Nicotine insecticides

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Nicotine insecticides
Portion of title:
Search for activators
Physical Description:
16 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Mayer, E. L
Talley, Florence B
Woodward, C. F
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Nicotinoids   ( lcsh )
Biological insecticides   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 6).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by E.L. Mayer and Florence B. Talley and C.F. Woodward.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-709."
General Note:
"December 1946."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030292825
oclc - 780076567
System ID:
AA00026079:00001

Full Text


LIBRARY
December 1946 STATE PL.ANT OARD E-709


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Intomology and Plant Quarantine

NICOTINE INSECTICIDES. PART II--S1ARCH FOR ACTIVATORS

By Z. L. Mayor, Division of Control Investigations, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and Florence B. Talley
and C. F. Woodward, Eastern Regional Research Laboratory,
Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry I/

This is the second of a series of investigations on nicotine
insecticides conducted by this Bureau in cooperation with the Bureau
of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry. Part I of this series
(1-646) reported a study of complex salts containing nicotine, usu-
ally combined with a metal. In the investigation- described herein
an effort was made to find activators for nicotine, partly to
stretch the limited supply of this insecticide and partly to make
its use more economical.

As before, the samples studied were prepared at the Eastern
Regional Research Laboratory of the Bureau of Agricultural and
Industrial Chemistry, for testing against plant-feeding insects by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine at its Sanford, Fla.,
laboratory.

Previous attempts by other investigators to increase the tox-
icity of nicotine insecticides were concerned largely with the use
of various alkaline materials to liberate the alkaloid from nico-
tine sulfate. For example, dolomite and lime have been called
chemical accelerators by Headlee and Rudolfs (A), while Thatcher
and Streeter (j) have classed them as active carriers. In a few
cases, however, nonalkaline materials have been used, such as apr-
agar (A), karaya gum (1), lecithin (1), and hydrocarbon oils (A.).

In this investigation the entomological tests were conducted
on several species of leaf-feeding larvae. In order to minimize
losses of nicotine by volatilization from the dusts in shipment
and on storage, the adjuncts to be evaluated as activators were
not tested with nicotine alkaloid, but in combination with (1)
nicotine bentonite in bentonite and (2) nicotine sulfate in pyro-
phyllite as the diluents.

I/The authors are indebted to 1. R. McGovran and G. T. Bottger
for supervision and technical guidance in this work.







This report covers the tests on the first 100 mixtures tried
and hence is in the nature of a progress report. Since it is al-
most impcssible to predict what kinds of chemicals might act as
activators, or to deduce from the effect of one compound what an-
other might do, the materials reported herein were chosen more or
less at random.

Materials

As indicated above, two series of samples were prepared, con-
taining the same adjuncts. Pure nicotine was added to bentonite,
forming nicotine bentonite diluted with the excess bentonite. Nico-
tine sulfate was used in the pyrophyllite, since the nicotine loss
on standing was too great when the dust was prepared by mixing the
alkaloid with pyrophyllite. All samples contained 5 percent of ad-
junct, 5 percent of nicotine, and, with the exception of two samples,
90 percent of diluent. In these two sulfur was used At 10- and O-
percent levels instead of 5-percent, thus reducing the amount of
diluent to 85 and 75 percent, respectively. Dusts containing 5 per-
cent of nicotine with no adjunct were also included in these groups
to be used as standards.

The fact that a liquid was involved in making a 5-percent nic-
otine dust with 40 percent of nicotine sulfate influenced the disper-
sibility of the pyrophyllite samples. They completely settled in the
dusting chamber within 30 seconds, while the bentonite materials re-
quired 3 or 4 minutes.

The following species of insects were used: Bean leaf roller
(5rbaUm I eu (L)), cabbage looper (AungJranha braaidj (Riley))
( -Tricholusia nL (Hbn.) 1, fall webworm tfe tari gMgA (Drury)),
Hawaiian beet webworm (aenia fascialig (Craim.)), melon worm (Diahaia
yalina, a (L.)), southern armyworm (Prodna &lAA (Cram.)), and
southern beet webworm (Q ayacla bigunt1ai (i.)). Fourth instars
of all species were used and in addition first instars of the southern
amyworm.

Methods

The procedure used in testing these materials was similar to
that described by Swingle (2) and in part I of this series. The mate-
rials were first tested as dusts by placing dusted foliage in 9-cm.
petri dishes with the larger larvae, or in cloth-covered vials with
the first-instar armyworms. The mortality may have been due to con-
tact, stomach, or fumigating action, but since the most effective mate-
rials are relatively nonvolatile, it may be assumed that there was
little fumigating action. About 30 larvae were used in each test, and
mortality counts and estimates of the amount of feeding were made each


- 2 -





-3-


24 hours for 3 days. The deposit used depended upon the species
being tested and also upon the susceptibility of that species at the
time the tests were made, the desired mortalities being between 20
and 80 percent. Bach sample was tested on from 2 to 6 species of
insects. The melon worm and southern armyworm were used in all tests.
Since these tests were only preliminary, no replications were made.

The second step was foliage-injury tests, made on 4 or 5 varie-
ties of plants in an outdoor garden with the samples that showed
some increase in toxicity as dusts over the standard materials
against insects. The plants used were bean, collard, corn, cotton,
okra, potato, pumpkin, sweetpotato, and tomato. Materials were
sprayed on the plants twice, at an interval of 7 days and at a concen-
tration of 0.1 percent of nicotine. Records of the amount of injury
were taken on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the appli-
cation of the first spray.

The third stage of testing was with sprays. All materials that
showed some promise in dust tests, and which did not cause foliage
injury, were used in spray tests on leaf sections which were fed to
larvae in petri dishes and in cloth-covered vials.

