Colonization of the organism causing milky disease of Japanese beetle larvae, 1939-1945

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Colonization of the organism causing milky disease of Japanese beetle larvae, 1939-1945
Physical Description:
6, 2 p. : map ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
White, R. T ( Ralph T )
McCabe, P. J
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Biological control   ( lcsh )
Japanese beetle -- Larvae -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.T. White and P.J. McCabe.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-704."
General Note:
"September 1946."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030292517
oclc - 780065939
System ID:
AA00026074:00001

Full Text
LIBRARY
rATE PLANT BOARD
E-704 September 1946



United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

COLONIZATION OF THE ORGANISM CAUSING MILEY DISEASE
OF JAPANESE BEETLE LAiRVAE, 1939-1945

By R. T. White and P. J. McCabe,
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations

It has been clearly demonstrated that certain spore-forming
bacteria, such as Bacillus popilliae Dutky and B. lentlmorbus
Dutky, are playing a major role in the control of the Japanese
beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.). In order to supplement the
natural spread and accelerate the build-up of the milky diseases
caused by these organisms, an extensive program of distribution of
one of the organisms, B. popilliae, which causes the type-A milky
disease, has been in progress since 1939. This colonization pro-
gram has been conducted by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine in cooperation with a number of State and Federal
agencies. A resume of this work through 1942 was published in
1943 (E-605). Since that time distribution has been continued
throughout the heavily infested beetle area. The purpose of this
report is to make available to cooperative State and Federal
agencies the information on the status of this program at the end
of the calendar year 1945.

Since the method of production and distribution of this
disease was discussed in the previous article, it need not be re-
peated here.

Some of the cooperating States sent diseased Japanese beetle
larvae to the laboratory at Moorestown, N. I., for processing,
after which the final spore-dust material was returned to them for
distribution. The total quantities of spore dust produced in this
manner to the end of 1945 are as follows: Connecticut 475 pounds,
Delaware 2,208 pounds, Maryland 66,898 pounds, New York 10,376
pounds, Ohio 1,940 pounds. In addition, the Bureau produced 41,030
pounds. Some of this was used to augment the State totals above
and some was given to various other States that did not furnish any
material for processing.

A summary of the distribution of type-A milky disease through-
out the beetle area from 1939 to 1945 is presented in table 1. The
colonization sites include government as well as nongovernment
properties. Table 2 summarizes the colonization data according to
States.






-2-


A map showing the distribution of milky-disease colonies
tOr-oughout the area infested by the Japanese beetle from 1939 to
1945 is shown in figure 1. Each dot on this map represents a
colony site. A single site may involve a number of individual
areas, as on a golf course, and may vary in size from less than
1/2 acre to 1,200 acres. Not included on this map or in the
tables are over 250 strictly experimental plots in 10 States and
the District of Columbia, which can also be considered as points
from which the disease will spread.

The small number of sites appearing in some counties as in
North Carolina, Massachusetts, and upper New York, is due to the
beetle occurring only in localized areas. Likewise, the compara-
tively small number of sites in New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania
is due to natural spread of the disease making further treatment
less urgent than in areas showing no natural disease occurrence.
Table l.-Number of sites treated with type-A
milky disease, 1939-1945

State and County 1939 1940- 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total


Connecticut
Fairfield
Hartford
Litchfield
Middlesex
New Haven
New London
Total

Delaware
Kent
New Castle
Sussex
Total


District of Columbia

Marylana
Allegany
Anne Arundel
Baltimore
Baltimore (city)
Calvert
Caroline
Carroll
Cecil
Charles
Dorchester
Frederick
Garrett


383 300
33 870


- 43 300
-r r -- I. --
-- -- 467 1,4*70


.- 913 833
-. 1,168 15
-. 209 825
_.. 2. 290


33 16 9 741
393 1,296

174 176
360 8 3 714
-- -- 2 6
9W 24 14 2,935


46
215

5 0&


1


1


26 10 8 18


- 1,793
- 1,398

-- 4,544

-- 67


453 350 603 246 32 46 1,730
744 127 1,122 878 305 106 3,282
- 433 846 775 856 2,226 470 5,606
-- 1,285 1,146 2,240 1,330 642 751 7,394
- 98 54 129 175 30 51 537
- 174 305 642 234 290 292 1,937
-- 66 677- 327 168 132 105 1,475
- 583 584 334 715 475 341 3,032
-- 144 83 242 47 42 400 958
- 1,191 488 317 188 272 75 2,531
-- 59 313 376 221 286 495 1,750
.. .. .. 15 15






-3-


Table 1.--(continued).


State and County 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total


Maryland
Harford
Howard
Kent
Montgomery
Prince Georges
Queen Annes
St. Marys
Somerset
Talbot
Washington
Wicomico
Worcester
Total

Massachusetts
Berkshire
Hampden
Hampshire
Middlesex
Total

New Jersey
Atlantic
Bergen
Burlington
Camden
Cape May
Cumberland
Essex
Gloucester
Hudson
Hunterdon
Mercer
Middlesex
Monmouth
Morris
Ocean
Passaic
Salem
Somerset
Union
.:arren
Total


-- 317 1,137 542 326 339 200 2,861
-- 199 157 371 232 126 175 1,260
-- 573 855 565 499 286 182 2,960
-- 607 1,279 1,027 431 310 252 3,906
- 627 1,293 1,122 296 389 372 4,099
-- 238 855 806 291 118 281 2,589
11 51 -- 10 -- -- 72
-- 319 285 389 127 155 331 1,606
-- 180 329 613 206 198 224 1,750
-- 172 513 618 301 166 50 1,820
-- 88 221 465 25 228 53 1,080
-- 283 243 481 64 116 32 1,219
- 8,844 12,191 14,106 78--9 7,1--i 5,299 55,469


ma --



-n --


37
18
26
44




28
8
lol


8
16
38
12

27
12
19
3




34
30
10
27


20
2 5T


6


-i


11

2

17
3





1
2
2


5



43


-- 1
--- 1
1
-" _!

mmmm@ 3


1

1

2


1
7
2
1



19
16
40
12
17
30
13
19
3
37
18
27
46
36
30
10
33
28
8
21
46-3


-- -- 1 1
1 -- 1 1






-4-


Table 1.--(continued).


