A second digest of the literature on DDT (May 1, 1944 to December 31, 1944)

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Title:
A second digest of the literature on DDT (May 1, 1944 to December 31, 1944)
Portion of title:
Digest of the literature on DDT
Physical Description:
73 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
McIndoo, N. E ( Norman Eugene ), 1881-1956
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
DDT (Insecticide) -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark and N.E. McIndoo.
General Note:
"E-687."
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Reproduced from typescript.
General Note:
"May 1946."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030291609
oclc - 759939447
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AA00026056:00001

Full Text

LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD


lay 1946


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE















A SECOND DIGEST OF THE LITERATURE ON DDT

(May 1, 1944, to December 31, 1944)

By

R. C. Roark and N. E. Mclndoo

Division of Insecticide Investigations


ItiN I ,i


E,687





-2-


CONTENTS


Page No,


Definitions . . * . .
Early history of DDT . . .
Chemistry #. . . . *
Pharmacology . . . . .
Effect of DDT on plants . .
DDT spray residue * . .
Fungicidal value . . . .
Effect on wildlife .. . .
Producers . . . .
Allocation * * *
Cost of DDT . .. . . .
Patents . . . . .
DDT in aerosols . . .
DDT in paints . . . . .
Popular articles and reviews on
Miscellaneous . * *
Insecticidal value . . .
Crustacea: Isopoda . . o .
Thysanura: Lepisniatidae . .
Collembola * * * *
Orthoptera:
Aorididae . . .* . .
Blattidae . . . .*
Denraptera: Forfioulidae .
Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae .
Mallophaga: Menoponidae . o
Thysanoptera: Thripidae .
Honoptera:
Aleyrodidae . . . *
Aphiidae o * * * .
Cicadellidae . *
Coccidae * * o * *
Psyllidae . . . . .
Hemiptera:
Cimicidae o * * &
Lygaeidae * o .
Miridae . . . . .
Pentatomidae . . . .* *
Triatoridae * * *
Anoplura:
Haematopinidae . . . *
Pediculidae * .
Coleoptera:
Bruchidae . . . . *
Byturidae . . . . .
Chrysomelidae . *
Coccinellidae . . .*


*
* 0
* 0
* S
* 9
* 0
* S
* 0
* 6
* 0
*
* 0
* 9
* 0
DDT
* S
* 0
* 0
* S
* .


*..90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*O0OOOO0OOO 0 00O6O


4
4
5

16
17
18
18
18
21
23
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
27
27

28
28
29
29
29
30

31
31
32
34
36

37
37
37
38
38

39
39

41
41
41
44





- s -


CONTENTS continuedd)
Page No,

Curculionidae o . * * * * * * * * * 44
Dermestidae o o s o o * * * * * * * 46
Nitulidae o o * * * * * * 46
Ostomidaad * * * * * * * * * * * 47
Soarabaeidae o o o o o o * * * * * * 47
Tenebrionidae & . o & 0 w 0 0 48
SLepidoptera:
Aegeriidae o o o o o * o * * *o 48
Crambidae o s o a * * * * * *1 * * * 49
Galleriidae o. . o o o o o 0 0 0 0 49
Gelechiidae o 9 * * * * o 49
Geometridae. . o o o o 9 & o a o * o o o 49
Hesperiidae . . o o o o o o o o o o o o 50
Hyponomeutidae o o 0 0 . 50
Lymantriidae . * . * * * * * * 50
Olethreutidae o * * * * 51
Phalaenidae . . o o o o 54
Phaloniidae * * * o * o *o o # 55
Pieridae o o o o o o o * a o # o o o o 55
Pyralldidae o o 0 0 . . . . * * * 56
Pyraustidae o * * * * * * * * 56
Sphingidae * o o o o o o & o o o * o * 57
Tineidae o o o * * o * * * * * * 57
Tortricidae . * * * * * * * * 57
Hymenoptera:
Apidae * o * o * o o 0 * o o o o * 58
Braconidae o o o o o o o o o o o o 60
F~onnicdae . . 60
Formieida e o o o 9 * * . . . . 60
Ichneumonidae o o o a o 9 o o o o o o o 9 o * * 61
Tenthredinidae o . o o o o o o 0 . 61
Diptera:



Trypetonididae o . 0 0 * * 0 0 0 *0 69
MuSiphonapera ulicida .. 670
Oestridae o o o o o o o o o o 'o o o o o o o o & 9 o 68
Sespiaae o o o o o o o o o o * o o o & o o 69
Simuliidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 69
Trypetideae '* o * o o * o o 9 * 9 9 o 9 o 9 o 69
Siphonaptera: Pulieidae e o * 9 o o 9 o o o 9 9 o 70
Acarina:
Argasidae o 0 o o o 9 * * * * 70
Eriophyidae * * * o o * * * 0 0 0 70
Ixodidae * * 0 0 0 * * * * 0 * 71
Tetranychidae 0 * * * * * * * * 71
Trombidiidae * * * * * * 73





-4-


The first digest of the literature on DDT (E-631) was based on
the first list of publications on DDT from 1874 through April 30, 1944.
Similarly, this second digest is based on the second list of publica-
tions on DDT (E-660), which brought the bibliography of this 'subject
up to January 1, 1945.

DEFINITIONS

"DDT" means the chemical 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-l, l,l-trichloro-
ethane.--U. S. V.ar Production Board (r96).

The contraction "DDT" was devised by an official of the [British]
Ministry of Supply early in 1945 for the substance alpha, alpha'-
dichlorodiphenyl-beta,beta,beta-trichloroethane.--West and Campbell
(406).

"DDT" is a term coined to designate briefly the substance dichloro-
diphenyl-trichloroethane, and the term "pure DDT" designates para,para'-
dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, which is the most active isomer.--
Munro (327).

Gesarol is a proprietary generic term for a series of insecticidal
compositions of DDT for use against agricultural pests. Gesarex is a
DDT composition containing compatible fungicides, Gesapon is a formula-
tion containing DDT in a form assuring penetration of the soil sufficient
to reach the pests.--C-eigy Co. (255).

Veocid A r ipr-eta- :ei term for a series of insecticidal
compositions of uL' for use : 3t insects affecting man and animal.-
Geigy Co. (L&).

Information concerning GNB-A-DDT- the active ingredient of Neocids
and Gesarols was published by the Geigy Company, Inc. in July 1944 (257)
and again in December 1944 (165).

Information on De De Tane (a proprietary insecticide containing
DDT) was published by the Murphy Chemical Company, Ltd., (328) and by
Chambers, Hey, and Smitt (208).

EARLY HISTORY OF DDT

As early as September 1943 Geigy, of Switzerland, reported that
Gesarol dust containing as little as 1 percent of DDT repeatedly had
given good protection against the Colorado potato beetle.--Geigy Co.
(255).

When the United States entered the war, it became manifest that
its uniformed men would be sent to all parts of the world, meeting the
menace of typhus and other dread diseases in many infected areas. Geigy
in Basle, aware it had the most effective enemy of typhus ever experienced






-5-


in medical history, informed 3Major DeJonge, American military attache
in Berne, in August 1942, that Neooid, the lousicidal composition of
DDT, had proved amazingly effective against the typhus-carrying louse,
and that it possessed incredible residual potency, an all important
factor. Geigy simultaneously notified its New York subsidiary of its
significant discovery. Contrary to a false published story that a
quantity was smuggled out of Switzerland, it was sent openly from
Basle, as a regular transaction between the two divisions of the chem-
ical firm. Another false story, that Geigy.was unaware of the lousi-
cidal properties of the composition, is refuted by the fact that Geigy
not only discovered its lousicidal properties but brought them to the
attention of the United States Government in 1942,--Geigy Co. (258).

In 1942 the J. R. Geigy Company drew the attention of the British
legation to the importance which they attached to their discovery of
DDT, and the British Geigy Company in Manchester brought the compound
to the notice of the authorities here. The early tests were extremely
promising, and quickly confirmed the observation of Wiesmann of the
efficacy of DDT against lice. Almost immediately teams were formed
of Government, university, and industrial research workers, and the
many aspects which required investigation before adoption of a pro-
duct for the armed forces were investigated* Simultaneously pilot-
plant production, based on the J. R. Geigy experience, was started
so that difficulties associated with larger scale production could
be anticipated.--Campbell and West (199); also Anon. (75, 104). Then
the collaboration was extended to inc-lude workers in the Uni-ted States
and in the Dominions.--Campbell and West (198).

Gesarol Spritzrittel, the original Geigy formulation of DDT for
spraying purposes,.was advertised as early as Yarch 14, 1942, in the
Swiss journal Schweizerisohe Zeitschrift fur Obst und Weinbau. This
advertisement called attention to the product as an arsenic-free
organic stomach and contact insecticide, stable to light and air, and
useful for the control of the Colorado potato beetle and several other
insects. The product was stated to be nonpoisonous to man and bees.
--J. R. Geigy, A. G. (250). Gesarol Spritzmittel and Gesarol
Staubemittel (a DDT dus-) were also advertised in later issues of
this journal (251, 252, 253); also Gesarex (251) on March 27, 1943.

The scramble for publicity in the attempts to hitch on to the
tail of the sensational DDT kite is the subject of an editorial in
Soap and Sanitary' Chemicals.--Anon. (148).

CHEMISTRY

Synthesis
The preparation of DDT according tA Zeidler's procedure is des-
cribed. The product crystallized from ethanol had a m.p. of 107 C.
--Colorado and Leyve (211).





S-6-


The preparation of crude DDT (initial softening point about 75* C.)
in 7-pound lots is described. The materials were chloral hydrate U.S.P.
grade, ohlorobenzene commercial grade, and c.p. sulfuric acid (96 per
oent), and the main reaction was carried out in 22-liter round-bottom
flasks equipped with stainless steel stirrers.--Breckenridge (169).

Manufacture

The Brothman continuous process for DDT production is described

Chloral is produced by: (1) Direct chlorination of alcohol in
the presence of ferric chloride catalyst to form chloral alcoholate;
(2) Liberation of chloral from chloral alcoholate by water dilution
and by sulfuric acid acidulation treatment; (3) Separation by frac-
tionation of chloral from side products formed during the chlorination
and acidulation steps; (4) Recovery of byproduct hydrogen chloride and
excess chlorine as hydrochloric acid and as sodium hypochlorite.

DDT is produced by: (1) Reaction of chloral and chlorobenzene
with oleum to form dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane, its isomers and
polymers; (2) Separation and neutralization of the dissolved DDT from
oleum by settling, then by water and alkaline washings; (3) Vacuum
distillation and recovery of chlorobenzene solvent, followed by air
stripping of residual chlorobenzene from DDT; (4) Cooling and solid-
ification of DDT, followed by pulverizing, blending with extenders,
and final packaging. Basic economies of the Brothman continuous
processes show up best in estimated manufacturing cost figures for
the final product. Of the estimated net cost of considerably leas
than $0.30 per pound for DDT, raw materials alone account for almost
75 percent, while steam, water, electrical energy, and labor amount
to only about 8 percent. Overhead accounts for some 17 percent of
the total cost.-Callaham (1935).

Solubility

DDT is a white powder with a very faint fruity odor, and it is
practically insoluble in water. It is, however, very soluble in cyclo-
hexanone, benzene, toluene, and xylene. It can be dissolved also in
petroleum oils, being much more easily dissolved in olefin and cyclie
hydrocarbons than in paraffins.--West and Campbell (406).

Soluble in acetone, kerosene, petroleum distillate, alcohols,
Cellosolve (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether), and ethyl alcohol.--
Herms and Gray (276).

Soluble in alcohol, kerosene, and other organic solvents.--Anon. (3).

Solvents include chlorobenzene, naphthalene, nitrobenzene, l-ohloro-
naphthalene, stearic acid, n-ootadecyl alcohol, and petroleum fractions
(b.p. over 100).--Fleck and Haller (244).




- 7 -


DDT is soluble in acetone, ether, hot alcohol, cyolohexanone,
dimethyl phthalate, and olive oil.--Smith and Stohlman (371).

Solubility of DDT

(Gramn per 100 grams of solvent at ordinary temperatures)

Benzene ** .. go .o 106 Petroleum ether, b.p. 100-1200 C, ,. 10
Sextone (oyolohexanone) .. 100 Cyclohexanol .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
Chloroform .. .. .. .. .. 96 n-Butyl alcohol *.. ...... .* *. 8
Ethyl acetate ... ... .. 68 'Petroleum ether, b.p. 40-60 C. .. 6
Tetraohloroethane ...... 56 Orchard and spray oil *.. *. .. .. .. 5
Tetralin .. *.. .... *. 52 Liquid paraffin .. g.. .. .... *. *. 4
Toluene .... .. .. go .. 48 tert-Butyl alcohol .. .. ..* .... .. 4
Ether .. .. .. .... *.. .. 45 Ethanol (99.5 percent) ** ** 4
Kerosene (vaporizing).. 11
--Campbell and West (196, 199, 200, 202); Callaham (193).

Stability

Anhydrous ferric and aluminum chlorides, iron, iron oxides, and
certain mineral materials have been found to act catalytically to
eliminate hydrogen chloride from certain alpha-triohloro-beta-disub-
stituted ethanes, including DDT, to form the corresponding alpha-
dichloro-beta-disubstituted ethylenes. This catalytic action may
be inhibited by some solvents and promoted by others. This reaction
was found to proceed at an even lower temperature -when a solution
in chlorobenzene, naphthalene, nitrobenzene, or l-chloronaphthalene
was used. On the other hand,* solvents such as stearic acid, n-
octadeoyl alcohol, and petroleum fractions (b.p. over 100*) inhib-
ited the reaction. Aluminum chloride is the most active catalyst.
As little as 0.01 percent of anhydrous ferric chloride will cata-
lyze this reaction. Fuller's earth and some mineral products show
catalytic activity probably due to the presence of small amounts
of iron compounds.--Fleok and Haller (244).

In a study of the reaction of alcoholic potash on 1,1-diaryl-
2,2,2-tri-chloroethanes, compounds in which the aryl radicals were
phenyl, 4-tolyl, 4-anisyl, 4-phenetyl,2,4 and 2,5-xylyl split off
hydrochloric acid in this reaction, forming the corresponding dichloro-
ethylene derivative.--Brand and Bussee-Sundermann (187).

Relation beireen chemical constitution and insecticidal action of DDT

A contact poison to be effective should have a toxic component
and a lipoid-soluble component. In the case of DDT the "condensed"
chlorobenzene system is the first component and the trichloromethyl
(chloroform) radical is the second. Besides chloroform, cyclopropane,
ethylene, and divinyl ether possess high lipoid solubility. We can
therefore expect to get good contact poisons by hooking these com-
ponents to the toxicant.-Lauger et al. (298).





-8-


The ethylene compound formed when DuT loses hydrochloric acid,
p,p'-dichlorouenzophenone, and bis(p-chlorophenyl)acetic acid are
almost inactive both as contact and stomach insecticides, indicating
that the HC-CCl3 group is associated with insecticidal activity. The
toxicity of DDT is attributed to this grouping plus high lipoid sol-
ubility conferred by the chlorophenyl groups.-Martin and Wain (520).

Volatility

A glass plate was dusted with 325-mesh DDT (m.p. 107-108 C.)
until l.4672 mg. per square centimeter nad, been deposited, then kept
at 4b C. in an air current of 10 liters per hour. At the end of
37 days 4.22 mg. had evaporated, indicating a life of about 18 months.
-Fleck (243).

Analysis

A modification of Winter's method for the determination of halogen
in organic compounds has been adapted to the determination of DDT.
About 1 hour is required for an analysis, and the method is suffi-
ciently sensitive for the determination of DDT spray residues. The
sample to be analyzed is volatilized and burned in a flame of ordinary
illuminating gas, the chlorine-containing combustion products are
absorbed in an alkaline solution of sodium arsenite, and this solu-
tion is then titrated for chloride ion using standard solutions of
silver nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate. A suitable apparatus is
described.--Hall et al. (270).

The addition of methanolic sodium met1iylate to a benzene solu-
tion of tetranitro-pp'-DDT (m.p. 223.5-224.5) gives a blue color
with one absorption maximum and one minimum. The tetranitro o,p'-DDT
(m.p. 229.50-230) yields a violet-red color with two maxima Uanm two
minima. A colorimetric method for the determination of DDT making
use of these reactions has been developed.--Schechter and Haller (358).

DDT was estimated by determining total chlorine by refluxing in
absolute alcohol with metallic sodium and titrating the sodium chlo-
ride by the Volhard method.--Smith and Stohlmnan (371).

A method for the quantitative estimation of DDT based on its
dehydrochlorination with N alcoholic potassium hydroxide is described.
DDT on fruit cr leaves is removed with benzene, the solution filtered
and evaporated to dryness, the residue refluxed with 50 ml. of normal
alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution, the solution acidified with
nitric acid, nitrobenzene and an excess of N/1O silver nitrate solu-
tion added and the excess silver titrated with N/10 potassium thio-
cyanate solution vdwith ferric nitrate as an indicator.--Gunther (267).




-9-


Attention is called to certain changes in this procedure, espe-
cially the precaution that the benzene solution of DDT be evaporated
only nearly to dryness and that the temperature of the residue not
be allowed to exceed 85@ C. (instead of 105). It is stated, "It
has been brought to our attention that commercial or technical DDT
may contain, in addition to the j,p'-isomer (DDT) quantities of the
o,p'-iscier. This latter isomer, it has been reported, may liberate
more than one molecule of HC1 per parent molecule, under our experi-
mental conditions, in contrast to the behavior of the p,p'-isomer
(DDT). This behavior has not yet been verified, but we wish to bring
it to your attention as a possibility to be kept in mind. If it is
correct, then connnmmercial or technical DDT would analyze high with our
method."-Gunther (267).

