A spray for destroying overwintering larvae of the codling moth on apple tree trunks


Material Information

A spray for destroying overwintering larvae of the codling moth on apple tree trunks
Physical Description:
7 p. : ; 26 cm.
Yothers, M. A
Carlson, F. W
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Codling moth -- Larvae -- Control   ( lcsh )
Spraying and dusting in agriculture   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 4-5).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by M.A. Yothers and F.W. Carlson.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"January 1947."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030292898
oclc - 780083242
System ID:

Full Text

January 1947

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology &nd Plant Quarantine


By M. A. Others and F. W. Carlsonh/
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations

A spray for destroying the overwintering larvae of the codling
moth (Carpocaps:.-k 2omonella L.) on the trunks of apple trees has been
developed by tlh Bureau of Entomology and Pl!nt Quarantine at Yakima,
Wash. (I-, 2). This spray consists of a toxicant, 4,6-dinitro-o-
cresol, in stove oil emulsion and, in one formula, a penetrant material.
It is applied as a dormant spray to the scaffold limbs, the trunks,
and the soil at the basa of the trees. Several seasons' trials in
large-scale ort-!.rd tests have given from 80 to 95 percent kill of
all worms on the sprayed parts of the trees.

The dinitro trunk sprays not only destroy the overwintering larvae
present at the timae thay are applied, but their toxicity persists and
they continue to kill some of the lArvae cocooning in the sprayed por-
tions for many months afterwards (I, 7). It has also been demonstrated
that, when apli.-?d to the trunks and lower scaffold limbs in mid-July,
these sprays w[1.1 kill most of the larvae present and aloo those that
contact the sprP7d surfaces throughout the remainder of the season (5)

Two foriuli.is have been developed, one a comparatively stable
emulsion cct-a1-dAn. a pen'.trant, and the other a quick-breaking
emulsion without a renetrant, Tiif secorid, or modified, formula was
developed b,.2u. the penetrant materials were unavailable during the
war. Altho')gh nic, quite so g.:" as the ponetrunt formula, it has
given fair :. The penetrant materials are now avtlable, but their
high price proAically doubles the cost of the spray mixture.

These forrmles and the directions for preparing and using them
are given below.

_/ The writers are indebted to W. E. Westlake, Division of
Insecticide Investigations, and C. C. Cassil, formerly of that Division,
for cooperation and advice.



Penetrant Formula

(Quantities for 100 gallons of spray mixture)

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol ..... . . . .*.. . 4 pounds
Stove or Diesel oil (32* se c. Saybolt) . .. . 10 gallons
Emulsifier: Triton B-1956/ or Tergitol No. 7Y/ . 4 pints
or sodium lauryl sulfate . . .. . 4 pounds
Penetrant: Butyl Cello.solve-/ and trichloroethylene 1 1/2 gallons
of each

The dinitro-o-cresol comes in coarse granules, designated as the
"gra-ne nuts" type. These granules must be dissolved in the oil. This
is best done by warming the oil to about 167 F. and stirring the
dinitro compound into it. The oil should not be allowed to boil. This
operation should be carried on outdoors over a covered fire to prevent
the oil from catching fire. It is not necessary to heat all the oil
to dissolve the dinitro, but at least 6 gallons should be used for each
4 pounds of granules. The remainder of the oil can be added cold.
While the dinitro is being dissolved, a spray tank should be partly
filled" with water, the engine started, and the emulsifier added. When
the dinitro is completely dissolved in the oil, the solution should be
pumped through the suction hose into the tank, followed by the remainder
of the oil. As soon as the dinitro solution is thoroughly emulsified
in the spray tank, the penetrant materials should be added, and finally
the remainder of the water. The spray is then ready to use. Since
this formula gives a fairly stable emulsion, it can be allowed to stand
a few hours if necessary, but a few minutes' agitation will be required
to re-emulsify it before it is used.

