
81-85.

(257) ROTH, A. R., YATES, W. W., and LIIDQUIST, A. W.
1947. Preliminary studies of larvicides on snow-water mosquitoes.
Mosquito News 7: 154-156.

(258) RUSSELL, E. E.
1948. Tests with DDT, chlordane, toxaphene, and benzene hexa-
chloride for control of Igu spp. on seed alfalfa in
southern Arizona, 1945-1948. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant
Quar. E-788. 13 pp. FProcessed. ]








(259) SCALES, A. L., and SMITH, G. L.
1948. Cage terts against the boll weevl Ad the tarniphe-i plrant
bug with synthetic organic i- -eticide ai.: calcium
arsenate in 1)47. Jour. c-,n. Srit. 41: 40P-L05.

(260) SCHBMAD, J. C.
1948. Control of soil insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41: 318--^L.

(261) ---
1949. Residual activity of insecticides in control of turf
insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 383-3a7.

(262) SEZVIN, H. C.
1947. Experiments in grasshopper control. S. Dak. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Ann. Rpt. (1946-1947) 60: 15-17.

(263)---
1948. Shelter belt investigations. S. Dak. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Ann. Rept. 61(1947-1948): 21-23.

(264)---
1948. Crop insects. S. Dak. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept.
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(265)
1949. The wireworms (Elateridae) of South Dakota. S. Dak. A*er.
Expt. Sta. Tech. Bul. 8, 18 pp.

(266) --
1949. rGrasshopper control]. S. Dak. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. t
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(267) SHOTWELL, R. L.
1949. The comparative effectiveness of ponlosor- b .ait a
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(268) SMITH, C. F.
1948. Plum curculio control in North Carolina. Jour. -on.
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(269) --- JONES, I. D., and RI3N!Y, J. A.
1949. Effect of insecticides on the flivor of pe, -1F I
Jour. Econ. Ent. 42: 618-6'-!.

(270) SMITH, C. L.
19048. Chlorinated rocarbn inae f
horn f- on '.tte o t
41: r- '





-76-


(271) SMITH, C. N., and GOUCK, H. K.
1947. The control of chiggers in woodland plots. Jour. Econ.
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(272) SMITH, F. F.
1948. DDT and other synthetics for control of gladiolus thrips.
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(273) --- and BOSWtLL, A. L.
1948. Effective control of gladiolus thrips with newer materials.
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(274) SMITH, G. L.
1948. California cotton insects. Calif. Agr. [Calif. Sta.1 2(4):
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(275) SMITH, N. R., and WENZEL, M. 1.
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(276) SMITH. R. F., and ALLEN, W. W.
1949. Chemical control of the alfalfa caterpillar in California.
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(277) SNAPP, 0. I,
1949. New insecticides for plum curculio control Second report.
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(278) SOUTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
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(279) SPARKS, L. M.
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(283) STILES, C. F., and FENTON, F. A.
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(284) --- and FENTON, F. A.
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(285) STITT, L. L., and EIIE, P. M.
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(286) STRINGER, A.
1949. A simple method for assaying contact toxicities of insecti-
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(287) STUN, Y. P., RAWLINS, W. A., and NORTON, L. B.
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(288) TARZWELL, C. M.
1950. Effects on fishes of the routine manual and airplane
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(289) TELFORD, H. S.
1947. Insecticides for cattle grub control. Jour. Econ. Ent.
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(290) THOMPSON, W. L., and GRIFFITHS, J. T.
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(291) TISSOT, A. N., and KUITERT, L. C.
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(292) TRAVIS, B. V.
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-78-


(205) TURNER, N.
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(206) --- and WO) DFUFF, N.
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(300)---
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(301)
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(302)---
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(303)---
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(304) ---
1949. Cotton flea hopper. Picture Sheet No. 18. April.