Specifications

The United States War and Navy Departments (394), on June 30,
1944, issued joint specifications on DDT. "DDT shall be a technical
grade of 2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-l, 1, l-trichloroethane, free from
added modifying agents, diluents or adulterants." The chemical and
physical properties shall conform to the following requirements:

Minimum Maximum
Ash content, percent by weight .5
Setting point, C. 88.0 -
Organically bound chlorine, percent by weight 48.0 51.0
pH of aqueous extract 5.0 8.0
Water-insoluble, steam-volatile material ml. per
gram -- 0.005
Chloral hydrate, percent by weight 0.020
Water-soluble material, percent by weight 0.25

Compounds closely related to DDT

The reaction of chloral and toluene to produce l-trichloro-2,2-
bis(p-tolyl)ethane, m.p. 891 was reported in 1874.--Fisbher (242).

Radioactive bromine was used to prepare dibromodiphenyltrichloro-
ethane, m.p. 139.0*-l39.5.--Hansen et al. (275)

The following oompoundswere prepared and tested for insecticidal
values
Melting Point, C.

l-trichloro-2,2-diphenylethane 60-62
l-trichloro-2,2-bi s(hydroxyphenyl)ethane 202
l-trichloro-2,2-bis(hydroxyphenyl)ethane diacetate 140
l-trichloro-2,2 bis(j-chlorophenyl)ethane [,p '-DDT] 107
l-dichloro-2,2 bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene 88
l-trichloro-2,2 bi sTl-hydroxynaphthyl)ethane 174-176
p, p '-dichlorobenzophenone 143-144
"-Tirichloro-2,2-anhydrobi s( 2-hydroxynaphthyl )ethane 242-243
Metachloral
Chloretone 80-81

See also Siegler and Gertler (365) under Carpocapsa pomonella.--Hartin
et !1 (319).





- 10-


Miscellaneous

DDT chemical investigations sponsored by the Office of Scientific
Research and Development were conducted at Harvard University, Mary-
land University, and Ohio State University.--(35, 58).

PHARMACOLOGY

DDT was tested on dogs, oats, house rats, white mice, pigeons,
chickens, toads, and fish.

a) Dogs. Fivegiansof a 5 percent DDT mixture was mixed into the daily
ration of two dogs of 5 to 6 kg. body weight for 31 days. During this
entire time the dogs showed no general signs of any poisoning.

b) Cats. Four oats were subjected to a treatment of DDT in different do-
ses; two received six single doses and the other two six doses in increas-
ing fractions. Two cats received a total of 48 to 72 mg. intramuscularly
and two received a total of 315 and 480 mg. by mouth. During the entire
time of observation, which lasted 15 days, the cats showed no signs of
toxic phenomena.

c) Rats. Six house rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing on an average
300 grams each during 6 consecutive days were given by mouth 1.2 grams
of DDT suspended in a colloidal solution, in fractional doses of 0.2
gram* The rats remained active and normal for more than 6 months in
their cages without showing any signs of poisoning or other disturb-
ances in their normal condition.

d) White mice. Four white mice, weighing 10 grams each, which hadbeen
raised in the laboratory, received 0.015 gram each of DDT in doses of
0*005 gram for 5 consecutive days. To two of these mice the DDT was
administered intramuscularly and to the others by mouth. The two mice
which received the chemical by injection lost weight from the 6th day
and remained depressed in their cages, whereas the two remaining mice
continued to be normal for 30 days of observation.

e) Pigeons. During 5 days daily and increasing doses of DDT were
given to a lot of pigeons in various ways. Three pigeons received
totals of 24, 54, and 41 mg. intravenously, two received 24 and 34
mg. intramuscularly, and two received 36 and 50 mg. by mouth. The
birds showed no sign of toxication and lived in the cage normally
for more than 3 months, when they were sacrificed.

f) Chickens. Two chickens weighing 1000 grams each were subjected
to a test with DDT. One of them received a total of 1 gram intra-
venously in fractional doses of 0.2 gram during 5 days; the other
received twice as much by mouth during the same period of time.
Both chickens remained a long time in their cages but showed no
sign of poisoning.




- 11 -


The following tests were made on cold-blooded animals:

a) Batraohians: The water in a vivArium containing frogs (Leptodao-
tyus collatus) and toads (Bufo marinus) was treated with 0.2 gram
or M apprap ng a conentro Ton of 1/'12, 500 in water. The batra-
ehiani stayed in this poisoned water 2 to 5 hours daily for 4 days,
without it having any bad effect on them.

b) Fish. The water in two aquariums, in which there were 12 fish
(byprodentideae (Ouarus), Ciohlidae (Acaras) and Characidae
(avarss), treated with DDT In the proportion of 1 gram per
20,000 liters of water. Twenty-six hours later all the fish were
still acting normally and showed no signs of poisoning or asphyxia.
After 27 to 50 hours 3 fish showed signs of asphyxia and succumbed
2 hours later. The remaining fish lived normally for more than 60
days. The water thus treated had no toxic effect upon 11 ether small
fish which were played into it.

DDT was also tested on the skin and conjunctiva of guinea pigs.
On two of them 6 percent of DDT in vaseline was applied and on two
others a compress of cotton soaked in a 5 percent aqueous suspension
of th hehmical. After 24 hours no inflanmation or the slightest
local irritation to the skin was observed. Two dogs treated with a
powder containing 5 percent of DDT and guinea pigs bathed in a 2
percent solution showed no skin -irritation.

DDT was then applied to the writers' own skin and that of two
helpers in the laboratory* Cotton wicks soaked in a concentrated
solution as well as wicks containing undiluted DDT were placed (held
fast with adhesive plaster) on the inner side of the lower arm.
Twenty-four hours later the DDT caused no irritation, burning, or
any ether local or general reaction. The same result has been ob-
tained in a group of individuals who were subeted to a rubbing of
the groin with a 2 percent DDT ointment (against rn-chirus pubis)

An aqueous suspension containing 0.5 percent of DDT applied to
the eyeballs of two rabbits did not produce the slightest irritation.
-Wasieky and UJnti (404).

Pure DDT and Gesarol P and Gesarol A (3 percent of DDT in each)
were tested on rabbits, 1-month-old chickens, and hens. A rabbit fed
a total of 2.64 grams of pure DDT over a period of 17 days gained
about 10 percent in weight. Chickens ingesting 100 mg. of Gesarol A
daily presented no abnormal symptoms and after 40 days showed no
sign of toxication. Eons fed for 50 days on millet treated with
Gesarol P (12 grams per 60-kg. bag) showed no signs of poisoning.
One gram of pure DIDT dissolved in castor oil was administered to
a hen of 1*6 kg. weight, with no bad effect*-Lepage and Giannotti
(297).





-12-


Single doses of DDT in olive oil incorporated in food pellets,
when swallowed by 6- to 10-gram goldfish, were lethal in amounts
ranging frcm 63 to 200 mg. per kilogram. Within this range the total
mortality was approximately 55 percent, the number of deaths being
correlated roughly with the size of the dose. Death followed these
single ingestions of DDT in 24 hours to 6 1/2 days, the onset of the
symptoms of poisoning being delayed in some oases for more than 4
days. The fish became hyperirritable at first and subsequently
developed muscular incoordination, muscular spasms, and finally marked
prostration, which in some oases persisted for 3 days or more before
death. The gross picture of the DDT poisoning resembled that pro-
duced by phenol or picrotoxin. All frogs receiving DDT dissolved in
olive oil, by injections into the dorsal lymph sac, were killed in
4 to 72 hours by single doses of 150 mg. per kilogram. Some frogs
died following injection of as little as 10 mg. per kilogram.-
Ellis et al. (234); abstracted by Anon, (155).

On the estate of the Swiss Federal Agricultural Institute at
Berne-Liebefeld green fodder was treated with a suspension of Gesarol
in water (10 to 100 pounds per 100 imperial gallons) and fed to sheep.
In all test groups the increase in weight was entirely normal, and no
symptoms of any detrimental effect due to the treatment of the fodder
were evident. The test was later repeated with cows; the volume and
quality of the milk, the process of calving, and the soundness and
growth of the calves fed the milk of these cows were in all cases
normal.--West and Campbell (406).

Applications of DDT in oil to animals resulted in necroses of
their livers. At the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
laboratory in Orlando, Fla., three men subjected for 6 months to
heavy dosages in aerosol tests were examined to determine whether
any injury had been done to their livers and no damage was found.
Moderate doses were given to pregnant ewes and normal lambs were
born, with no evidence of abortion. Several hundred goats were
dipped in a DDT emulsion and examination of their eyes yielded no
evidence that vision had been interfered with.-Anon. (150).

Clinton H. Thienes, of the University of Southern California,
carried on a diet test with white rats using DDT. Two months after
the rats were put on a diet containing 1 part of DDT in 10,000 parts
of foodstuffs they began to have convulsions. Half of the rats were
restored to normal food with near disappearance of convulsions, but
both the withdrawn rats and those remaining on the DDT diet died
within the next 3 days. In May 1944 the United States Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine fenced in 3/4 acre of grassland con-
taining grasshopper egg masses about 60 miles from San Diego, Calif.,
and when the hoppers were emerging, dusted the area with a dust
containing 10-percent of DDT at the rate of 40 pounds per acre.
After 48 hours the California Bureau of Chemistry put three ewe
sheep in the field. After 72 hours they showed extreme neurologic
symptoms. The animals eventually recovered, probably owing to
removal of DDT dust from the vegetation by wind and rain. A month
later the field was dusted again in like manner. The animals
behaved in the same manner as with the first treatment, but again





- 13-


all recovered. One of the ewes was taken to the University of South-
ern California, where 2 grams of DDT was administered orally daily
for 11 days. No symptoms were noticeable and the dose was increased
to 4 grams per day and continued for 40 days. Still no symptocs
were noticeable and the dose was further increased to 8 grams daily,
with no symptoms 2 weeks later. --Cox (216).

Investigations by the Food and Drug Administration

In solid form DDT applied topically to the skin of several species
of animals was nonirritating, nonsensitizing, and not appreciably ab-
sorbed. In solution, either in oil or in organic solvent, it readily
penetrated the skin, and was very mildly irritating and a very mild
sensitizing agent. In single and multiple-dose administration (acute
and subacute) there were wide individual as well as wide species
variations. In prolonged feeding experiments (chronic toxicity) rats
have been fed for about 18 months diets containing 100, 200, 400, and
800 p.p.m. of DDT* Other animals have been studied for shorter periods.
The pharmacological manifestations of effect from DDT are principally
loss of appetite, mild to severe tremors of central nervous system
origin, convulsions, and death. Tremors can be prevented or abolished
by general anesthetics and narcotics. Histopathologic examination of
tissues of animals which have received DDT shows tissue damage but it
is neither striking nor characteristic for all species (Report of talk
by H. 0. Calvery before Entomological Society of Washington).--[UJ. S.]
Federal Security Agency (391); abstracted by Anon. (143).

(1) The application of powders containing 5 percent of DDT to the
skin produced no evidence of systemic toxicity or of primary irritation;
(2) Solutions of DDT in dimethyl phthalate are absorbed by both intact
and abraded skin; (3) Solutions of DDT cause a mild but definite sen-
sitization in the guinea pig; (4) the inunction of doses as low as
0.5 ml. of 30 percent solution of DDT per kgm./day (150 mgm./gm./day
of DDT) to rabbits, rats and guinea pigs may cause death in some cases
after 30 days; (5) In the animal species tested there were wide
individual variations in susceptibility; (6) -affected animals exhibited
anorexia, severe weight loss, hyperexcitability, nervous tremors leading
to clonic convulsions. BEmaciated animals became easy prey to secondary
infections; (7) severely poisoned animals exhibited a moderate leuco-
cytosis with a characteristic increase in the precentage of heterophilesl
(8) the above data indicate that the unlimited use of DDT solutions on
the skin is not free of danger; however, some solutions of DDT have been
found safe for restricted use.--Draize et al. (229).

Feeding experiments show that small amounts of DDT in the diet will
produce toxicity in experimental animals, and that the safe chronic
level would be very low indeed. Experiments on several species of
. animals extending over periods longer than 50 weeks will be necessary
before the chronic toxicity of this compound can be adequately assessed.
--Draize et al.(230); abstracted by Anon. (136).




- 14 -


DDT is acutely toxic when fed to small laboratory animals in
doses from 150 to 750 rag. per kilogram. Acute doses ray produce
anorexia, tremors, depression, and death. DDT is capable of causing
subacnte toxicity when given in small amounts in the diet for periods
of 3 days to 20 weeks. Definite signsof toxicity are produced by
levels in the diet of 0.05 percent for rats and mice, 0.1 percent
for guinea pigs, and less than 0.05 percent for growing chicks.
Characteristic of DDT poisoning is the wide variation in individual
susceptibility, making the estimate of a safely tolerated dose
extremely difficult.--Woodard et al. (417).

Investigations by the U. S. Public Health Service-

Studies conducted at the National Institute of Health in Bethesda,
Md., showed that DDT in concentrations up to 10 percent in inert powders,
for dusting clothes, as in the extermination of lice, offers no serious
health consequences. The use of a 1 percent DDT-Deobase mist mixture
had no toxic effect on rabbits, and it should be safe to use as a fly
spray. In a clinical and laboratory study of three men who had had
several months of continuous occupational exposure to DDT in its
various forms as an insecticide, no definite toxic effect from expo-
sure to DDT were indicated. Inhalation studies of the toxicity and
potential dangers of aerosols, dusting powders, and mists containing
DDT on mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, monkeys, and human beings,
revealed a marked difference in the susceptibility of different
animal species. Mice were more susceptible than rats. Only when
relatively large doses were ingested or absorbed through the skin
did toxic reactions set in, such as tremors, "jumpiness" as in strych-
nine poisoning, convulsions with death, fatty degeneration of the
liver and kidneys, or changes in the nerve structure. In experiments
with dogs daily insufflation cf 100 mg. of pure DDT per kilogram of
body weight caused definite signs of poisoning in only one out of the
three animals tested, after a period of 18 days. Although this study
deals only with the appraisal of the potential dangers of DDT when
inhaled as an aerosol, dust, or mist, Dr. Neal pointed out that massive
doses whether by mouth or by skin absorption will cause toxic reactions
Heavy contamination of foods should be avoided. The use of DDT in 1
to 5 percent solutions with 10 percent of cyclohexanone in 85 to 95
percent of Freon, as aerosol, should offer no serious health hazards
when used as an insecticide. (Report of talk by Paul A. Neal before
Entomological Society of Washington.)--[U. S.] Federal Security Agency
(392).

Because a 1-percent DDT-Deobase mixture was found to be nontoxic
to rabbits exposed for 48 minutes daily over a period of 4 weeks,_ it
is believed that its use as a fly spray, which involves only temporary
and comparatively moderate exposure to much lower concentrations,
should be safe. However, irritation of the skin may occur following
heavy exposure.--l'eal et al. (329); abstracted by Anon. (138, 140 170).




- 15 -


Microscopic study was made of 117 animals given DDT by inunction,
by stomach tube, or by admixture in the diet and in doses .varying
*from those fatal ii4few days to those causing no perceptible lesions
after several months. The animals examined comprise 16 rabbits, 58
rats, 24 guinea pigs, 14 mice, 12 chicks, 6 dogs, 3 cows, 3 sheep, and
1 horse. Although there were wide variations in sensitivity to the
compound among the different individuals of a .given species, the lesions
caused were quite consistent throughout the different species. On the
higher dosage levels with the animals surviving for 1 to several weeks,
there was typically caused a moderate degree of central necrosis of
the liver, or with the longer periods of survival a combination of
central necrosis and reparative hypertrophy -vhich can be labeled as
a moderate subacute degeneration of the liver. The thyroid often
showed moderated colloid depletion, less often epithelial desqua-
mation, and rarely epithelial hyperplasia. Very slight to moderate
focal necrosis of voluntary muscles occurred in about 20 percent of
animals on the higher dosage levels. Rabbits showed certain lesions
not seen in the other species, a focal necrosis of the gall bladder,
and an increased incidence of the "spontaneous" types of encephalitis
and nephritis. Dermatitis in inuncted animals was mild except that
rabbits on the highest doses showed slight focal necrosis of the
epidermis. For a given dosage level of DDT, chickens and guinea pigs
showed fewer histological lesions than did the other species. A
special effort was made to determine nerve-cell changes in the brain
and spinal cord of animals with tremors. With routine fixation and
staining (formalin and Orth's; hematoxylin-eosin) no changes could be
seen that were not present in controls similarly and concurrently
fixed and stained* Rare myocardial and adrenal lesions may be of sig-
nificanceo DDT caused no or insignificant effects on bone marrow,
bone, testis, pancreas, and spleen. Renal lesions were slight and
infrequent. Because of the tremors of long duration produced by it,
DDT would appear to be a promising experimental agent for the neuro-
physiologist.--Nelson et al, (330); abstracted by Anon. (66, 70, 71,
77, 110, 138). --

Material from 5 cats, 41 rabbits, and 34 rats was submitted for
histologic study. In spite of the pronounced neurologic symptoms,
histologic alterations in the central nervous system have been rela-
tively slight. Vacuolation around large nerve cells in cord and
cerebral motor nuclei has been seen in cats, rats, and rabbits;
tigrolysis and cell vacuolation in cats and rats. The most striking
pathologic alterations are seen in the liver. Here there is a hyaline
degeneration similar to that described in poisoning by azobenzene and
some of its derivatives. Hyaline oxyphil masses are formed in the
central part of the cytoplasm and then are surrounded by vacuoles.
This change has been seen in rats and rabbits. Also a variable amount
of fatty degeneration of liver cells, often centrolobular, is observed
in cats, rats, and rabbits. Midzonal and centrolobular areas of
coagulation necroxis are found in these animals, which in rats A-d
rabbits is accompanied by an interstitial and peripheral proliferative




- 16-


reaction leading to replacement by a new vascular granulation tissue.
With more extensive and confluent necrosis this replacement process
leads to trabeoulation. Finally there is seen also a focal hydropic
degeneration of liver cells in rats and rabbits in which the affected
cells may reach two or three times their normal diameter. Muscle
necrosis with proliferative reaction was seen in one of the rabbits.
-Lillie and Smith (_04).