State and County 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total


New York-
Albany
Bronx
Broome
Chemung
Columbia
Dutchess
Erie
Greene
Herkimer
Kings
Livingston
Monroe
IAontgomery
Nassau
New York
Onondaga
Oneida
Ontario
Orange
Oswego
Putnam
Queens
Rensselaer
Richmond
Rockland
Saratoga
Schenectady
Schuyler
Seneca
Steuben
Suffolk
Sulliv n
Tioga
Tormpkins
Ulster
Warren
Westchester
Total

North Carolina
Buncombe
Henderson
Rowan
Watauga
Total


-- 2


-- 4

-- 8



-- 2

--- 1

-- 38
-- 3



-- 2

-- 5
5

-- 6
-- 24





-- 2


-- 8 45
-- 8 149


4



15



4



172
13


1
33

3
8

20
63





45



3

108
492


6
3
9


16
30
2
2
1
43



28



242
10



37
12
14
121
1
10
44
6
4



34



5
2


65
50
6
6
6
113
2
3
4
18
1
11
3
527
10
14
9

52
2
35
112
2

75

2
5
5
10
89

3
5
11


210 404
"74 1,660 1,


76 159
-- 84
-- 8
12
-- 7
233 412
-- 2
-- 3
9 13
2 54
54 55
26 38
3
264 1,243
3 39
-- 14
-- 9
-- 1
39 163
-- 14
15 72
11 257
17 20
1 37
3 209
2 8
34 40
-- 5
5
50 60
147 317
1 1
-- 3
-- 5
12 33
-- 2
110 885
109 4,292


2
7
3
1


1


2






-5-


Table l.--(continued).


State and County 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total

Ohio


2

1

1
2

__


Cuyahoga
Gallia
Guernsey
Jefferson
Lake
Licking
Mahoning
Tuscarawas
Trumbull
Total


Pennsylvania
Allegheny
Armstrong
Berks
Beaver
Bucks
Chester
Clinton
Cumberland
Dauphin
Delaware
Lancaster
Lebanon
Lehigh
Luzerne
Lycoming
Montgomery
Monroe
Northampton
Northumberland
Periy
Philadelphia
Pike
Schuylkill
Westmoreland
York
Total

Rhode Island
Newport
Providence
WVashington
Bristol
Kent
Total


108
10

2


5
7

Y3-2


-- 2
-- 1
9 --
-- 1
3 8
6 215
--- 1

3 234
12 37
803 286
-- 4
3 --
1 1
1 -
18 92
1 1
5 --
7 --

7 53


12 1
1 410
891 1,347


-- 1
6 19
-- 1


-21"I


52

1

2

24


79




19


34

18


1
272

24
13
172
78






10
324




17



17


9
1
15

2
4

4
35


318
11
17
2
4
2
57
7
4
422


147



1

22


170


1
1





1

1


1




2
1






1
2

338
349



1



1


1
60
3
2
1
67


17
2
2
1
22


-- 3
-- 2
-- 28
-- l1
-- 11
-- 255
2
97 115
-- 238
-- 49
1 1,091
86 363
-- 3
-- 27
-- 15
-- 282
-- 80
-- 5
-- 7

-- 60
-- 1
-- 2
-- 23
1 0373






-6-


Table l.--(continued).


State and County 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total


Virginia
Arlington
Alexandria (city)
Accomac
Chesterfield
Fairfax
Henrico
Loudoun
Norfolk
Northampton
Prince William
Princess Anne
Powhatan
Roanoke
Stafford
Spotsylvania
Shenandoah
Westmoreland
Total


7 17
..-- -19
-- 100 50 56
-- 4 12 2
1 62 40 107
4 -- 24 6
-- 102 237 47
3 -- 2 --
-- 12 79 146

- 2 2

.. .. 3

- 6 3


15 W25 457 406


Wjest Virginia
Berkeley
Mineral
Ohio
Taylor
Total


Grand Total


-- -- 2
-- -- 3
-- -- 1


-- -- 1
-- -- 1


. .. 2 .. .. ..- 2
.-- 8 .-- 2 -- 10

161 9,149 16342 19722 11766 9,484 6,745 73,369


10-


3
21

65
2








2
13


1


1
12
11
49


1

1

2
1


79


35
19
206
22
243
45
500
7
237
1
4
1
3
4
10
1
2
1,340
















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FIGURE 1.


DISTRIBUTION OF MILKY DISEASE COLONIES
THROUGHOUT AREAS INFESTED BY THE
JAPANESE BEETLE, AS OF
DECEMBER 31, 1945

The following acreage has been
treated but is not shown on the map:


Maryland........... 500
Massachusetts......*** 2
New York........... 163
North Carolina..... 545
Ohio...............1746
Pennsylvania.*..*...** 14
Virginia........... 8
West Virginia...... 3


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