Modified Formula

(Quantities for 100 gallons of spray mixture)

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol . .. .. . . . .. 3 pounds
Stove or Diesel oil (32+ sec. Saybolt) .......... .15 gallons
Emulsifier: Triton B-1956, Tergitol No. 7, or
sodium lauryl sulfate . . . .. 1/2 pound
Ferric chloride, 1/8 oz. dissolved in water . .. 1 pint

This formula is prepared in the same manner as the penetrant formula.
The ferric chloride solution is added after the spray mixture is other-
wise completed, and the agitator is kept running until the tank has been
emptied. This formula gives a quick-breaking emulsion which separates
rapidly upon standing, and it will be necessary to re-emulsify it by
several minutes' agitation after it has remained unagitated for even
a few minutes.

SA glycerol phthalic alkyd resin.
A sodium sulfate of a higher secondary alcohol.
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.


At least one proprietary concentrate based upon this modified
forw.ula has been in use during the last three seasons. This concen-
trate contains the dinitro-o-cresol dissolved in acetone and the
emulsifier, but the user must add the stove or Diesel oil and the
ferric chloride as directed. The mixture must be thoroughly emulsified
by pumping it through a small injector (6) or the regular suction hose.

Directions for Use

1. These sprays are very toxic to plants and will kill or injure
fruit or foliage buds drenched with them. They should therefore
be applied only to the trunks, scaffold limbs, and the soil at
the base of the trees.

2. To prevent separation of the quick-breaking emulsion, increase
the speed of the agitation above that ordinarily used. Owing
to the danger of the emulsion separating in stationary pipe
lines, it should be used only with portable spraying machines.

3. To avoid breaking the emulsion, it is best to finish spraying
a tank before quitting.

4. To avoid wasting the material and insure a thorough application,
the spray should, be applied at a pressure of 150-200 pounds
per square inch.

5. Use either spray rods, 5 to 8 feet long, equipped with Bordeaux
or similar type nozzles on an angle, set to deliver about 1
gallon per minute, or spray guns with No. 2 or 3 disks. Some
growers have had good results with larger disks and pressures
lower than 150 pounds.

6. Spray trunks and leaders thoroughly, including all the rough
bark, holes, crotches, and cracks. Drench from at least three
directions. Average-sized trees will require 3 1/2 to 4 gallons
of spray. Do not apply spray to the rest of the tree, for it
will cause injury to the buds.

7. When the spraying is completed, the entire spraying equipment must
be thoroughly cleaned out to prevent the trunk spray from mixing
with later surays. Some yellow color will persist, but it is

8. Do not spray with lime-sulfur before applying the trunk spray or
within a week thereafter. Lime-sulfur seems to reduce the
effectiveness of the trunk spray.

9. Since the trunk spray stains readily, rubber gloves and a mask
with a top and a cape down the front and back should be worn.

A thorough application of trunk sprays should destroy most of
the overwintering coddling moth worms hit and thus reduce the moth
population. Summer codling moth sprays should be applied as usual.
It cannot yet be said that trunk sprays will take the place of any
of the standard dormant or summer sprays.

Cost of Trunk Spraying

The penetrant formula will cost about 10 cents per gallon and the
modified one about 5 dents. The cost for application will be about
1 1/2 to 2 cents ner gallon.

Literature Cited

(1) Carlson, F. W., Cassil, C. C., and Yothers, M. A.
1944. Ether-extract content of codling moth cocoons. (Scientific
Note) Jour. Econ. Ent. 37: 711.

(2) '_, and Yothers, M. A.
1944.Mehods of making a concentrated trunk spray for destroying
codling moth larvae. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar.
E-629, 2 pp. (Processed)

(3) __.___ and Yothers, M. A.
lQh1. t- T ersistence of toxicity to codling moth larvae of
4,6-dinitro-o-cresol applied as a tree trunk spray.
(Scientific Note) Jour. Econ. Ent. 38: 723.

(4) _______, and Yothers, M. A.
1946. A ienetrant aid for codling moth trunk sprays. (Scientific
,Jote) Jour. Econ. Ent. 39: 409-410.