The acute and chronic toxicity, the cumulative action and absorb-
ability from the skin of DDT in experimental animals are described.
DDT has been found in the urine, bile, blood, liver, kidney, and central
nervous system in experimental poisoning with the substance.-Smith
and Stohlman (371); abstracted by Anon. (110, 1352).

Protection of workmen handling DDT

In four plants in New Jersey blending DDT with talc for the prep-
aration of the Army's louse powder the following measures for the pro-
tection of the workers' health were put into effect: (1) Complete
enclosure of the entire production line is insisted upon; (2) no
lunches are eaten in the production area; (3) strictest personal
hygiene is practiced. This includes complete washing of all exposed
parts of the body prior to lunch time, and before going home in the
afternoon# (4) local exhaust ventilation apparatus is installed at
all locations where the dust might be liberated into the workroom
air3 and (5) a completely laundered set of work clothes is provided
daily for all the employees.--Radcliffe (345).

EFFECT OF DDT ON PLANTS

In greenhouse tests, DDT at the rate of 2 pounds per 100 imperial
gallons of water caused no apparent damage to raspberry, gooseberry,
currant, potato, apple, or pear. In one test 10 pounds of DDT per
100 gallons caused no apparent injury to calendula, rose, chrysanthemum,
bean, cucumber, or snapdragon. Velsicol AR-60 proved to be an excellent
solvent and carrier for DDT, and solutions containing 20 grams of DDT
and 10 oo. of Triton X-100 in Velsiool to make 100 cc. gave no plant
injury when diluted 1-400 with water. However, such solutions diluted
1-200 and 1-100 resulted in burned spots on apple, snapdragon, and
some other foliage. Tests using the Velsicol without the DDT indicated
that the injury was probably due entirely to the oil. A 20-percent
solution of DDT in acetone caused slight injury when diluted 1-200
and 1-100 with water but not nearly so pronounced as the Velsicol
solutions.-Ross (354).

On the basis of one year of field experience it is concluded
that DDT can be safely used on potatoes.--Granovsky (265, 264).

DDT (4 pounds of 25-percent DDT) was used on apple trees in one
or more sprays with each of the following: Bordeaux mixture 2-4-100,
lead arsenate 3 pounds, and DN-111 1 1/4 pounds. No injury was apparent
on the fruit or foliage. No injury resulted from the applications of
DDT and Fermate. An application of DDT and Tenn. copper No. 26 follow-
ing an application of DDT and Fernate caused considerable injury to





- 17 -


apple foliage. Also, an application of DDT and Fermate following
Bordeaux mixture and lead arsenete caused severe injury to apple
foliage. It seems unsafe to apply Fermate just before or just after
an application of a copper fungicide.--Hough (284).

Talc dust containing 3 percent of DDT (Gesarol AX dust) caused
some injury to green bean plants in Hawaii when the plants were wet
when dusted and the application was heavy. None has been observed
with a 2- or 1-percent dust or with sprays of 2 and 1 pound of DDT
per 100 gallons. These sprays were prepared from Gesarol AKD 20
spray containing 20 percent active agent together with a wetting
agent.--Holdaway and Nishida (281).

Guesarol dust preparations have no phytocidal action, nor have
the Guesarol aqueous spray preparations when used in 1 or 2 percent
suspension [10 or 20 pounds per 100 imperial gallons of water], but the
sprays at 3 to 4 percent do sometimes cause scorching of foliage,
and 4 percent showed marked scorching in both apple and pear foliage.
As the 1 and 2 percent suspensions are generally effective against
most insects, the scorching with the higher suspensions is less impor-
tant. Many of the solvents used have themselves a marked phytooidal
action.--West and Campbell (406).

Millet to which Gesarol P (3 percent of DDT) was added in the
ratio of 1:1000 by weight (5 times the recommended dosage for weevil
control) germinated almost as well as untreated millet.--Lepage and
Giannotti (297). [Incorrectly Lapege in literature listed

DDT SPRAY RESIDUE

Four applications of DDT (1.5 pounds per 100 gallons of water)
made on July 5, 14, 25, and Aug. 5 left a residue of 0.049 grain DDT
per pound of apples picked Sept. 2. Five applications of DDT (1
pound per 100 gallons of water) made on June 7, 20, July 10, 24, and
Aug. 8, left a residue of 0.042 grain DDT per pound of apples whether
picked Sept. ? or Oct. 6. Apples from the second plot were treated
for DDT residue removal, with results as follows:

Grain per pound
Brushed (Trescott machine) 9.041
Washed 45 sec., hydrochloric acid 1.3 percent .037
Washed 45 sec., sodium silicate 75 lb. and soap 1 lb. .027
Washed 45 sec., trisodium phosphate 10 lb. .032
--Hough (284).

DDT sprayed on fruit is difficult to wash off.--Anon. (86, 94).

De De Tane and a proprietary DDT emulsion gave control of the
tomato moth caterpillar equal, if not. superior, to that given by lead
arsenate. The emulsion leaves no visible deposit, thus obviating the
necessity for wiping the fruit.--Chambers, Hey, and Smitt (208).





- 18 -


FUIGICIDAL VALUE

Agar plate tests were made in the laboratory Vwith the fungi
Ophiobolus grarinis Saoc., Colletotrichum trifolii Bain and Essary,
Pleospora. herbarum Pers., Ascochyta imperfect Peck, and Pseudoplea
trifolii (Rostr) Petro The DDT was placed on the agar in a 1-percent
solution in alcohol. All fungi grew impartially over all the plates.
Seeds of commercial Greenfeast peas were treated with DDT-kaolin dusts
at the rate of 2 ounces per bushel. These dusts contained 0.I, 1, 5,
and 50 percent of DDT. The seeds were planted in soil heavily infested
with unspecified damping-off organisms, and after 14 days the emergence
of the DDT-treated seeds was 0 to 1 percent and that of untreated seeds
0 percent whereas the emergence of Spergon-treated seeds was 86.5 per-
cent. Even undiluted DDT was ineffective in preventing infection of
wheat with flag smut, UJrocystis tritici Koern.--Norris (331).
0
In addition to its insecticidal value DDT apparentlyOhas a con-
siderable fungicidal value as well, for the early and late blight of
potatoes was not so prevalent in the plots dusted with 5 percent of DDT
as in plots treated with some common fungicides ordinarily used in
the potato fields.--Granovsky (263, 264).

Mhen applied to late-planted Dakota Red potatoes DDT (3/4 pound
per 100 gallons), alone and in combination with copper oxychloride or
zinc dimethyl dithiooarbamate, had no effect on control of early
blight (Alternaria solani) but the plants were taller, broader, darker
green in color, and had larger leaflets; also, the leaflets were flatter
(less cupped) than when untreated or when the fungicides were used alone.
--Heuberger and Wolfenbarger (277); also Anon. (160).

EFFECT ON WILDLIFE

The high toxicity of DDT to beneficial insects and to fish has
caused considerable concern among nature lovers and fishermen.--
Conant (213).

DDT is harmless to wild life in the areas sprayed, neither birds,
animals, nor fish being affected by it.--Ano(3L9, 53, 57, 74, 134).

In limited feeding and dusting tests conducted in the laboratory
DDT was found to be only slightly toxic to the common brown snail of
California.--California Fruit Growers Exchange (192).

PRODUCERS

United States:

In October 3944 present and prospective producers of DDT were
listed as follows:





- 19 -.


PrereiC C ,rmjirr ,, Prcducers


Cincinr-ati Cheisic.i T;o: * *
E. I. du Pont de 111moic-., and Co. , . ,
?.erok and Coo, Inc . a . .
Hercules Powder Co. . .. 0 .
General Chernical Go. . .
Yonsanto Chemical Co. o . . .
Elko Chemical Works, Inc. . .
J. To Baker Chemical Co. . . . .
Sherwin-Williams Co. .
American Home ProductG Co., . . .. .


Norweed, Ohio
Grasselli, N. J.
Rahway, N. J.
Parlin, N. J.
*arcus Hook, P,.,
St. Loviis, Mo.
Clinton, N. J.
Phill.ipsbur;, I. J.
Cleveland, Ohio
Varietta, Ohio


Prospective Producers


Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Co.. o .
Michigan Chemical Co... V . . . . .
Pharma Chemicals Corp. o . . 9. o


. a
* a
* .


Philadelphia, Pa.
St. Louis, Mich.
New York, N. Y.


--Callaham (193).

For the first 8 months of the production program, until early in
1944, the Cinncinnati Chemical Works, Norwood, Ohio, was the sole com-
mercial producer of DDT in this country. From September 1943 to June
1944, this company increased its production sixfold. By this time it
had made approximately 325 tons of DDT, enough to protect over 50
million soldiers against typhus for a month.--Callaham (193). See
also Anon. (5, 16, 24, 32, 45, 54, 69, 96, 144); Peaker T340).

A dozen manufacturers are making DDT under wartime production
licenses issued by Geigy.)but only Du Pont has a license certain to
carry over into the peace era.--Anon. (99).

Du Pont's Grasselli Chemicals Division is licensed by Geigy and
Co. to manufacture and sell DDT. Construction of a new half-million-
dollar plant was announced January 20, 1944. The Army recently flew
the first 500-pound cargo, produced at a Du Pont pilot plant to an
overseas front.--Anon. (5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 16). See also (10, 45, 54,
69, 96, 144, 340). -

In February 1944 Merck and Co. revealed that it -ms expanding
its facilities for large-scale production of DDT at Government request.
-Anon. (5, 7, 16). In July 1944 this company vas stated to be in large-
scale producTion.--Anon. (69). See also Anon. (45, 54, 96, 144);
Speaker (34d).

At the Parlin, N. J., plant of the Hercules Powder Company equip-
ment for the manufacture cf military explosives is being converted to
make DDT with production expected to begin in Fay 1944.--Anon. (7, 14,
16). See also 45, 54, 69, .96, 144;. Peaker (340).






- 20 -


Information on the production of DDT by other companies will be
found in the following references:

General Chemical Co.--Anon, (54, 144); Peaker 340.
Monsanto Chemical Co.o-Anon. (T5.-, 69o 2, 8 89, 9 6, 109, 141);
Peaker (340).- -
Elko Chemical Works Inc.--Anon. (45, 54, 69, 96); Peaker 340.
J. T. Baker Chemical Co.--Anon. (1_, __, 96, T1i); Peaker--40).
Sherwin-Williams Co.--Anon. (54, 144); PeakerT_540). -
American Home Products Co.--Anon.(54, 119, 122, 144); Peaker 340.
Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Co.--A-on. (5, lT9-7 144); Peaer 540.
Michigan Chemical Co.--Anon. (54, 119, 144, 168)-; Peaker 340.
Pharma Chemicals Co.--Anon. (5T7 I1, 71.9- -

The Dow Chemical Co. and Rohmn and Haas are mentioned as planning
tentative production of DDT.--Peaker (540).

MoConrmick and Co., at Baltimore, Md., processes four DDT products-
a residual spray, which is used in controlling bedbugs and flies in
army camps, a delousing spray for use on prisoners of war, a delousing
powder for service men, and a larvicide dust to be employed against mos-
quitoes.--Anon. (149).

Production problems are being worked out at Pennsylvania State
College and Rhode Island State College under the Office of Production
and Research Development of the !THr Production Board.--Anon. (35, 38).

The War Production Board in June 1944 set up a DDT Producers
Industry Advisory Committee with the following membership: Fred
Marsiglio, Merck and to.; Fred Benner, Monsantc Chemical Co.; Oskar
Frey, Cincinnati Chemical Works; Paul Hayfield, Hercules Powder Co.;
T. H. McCormack, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc.; and Lee
Kolker, Elko Chemical Works.--Agricultural Insecticide and Fungicide
Association (173).

Brazil:

DDT is not at present manufactured in Brazil, but a number of
products containing from 5 to 10 percent of this -aterial will be
marketed there. They will include powders and liquidufor various
agricultural and household uses as well as those against specific pests
such as mosquitoes and fleas.--Anon. (146); Leslie (300, 301); Dean
(223).

England:

The British patent rights were established in 1939. Following
evidence that tie material was a welcome substitute for pyrethrum
and derris, scarce under war conditions, research started here and
in the United States; and bulk production vas entered upon by the
Geigy Colour Company, 'anchester, which took steps to introduce it





- 21 -


to the chief testing stations, both agricult-.ral and medical, in the
United Kingdom.--Anon. (117).

In October 1944 it was announced that :?'T was being produced in
the British Isles.-Anon. (116).

In England DDT was manufactured on a pilot-plant scale in April
1943, and bulk production started shortly after. Progress has been
running parallel to that in the United States, and at no time has the
one been very far ahead of the other. There has been a free exchange
of information between all concerned.--West and Campbell (406).

Sweden

A Swedish branch of Geigy Company has been established in Norrkop-
ing.--Jarl (287).

Production statistics

In August 1944 the DDT production program was reported to be well
ahead of schedule with a rate of production in the neighborhood of
750,000 pounds per month, and with every prospect that the War Pro-
duction Board goal of 1,900,000 pounds per month would be reached by
the first of 1945. Only a little over a year ago the rate of output
was but 1,000 pounds per month. Production was expected to reach
1,600,000 pounds per month during September 1944.--Peaker (340).

In November 1944 DDT production reached 2,000,000 pounds per
month.-Peaker (540).

DDT production, according to George W. Fiero, of the War Produc-
tion Board, has sky-rocketed from less than 60,000 pounds in January
1944 to approximately 2,000,000 pounds per month in December 1944.--
Anon. (157); also Stenerson (378).

The monthly production of DDT in this country totaled about 0.5
ton the middle of 1943, increased to 150 tons by June 1944, at which
time the nation's accumulative production did not exceed 600 tons.
Then, rising sharply, the monthly rate went up to the neighborhood
of 400 tons by August, and 750 tons in September. The WB goal of
950 to 1,000 tons a month is expected to be reached by 1945. If used
only as a delousing dust, this monthly goal would be sufficient to
protect over 150 million persons.--Callaham (193).

ALLOCATION

United States:

On June 15, 1944, allocation control vwas shifted from M-340 to
M-300 by the 7;ar Production Board (396). This order-Part 3293
Chemicals (including DDT)-was further amended October 2, 1944.--
U. S. WPB (397); Anon. (37, 46, 59); OPD VWashington Bureau (333).






- 22 -


Except for small experimental quantities of DDT, none of
this new insecticide material is available for the manufacture
of products for civilian uses. All production is allocated by
WPB and is going wholly for the manufacture of insecticides for
.the armed forces. A limited quantity may be made available later
after production has been further increased, for certain agri-
cultural insecticide purposes, but this is as yet not a certainty.
To obtain small quantities even for research work, the 7WPB must
be consulted as long as the product remains under present rigid
government control.--Anon. (60).

Various writers from time to time have mentioned the fact that
DDT is not available for civilian use.--ALnon. (102), L. (293), and
U. S. Department of Agriculture (390).

According to Appendices A, B, C to 11-300, issued October 5, 1944,
DDT comes under schedule 25, issued June 15, 1944. The customers'
filing date (7B-2945) is the 10th of the month, and the suppliers'
filing date (4PB-2946) the 20th of the month; the small-order exemp-
tion is 1 pound for allocation period (month); no report on Form
VYPB-3442 is required and the initial allocation date was January
1, 1944.-United States War Production Board (398).

On October 1, 1944, it was reported that DDT was in Group I of
materials, supplies of which are insufficient for war plus essential
industrial demands within the limits imposed by existing administra-
tive controlling orders.--U. q. War Production Board Conservation
Division (400).

No announcement is near [October 23. 1944] of the release of
supplies of DDT for civilian household or agricultural use.--Anon.
(123).

Limited supplies of DDT will be available for agricultural
experimentation.--0PD Washington Bureau (336).

Pending completion of agricultural research projects now under
way [Nov. 1, 1944J Federal entomologists do not recormend DDT, the
war-developed insect killer, for commercial agricultural use,. Re-
quests for DDT to be used for experimentation and development work
should be submitted to WIPB in triplicate on Form VVPB-2945. A letter,
in triplicate, should accompany each request containing the follow-
ing information:

(1) Name of the proposed suppliers
(2) Total amount of iraterial required:
(3) Time when the material is needed;
(4) Form in which the material is to be delivered (as 10 percent
dust, 20 percent liquid concentrate, technically pure grade,
etc.)j
(5) Pests against which the material will be tested; and
(6) Nature of the experiments and where they will be conducted.
-IT. S. War Production Board (399); Anon. (135).





- 23 -


With curtailed availability of pyrethrnmp rotenone, and nicotine,
California could use in 1945 about 40,000 pounds of DDT for control
ctfgrape leaf hopper, Parlatoria scale on olives, canker worms on
deciduous trees, parasites on animals, scale insects on citrus trees,
and for experimental work. At this time its use on leafy vegetables
is not to be recommended.--Cox (216).

Canada

In September 1944 DDT had not yet been trade in Canada. All imports
of DDT have previously been required for the armed forces, but some
civilian supplies are anticipated a little later in the year. Strict
control is to be exercised over its distribution. All imports and
inventories after July 1 must be reported to the administrator of
Fertilizers and Pesticides of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board,
and the product may not be sold, delivered, or processed without
written permission from the administrator, or used for any purpose
other than those authorized by the Pest Control Products Act.--Cook
(214).

Great Britain

On November 3, 1944, it was stated that the chances were slender
for release of DDT in England to growers (Anon. 151), but at the same
time Abrahamson (171) and Anon. (115) reported tma a small quantity
was recently allocated to the Ministry of Health for use in air-raid
shelters*

On October 27,. 1944, it was reported that Salford, England, was
the only authority outside London to which DDT had been issued for
testing in the disinfestation of homes. It was placed at the disposal
of the Salford Health Department.--Anon. (125).

In supplement No. 3 to "The Raw Materials Guide" it was announced
that all production of DDT is reserved for essential service tequire-
ments.--Anon. (150).

Australia

A plea for DDT supplies to control pests,specially the buffalo
fly and cattle tickwas made in December 1944 by Wilson (412).