(305)---
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1947. Caution statements for insecticides containing technical
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(308) WAKELAND, C., and PARKER, J. R.
1950. Chlordane and toxaphene for grasshopper control. U. S.
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(309) WALKER, R. L., FIFE, L. C., and BONDY, F. F.
1949. Comparative effectiveness of chlorinated hydrocarbons
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(310) WATTS, J. G.
1948. Cotton insect control with organic insecticides. Jour.
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(311) WEAVER, N.
1949. The toxicity of certain organic insecticides to honey-
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(312) WEIN, G. P.
1948. Control of the cowpea curculio. Jour. Econ. Ent. 41:
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(313)---
1949. Control of the cowpea curculio. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42:
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(315) ---- and BlANCHARD, R. A.
1950. Insecticide dust for control of the corn earworm. Jour.
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(316) WEINMAN, C. J.
1947. Insecticide tests on codling moth in Illinois, 1946.
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(317)---
1947. Fighting grasshoppers in Illinois orchards. 111. State
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(318) ---- and DECKER, G. C.
1947. An analysis of certain factors relating to control of
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(319) --- and DECKER, G. C.
1949. Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides used alone and in
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(320) WILSON, C. C.
1948. Research on new insecticides for erasshopper control.
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-80-


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(323) WILSON,
1948.


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H. G., and GAHAN, J. B.
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J. W., KELSHEIMEKR, G., GRIFFITHS, J. T., and TISSOT, A. N.
A preliminary report on the control of the green peach
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(324) WINGO, C. W., and THOMAS, G. W.
1948. Development of the two spotted spider mite in the presence
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(326) WOLCOTT,
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(328) WOODARD,
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G. N.
The permanence of termite repellents. Jour. Econ. Ent.
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G., DA&VIDOW, B., and LEHMAN, A. J.
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(329) WOODBURY, E. N.
1949. Progress report on toxaphene. Agr. Chem. 4(3): 31-32.

(330) WOODSIDE, A. M.
1948. Tetraethyl pyrophosphate for control of the periodical
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1949.


The tobacco stalk borer in western Mexico. Jour. Ecoft.
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1949. Tests of insecticides for control of cat-facing on
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d.


(331)



(332)





-81-


(333) WYLIE, W. D.
1948. Tests of new insecticides for the control of aphids on
celery in the Everglades. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul.
446, 28 pp.

(334) YOU, M. T.
1948. Control of boll weevil and cotton aphid with benzene hexa-
chloride and chlorinated campaene in 1947. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 41: 401-403.





-82-


IND!X OF COMMON AND SCITTFIOC NAMES OF INSECTS


Acanthopsyche Junodi....
Acheta aqiminlis ............
Adelphocoris lineolatius .........
Adelphocoris rapidus............
Aedes aegypti ...................
Aedes sollicitanas.............
Aeolus spp ..................... .
Agonoderus comma................
Ae.riote- mancus ...............
Agrotis orthogonla..............
tgrot ie ypsilon..................
Alabama argillacea..............
Aleurocanthus woglumi...........
Alfalfa caterpillar.............
Alfalfa plant bug..............
Alfalfa snout beetle.... ........
Alfalfa weevil ................... .
Amblyomma americanum............
Amblyomma maculatum .............
American cockroach..............
Anopheles quadrimaculatus .......
Anthonomus grandis..............
Anthonomus signatus.............
Anthrenus vorax .................
Anticarsia gemnatili ...........
Aphis ..................
Aphir. rmicis ..........,....
Apis mellifera.......... ......
Argyrotaenia cit r-ana............
.regr-',taer la Telutinana.........
Atta,0ru- piceus................
Bag..rr.......... ................
Bean aphid ......................
Bedbug..........................
Beet leafhopper.................
Se rn e......................... ..
Black carpet beetle............
Black: cutworm...................
Blattella gerrnarica.............
Bli.iu- leucopterus.............
Body louse......................
Boll weevil....................
Bollworm .......... .............
Boophilus annulatus .............
Boophilus annulatus var.
microplus .................... .
Bovicola spp....................
Boxelder bug...............
Boxwood leaf miner.............