Discussion of Results

The adjuncts which in the dust test, with either carrier, gave
mortality of the melon worm or the southern armyworm, or both, 10 per-
cent above that given by the standard were considered as activators
of the nicotine. The following materials were found to be in this
class:


2,2'-Allylidenebis( 5, 5-dimnethyl-
1, 3-cyclohexanedione
2-Butoxyethanol
2-Chloroallyl lactate
U-Dichlorobenzene
Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether
Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether
5, 5-Dimethyl-l, 3-cyclohezanedione
Dodecanoic acid
2-Ithoxyethanol

Ethyl n-butylacetoacetate
I-Phenylphenol
12-Hydroxystearic acid


Kojic acid

Lauryl acetoacetate
Lecithin
Witrobensene
2-Nitrobiphenyl
Paraffin
Pentachloroethane
Pentachlorophenol
Polylactic acid
(115% lactic acid)
Stearic acid
Tetrahydrofurfuryl
lactate






-4-


The samples containing pentachlorophenol and nicotine were the
only ones that gave higher mortalities than the standards in every
test. In subsequent tests 97 percent of the melon worms and 100 per-
cent of the armyworms were killed with rather light deposits of dust
mixtures containing only pentachlorophenol as the toxicant. Single,
Phillips, and Gahan () found this material to be toxic to 9 of 10
species against which it was tested, and it is also toxic to sub-
terranean termites (10).

It appeared that only eight compounds in the list merited fur-
ther attention. More complete data on these eight materials are
given in table 1. With the exception of 2-nitrobiphenyl, these ad-
juncts were nontoxic when tested as 5 percent dusts without nicotine;
2-nitrobiphenyl was slightly toxic to the southern arzyworm. Kojic
acid and. q-phenylphenol appeared to be the most effective adjuncts
for nicotine sulfate in pyrophyllite.

Since none of these eight materials were injurious to plants in
phytotoxicity tests, they were tested as sprays. The results are
shown in table 2.

In table 3 a comparison of the two carriers as dusts and sprays
indicates that the mixtures are slightly more effective as sprays.
Furthermore, the indications are that dusts i& which the materials
are diluted in pyrophyllite, using nicotine sulfate, are more effec-
tive than the nicotine bentonite dusts. On the other hand, when the
materials are applied as sprays the bentonite group is superior to
the pyrophyllite.

Table 4 includes the adjuncts which gave insect mortalities above
the standard when used in nicotine dusts or sprays. Since none of
these compounds were highly effective, no attempt was made to show the
degree of activity towards individual species. The table lists the
test insects used.

Several materials appeared to be specific in their activation of
nicotine toward different species of insects. The nicotine dusts con-
taining the following materials in both bentonite and pyrophyllite
were active against the melon worm, but not against the southern army-
worms Ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethyl)acetoaoetate,
ethyl n-lauryl-acetoacetate, furil, lauryl acetoacetate, octadecyl
acetoacetate, octyl disulfide, and sulfur. Nicotine sprays containing
lauryl acetoacetate were also effective against the southern armyworm
in each series. Levulose was effective against the armyworm but was
ineffective against the melon worm. Four other materials were act-
ivators of the nicotine against one of these two insects in one series





-5-


and against the other in the second series. Cyclohexanol,
allyl Baleate, and U-tolyl g-toluenexulfonate in bentonite were
effective against the melon worm, and in pyrophyllite they were
effective against the armvorm. Another material, 9,10-epoxy-
stearia acid, in bentonite produced higher mortalities than the
standard against the southern arzyvorm, but in pyrophyllite the
melon worn was the susceptible incect.

The adjuncts which were inactive in all tests are listed in
table 5.

In this search for an effective activator for nicotine none
of the adjunote sufficiently increased the insecticidal action of
the nicotine compounds in these preliminary tests to merit further
study on the test ineects used.







Literal; e Cited


(1) Bousquet, 1. V.
1935. Contact insectici-* containing lecithin. U. S.
Pat. 2,006,227, issued June 25.

(2) Cox. A. J.
1943. Terminology of insecticides, fungicides and other
economic poisons. Jour. Scon. Ent. 36: 813-821.

(3) Felt, 1. P., and Bromley, S. W.
1931. Tests with nicotine activators. Jour. Zcon. Ent.
24: 105-111.

(4) Garman, P.
1939. Use of karaya gum as an activator for nicotine sul-
fate against Ahij rIMicil. Conn. State Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bul. 428, p. 76.

(5) Headlee. T. J.. and Rudolfs, V.
1923. Some principles which underlie the making and use
of nicotine dust. 1. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul.
381, 47 pp.

(6) Sharp, S. S.
1939. Agar-agar, a new activator for nicotine sprays.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 32: 294-295.

(7) Swingle, M. C.
1943. Exploring the insecticidal possibilities of new
materials. InA Laboratory procedures in studies
of the chemical control of insects, edited by
F. L. Campbell and F. R. Moulton, Amer. ALssoc.
Adv. Sci. Pub. 20, pp. 82-84. Washington, D. C.

(8) ____ Phillips, A. M., and Gahan, J. B.
1944. Preliminary tests of synthetic organic compounds
as insecticides. Part I. U. S. Bur. Ent. and
Plant Quar. Z-621, 134 pp. (Processed)


(9) Thatcher,
1923.


R. W., and Streeter, L. R.
Factors which affect the volatility of nicotine
from insecticide dusts. N. T. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bul. 501, 34 pp.


(10) United States Bureau of Entomnology and Plant Quarantine,
Division of Forest Insect Investigations.
1942. Preventing damage to buildings by subterranean ter-
mites and their control. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers'
Bul. 1911, 37 pp., illus.














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