COST OF DDT

Effective September 4, 1944, the Office of Price Administration
freed DDT from price control, because the constant change in specif-
ications precluded any immediate and accurate determination of prices.
--Anon. (97, 98, 137), [u. S.] Office of Price Administration-(393).

The price of DDT in July 1944 was said to range between U5 cents
and 01.60 per pound. In October 1944 DDT dropped again in price. It
has been reduced by at least one manufacturer from $1.00 per pound to
75 cents.--Peaker (340).





2 -

Cost of Manufacture

Basic economies of t1- D )tbmran continuous processes show up
best in estimated manufacii.,crg cost figures for the final product.
Of the estimated net cost f' considerably less than 30 cents per
pound for DDT, raw materials alone account for almost 75 percent of
the total cost, while steiav, water, electrical energy, and labor
amount to only about 8 *percent, and overhead 17 percent. There seem
to be sound reasons to hope that the selling price of undiluted DDT
made by this process could be in the neighborhood of 50 cents per
pound. After extension with inerts, a 10-percent DDT dust, for
instance, could be marketed in household units for about 20-50 cents.
--Callaham (193).

Cost of Application

In 1944 the U. S. Public Health Service sprayed the inside of
homes on 36 spuare miles of cotton country near Helena, Ark.,with
DDT to control mosquitoes, Tfh, job used an average of 0.82 gallon
per house of 5 percent DDT solution. Per house it consumed 10
minutes, took 0.73 man-hour, and cost 74 cents for material and
labor.--Anon. (164).

PATENTS

When the Geigy patent application was filed in Washington on
Varch 4, 1941, the military authorities, having come upon a potential
major weapon, clamped down a firm secrecy order which prevented,
until last summer [1943], the revelation of any phase of the amazing
developments involved.--Geigy (258),

Application for a patent on the use of DDT as -an insecticide
was filed in Germany March 7, 1941, but no positive information is
obtainable as to whether or not the German patent has ever been
granted.--Anon. (92).

Geigy's British Patent F47,874 is abstracted in the Chemical
Trade Journal and Chemical rngineer.=-Anon. (83).

The information in United States Patent 2,9349,814, granted
Deonier and Jones (226) on lb.' 30, 1944, is abstracted on page 62.
of this digest.

SUnited States Patent 2,358,942, granted Siegler (364) on Sep-
tember 26, 1944, is abstracted on page 51.

The Geigy Company, Inc., (259) owns United States Trade-Mark
No. 409,820 on Gesapon.





- 25-


DDT IN AEROSOLS


The distribution of DDT'as an aerosol from a liquefied-gas solu-
tion, first developed and described by Goodhue, has been mentioned by
several writers.--15, 29, 56, 120, 127, 144, 150, 348.


DDT IN PAINTS


Small-scale experiments to test the insecticidal value of paints
containing DDT were carried out in the laboratory. Fly cages were
lined with plywood painted with dry distemper, oil-bound water paint,
white lead oil paint, and synthetic varnish enamel, each containing
5 percent of DDT. One hundred housefly pupae were placed in each
cage with containers of sugar and water, and the cages were inspected
from time to time. Good results were obtained with the dry distemper
and with the oil-bound water paint, but not with oil paint and the
enamel. The oil-bound water paint was found to have lost none of
its effectiveness after 2 months, and was only very slightly less
effective after 6 months. Tests were repeated on a larger scale with
the oil-bound water paint, this time the DDT content being only 0.5
percent. Two waiting rooms were painted, one with paint containing
DDT, the other with ordinary oil-bound water paint. ven at this low
percentage the DDT paint killed 90 percent of the flies in 48 hours.
The dining-room and kitchen of a factory canteen heavily infested
with flies were then painted with paint containing 1 percent of DDT,
and the bakery was left unpainted as a control. The number of flies
decreased greatly during the first day after the painting, whereas
the bakery was swarming with flies. The next morning hundreds of
S dead flies were lying on the floors, on window ledges, tables, etc.
During the following days flies still entered the canteen, but most
of them came into contact with the DDT paint and eventually died.--
Campbell and West (201, 203, 204); also West and Campbell (407).

It appears possible to formulate even oil paints and enamels
in such a way as to allow the DDT to function as an insecticide.
Moreover, there is evidence that DDT is effective in a coumarone-
resin film and in a wax floor polish. In both instances DDT is
enclosed in a continuous film, so that there would appear to be
good prospects of successful formulation in the more decorative and
durable paints.-West and Campbell (407).

One writer has suggested that DDT be incorporated in plastics
or plastic films.--Anon. (88).





- 26 -


POPULAR AET ES AND REVIEWS ON DDT


The story of the amairLn toxicity of DDT to nwm.ny insects has
caught the popular fancy, -...'. innumerable article_- have been publish-
ed in newspapers, popular .nqaz-nes, and trade journals describing
its value for the control cf lice, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches,
codling moths, Japanese beetles,and other injurious insects. These
accounts are based chiefly on the reports of tests by personnel of
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine which were published
in the February 1944 number of the Journal of Economic Entomology;
on the talks by Ahnfeldt (174) and Froelicher (247) and the press
releases of the Geigy Company (254, 255, 256, 258).

Excellent reviews of the available information on DDT have been
published in England by Campbell and West (196, 197, 198, 200, 202);
Chambers, Hey, and Smitt (207); Martin and Wain T32l); and West and
Campbell (406).

That DDT is not effective for all purposes and needs further
testing was pointed out by the United States Department of Agricul-
ture (390) in a press release, June 28, 1944, which outlined the
nature of the additional tests that should be made. Attention has
been called to the contradictory nature of many of the tests of IDDT.
--Anon. (100, 126).


MISCELLANEOUS


Basle University, Switzerland, has conferred an honorary M. D.
it
upon Paul Lauger, technical director of J. R. Geigy, A. G., for his
work with Gesarol, Neooid, and other DDT compositions.--Anon. (156).

An expert in such things has figured that over the past 3 months,
[prior to July 1944] DDT has received about two million dollars worth
of free newspaper advertising at space rates.--Anon. (61).

There are some new synthetics that will also be of interest; for
instance, British patents 547871 and 547874, issued during 1943 to
Geigy and Company, contain reference to a new synthetic organic material
[DDT]. This insecticide is now being produced in the United States. It
has been tested by a number of government agencies and particularly by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.--Groggins (266).






- 27 -


"The discovery and the field application of DDT to the control of
insect-borne diseases, will, in my opinion, .prove to be the outstanding
medical advance made during this war. It will exceed sven penicillin
in Its ultimate usefulness in the preservation of health and the saving
of human lives."-Simmons (366, pp. 408-409).

A high tribute to the value of DDT was paid by inston Churchill
in his review of the war situation in the House of Commons late in
September 1944.--Anon. (114).

DDT is not in itself a complete insecticide, but is a toxicant
which to be effective requires very careful compounding with other
compatible substances that act as diluents or carriers.-Anon. (167).

The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine developed the
insecticidal uses of DDT in this country.--Fielaner (240).

INSECTICIDAL VALUE

This second digest of the literature on DDT abstracts 418 articles
which describe tests against 151 identified species of insects and other
arthropods belonging to 17 orders, 65 families and lZ4 genera.

CRUSTACEA

Isopoda

Wood lice

Both Gesarol and a dust containing 0.8 percent of DDT were effec-
tive as contact poisons.-Martin et l. (319).

THYSANURA

Lepismatidae

Lepisma sacoharina L., the silverfish

DDT goes to work with a vengeance against silverfish.--Anon. (55).

Practical field tests are being made with DDT to determine its
value for the control of silverfish. This is a cooperative project
between the National Pest Control Association Research Projects
Committee and the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.--Anon.
C63).

COLLEMBOLA

Gesarol dust is used in gardens to control ground fleas.--Wesserli
(323).








OF-HOPTTPA


Acrididae

Melanoplus spp., grasshoppers

Preliminary experiments indicated that DDT is very promising.--
U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, pl. 9).

Blattidas

Blattella germanica (L., the German cockroach

Until the discovery of DDT, which mn:ay: be potent for reach control,
sodium fluoride was probably the most effective substance known for
speedy end lasting control of German roaches. Being cheaper than DDT,
it will not be easily ousted for this purpose.--Campbell (195).

Periplaneta americana (L.), the American cockroach

Radioactive bromine was used to prepare dibromodiphenyltri-
chloroethane, m.up 139.0-139.5.* A saturated solution of this compound
in Gellosolve was applied to the posterior thoracic tergites of adult
roaches over a period of 8 hours, and within 24 hours all the insects
were very torpid or dead. Radioautographs of dissected material showed
the presence of the bromine homologue of DDT in the nerve cord and
brain as well as in other parts of the treated insects.--Hansen et al.
(273). _

Nontechnical references on cockroaches

DDT has been found effective against roaches, and field tests are
being conducted to determine the best type of preparation to adopt.-
Anon. (18).

DDT is effective against roaches.--Anon. (27, 28, 33, 55, 75, 78);
Brazelton (188); Cameron (194).

A dairy barn in Florida was sprayed v-ith DDT and 10 days afterwards
cockroaches were still dying as a result.-'A'.atson (405).

The application of DDT from a pressure paint sprayer for killing
cockroaches is shown in a photograph.--Anon. (51).

According to Sameth, chairman of the Technical Coirmmittee of National
Pest Control Association, "The roach control picture is not so clear;
23 tests initiated, 19 completed. Results from six were superior to
prevailing methods; 12 were equal, .1 was inferior. Reinfestation will
occur but we'll get the answer to that next."--Anon. (150). For roach
control DDT is equal to sodium fluoride. PReinfestation is possible
where DDT is used.--Anon. (169).





-29 -


DEMLAPTERA

Forfioulidae

Forfioula auricularia L,, the European earwig

Good results have been obtained with DeDeTane. and with DDT in
emulsion and dust form, but a relatively high concentration of DDT
in the preparation is necessary.--Chambers, Hey, and Smitt (207,
208).

Forficula spp.

Both Gesarol and DDM at a strength of 0U.8 percent deposited from
an acetone solution on a mixture of 95 percent gypsum and 5 percent
amorphous silica were effective as contact insecticides.--Martin et al.
(319).

ISOPTERA

Rhinotermidae

Cryptotermes brevis (Wlk.); the West Indian dry-wood termite

Samples of wood dipped in a petroleum ether solution of DDT were
very repellent and toxic to the termites, even at the greatest dilutions.
A few weeks later, however, fresh termites ate deeply of the sample
treated with 1 percent of DDT, without any apparent deleterious effects.
--Wolcott (414).

Nontechnical references

DDT is deadly to termites.o- 22, 30, 32, 33, 55.

MALLOPHAGA

Menoponidae

Eomenacanthus stramineus (iitz.), the chicken body louse

Menopon gallinae L., the common chicken louse

Dusts containing 4 percent of DDT, 0.5 percent of nicotine, and
63 percent of sodium fluoride in pyrophyllite were efficacious in the
control of E. strtnineus. The DDT freed all birds of lice within 28
hours; the sodium fluoride within 52 hours. No apparent harmful effects,
either upon the operator or the 24 -two-year-old hens,resulted in the
use of these naterials.--Telford (3bl, 382)o






- 30 -


THfSANOPTERA

Tbh-ipidae

Frankliniella fusca (hinds), the tobacco thrips

Frankliniella tritici (Fitch), the flower thrips

Hercothrips fasciatus (Perg.), the bean thrips

In preliminary tests in Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona encouraging
results were obtained with DDT against thrips on cotton.--U. S. Bur.
Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 19).

Scirtothrips citri (Moult,), the citrus thrips

From limited field experiments the following statements appear to
be warranted Of new materials tested during the past season DDT was
the most effective; control was better with DDT sprays than with DDT
dusts; DDT sprays-were about as effective as the regular nicotine pro-
gram now being used; DDT offers promise as a combination treatment for
citricola scale and citrus thrips on oranges in central California.--
Calif. Fruit Growers Exchange (192).

DDT has been found to be very toxic to the citrus thrips, but
further work is needed before it can be recommended for the control
of this inseot.--4cGregor (316).

Taeniothrips simplex (Morison), the gladiolus thrips

Encouraging but not outstanding results were achieved with DDT.--
U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar, (388, p. 13).

DDT sprays gave about the same control as the tartar, emetic-sugar
spray.--Blauvelt (186).

Thrips nigropilosus Uzel, the chrysanthemum thrips
I
Greenhouse tests on heavily infested chrysanthemums showed that
these thrips were extremely susceptible to DDT, rates as low as 1
ounce per 100 imperial gallons giving almost complete kill of the
larvae and a high kill of adults. The control by sprays of DDT-talc-
01rvus appeared to be just as high as by formulas containing Velsicol
or acetone. Two applications of a DDT enumlsion (DDT 10 g., Triton
S-l00 10 ml., Velsicol AR 60 to make 100 rnl.) diluted to give 4
ounces of DDT per 100 gallons gave complete control. Eggs were
apparently not killed, but the residue killed the newly hatched
larvae.--Ross (354).

Experiments by G. G. Duston in Canada indicate that DDT in
certain spray formulas is very effective against this thrips.--
Blauvelt (186).





- 31 -


Thrips tabaci Lind., the onion thrips

Two applications of a spray containing 0.13 percent of DDT, used
at the rate of 190 gallons per acre of onions, gave a better control
of the nymphs than a number of recommended treatments.--Lange (294).

Encouraging but not outstanding results were achieved with DDT.
--U. S. Pur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

Thrips on orchids

A single spraying of DDT destroyed orchid thrips and prevented
reinfestation for 4 months.--W. B, (180).

Nontechnical references

DDT was found effective against thrips.-24, 32, 212, 255.

HOMOPTEPA

Aleyrodidae

Aleurothrixus howardi (Quaint.), the woolly whitefly

Plants dusted with Gesarol or sprayed with a 1-percent suspension
of it are protected for a long time. A spray containing 2 percent of
a white, medium-light emulsible oil and 30 to 40 grams of Gesarol-
Spritzmittel per 100 liters of water can be used also.--Hayiard (274).

Trialeurodes spp., whiteflies

In Brazil whiteflies in greenhouses -ere easily controlled wVith
monthly sprayings of a 1-percent suspension of Gesarol A (5 percent
DDT). The spray did not injure the most tender plants.--Lepage and
Giannotti (297).

Aphiidae

Anuraphis roseus Baker, the rosy apple aphid

Apple trees sprayed in 1945 for codling moth were examined for
aphids in April 1944. Trees that had been sprayed with DDT were
infested with fewer aphids than were trees that had been sprayed
with lead arsenate or nicotine bentonite. Py applying a 10-percent
DDT dust to infested branches of apple trees a knock-down of most
aphids present has been obtained within 2 hoiurs.--Steiner (375).

Aphis gossypii Glov., the cotton aphid

None of the synthetic materials tested, including DDT, showed
much promise. In preliminary tests in Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona,
DDT was less effective than nicotine.--U. S. Bur. Fnt. and Plant
Quar. (588, pp. 16, 17, 19); Anon. (113).





- 32 -


Aphis -- Deg., the apple aphid

Same as for Anuraphis roseus.--Steiner (375).

Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.), the woolly apple aphid

In the northwestt this aphid has become extremely abundant in DDT-
sprayed apple trees, raising the question of a possible recurrence of
perennial canker, to which this aphid is a contributing factor. The
increase 4n aphids is assumed to be due to the effect of DDT on para-
sites, or predators.--Porter (342).

!'acrosiphum pisi (Kltb.), the pea aphid

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective.--U. S. Bur.
Fnt. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

Excellent results were obtained with Gesarol A3 Dust (3 percent
DDT).--Ceigy Co. (255).

Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae (Fitch), the apple grain aphid

Same as for Anuraphis roseus.-Steiner (375).

Phoalosiphum pseudobrassioae (Davis), the turnip aphid

Unsatisfactory or indifferent results vere obtained with DDT.--
U. S. Pur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (386, p. 13).

PRhopalosiphun rufomaculatumn Wilson, the green chrysanthemum aphid

Greenhouse tests against this aphid, which is very resistant to
nicotine, afforded further proof of the superiority of' the contact
action of DL'T in Velsicol or acetone over the so-called dry spray
fornmlas. The DDT-talc-Orvus formula, diluted to 4 ounces of DDT
per 100 imperial gallons, reduced an aphid population of 1500 per 10
tips to 567, while the DDT-Velsicol-Triton X-100 at the same rate
reduced it to 55.--Boss (354, p. 7).

Nontechnical references

DDT has been found effective against sore aphids.--5, 9, II, 13,
23, 24, 28, 32, 33, 75, 78, 212, 227, 255.

Cicadellidae

Cphiole. striatula (Fall.), blunt-nosed cranberry leafhopper

Four tests were made with DDT dust areir st the cranberry leafhopper
in Yew Jersey during the summer of 1S44. According to preliminary
results, it appears desirable to use at least 50 pounds of 3 percent
DDT dust per acre of cranrberrieso Pyrethrum was as effective as DDT.
--Doehlert (227).





M 3-4


Empoasca fabae (Harr.), the potato leafhopper

Although the data on the control of this species were not so
striking at 1 to 2.5 percent cornentrations as for the potato flea
beetle, at a 5 percent concentration DDT was very effective against
the leafhoppers for nearly 2 weeks between the dusting operations.
--Granovsky (263)0

Pyrax ABB dusts containing 1, 2.5, and 5 percent of DDT applied
at 25 and 30 pounds per acre were effective in field experiments at
three locations in Minnesots. The 1-percent dust reduced the popu-
lation 72 percent at the end of 2 days, but at the end of 6 days the
population had built up to within 2 percent of its original level.-
Granovsky (264).

In an experiment with 44 materials sprayed on late-planted Dakota
Red potatoes, DDT (0.75 pound per 100 gallons of water) was used alone
and in combination with two fungicides (copper oxychloride and zinc
dimethyl dithiocarbamnate) in a five-application spray schedule. The
leafhopper counts averaged 7.6 per 20-foot row for those treated with
fungicides and those untreated, and averaged 1 for DDT alone or c6m-
bined with the fungicides.--Heuberger and XWblfenbarger (277); abstracted
by Anon. (160).