(5) ______- _, and Yothers, M. A.
146. TI'iitro-o-cresol and DDT to control full-grown codling
':,th larvae. (Scientific Note) Jour. Icon. Ent. 39:

(6) Dean, F. P.
1944. A small injector for use in mixing sprays. U. S. Bur.
Eant. and Plant Quar. ET-217, 2 pp., illus. (Processed)

(7) Heriot, A. D.
1942. Recent progress in codling moth control in British
Columbia. I. Killing the mature larva. Sci. Agr.
22: 571-576.

(8) Newcomer, E. J., Yothers, M. A., Dean, F. P., Alexander, 0. C.,
and Carlson, F. W.
1943. Controlling the codling moth with nonarsenicals. Wash.
State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 39: 107-110.


(c) Yothers, M. A., Carlson, F. W., and Cassil, 0. 0.
1942. Spra.;s to kill overwintering coaling moth larvae.
(Scientific Note) Jour. Econ. znt. 35: 450-451, illus.

(10) ______, Carlson, F. W., and Cassil, C. C.
1943. Tests of 4,6-dilnitro-o-cresol emulsion s--ainst
overwintering codlizn moth larvae. Jour. Econ. Ent.
36: 882-884.

(11) and Carlson, F. W.
19 T Dinitro-o-cresol trunk sqr:r &, against J.lg moth
larvae. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 40: 57-59-

(12) ____ and Carlson, F. W.
1945. Three years of orchard tests of 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol
at-ainst overwintering codling moth larvae. (Scientific
iJote) Jour. Econ. Ent. 38: 723-724.

(13) and Carlson, Y. W.
1946. Effect of sublethal concentrations of dinitro-o-cresol
on the codling moth. (Scientific Note) Jour. Econ.
Ent. 39: 407-408.


The following firms are among those known to handle the ingredients
of these formulas:


Standard Agricultural Chemicals, Inc., Hoboken, N. J., and
Sacraimento, Calif.
Glogau & Co., 538 South Clark St., Chicago, Ill.
Benzol Products Co., 237 South St., Newark, N. J.

Triton B-1956:

Rohm & Haas Co., 222 West Washington Square, Philadelphia 5,
Pa., and Oakland and South Gate, Calif.

Tergitol No. 7:
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corp., 30 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (Dreft):
Proctor & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio, and local dealers.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (Grasselli Chemicals Dept.),
Wilmington 98, Del.

Butyl Cellosolve:

Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corp., 30 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y.


E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (Electrochemical Dept.),
350 Fifth Ave., New York 17, N. Y.
Dow Chemical Co. (Great Western Jivision), 310 Sansome St.,
San Francisco 4, Calif.
McKesson & Robbins, Inc. (Industrial Chemical Division),
155 Last 44th St., New York 17, N. Y.
Carrier-Steohens Co., 221 Depot St., Lansing 2, Mich.
Arthur S. LaPine a Co., .121 Hubbard St., Chicago 10, 111.
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp., 405 Lexington Ave.,
New York 17, N. Y.

Ferric chloride:

American Cyanamid & Chemical Corp., 30 Rockefeller Plaza,
New York 20, N. Y.
E. I, du Pont de ihemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington 98, Del.
Dow Chemical Co. (Great Western Division), 310 Sansome St.,
San Francisco 4, Calif.
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, Second and Mallinckrodt Sts.,
St. Louis 7, Mo.
Merck a Co., Inc., Rahway, i. J.
,.onsanto Chemical Co., 1700 South Second St., St. Louis 4, Mo.


Stove oil and Diesel oil can be obtained locally from fuel oil
dealers wherever the spray is to be prepared.

The proprietary trunk spray concentrate and the ferric chloride
can be had from the following firms:

Yakima Valley Spray Co., California Spray-Chemical Corp.,
and the Farmers' Supply, all of Yakima, Wash.

This incomplete list is given for information only and does not
imply a recommendation of the product of any particular company. No
discrimination is intended against firms not listed, nor are the
products of companies listed endorsed or guaranteed.


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