Brachyrhinue ligustici........
Brevicoryne brakes icae.........
Cabbage aphid..... .......... .
Cabbage looper ................
Cabbage maggot ................
Callltroga macellaria.........
Gamnulla pellucida............
Carpocapsa pomonella.......***
Cattle tick...................
Cephus cinctus .... .......... ..**
Chalcodermus aenus...........
Chinch bug....................
Chortoicetes terminifera......
Chrysops.... ............... ...
Cimex lectularius .......... ..
Circulifer tenelluse............
Citricola scale ...............**
Citrus blackfly...............
Citrus red mite...............
Citrus thrips .................
Clover root borer.............
Cnephasia longana.............
Coccus pseudomagnoliarum......
Codling moth..................
Colias philodice eurytheme....
Colorado potato beetle........
Common cattle grub............
Common chigger................
Common malaria mosquito.......
Confused flour beetle.........
Conoderus spp................
Conotrachelus nenuphar........
Corn earwormn. .................
Cornfield ant .................
Cotinis nitida ...............
Cotton aphid................. .
Cotton fleahopper ..............
Cotton leafworm...............
Cowpea curculio...............
Cryptotermes brevis...........
Cylas formicarius elegantulus.
Dermacentor albipictus .......
Dermatobia hominis............
Desmia funeralis.............
Diabrotica longicornis.....***
Diabrotica undecimpunc ta
howardi .....................
Diabrotica virgifera..........
Diabrotica vittata............








Diatraea saccbaralie...........
Dicyphus minimus........... ....
Eastern field wireworm.........
Eastern tent caterpillar.......
Mlasmopalphus lignosellus....
Mapoasca fabae .........
2 ilachna varivestis.....*...*
tBpitrix cucumeris..............
Fnitrix hirtirennis...........
Euprnctis terminalis...........
Murolean corn borer............
European red mite .............
Eiuschistus servus..............
Eye-spotted bud moth.... .......
Fall armyworm. ................
Feltia subterranea.............
Field cricket ..................
Fleece worm .........
Flower thrlps...............
Frankliniella fusca............
Frankliniella tritici..........
German cockroach ...............
Gladiolus thrips...............
Goat lice......................
Granary weevil.................
Granulate cutworm..............
Grape berry moth. .............
Grape leaf folder..............
Grape mealybug ............. ....
Grapholitha molesta............
Green chrysanthemum aphid......
Greenhouse thrlps..............
Green June beetle ..............
Green peach aphid...... .......
Gulf Coast tick...............
Haematopinus aiventlcius.......
Haematopinus eurysternus.......
Haematoplnus quadripertusus....
Harlequin bug..................
Hawaiian beet webworn ..........
Heliothis armigera.............
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalls....
Hog louse......................
Honeybee......................
Horistonotus uhlerii..........
Horn fly......................
House fly.....................
Hylastinas obscurru ...........
Hylemya brassicae..............
Hylemya cilicrura..............
Hymen la fascalie..............


34
24
32
34
39
22
27
26
27
34
40
52
25
35
37
36
16
42
18
18
18
15
lg
18
18
31
36
35
39
29
55
21
18
32
20
51
17
17
17
25
39
36
18
17
hIl
32
48
47


47
39


Hypera postica................
Hypoderma bovis......9..... 9 .
Hypoderma linatum.............
Imported cabbageworm n..........
Imported fire ant.............
Japanese beetle...............
Lady beetles..................
Laphygma frugiperda...........
Lasius niger allenus
americanus..................
Leaf-footed bug...............
Leptinotarsa decemlineata.....
Leptocoris trivittatus........
Leptoglossus phyllopus ........
Lesser cornstalk borer........
Lone star tick................
Limonius agonus .............
Linognathus vituli...........
Lirlomyza flaveola............
Little fire ant........ ......
Long-nosed cattle louse.......
Lygus hesperus ................
Lygus oblineatus..............
Iacrosiphum pisi.............
Macrosiphum solanifolii.......
Magicicada septendecim........
Malacosomr americana .........
?Ieadow sp ttle '. ..............
He!ar ta!o brvittat. .......

Melan T.o 1 pp.z f, .n--.. l... ..13

Melcano blu- bexlcatl ..........
V elanorlus mexicai. ,"
devastator .................
Melanotus spp .................
Melittia cuicurbitae ...........
Melophagues ovinus .............
Mexican bean beetle ...........
Yonarthropalpu ro b oUri..........
Murgantia histrionica .........
mnusca domes tiea ...............
lyzus ptrFicae ................
Nezara viridula ...............
Northern corn root worm.......
Northern cattle grub ......... .
Omnivorous leaf tier ..........
Onion thrips ..................
Otobius megnini...............
Orange tortrix................
Oriental fruit moth ...........