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective.--U. S. Bur." Ent.
and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

A 3 percent dust will control the potato leafhopper.--Geigy Co.
(255).

nEmpoasca maligna (Walsh), the apple leafhopper

A 3 percent Gesarol dust gave excellent control.--Geigy Co. (255).

Eutettix tenellus (Bak.), the beet leafhopper

Encouraging but not outstanding results were obtained with DDT.
--U. S. kiur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

Macrosteles divisus (Uhl.), the six-spotted leafhopper

This leafhopper behaves in regard to DDT much in the same vay as
Empoasca fabae.--Cranovsky .(264).

Unidentified Cicadellidae

DDT both as a spray and as a dust vill knock out leafhoppers.--
Anon. (28, 32).





- 34 -


Coccidae

Aonidiella aurantii (Vask.), the California red scale

DDT vas applied to citrus trees in lirlht-medium oil or in kerosene
as oil-water emulsion. Some effect of it persisted up to the 26th
week after sprayin-. Dusts containing 4 percent of DDT applied to
fruit did not prevent all red scale crawlers from settling or develop-
in-, nor did 2 pounds of DDT in 100 gallons of water applied as a spray.
--Lindgren and LaDue (305, 506).

In laboratory tests oil-wv:ater emulsion (0.75 percent of oil) alone
1:1 led 26 percent of the female adult scales, but the kill was increased
to 56 percent when DDT was added at tho rate of 6 grams per 100 ml. of
oil. With the oil alone 1050 young settled and developed per grapefruit,
while with 4 or 6 rarns of DDT added per 100 ml. of oil practically no
young developed on the fruit. Other tests showed that the kill of all
stages of the red scale was increased by the addition of DDT to either
kerosene or mineral seal oil. The kill of the younger stages was strik-
ingly increased, but that of the late gray adult and the mature adult
female less so. One percent of mineral-seal oil plus 1.7 gram of cube
plus 4 rr&a.s of DDT per 100 ml. of oil killed 99 percent of adult female
scales, and the residue killed 100 percent of the young. When a similar
mixture containing 3 percent of kerosene was tested, 96 percent of the
females and 100 percent of the young died. Other similar mixtures con-
taining 8 or 6 grams of DDT were sprayed on lemon trees. Forty days
after spraying some settling but no development of young scales was
obta-ned on fruit picked from these trees treated with DDT, either in
light-medium oil or kerosene.--Lindgren and coworkers (307); reviewed
by Burnet (191).

The kill of nature insects with DDT has not been significant. Its
greatest effectiveness is against crawlers and prevention of their settl-
ing. When used as a dust, the results with upwards to 5 percent strength
DDT have been of little value against red scale in any stage. DDT is
most effective as a spray and has been used in kerosene and spray oil.
At strengths up to 5 percent in kerosene solutions the results in the
field are not equivalent to an ordinary oil spray. The addition of DDT
to oil spray increases the duration of the crawler kill somewhat, but
on the basis of preliminary results even amounts up to 4 percent
strength in light medium oil have not increased the kill in significant
degree after a few months over that of oil alone. The failure of DDT
in the field to meet expectations is possibly due to its decomposition
jnder summer field conditions. Attempts will be made to determine wvhy
decomposition occurs and whether it can be eliminated as a factor in
reducing the effectiveness of DDT.--Calif. Fruit Growers Exchange
(192).

At the Citrus Experiment Station, Pivorside, Calif., DDT sprayed
in a 1.75-percent oil emulsion (6 grams per 100 ml. of oil) gave an
exceptionally effective control of the settling ard development of
the larvae for more than 50 days. It appeared, moreover, to be effi-
cient on the larvae that tried to settle and develop on the bark. 'he




- 35 -


use of oil alone caused a large destruction of the immature stages and
adult females, although the combination of oil and DDT was the most
promising. DDT in 3-percent kerosene emulsion (8 grams per 100 ml. of
oil) was very effective in the control of the development of the crawl-
ing larvae, but it only partially controlled the settling of them.--
Rosenberg (353).

Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), the Florida red scale

DDT is being tried in Florida on grapefruit infested with both
the Florida red scale and the purple scale, with results similar to
those obtained in California against the California red scale.--
Watson (405).

Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.), the purple scale

The effect of DDT on settling and development of the young scales
was practicallythe same as for Aonidiella aurantii. Under laboratory
conditions 4.5 percent of DDT in kerosene or mineral-seal oil inhibited
all the young from developing for 45 days. DDT in oil was toxic, but
when cube root was added .to this spray mixture the kill was increased.
--Lindgren and LaDue (305, 306).

The effect against purple scale in the laboratory appears-to be
comparable to that against red scale. DDT dissolved in oil will pene-
trate somewhat into the outer peel (flavedo), where it is not removed
by washing.--Calif. Fruit Growers Exchange (192).

Same as for Chrysomaphalus aonidum.--Watson (405).

Pseudococcus citri (Risso), the citrus mealybug

Various formulas diluted to give 8 ounces of DDT per 100 imperial
gallons were applied to coleus heavily infested with nealybugs. Obser-
vations showed practically no kill of adults or larger, larvae, but the
following kills of the young crawlers: DDT 10 grams, Triton X-O100 10
ml.,and Velsicol AR-60 to make 100 ml., 54.5 percent; and DDT 10 per-
cent, talc 87 percent, and Orvus 3 percent, 1.1 percent.--Ross (554,
p. 8).

Pseudococcus oomstocki (Kuv.), the Comstock mealybug

DDT (1.5 lb. per 100 gal.) in two sprays (July 5 and 14) and four
sprays (July 5, 14, and 25, and August 5) applied against the young of
the second. generation resulted in 7,9 and 3.5 percent of infested
apples, respectively, at harvesttime in September, compared with 69.4
percent on the check trees. In laboratory tests the DDT affected the
young mealybugs but not the mature females. After 24 to 48 hours the
paralyzed young fell from the fruit. DDT applied in oil also seemed
to kill the young mealybugs. The toxicity of the spray deposit was
considerably higher immediately after the treatment than 12 to 13 days
later.--Hough (284).






- 36 -


In laboratory tests badly infested seed potatoes in Brazil were
dusted -with Gesarol P (containing 3 percent of DDT). After 40 days
mealybugs on these tubers were still absent but the untreated potatoes
remained badly infested.--Lepage and Giannotti (297).

Pseudococcus rmaritimus (Ehrh.), the grape mealybug

Same as for Pseudococcus comstocki.--leapage and Giannotti (297).

Unidentified mealybugs, Nontechnical references

DDT in certain spray formulas is not satisfactory against mealy-
bugs.--(188).

DDT spray was less effective against mealybugs than against
scale insects. DDT dust gave fair control.--W. B. (180).

Saissetia oleae (Bern.), the black scale

DDT had the same effect on settling and development of young
scales as described for Aonidiella aurantii. No crawlers settled and
developed on potato sprouts sprayed with DDT dissolved in benzene,
kerosene, or mineral-seal oil applied as oil-water emulsion. On the
checks several hundred young settled and developed per sprout.--
Lindgren and LaDue (5305, 306).

Unidentified scales

Two benches of orchid plants, each 150 feet long, were allowed
to become well covered with orchid scale. One bench was then dusted
with DDT, while the other bench was treated according to the current
popular method of scrubbing plants to con+-ol the scale. On the
treated bench there was no increase in the orchid scale except on
new growth. On the scrubbed plants there was a continued increase
in the amount of the scale on both the old and the new growth. A
small number of palms were treated with DDT and a few were left un-
treated. Again, on the old growth of the treated plants no new
scales developed, but on the new growth as well as on the untreated
plants the amount of scale increased. In the oase of Boston Tern
scale, the treated plants showed no new scales, although the old
scalesdid not die, nor did they reproduce, while there was an increase
in the amount of scale on all parts of the untreated plants.--W. B.
(180).

Psyllidae

Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc.), the potato psyllid

In Colorado DDT appeared to be a much more effective killer of
psyllids than lime-sulfur spray. Every psyllid on infested laboratory
plants was killed within 3 weeks with DDT dust.--Geiger (249); also
Anon. (91).




- 37 -


HEMITERA

Cimicidae

Cimex lectularius L., the bedbug

Under an extensive research program developed by the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine and the W.ar Production Board Office
of Civilian Requirements, pest-control operators selected by. the
National Pest Control Association are cooperating with these agencies
in conducting field experiments. It is planned to test DOT under
various conditions. In 29 completed tests out of 35, it was shown
that in comparison with other control methods DDT was superior in
26 cases, or in 89 -percent.--Stenerson (378); abstracted by Anon.
(635, 151).

Seameth, chairman of the National Pest Control Association
committee, stated: '"Indications are that DDT will be among the chem-
icals used in bed bug control. Tested against prevailing methods,
it has been found superior to what the average PCO has used."--
Anon. (150, 169).

Nontechnical references

DDT is very toxic to bedbugs.--18_, 26, 27, 28, 32, 33, 40, 51,
55, 68, 75, 169, 186, 188, 194, 201..

Lygaeidae

Blissus leucopterus (Say), the chinch bug

Preliminary experiments indicated that DDT is a very promising
insecticide against this pest on corn.-T-U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant
Quar. (388, p. 9).

Niridae
0
Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze), the alfalfa plant bug

Adelphocoris rapidus (Say), the rapid plant bug

DDT was very effective against mirids on potatoes. The mortality
of the mirids increased while that of flea beetles decreased in the
period of 6 days after dusting.--Granovsky (263).

These bugs respond to DDT in the same pattern as does the tar-
nished plant bug.--Granovsky (264).

Halticus bracteatus (Say), the garden fleahopper

A plot in Florida dusted with 3 percent Gesarol dust in the fall
of 1943 was "devoid of insect life" and could be picked out from a
distance by the taller and greener growth.--Geigy Co. (255).


,.iBRARY R
STATE PLMNT ]OAML




- 38 -


Lygus oblineatus (say), the tarnished plant bug

Pyrax ABB dusts containing 1, 2.5, and 5 percent of DDT applied
at rates of 25 and 50 pounds per acre were effective in field experi-
ments at three locations in Minnesota. The 1-percent dust reduced
the population 45 percent in 2 days and 83 percent in 6 days.--
Granovsky (264).

DDT was very effective in laboratory tests and may be useful for
controlling this pest on mums, dahlias, and other flowers often injured
by it.--Blauvelt (186).

Lygus spp., plant bugs

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective against Lygus
plant bugs, and in Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona encouraging results
were obtained against plant bugs on cotton.-U. S. Bur. Ent. and
Plant Quar, (388, p. 13); also Geigy Co, (255).

Pentatomidae

Unidentified stinkbugs

Encouraging but not outstanding results were achieved with DDT
against stinkbugs of various species on truck crops. In preliminary
tests in Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona, encouraging results were
obtained with DDT against etinkbugs on cotton.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and
Plant Quar. (38C_).

Bagrada hilaris (Burm,), the Bagrada bug

In laboratory tests a weak solution of DDT was tested as a spray
against this species, which is a common pest of cruciferous plants in
Pretoria. They became paralyzed, did not feed, and died within 3 days.
--Hepburn (275).

Triatomidae

Mestor megistus (Burn.)

Rhodnius prolixus Stal

Triatoma infestans (Klug)

Triatoma sordida (Stal)

Neocid, which contains 5 percent of DDT absorbed in talcum powder,
was applied in Brazil to these bugs, which transmit the American
trypanosomiasis (chagas disease). The bugs were confined in petri
dishes containing the insecticide. The effect of DDT was generally
slow, but it was more rapid against the adults than the nymphs, the
last nymphal instar being the most resistant. The insects showed
the first symptoms of paralysis within 18 to 24 hours. Pure DDT
in crystal form did not have a more rapid effect than Neocid. DDT
did not prevent embryological development of the insects. R. prolixus,




- 39 -


2 hours after sucking blood front a pigeon fed 0.45 to 0.50 gram. of DDT,
exhibited the usual syrvtorr's of DDT poisorirg.--Lent and Oliveira (299).

AlTOPLb PA

Haematopinidae

Haenatopinus eurysternus Nitz., the short-nosed cattle louse

DDT was found to be remarkably effective against this and other
less resistant species of cattle lice. As little as 0.06 percent of
DDT in a water suspension gave complete mortality of the motile stages
of all species of cattle lice.--U. S. Bur. Fnt. and Plant uar. (388,
p. 23).

Linonaths stenopsis (Burn.), a blue louse* on goats

Emulsions containing Q.1 percent of DD? killed the motile stages
of all species of lice on Angora goats, and the rnaterial from a single
dipping rerair.ed in the hair long enough to kill the young lice that
hatched from the eggs. [Five species of lice infest goats in the United
States.]--U. S. iBur. Ent. and Plant Qua'. (38., p. 23).

Pedicul idae

Fediculus hunanus corporis Deg., the body louse

Pediculus humans humanus L., the head louse

Measures for louse control developed by the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, and recommended to the Army and Navy, were used
in stsanping out a typhus epidemic in Iaples, Italy, during the winter
of 1943-1044. As a result of this experience a high official in the
War Department stated that typhus has become one of the easiest dis-
eases of man to cortrol.--U. S. Bur. Fnt. and Plant Quar. (388, pp. 1,
21)9

A powder known as ,YL killed lice for 1 to 2 weeks, and in most
instances a single treatment vmwas sufficient. Ten percent of DDT in
pyrophyllite gave protection for 2 to 3 weeks and sometimes longer.
This ii.aterial remained in the clothing long enough to kill the young
as they hatched from the eggs; it mras therefore not necessary to add
an ovicide as was done in the IYL treatment. These powders have been
adopted by the armed forces and have been the neans of controlling
typhus epidemics in the present war.--Dove (228).

DDT proved to be not cnly a suitable substitute for pyrethrum
but one whose effectiveness against 'lice '.ws retained for 30 days
as compared wdth the 7 da-s for the FYL _,,'rethnimn powder. After a
great many toxicological studies, the safet-y cf 'DT under the condi-
tions of its Amny use was established, and on TMay 26, 1943, a mixture
of 10 percent DDT in pyrophyllite was adoetod for use. In one pris-
oner of war camp, 252 men were selected as a rroup. Lice were found





- 40 -


on 77 percerit of these men. The entire group of men were then dusted
with DDT louse powder. Re-examination of 151 of these men 16 days later
failed to reveal the presence of a single louse. During December 1943
and January 1944 a relatively large outbreak of louse-borne typhus
occurred inNaples, and spread rapidly, constituting a serious potential
threat to our troops. The U. S. A. Typhus Cowinission, AYG officials,
and a typhus control team of the Rockefeller Foundation Health Cormis-
sion, working in close cooperation with the Army Medical Corps, took
prompt and vigorous measures to suppress it. DDT was applied at wass
dusting stations which were set up all over iTaples. Over a million
and a half individulas were deloused with DDT powder in less than 1 1/Z
months. Some stations were able to dust as many as 5,000 people a day,
and during the early control period over 50,000 persons were deloused
daily in Naples. The epidemic was stopped, and to date no case of
typhus has been reported in an American soldier in Italy. The impreg-
nation of underwear with a. DDT emulsion has proved in tests to be a
practical procedure. An emulsion that retains its effectiveness
against lice after the clothing has been laundered eight times extended
over 2 months, "I firmly believe that the discovery of DDT now being
applied to the use of the Armed Forces offers the hope of a new era of
insect control and will rank with the really great discoveries in
medicine of the past century. DDT will be to preventive medicine what
Lister's discovery of antiseptics was to surgery, and should close the
door forever on those diseases which are companions of deathdealing
insects."-Ahnfeldt (174).

Experiments on delousing with insecticide powders were conducted
from June 1943 to January 1c44 in Algeria, lorth Africa. In all,
14,000 people were treated, including those in a penitentiary group
and others in rural communities. In the penitentiary 'group daily
counts showed progressive disappearance of the lice after a single
dusting with DDT powder and after two dustings with MYL powder within
18 hours, and the delousing was practically complete. In the control
of typhus the practical instructions include the delousing of all the
inhabitants by using dusting insecticides.-Sergent and Beguet (363).

DDT in the form of 10 percent powder in pyrophyllite kills lice in
2 to 6 hours* While it does not kill louse eggs, it persists in
clothing and kills the young insects as soon as they emerge from the
hatched eggs. It persists as an insecticide for at least a month and
can be dusted into clothing by hand or power dusters. Persons can
be deloused with their clothes on, making unnecessary the cumbersome
establishments for undressing and dressing, bathing, and steam ster-
ilization of clothing familiar to veterans of the last war. Thousands
can be deloused by a few persons and in the same time and with far
less effort than a few hundreds could have been before the discovery
of DDT. A report of a talk by Brig. Gen. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, deputy
chief of the preventive medicine 'service in the Office of the Surgeon
General, U. S. Army, and director of the United States of America
Typhus Commission, at the meeting of the "National Academy of Sciences.
-Anon. (145)*




- 41 -


Nortechlni cal references

Brief accounts of the composition of the Anryts DDT louse powder
and of its successful use in Ncrt: Africa and -'aples to combat typhus
are given by numerous writers-for enam-lej 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11,
12, 13, 15, I7, 518, 2, 2_, 30, 31, 32, 43, ,567, 75, 76,
9.5, 116, 142, 161, 182, 183, 154, 537, *345, 346.

DDT is toxic to body liee. 8, 10, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 51, 53, 55,
7P, .68 74i, 78, 79, 80, 84, S 102 113, 141, 175, 186, 188, 288 "5*

"It has been reported that the Ge;Ilan authorities made use of the
synthetic in their African. campaign but this report is unconfirmed."--
lnon. (67).

COLEOPTEPA

Bruchidae

Bruchus brachialis Fahraeus, the vetch bruchid

Bruchus pisonr n (T,.), the pea weevil

Encouraging results were obtained ivdth DDT against these bruchids.
--U. S. Fur. Frt. and Plant quar, (388, pp. 9, 13).

Bitvri dae

Byturus tomentosls (Deg.), the raspberry beetle

In laboratory tests Gesarol spray Villed 37 out of 40 beetles in
31 hours and visibly affected the rnair 3. Gesarol dust killed
all 40 insects in tie sare time.--otz (262)

Gesarol powder applied at the rote of 30 kg. per hectare killed
67 percent in 1 day and 53 percent in 2 days.-Denmark Statens Forsog.
(225).

Nontechnical references

In 1I39 Gesarol was found effective against raspberry fruit
worm.-Camapbell and VWest (202); also Anor. (24).

Chrvsomelidae

Cerotoma trifurcota (Ferst.), the bean leaf beetle

Encouraging but not outstanding results vere obtained against
these beetles.--U. S. rur. Ent. and Plm-it Cuar. (586, p. 15).





- 42. -


Crioceris asparagi (L.), the asparagus beetle

Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.), the spotted asparagus beetle

In greenhouse tests a marked difference in resistance to DDT was
shown by these two species. C. esparagi was very susceptible; 100
percent mortality resulted within 3 days, when the beetles were con-
fined in glass jars with asparagus tips sprayed with DDT, 1 ounce per 100
imperial gallons of water. C. duodecimpunctata was very resistant;
13 percent of the beetles survived for 7 days after the plants had
been sprayed with 16 ounces of DDT per 100 gallons. MAen 32 ounces
of DDT per 100 gallons were used, 100 percent mortality of this
species resulted after 5 days. The same reltivve difference between
the two species was noted for a contact spray of DDT in Velsicol.
The asparagus beetleowere readily 'Killed by 8 ounces o? DDT per 100
gallons, while the majority of the spotted asparagus beetles survived
spraying with 16 ounces of DDT per 100 gallons.--Ross (354, p. 8).

Diabrotica 11-punctata Mann., the 11-spotted cucumber beetle

A dust containing 3 percent of DDT, applied at the rate of 20
pounds por acre, was recorunended in Oregon. It was the most effective
insecticide tested. The date and number of dustings, and interval
between dustings are the same as given for Epitrix tuberis.--Gray and,
Schuh (265).

Diabrotica sp.

Gesarol dusts and sprays are effective.--Geigy Co. (255).

Epitrix cucumeris (Harr.), the potato flea beetle

Preliminary field tests with dusts containing 1, 2.5, or 5
percent DDT definitely indicated that DDT is safe to use on potatoes.
It was efficient in the control of flea beetles in as low a concentra-
tion as 1 percent in Pyrax ABB. DDT wvms superior to any insecticide
heretofore used, and it had a resiuial value.--Granovsky (263).

Pyrax ABB dusts containing 1, 2.5, and 5 percent of DDT applied
at the rate of 25 and 30 pounds per acre were highly effective in
field experiments at three locations in Minnesota. The 1-percent
dust reduced the population more than 90 percent 2 days after dusting,
and the reduction was maintained for at least a week on a high level.
--Granovsky (264).

DDT was used successfully in combating this pest on potatoes at
the Washington County (Ohio) Truck Farm.--Valp (402).

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective against flea
beetles on potatoes.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).





- 43 -


DDT dusts are already known to be effective, though actual con-
centrations 'hareq yet to be determined, as has the possibility of using
DDT preparations with spraying i..achine.-CLP.ha bers, I-ey, and Smitt (20_).

Epitrix tuberis CGentner, the tuiber flea beetle

A dust containing 3 percent of DDT, a:-liod at the rate of 20
pounds per acre, was recommended for control of this insect on nota-
toes in Oregon. '.'hen tested in field plots ,tnd under commercial
field conditions during the 1944 Trovring season, it was found to be
at least as effective as the currently reco- ended dist containing
20 percent of calcium arsenate plus 0.5 percent of rotenone. It is
suggested that dusting be begun MJay 15 and be continued at 5 to 7
day intervals until June 25. Aopply the first dust to the entire
field when one-half to two-thirds of the plants are up, and apply
the succeeding dusts to parts of the field showing the presence of
beetles at 5- to 7-day intervals until June 25, and every 10 to 14
days until July 15; again reduce the interval to 5 to 7 days until
August 20. Continue dusting until September 20. Directions are
also given for dusting late potatoes. No trace of DDT was found on
potato tubers from the DDT plots.--Gra"y and Schuh (265).

Results of field experiments in wstoern ACebraska indicated that
DDT, either as a 3 percent dust or as a snray (4 lb. of 10 percent
DDT to 100 gal.), gave very good control of flea beetles on potatoes.
--Hill and Tate (280).

11ontechn ical references

Gesarol v.as found effective against flea beetles.--(24, 202).

Leotinotarsa deceralineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective.--U. S. Bur.
ent. and Plant Quar. (386, p. 13).

In Florida DDT promptly killed this beetle, the adults of which
are considered rather difficult to poison.--'.atson (405).

A low concentration of DDT was toxic to the beetles, especially
the larvae.--cranovsry (263).

DDT dusts effectively control this insect, especially in larval
sta-es.--Gfranmovsky (264).

Gesarol dust containing as little as 1 percent of DDT repeatedly
has given good protection against this beetle.--Geiry Co. (255).

Phyllotreta spp.

Gesarol powder at the rate of 20.kg. per hectare killed 96.9 percent
in 1 day, and proved slightly-better than derris.--Denmark Statens
Forsog. (225).




* 44 -d


Nontechnical references

DDT is effective against potato beetles.--15, 24, 30., 32, 33,
34, 75, 78, 113, 144, 188, 202. -

Coccinellidae

Epilachna varivestis Muls., the Yexioan bean beetle

Unsatisfactory or indifferent results were obtained with DDT.--
U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

Nontechnical references

DDT is ineffective against Mexican bean beetles.--15, 23, 28.
32, 33, 55, 113, -

Cryptolaemus sp.

DDT kills beneficial insects such as Cryptolaemus, which holds
the mealybug in check. If the Cryptblaemus are destroyed infestation
of mealybug may increase.--Anon, (86, 94).

Unidentified coccinellids

DDT is destructive to lady beetles.--Calif. Fruit Growers
Exchange (192).

Curculionidae

Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), the bean weevil

In Brazil a mortality of 100 percent was obtained in 48 hours by
using 0.5 gram of Gesarol (containing 3 percent of DDT) per kilogram
of beans. Seed beans may be preserved and protected by using the same
dosage as recommended against Sltophilus oryza in mullet seeds.--
Lepage and Giannotti (297).

Anthonomus eugenii Cano, the pepper weevil

In laboratory tests in 1945 DDT was more toxic than any material
previously tested against the pepper weevil in California. Pyrophyllite
dusts containing 3, 5, or 10 percent of DDT gave 100 percent mortality
within 24 hours after application. Plants treated with DDT appeared
to be completely protected from weevil feeding. The weevils were not
able to stay on the leaves or buds for more than a few seconds at a
time, and the dust adhered well to the foliage. In these tests the
weevils were placed on twigs of pepper after dusting.--Campbell (205).

Anthonomus grandis Boh., the boll weevil

Barium fluosilicate, cryolite, DDT, and other materials tested
were all inferior to calcium arsenate. In preliminary experiments in
Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona, DDT was less effective than calcium
arsenate.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (588, pp. 16, 18); also
Anon. (113).





r 45 -


Nontechnical references

DDT is ineffective azalnst cotton boll weevils.--15, 352, 53, 55.
The erroneous statement that DDT destroys boll weevils is r'ade by
Anon. (50, 56).

Anthonomnis pomorum (L.), the apple blossom weevil

In England a proprietary spray material containing DDT (called
De-Di-Tox) gave good results on 100 trees sprayed with 200 gallons of
dilute spray at each application. Two applications gave as good
results as three and a very large reduction of infestation was secured.
This weevil is one of the hardest of all pests to control and this is
the first time that such a good control has been recorded in this
country, without any damage being caused to the trees.--Chambers and
Hey (206).

Anthonomnus rbbi (Hbst.)

Gesarol powder int labqratqry tests !ave satisfactory control.--
Denmark Statens Forsogf (225).

Ponotrachelus nenuphar (Fbsa,), the plum ouroulio

DDT seems to have jkttle valve in the control of this insect.--
Porter (542).
Pantomorus leuoolodna (Boh.), thp white-fringed beetle

Preliminary experiments indicated that DDT is a very promising
insecticide.--U. S. Bur. *nt. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 9).

DDT compositions were the nost important insecticides ever tested
against the white fringed beetle.--Gei.oy Co, (255).

Sitona spp., stoness wedvils"

DDT, both as spray and dust, appears particularly effective under
laboratory conditions.-'Cha;bers, Hey, and Smitt (207, 208).

Sitophilus ranaria (,) the granary weevil

Laboratory tests With DDT gave excellent kills.--Chambers, Hey,
and Smitt (208).

Sitophilus oryza (L.), the rice weevil

In preliminary laboratory tests in '3razil, Gesarol P (containing
3 percent of DDT) was mixed with millet in the proportion of 1:1500,
1:3750, and 1:7500 by weight and then this mixture and weevils were
put in snall glass jarsl all the weevils were dead within 185, 254,
and 504 hours respectively These tests were repeated by using five
concentrations of undiluted DDT Ji talcuma pov.der, and 100. percent





- 46 -


mortality was obtained as follows: 16 percent of DOT in 170 hours,
8 percent in 175 hours, 4 percent in 190 hours, 2 percent in 220 hours,
and 1 percent in 260 hours. A satisfactory result was thus had by
1 percent of DDT in a proportion 1:5000 by vreight,of insecticide to
millet. Feeding the treated nillet to domestic animals showed that
only high concentrations of t7-1 insecticide injured then. Fany other
tests were conducted on a cormrercial scale ard it was concluded that
millet can be preserved for at least 2 months by U.sing 12 to 20 gramas
of Gesarol P per bag of GO kili-raos of seeds. In factories where
the seeds are subject to washii- processes much of the DAT' used against
the weevils might be eliminated. In the uose of 12 grams of Gesarol P
per bag of millet seeds, abort 0.36 gram of active ingredient was used
in 60 kilograms of seeds.--leoar-e and Giannotti (297).

Strangaliodes albosqiamosus Boh.

DDT offers great promise for the control of this weevil, called
the "capacho" of the vine in Chile. Vines sprayed with an emulsion
containing DDT at 2 parts per 1000 were not denared, and a 100 percent
control vwas obtained of the 'nsects that fedand walked on the treated
plants. Death resulted within 3 or 4 days but apparently the insects
were incapable of feeding and moving after the first day. A test
with 1 percent of DDT in powder form gave no results as remarkable
as did the application in liquid form.--Posenberg (352).

Dermestidae

Anthrenus scro-hulariae (L.), the carpet beetle

Attagenue.piceus (Oliv.), the -black carpet beetle

According to Sameth, chairman of the rational Pest Control Associ-
ation's research projects committee: On carpet beetles no conclusions
may be dravn as yet, since enough tests have not been trade. However,
one unit of a heavily infested apartment house was cleared up and
iL=minized.--.Anon. (150, 169).

Nontechn.ical reference

DDT will soon be a boon to thousands who in the past have suffered
at the hands of buffalo mnoths [carpet beetlesj.--Anon. (22).

Kitulidae

Yeligethes aeneus (F.), a rape beetle

Gesarol was put in porous bags, which were carried and shaken by
men as they walked through a heavily infested field. Often 15 beetles
were counted on a plant. About 2 to 3 kg. cf powder were distri'-uted
per acre with excellent results.--Hoist (2&2).

Beetles treated directly with Gesarol oust or those coning in
contact with it on plants showed paralysis after several hours and
died within 2 days.--Frey (246).




- 47 -


Gesarol powder at the rate of 20 kg. per hectare killed an average
of 93.4 percent in 1 day and 77.2 percent in 2 days.--Denmark Statens
Forsog. (225).

Ostomidae

Tenebroides mauritanicus (L.), the cadelle

Preliminary experiments indicated that DDT is very promising against
insects attacking stored grains and packaged cereals. Several organic
ana inorganic dusts, including DDT, when added to wheat in extremely
small percentages, were found to protect it from the cadelle and other
stored-produot insects.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (688, pp. 9, 11).

Radioactive bromine was used to prepare dibromodiphenyl trichloro-
ethane, m.p. 1-59.0-139.5*, A saturated solution of this compound in
Cellosolve was applied to the posterior thoracic tergites of the larvae
over a period of 8 hours and within 24 hours all the insects were torpid
or dead. Padioautographs of dissected material showed the presence of
the bromine homolorue of DDT in the nerve cord and brain as well as in
other parts of the treated inseots.--Fansen et al. (373)

Scarabaeidae

Adoretus sinicus Burmeister, the Chinese rose beetle

In cage tests in Hawaii talc dusts containing frcrm 0.25 to 3
percent of DDT and sprays containing from 2 ounces to 1 pound of DDT
per 100 gallons gave good control. With the 3 percent dust mortality
was b2 percent after 1 night's exposure and 100 percent after 3
night's exposure; 50 percent mortality was secured in approximately
11 hours.. ith a spray of pound of active ingredient per 100
gallons, mortality was 65 percent after 1 night's exposure and 100
percent after 4 nights'; 50 percent mortality was secured in approxi-
mately 13 hours.--Holdaway and Nishida (281).

Popillia japonica Newm., the Japanese beetle

DDT and talc (1:9 by weight) were mixed with sifted sassafras
sandy loam at the rates of 0.416, 1.04, and 2.08 grams of DDT per
cubic foot, which was equivalent to incorporating 10, 25, and 50 pounds
of DDT wvrith the upper ; inches of an acre of soil. At 60 F. the vel-
ocity of the poisoning of third-instar larvae was double that at 50 F.;
it was tripled at 70 F., ana quadrupled at 80 F. The velocity of
poisoning with lead arsenate was found to increase in the same manner.
The velocity of poisoning with 10 pounds of DDT per acre was not signif-
icantly different from #hat with 1,000 pounds of lead arsenate. The
velocity with the 25-pound treatment was 28 percent faster and with
the bO-pound treatment 76 percent faster than with 1,000 pounds of lead
arsenate. DDT appears to be 100 times as toxic to the larvae in the
soil as is lead arsenate,--Fleming and Taines (245).






- 48 -


In field tests against the adult Beetles in 1943, I/4' pound of
DDT per 100 gallons afforded *;he. sarie protection to peaches as a single
application of the recommended derris-rosin reside e:.u3o spray, pro-
tecting both fruit and foliage for 2 weeks. A single applic-tion of
another spray (1 lb. of DDT to 100 gal.) gave complete protection
throughout the beetle-feeding season of more than 6 weeks, rhe spray
left no visible residue on the fruit or foliage and caused no injury.
DDT was effective at very low concentrations against the grubs in soil.
In a number of soil types DDT, when freshly applied at 5 to ?7 pounds
per acre, was as effective as lead arsenate at the rm;e of '0- pounds
per acre. Studies in the greenhouse indicated that relatively large
quantities of DDT could be applied to the soil without detrim.ental
effect on certain crops, but that beans, spinach, and tomatoes seemed
to be unfavorably affected with applications of 25 pounJE of 1DT per
acre.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, pp. 4-5).

Control of insects inhabiting the soil, such as the Japanese
beetle grub and certain specific nematodes, has been encourm-,Gd by
the results obtained with Gesapon containing DDT in a form assuring
penetration of the soil sufficient to reach the pests.--Ge iGy Co.
(255).

Nontechnical references

DDT is effective against Japanese beetles.--15, 28, 50, 32, 33,
40, 186.*

Tenebrionidae

Tenebrio molitor L., the yellow mealworm

Same as under Tenebroides mauritanicus.--Hansen and coworkers (273).

Unidentified Coleoptera

DDT has been used successfully to destroy beetles.--Anon. (75).

LEPIDOPTERA

Aegeriidae

Sanninoidea exitiosa (Say), the peachtree borer

Five-year-old peach trees were sprayed on July T4, 1943, with a
mixture of DDT, calcite, and fish glue at the rate of 1 pound of DDT
to 100 gallons of water. On April 28 to 30, 1944, 10 of thA 12 trees
sprayed with DDT were found to have no borers and on the 2 remaining
trees 10 live borers were recovered. Of the 24 untreated trees border-
ing the sprayed trees, 23 yielded live borers ranging from 1 to 16 per.
tree with an average of 6 live borers per tree; and 5 dead borers.--
Driggers and Smith (232).





- 49 -


Crambidae

Crambus topiarius Zell., the cranberry girdler

Since this insect is active in the chaff on the floor of the cran-
berry bog, it may be practical to deposit the DDT on the chaff either
before or after bloom in order to avoid injury to bees.--Doehlert (227).

Galleriidae

Galleria mellonella (L.), the wax moth

Same as Tenebroides mauritanicus (L.).--Hansen et al. (273).

Gelechiidae

Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.), the pink bollworm

In preliminary tests in Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona, encouraging
results were obtained with DDT.--TJ. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (588,
p. 19).

It can be controlled or eradicated if a complete coverage of DDT
is placed on all cotton over the infested area and kept there by reappli-
cations throughout the cotton-growing season. All chemicals have failed
against the pink bollworm except DDT, which showed exceptionally well in
all tests made.--MEDonald (314).

Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.), the Angoumois grain moth

All moths treated with DDT made violent movements and cast a number
of legs, as described for Cheimatobia brumata.--Wiesmann and Fenjves (410).

Geometridae

Cheimatobia brumata (L.), the winter moth

Adults were put in petri -dishes bearing a dry deposit of DDT. This
was not powdery and so was not rubbed off the tarsi of the insect on to
other parts of the body. All the treated moths made violent movements
and cast a number of legs; they became paralyzed within a few hours and
died within 48 hours.--Wiesmann and Fenjves (410).

Small-scale tests were carried out on plums and apples to compare
DeDeTane (containing DDT) with lead arsenate. Comparison with unsprayed
trees showed that both treatments had given good control.--Chambers,
Hey, and Smitt (208).