30
46
46
38
42
33
27
37

41
23
27
23
23
39
51
32
17
42
42
17
24
24
20
20
22
?i4
" 14

,15
15
15
15
15

32
34
45
27
46
25
47
20
25
26
46
39
19
50
540
355





-8-.


Pacific mite................... 52
Pale western cutworm........... 35
Paratetranychus citri. ......... 52
Paratetranychus pilosua........ 52
Pea aphid...................... 20
Peach silver mite............ ... 52
Pear psylla.................... 22
Pediculus humanus corporle..... 17
Periodical cicada.............. 22
Periplaneta americana.......... 16
Philaenus leucophthalmus....... 21
Phormia regina. ................... 42
Pieris rapae .......... ...... 35
Platysenta sutor............... 39
Plum curcullo .................. 30
Pogonomyrmex barbatus. ...... ** 4l
Polychrosis viteana............ 35
Popillla Japonica.............. 33
Potato aphid ......*...*.......... 20
Potato flea beetle............. 26
Potato leafhopper.............. 22
Protoparce qulnuemaculata..... 40
Protoparce sexta ............... 40
Peallus seriatus............... 24
Pseudococcus maritimus. ........ 22
Psylla pyricola................ 22
Pyrausta nubilalis............. 40
Red-banded leaf roller......... 40
Red harvester ant.............. 41
Reticulitermes flavipes........ 13
Phopalosiphlm rufomaculattum.... 21
Salt-marsh mosquito............ 43
Sand wireworm......... ........ 32
Scapteriscus abbrevliatus....... 16
Scapteriscus acletus. .......... 16
Schistocerca americana......... 15
Schistocerca cancellata..... 14,15
Scirtothrips citri............. 18
Screw-worm.................... 42
Seed-corn maggot......... *..... 147
Serpentine leaf miner.......... 42
Sheep tick ..................... 45
Short-nosed cattle louse....... 17
Short winged mole cricket...... 16
Siliula.. ...................... 50
Simullnum venutum.............. 50
Simulium vittatum......... .... 50
Sipha flava.................... 21
Siphona irritants ............... 48
Sitophilus granarius ........... 31


Solenopsis saevissima ar
richteri Forel.***.............*
Southern corn root worm.......
Southern green stinkbug.......
Southern mole cricket.........
Spilonota ocellana............
Spinose ear tick..............
Spotted cucumber beetle.......
Squash borer..................
Stable fly............ .......
Stomoxys calcitrans...........*
Strawberry crown borer........
Strawberry weevil.............
Strigoderma arboricola........
Striped cucumber beetle.......
Subterranean termite..........
Suckfly.......................
Sugarcane borer...............
Sweetpotato weevil...........
Tabanus abactor...............
Tabanus atratus............. .
Tabanus mularis... ............
Tabanus sulcifrons............
Tabanus venu tus..............
Tabanus vittiger..............
Taeniothrips simplex..........
Tall louse...................
Tarnished plant bug...........
Tetranychus bimaculatus.......
Tetranychus paclflcus ........
Thrips tabaci.................
Thyr idopt eryx ephemeraeformis.
Tineola bisselllella..........
Tobacco flea beetle...........
Tobacco hornworm..............
Tobacco stalk borer...........
Tobacco thripe. ...............
Tomato fruit worm.9..9...
Tomato hornworm ...........9...
Tribolium confusum............
Trichobaris mucorea...........
Trichoplusia ni...............
Trombicula (Zutrombicula)
alfreddugesi ................
Trombicula (Eutrombicula)
splendens. .... ......
Two spotted spider mite......
Tyloderma fragarlae............
Vasates cornutus..............
Velvet bean caterpillar.....
Waemannia auropimctata........


42
26
25
16
35
50
26
34
49
49
31
29
33
26
31
N
530
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
18
17
24
52
52
19
9
27
40
31
18
36
33
31
35

53

53
52
31
52
36
42






-g5-


Wattle bagworm .................. 9
Webbing clothes moth........... 40
West Indian dry wood termite.... 13
Western corn root worm.......... 26
Wheat stem sawfly............... 41
Wheat wireworm................. 32
Winter tick.................... 5.
Yellow-fever mosquito........... 3
Yellow sugarcane aphid......... 21




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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