Paleacrita vernata (Peck), the spring cankerworm

A few preliminary tests indicated that DDT at 2 ounces per 100
imperial gallons was more effective than lead arsenate at 5 pounds per
100 gallons. The spreader Orvus was used in all sprays at 8 ounces
per 100 gallons.--Ross (554, p. 9).






s 50 -


Hesperiidae

Urbanus proteus (L.), the bean leaf roll':r

In Florida Gesarol was indicated as the only insecticide that
gave complete control of ,.:4..h the bean leaf roller and the bean leaf
hopper. Gesarol dust was applied 2 or 3 weeks before harvest and the
residual effect lasted as long as the foliage remained green. A single
application protected a crop for the most critical part of the season.
-Geigy Co. (255).

Unidentified leaf rollers

In the tests on greenhouse crops DDT exhibited a strong toxicity
to various leaf rollers.--Compton (212),

Hyponomeutidae

Plutella maculipennis (Curt.), the diamondback moth

In greenhouse tests with the DDT-talc-Orvus formula at 1 to 2
ounces of DUT per 100 imperial gallons, the kill approached 100 per-
cent, and excellent plant protection was afforded by even lower strengths.
When only the foliage was sprayed with DDT in a number of carriers it
appeared that pyrophyllite was slightly better than talc or Frianite.
Approximately four times as much DDT in talo-Orvus formulas were required
to equal the kill by the acetone or Velsicol formulas. DDT retained
almost its full toxicity on plant foliage for at least 15 days when
the foliage was kept dry.--Ross (354, pp. 2-6)

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective.-U. S. Bur.
Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

Lymantriidae

Porthetria jsar (L.), the gypsy moth

Spectacular control of this moth was obtained through the aerial
application of DDT. A 20-acre tract of infested woodland in Jefferson,
Pa., was treated on May 3, 1944, with a concentrated spray at the rate
of 5 pounds of DDT per acre. The spray settled through the forest as
fine mist, which gave good coverage of exposed surfaces of trees, under-
growth, and the forest floor. Foliage was just beginning to appear and
no eggs of the gypsy moth had hatched. After the spray had,dried, a
fine crystalline deposit of DDT remained on all exposed parts of the
forest. The eggs hatched, but the small caterpillars were killed
when they started crawling and came in contact with the DDT. No living
larvae was found in the treated area. Another study of a 5-acre wood
lot in New York, treated with DDT after foliage appeared and caterpillars
were in different stages of development, indicated that this insecticide
also kills the larger larvae of. the gypsy moth.' Other small-scale demon-
strations with DDT as an emulsion, in aerosol form, and in a dilute spray
mixture were conducted. All methods proved to be spectacularly effective
against gypsy moths in all stages of larval development. It is believed






- 51 -


that, when available for the purpose, application of DDT by aircraft
will afford a cheaper and much more effective method of control and
eradication of gypsy moths than any method previously used.--UJ. S.
Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (588, pp. 7, 8, 34); a popular acco int was
written by E. F. R. (344); also by Anon. (112).

In the Cape Cod area of New England preliminary experiments using
DDT in smoke were highly effective against gypsy moth caterpillars
feeding on scrub oak. In one experiment in Pennsylvania, using air-
craft spray of concentrated DDT, there was a complete kill of these
caterpillars in 20 acres of timber at the rate of only 5 pounds of
DDT to the acre, in contrast to 25 pounds of cryolite or calcium
arsenate.--Annand (175, 176).

DDT is highly effective against the gypsy moth.--Anon. (47, 53,
74, 60).

Olethreutidae

Carpooapaa pomonella (L.), the codling moth

When tested by the apple-plug method DDT at 1/4 pound per 100
gallons killed 78 percent of the larvae and lead arsenate at 4 pounds
per 100 gallons killed 54 percent, whereas a mixture of the two at
these concentrations caused 100 percent mortality. In addition to
this synergistic action, the mixture effects a more even distribution
of DDT over the host plant and causes it to adhere better.--Siegler
(364).

Tests with pure DDT (m.p. 108 C.) against the larvae by the
apple-plug method showed neither wormy nor stung apple plugs. The
DDT was applied at a concentration of 4 pounds to 100 gallons of 20
percent ethanol by volume. Di-p-anisyl and di-p-tolyl derivatives
of 1-trichloroethane also had high toxicity,but-other derivatives and
also di-p-chloro and di-p-bromo derivatives of l,l-dichloroethylene
had low loxicity.--Siegler and 'Gertler (365).

In laboratory tests with DDT against newly hatched codling moth
larvae, DDT in all forms except Gesarol A Spray gave very much better
control than acid lead arsenate, the majority of the DDT mixtures
giving better results at 1/4 pound than lead arsenate at 4 pounds.
DDT ground in water with 3 percent of Orvus, gave consistently
better results than any other mixture at all concentrations tested.
At 1 pound per 100 imperial gallons it gave nearly complete control.
As dry diluents for DDT, pyrophyllite appeared to be superior to talc
or Frianite. V'ettable sulfur, Coposil, and hydrated lime had no
appreciable effect on the toxicity of DDT. Bordeaux reduced its
toxicity decidedly. Summer-oil emulsion did not effect DDT alone or
the DDT-Coposil combination, but it still further reduced the effi-
ciency of the DDT-bordeaux. Against mature larvae DDT as u contact
insecticide was effective only at very high concentrations in pov~iers
and solutions, but it is too ineffective to have any use in trunk
sprays against hibernating larvae. Gesarol A Spray, containing 5
percent of DDT, was ineffective at 1 pound per 100 imperial gallons
because of excessive run-off.--Ross (354, pp. 10-12).





-52-

!'T is much more effective than lead arsenate against recently
1a e;ad lar- as, but it is less toxic than dinitrocresol and oil against
mnt.:e larvae,--Ross (357).

At Vincennes, ind., laboratory tests presented no evidence that
wetting agents would improve the efficiency of any of the DDT formulas,
and in man-r instances they tended to reduce the efficiency. DDT dis-
solved in soybean oil, benzene, ethylene dichloride, or xylene was
imu.h le6s3 efflective than when used alone in a water suspension. After
the tap-water sprays the DDT paste or pyrophyllite mixture gave better
, .t vAhen added to be to'.ite-soybean oil or petroleum oil emulsions
-n when used alone. Although a weak borcaeaux can be used with DDT
wi thout seriously reducing its efficiency, the various forms of sulfur
-en.,.;oed the efficiency of deposits exposed tD the tap-water sprays.
"' in combination witi. lead arsenate was most effective when the two
wpre added to the wp ray mixture separately or ground with water to
t a astCe. The dry mixture was too granular. DDT promise to be
a very 3:f3otive fo'tj l'yir aegent for lead arsenate at dilutions as
low s 2 cince- per 10,o: 7!Ilons. In two l'on .ults it appeared to
icrease the deposits of arsenious oxide.--'teiner and coworkers


Av' reQ-A a-ab'e cc 't _l in preliminary field tests at Vincennes,
b, beginning late in July .1946 Three applications of 5 pounds of
a 30:-O DL -yrophyllxte mixture per 100 gallons, without supplements,
topC..^ a i-esy -wcrr- a I-lack for the remainder of the season. Where
this mixture was used at only 1 1/2 pounds per 100 gallons, the fruit
t'.j'Jd cnly AL worms per A1'. apples, as compared with about 100 worms
foilowing tlie lead arsenate -rogram. Considerable defoliation occurred
on t' :s f the Grimes variety, but this .ay have been caused by the
>bidanco cf mites i.0 defoliation occurred on Minesap trees.--U. S.
*; <*:.. and Plant Quar, (386, p. 2).

Preliminary tests in 1M43 at Vincennes, Ind., showed DDT to be
of considerable interest. A 50:50 mixture of DDT and Pyrax applied at
2 pounds per 100 gallons in the third and sixth cover sprays gave better
control than any other treatments tried. It was resistant to weathering
and remained effective for 26 days. Field tests indicated that the
material is compatible with bordeaux and with mineral oil, but it did
not show any toxicity to codling moth eggs.--Haeussler (269).

In 1944 DDT was tested in the field at five laboratories of the
U, S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine--Poughkeepsie, N. Y.,
elts.ille, Md., Kearneysville, W. Va., Vincennes, Ind., and Yakima,
Wash. The material was used in a number of different ways. In all
cases DDT gave much better codling moth control than lead arsenate.
In many experiments 1 pound of DDT in 100 gallons was much more
effective than 3 or 4 pounds of lead arsenate.--Porter (342).

In Virginia DDT was tested in four orchard plots of five trees
each. DDT at 6.4 ounces in 100 gallons (Gesarol 2 pounds) in all
seven cover sprays resulted in 7.1 percent of wormy apples and 8.6
percent of stings. At 12.8 ounces of DDT (Gesarol 2 pounds and
Gesarol oil 1 gallon) in the last four cover sprays the results were
5.3 percent of wormy apples and 8.7 percent of stings.






- 53 -


A dosage of 1 pound of DDT in the third to seventh cover z r-.'s
resulted in 1.7 percent of wormy apples and 8.4 percent of stings.
Lead arsenate at 3 pounds per 100 gal. in the complete schedule in
three plots averaged 2.7 percent of wormy apples and 28.7 percent of
stings. It was thus evident that DDT greatly reduced the percentage
of stings in all plots, but at dosages below 1 pound of DDT the per-
centage of wormy apples increased. No spray injury on the three
varieties of apple (Stayman-Winesap, Arkansas, and Delicious) was
observed, and also no injury of fruit or foliage when bordeaux mixture
was used with DDT. In laboratory tests the toxicity of DDT vas not
greatly altered by the addition of fungicides wettablee sulfur, Kolofog,
flotation sulfur, 'xrdeaux mixture, or Fermate), but 6 quarts of lime-
sulfur or 83-percent summer-oil emulsion lowered its toxicity.

DDT (Gesarol AK 20 spray) used at the rate of 2 pounds per 100
gallons of spray, together with 1 pound of Fermate in the petal-fall
and four cover sprays, was about four times more effective than- a
sizuilar schedule of lead arsenates applied with flotation sulfur in
the petal-fall and 2-4-100 bc.rdeaux mixture in cover sprays. No
injury resulted from the applications of DDT and Fermate.--Hough
(285, 284).

Limited trials in Vir;inia indicated that Fermate combined with
1WDT offers great promise as a complete summer spray to control the
apple scab and codling moth. In tests with DDT used in conjunction
with' bordeaux mixture, Tennessee Copper No. 26, or Fermate, DDT was
somewhat more effective when used with Fermnnate than with the two
copper fungicides. DDT applied in the calyx and four cover sprays
was much more effective than the same number of lead arsenate appli-
cations.--Hurt (285).

Gesarol dry spray (20-percent DDT) used at the rate of 2 pounds
per 100 gallons, in certain tests has given better results than lead
arsenate used at the rate of 3 pounds per 100 gallons.--Geigy Co. (255).

Nontechnical references

DDT is effective against codling moth larvae.-- 5, 15, 24, 28.
32, 33, 35, 47, 48, 69. 75, 80, 144, 173, 188 ,

One observer figures that for codling moth alone there is a
potential market of 15,000 tons of DDT insecticide a year.--Anon.
(144).

Grapholitha molesta (Busok), the oriental fruit moth

Very good results were obtained in treating the oriental fruit
moth with Gesarol spray. The fruit (peach) injury has been reduced
from 60 to 90 percent when compared with unsprayed trees.--Geigy Co.
(255).






-54-


?'..* '. .'*i'oeal re ferenc.y. 3

....-. JL':T is used to control the oriental fruit moth, it also
detr-,-ys insect parasites that are natural enemies of this moth.--
Anon. (35, 48, 173).

D!,T Is to-.ic to the oriental fruit moth.--Anon. (28, 113).

:l.':.8i5 'rviteana (Clemens), the grape berry moth

Gesarol was found effective against the grape berry moth.--Anon.


Phalaenlidae

',^ ~(m it;o (C tt.), the black cutworm

T lar,:e on tcb.:o were controlled by dusting or spraying
p:" -- p w,. -'th V-sarol, or by watering with Gesapon.--Thomann (285).

a Sci'rls.nd effective treatments included Gesarol, applied as
di t a a 2?-iu3nt spray. The dust adhered readily to tobacco
L I h as easier to ipprlyj but the spray would probably be more
**e on corn, as it would penetrate to the underground borings
..*'" tb e-'-won in the sten.--Thomanna (584).

H ..., a.,.c,ea (Fu,.a), the cotton leafworm

preliminary tests in Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona, DDT was
,- ..:ive thar.n arsenical insecticides.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant
., ,. p. 19)- also Anon. (113).

A .t carsia. m=Atilis (Hnim.), the velvetbean caterpillar

frelirrinary experiments indicated that DDT is a very promising
inieotioide---U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 9).

Barathra brasaleae

A dust containing 5 percent of DDT applied as a contact insecticide
left 5 out of 12 larvae normal. When dusts containing 0.8, 0.4, and
0.2 percent of DDT were tested, as a stomach poison, 0.01 mg. per larva
was fatal.--hartin et al. (319).

fleliothis armigera (Hin,), the tomato fruitworm, the bollworm, the
corn earworm

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective against this
species on tomatoes. Against the larvae DDT was the most effective
insecticide tested against this pest.

In preliminary tests in Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona encouraging
results were obtained with DDT against the bollworm on cotton.--U. S.
Pvr. Ernt, and Plant Quar. (388, pp. 15, 14, 19).






- 55 -


DeDeTane and DDT in proprietary emulsion form gave excellent con-
trol, equal, if not superior, to that given by lead arsenate. The
caterpillars refused to feed on foliage sprayed with these preparations
and died within 2 or 3 days; even very large caterpillars resistant to
Derris or Lonohocarpus were easily killed. The emulsion, in addition,
has the advantage of leaving no visible deposito--Chambers, Hey, and
S&itt (M208).

In Florida DDT dust gave better control of corn earworms than DDT
spray; as high as 95 percent wormfree ears on some plots. The materials
mere applied to the silks on sweet am soon after they had developed.--
Slawson (368, p. 125).

From 60 to 90 percent kill of corn earwams was obtained which the
2-percent Gesarol dust.--Geigy Co. (255).

Nonteohchi cal references

DDT is effective against bollworms,- 15, 3.2, 188.

DDT sprays and dust will knock out the tomato fruitworm.--(32).

Trrichoplusia ni (Hbn.), the cabbage looper
*
In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective.--U. S. Bur.
Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

Phaloniidae

Phalonia ambiguella (Hbn.), a European vine moth

Three spray materials, each containing 1 percent of bordeaux
mixture, were tested in June 1942 for the control of the first-genera-
tion larvae. The percentages of infested bunches of grapes follow: 1
percent of Gesarol 8.2, 1 percent of Nirosan 9.6, 1 percent of lead
arsenate 35.4, and untreated 55.3. In July three other spray mixtures,
without the bordeaux, were tested and the following percentages of
infested bunches of grapes resulted: 1 percent of Gesarol 2.4, 1
percent of Nirosan 2.4, 1.5 percent of Grapol 10.4, and untreated 43.4.
The number of living larvae on 100 bunches of grapes follows in the
same order: 3, 3, 11, 64.--lesmnann (409).

Pieridae

Pieris brassioae (L.)

A dust containing 0.8 percent of DDT applied as a contact insecti-
cide killed 60 percent in one test and all in another; a dust contain-
ing 0.4 percent DDT killed two thirds,--Martin et al. (319).


Same as for P. rapae.--Denmark Statens Forsog. (225).





- 56 -


Pieris rapae (L.), the imported cabbage worm

Gesarol powder in laboratory tests did not give satisfactory
resuits.-Denmark Statens Forsog. (225).

A dust containing 0.8 percent of DDT was effective as a contact
insectioide.--Kartin et al. (319).

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective.--U. S. Bur.
P-t. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

A Gesarol dust containing only 1 percent DDT was found to give
.cod control of the thrn. important cabbage worms. This is of great
;jractioal importance in that a single product can actually control
these pests at the same time.--Geigy Co. (255).

Nonte cynical refers.: t.es

DDT hFe been found effective against cabbage worms.--23, 32, 33,
J, ?Es TrtheT (403)- -
Pyralididae

-yetaenia rubigalis (Guenee), tiho celery leaf tier

In tests on greenhouse crops DDT exhibited superior toxicity to
various leaf tiers.--Compton (212).

A Gesarol dust containing only 1 percent of DDT gave perfect
resr1ts in Florida.--Geigy Co. (255).

In greenhouse tests a mixture of 10 parts of DDT, 87 parts of
talc, and 3 parts of Orvus killed 100 percent of third-and fourth-
instar larvae when applied at the rate of 1 ounce of DDT per 100
imperial gallons, and 40 percent when applied at one-eighth this
dosage. In these tests, designed to determine combined contact and
stomach action# the larvae were sprayed on paper and transferred to
sprayed foliage while the spray deposit was still wet on both. Tested
for stomach action only unsprayedd larvae placed on sprayed plants in
pots or on leaves in jars) this same mixture killed 90 percent at
the 1-ounce dosage and 60 percent at one-half that dosage. A suspension
of DDT in vwter at the 1-ounce dosage killed 90 percent and at one-
half this dosage ninety-five percent of the larvae. This suspension
was made by pouring a solution of 10 grams of DDT, 10 ml. of Triton
X-100, and acetone to make 100 ml. into water.--RoPss (354, pp. 2-6,
15).

DDT in certain spray formulas is very effective.--Blauvelt (186).

Pyraustidae

Hellula undalis (F.), the cabbage webworm

In preliminary field tests DDT was very effective.--U. S. Bur.
Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).





- 57-


Pyrausta nubilalis (HIn.), the European corn borer

Preliminary experiments indicated that DDT is a very promising
inseotioide.-U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 9)

A spray containing as little as 0.3 pound of DDT per 100 gallons,
also a dust containing 2 percent of DDT, gave excellent results.--
Geigy Co. (255).

Nontechnical references

DDT has been found effective against the European corn borer.--
28, 32, 33# 1868
Sphingidae

Protoparoe sexta (Johan.), the tobacco hornworm

Unsatisfactory or indifferent results were obtained with DDT.--
U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 13).

Tineidae

Tineola bisselliella (Hum.), the webbing clothes moth

Clothing, carpets, furs, and upholstered furniture can be pro-
tected by dusting them with Gesarol dust. The adult moths and newly
hatched larvae are killed by contact with the material, although the eggs
and older larvae ar more resistant.--Stellwaag (377).

"Dow K 965, a product not yet on the market, together with DDT,
seemed to be the best moth proofing agents, at least for the present."
--Anon. (150).

Nontechnical references

DDT has been found effective against clothes moths.--Anon. (5,
9. 11 13 33

Tortricidae

Archips fumiferana (Clem.), the spruce budworm

Tests showed that this pest on fir, spruce, and pine trees in
the central Rocky Mountain region can be effectively controlled by
the application of DDT at the rate of 1 pound per 100 gallons of
water. Previous attempts to control it by spraying with lead arsenate
around camp grounds were only partially successful.--U. S. Bur. Ent.
and Plant Quar. (388, p. 7).

Major experiments with DDT were carried out in the Rocky Mountain
National Park and the Roosevelt National Forest of Colorado, where more
than 40,000 acres have been attacked by this insect. In plots sprayed
with DDT the larvae were killed when they came in contact with it.--
Geiger (249).





-58-


Chemical control will probably become possible owing to improve-
ments made in the use of the airplane for spraying forests from the
air and to the discovery of DDT. .During the summer of 1944 experiments
were conducted to combat this insect in the Algonquin Park in Ontario.
The sprays were applied from an American biplane which flew over the
forest about 25 feet above the trees at 80 miles an hour. The results
will not be known until next spring.--Daviault (222).

Nontechnical references

In Ontario the Department of Lands and Forests in May 1944 started
using an autogyro to spray the forest with DDT to oambat the.destructive
spruce budworm.--Anon. (39, 57). In Ontario DDT was proved more effec-
tive than nicotine or lea- ar-senate. A program was decided on involving
spraying a solutiQn of DDT from planes on heavily infested tests plots.--
Breckenridge (189).

Archips rosaceana (Harr.), the oblique-banded leaf roller

In Oregon this pest attacks several cane berries, red raspberry
being its favorite. DDT sprays and dusts were both tested. Dusts
containing 1.5 to 3 percent of DDT gave almost 100 percent kill in all
tests. The sprays contained 5 percent of DDT in an emulsible oil and
also a prepared powder (Gesarol A-20). The DDT in oil at 1 and 2
quarts per 100 gallons of water and the Gesarol sprayat 1 to 2 pounds
per 100 gallons gave practically 100 percent control in all tests.
The larger quantity of each material is recommended for control with
one application 2 weeks before blossom time.--Schuh and ooworkers (560).

One hundred pounds of DDT applied to 250 acres of seriously
infested raspberries gave car-plete control. The application was made
starting May 17 after the berries were in bloom.--Anon. (105).

In greenhouses 95 to 99 percent control with DDT compositions has
been reported.--Geigy Co. (255).

Unidentified Lepidoptera

DDT kills moths.--(30, 32, 323).

Gesarol dust is used in gardensto control caterpillars.--Messerli
(323).

HYMENOPTERA

Apidae

Apis mellifera L., the honeybee

Honeybees exposed for 30 minutes to glass plates covered with a
dry film of DDT (10 micrograms per square inch) suffered approximately
100 percent mortality. This deposit was made by spraying DDT 'in water
suspension at the rate of 1 pound per 100 gallons. The paralytico
action on honeybees often is apparent after a few minutes' exposure*






- 59 -


The first symptoms are loss of control of the legs followed by paralysis
of the hind legs and a rolling falling action. Death did not always
occur follovwinr thin paralytic action.-Filmor and Smith (241).

Bees confined in cylindrical wire-soreen cages and fed a 50-percent
honey solution lived for 10 days. The effect of DDT was tested in two
ways: (1) Bunches of leaves and blossoms were sprayed and placed in the
cages with the been; (2) narrow strips of paper were sprayed and dried,
then inserted as a collar inside the top of the cages. On the sprayed
leaves und blossoms 16 and 8 ounces of DDT per 100 imperial gallons
killed all the bees within 24 hours, while 4 ounces per 100 gallons
killed very few even after 43 hours. Bees confined with the treated
paper strips made no apparent effort to avoid the paper and all were
killed within 20 hours by DDT at 4 ounces per 100 gallons.--Ross (354,
p. 9).

Tests with DDT indicated that it may become a menace both to pol-
lination and beekeeping. DDT was not repellent to bees. A 0.05-percent
concentration of DDT fed in sirup to honeybees acted as a stomach poi-
son. Contact with a 10-percent DDT dust proved fatal. Bees in contact
with a surface sprayed with a 2-percent solution of DDT died within 6
hours. When brood and adult bees were sprayed with a 0.05-percent DDT
solution, the unsealed brood was killed within a few hours, but the
sealed brood and adults were unaffected.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant
Quar. (386, pp. 19-20).

A colony of bees located under the roof of a two-story house
could not be eradicated by use of carbon disulfide or calcium cyanide,
but 5 ounces of Gesarol A-20 Spray (20 percent of DDT) applied as a
dust eradicated them after three weekly applications.--Wolfenbarger
(415).

No damage was evident to honeybees working the blossoms on rasp-
berries that had been treated with DDT (0.4 pound per acre) for the
control of the oblique-banded leaf roller.-Anon. (105).

Gesarol spray is not harmful to bees, since it is applied to
fruit trees in Switzerland only as a preblossom treatment and then
again in June and July, while the bees are present in the trees only
during the blossoming period. However, Gesarol aust cripples bees
and may kill them if they become smeared with it.--Messerli (323).

Observations in DDT-sprayed apple orchards raise the question
as to what DDT may do to honeybees and wild pollinating insects if
the material should come into general use. In apple orchards, of
course, the applications will not be made until the bees are through
working in the apple bloom, but there might be an unfavorable effect
on them because of the poisoning of the bloom of cover crops or weeds.
--Porter (542).





- 60 -


Experiments have shown that dried Gesarol spray deposits cause no
damage to bees. The Gesarol dust can be dangerous to bees, if they
come in contact with the powder. Therefore, raspberries should not be
dusted if the blossoms are open so that the dust falls into the flowers.
Since the bees sit away from the blossoms, they do not come in contact
with the Gesarol deposit. As a precautionary measure raspberries should
be sprayed before they bloom, and of course fruit trees in blossom
should not be sprayed with Gesarol.-Suter (380).

The effect of DDT on bees has been studied as a matter of impor-
tance in horticulture, and the position has not yet been clarified.
It appears certain that bees are killed by direct Guesarol dusting and
also by direct contact with Guesarol spray. On the other hand, contact
with the dried spray film does not appear to affect them. The advice
given, therefore, is to see that the fully opened blossom is not dusted
and that spraying is done in the evening s or early mornings before the
bees are about.--West and Campbell (406).

Braconidae

Ascogaster quadridentata Wesm., a parasite of the codling moth

Adults were placed in lantern globes resting on paper coated with
the dry deposit from a spray of water-ground DDT (1 lb. per 100 imperial
gal.). Moist cotton was supplied in a separate container in the globes.
After approximately 17 to 22 hours, the mortality ranged from 87 to 100
percent.--Ross (354).

Macrocentrus ancylivorus Rohwer, a parasite of the oriental fruit moth

In laboratory tests all recently emerged adults exposed 12 hours
to surfaces sprayed with DDT (1 lb. per 100 gal.) and allowed to dry
were killed. In view of the habits of these parasites, such a contact
with the material in peach orchards is very likely.--Smith and Driggers
(370).

Same as for Ascogaster quadridentata.--Ross (354).

Formicidae

The effectiveness of DDT against the "Sauva" ant in Brazil has
not been established.--Anon. (146).

According to Sameth, chairman of the Research Projects Committee
of the National Pest Control Association,DDT was not successful in
ant control.--Anon. (150, 169).

Gesarol dust is often used to destroy ants in beehives and should
be so placed that the bees will not come in contact with it.--Lesserli
(323).

Nontechnical references

DDT is a poison to insects, such as ants, that crawl on surfaces
impregnated with it.--Anon. (18, 27, 40).





- 61 -


Ichneumonidae

Ephialtes caudatus (Ratz,), a parasite of the codling moth

Same as for Ascogaster quadridentata.-Ross (554).

Tenthredinidae

Neodiprion abietis (Harr.), the spruce sawfly
/
In Ontario DDT was proved more effective than nicotine or lead
arsenate, and a program involving spraying a solution of DDT from
planes on heavily infested test plots was decided on.--Breckbnridge (189).

Hoploampa testudinea (Klug), the apple sawfly

DeDeTane (containing DDT) was applied in mixed sprays at two
centers. Other insecticides were also tested. Nicotine gave the best
control, while DeDeTane was not very effective.-Chambers, Hey, and
Saitt (208).

Athalia spinarum (F.)

Gesarol powder in laboratory tests gave satisfactory control.--
Denmark Statens Forsog. (225).

DIPTERA

Culicidae

Aedes pseudoscutellaris (Theob.)

Aedes vexans (Mg.)

In Fiji a 5-percent solution of DDT in mineral oil was tested in
trays, tubs, and in swampy areas containing larvae of these species of
mosquitoes. It was concluded that DDT is suitable as a mosquito larvi-
oide in Fiji with an annual rainfall of 120 inches and a humidity of
74 to 84 percent. One quart of oil plus DDT will usually be as effec-
tive as 10 to 14 gallons of oil alone.--Lever (303).

Anopheles albitarsis Arribalzaga

Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy

Anopheles noroestensis Galvao and Lane

Anopheles strodei Root

Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva and Pinto)

In Brazil various concentrations of DDT were tested against
larvae of these anophelines. In aquaria or tanks containing 1 part
of DDT to 1000 parts of water the larvae died in less than 5 minutes,
while in tanks containing 1 part of DDT to 60 million parts of water
more than 36 hours were required for larval mortality. DDT retained





-62 -


its larvicidal effect in tanks for 4 months. In the dilutions used
DDX' did not kill the eggs and did not prevent egg laying, but the
larvae died immediately after hatching.--Wasicky and Unti (404).

Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, the common malaria mosquito

In laboratory tests a dust of the solid solution of 1 part of DDT
and 4 parts of steario acid, and another dust of DDT mixed mechanically
with talc were applied at the rate of 1/2 pound of active ingredient
per acre. The solid solution withstood 20 to 23 artificial rains and
was effective in killing larvae for 41 to 44 days. The DDT-talc dust
withstood only 14 to 16 rains and killed larvae for only 26 to 30 days.
In tests made in a natural anopheline breeding place, the water was
dusted at the rate of 1 pound of DDT per acre. Treatments with the
solid solution were effective for 55 to 44 days in killing larvae
being subjected to 8.63 inches of rain, while the DDT-talc mixture
lasted only 7 to 35 days under an average of only 4.33 inches of rain.
Other tests in a natural breeding environment showed that the solid
solution continued to kill larvae for 43 days, while the DDT alone
killed for only 18 days.--Deonier and Jones (226).
Anopheles superpictus Grassi

Neocid was an effective control for adults and larvae, but its
effect on the pupae and eggs was insignificant. Against the larvae
it attained the greatest effect of all Imown control agents. After
the roof and walls of cow stables had been sprayed with 1 gram of
Neocid (0.05 gram of DDT) per square meter, Anopheles were absent for
a period of 1 to 5 weeks. By use of mixtures 0naining 2 percent of
Neocid in petroleum, good control of larvae was obtained in clean water
with 0.15 gram of Neocid per square meter of water surfaoe.--Mandekos
(317)

Anopheles spp.
i
DDT was completely effective against anopheline larvae for several
days when applied at the rate of 0.1 pound per acre of water surface.--
Stage (375, p. 94).

It has been stated that the campaign in Burma has been made pos-
sible through the control of mosquitoes with DDT. This in turn has
largely prevented the troops from being infected with malaria.--Hey
(279).

In both the Pacific and Mediterranean areas the malaria-carrying
mosquito was the greatest insect foe with which the troops had to
contend, and it was against this that DDT would find its greatest
use. The application of small quantities of DDT in oil To the breed-
ing sites of anopheline mosquitoes killed all the larvae.--Anon. (142).

DDT was employed July 1944 for large-scale airplane spraying experi-
ments in malaria control in Agro Romano, Italy. The DDT is thought to
have killed not only larvae but mosquitoes in farm buildings.--McCormiok
(312)o





- 63 -


Recently the U. S. Public Health Service tried DDT against malaria-
bearing mosquitoes in Arkansas. In a 36-square-mile area of cotton
country near Helena, it hired high-school boys to spray the walls of
nearly all the sharecroppers' shacks. Cost: 74 cents per house for
DDT and labor. Results: A 94-percent reduction (for at least 2 months)
in the number of mosquitoes in the treated houses. The job used an
average of 0.82 gallon per house of 5-percent DDT solution. Per house
it consumed 10 minutes, took 0.73 man-hour, and cost 74 cents for mate-
rial and labor.--Anon. (164).

As soon as more DDT is available for civilians, a nationwide spray-
ing program will begin, to guard against infection from homecoming malarial
servicemen.-Anon. (162).

DDT is more toxic to mosquito larvae than any substance heretofore
known. Consequently, it can be used in small amounts with resultant
saving of time and effort in larviciding operations. The application
for malaria control which is most promising, however, is its use in
spraying the habitations of native carriers 'When DDT in kerosene
solution is sprayed on interior surfaces, a residue is left which will
kill insects lighting on the treated areas for several months. Since
the destruction of infected adult mosquitoes constitutes the most
effective break in the chain of transmission of malaria, this material
offers great promise for control of the disease in many tropical regions
where it has been a principal cause of poor health and poverty.--McCoy
(313); abstracted by Anon. (103, 128).

Chaoborus punotipennis (Say)

DDT was tested in the laboratory against the larvae and pupae by
a method similar to that used in testing culicine larvicides. DDT
was almost as toxic as pyrethrum. It was lethal to larvae at 1 part
in 75 million parts of water, while about twice this concentration was
required to kill all pupae. With median lethal concentrations 3 or 4
hours elapsed before the larvae became affected, while toxic dosages
of pyrethrum produced almost immediate effects.--Lindquist and Bushland
(508).

Culex annulirostris Skuse

(Culex fatigans) Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)

Same as for Aedes spp. (Lever, 303).

Culex pipiens L., the northern house mosquito

All the treated mosquitoes made violent movements and cast a
number of legs, as described for Cheimatobia brumata. They became
paralyzed in a few hours, and died within 12 hours.--liesmann and
Fenjves (410).

Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the southern house mosquito

In Brazil various cncnentrations of DDT were tested against larvae
of this species kept in aquaria under conditions similar to those found
in nature It was shown that DDT is highly effective even in weak





- 64 -


concentrations, the concentrati-on recommended being I gram to
25,000 liters of water. This concentration would not be dangerous
or objectionable to domestic animals or man. DDT as a mosquito larvi-
cide has the following advantages. It has a high lethal effect upon
all larval forms of Culioinae and Anophelinae tested. Its larvioidal
power persists up to 130 days, even in very weak concentrations, thus
favoring its use in natural breeding places, It impedes potential
breeding places from becoming receptacles of active larvae, although
it does not act as a repellent since the females deposit their eggs on
water treated with this chemical.. It eliminates an entire life cy9le
of mosquitoes in less than 2 hours in a concentration of 1 gram per
10,000 liters, in less than 8 hours in 1 gram per 20,000 liters, and
in less than 50 hours in 1 gram per 60,000 liters of water.--Wasicky
and Unti (404)1

Culex tarsalis Coquillett

In the laboratory suspensions of DDT made by adding an alcoholic
solution to water gave the following results (dilutions by weight)s

1 to 1,000,000--all 50 larvae killed in 25 minutes
1 to 6,000,000--all 50 larvae killed in less than 12 hours
all 10 pupae killed in less than 36 hours
1 to 1O0,000,000--all 50 larvae killed in 12 hours
all 10 pupae killed in 48 hours
1 to 600,000,000--5 of 50 larvae and 6 of 10 pupae still alive
after 48 hours

A corner of a drain (6 sq. ft. and 3 in. deep) containing over
300 larvae and 100 pupae was treated with DDT to give a dilution of
about 1 to 100,000,000 parts of water; at the end of 26 hours 1 larva
and 6 pupae were still alive. In other tests the residual effect of
DDT was appreciable. Small glass jars containing a 1 to 1,000,000
dilution of DDT were emptied and then refilled with fresh clean water
containing larvae and pupae. The next morning all larvae and pupae
were dead. The jars were again emptied and refilled, with the same
result. Adult mosquitoes that alight upon surfaces sprayed with this
insecticide are killed. Dissolved in an appropriate solvent and
sprayed on walls and ceilings, it remains effective for several weeks,
all mosquitoes resting upon the sprayed surfaces dying after a few
minutes' contact.--Herms and Gray (276).

Culex sp.

Same as for Anopheles superpictus (Mandekos 317) and Culex
quinquefasciatus (Wasicky and Unti 40-).

DDT gave amazing kills of culicine larvae when used at the rate
of 1 part to 100 million parts of water.--Stage (373).





- 65 -


Unidenti led mosquitoes

As a larvicide DDT may be substituted-for paris green in dusts,
diluted 1 part with about 4 parts of powdered talc, or with equal parts
of calcium stearate. Approximately the same quantity is used as with
paris green (1/2 to 2 Ibs. per acre of active ingredient), but its
effects apparently are more lasting. It can also be dissolved in
acetone, and then dispersed in water and sprayed; applied in this manner
it appears to be several times more toxic than phenothiazine. Dissolved
in kerosene or petroleum distillate (2.5 percent solution), it is highly
effective as a larviciae when applied at the rate of 0.1 pound of Gesarol
[DDT is meant] per acre. It can also be dissolved in various solvents,
such as alcohols or Cellosolve (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether), and
applied to water.--Hems and Gray (276).

DDT in heavy oil solution is used in the Army for spraying on wuter
or in light-oil solution for spraying on walls and furniture. It is as
effective against mosquitoes as it is against lice.--War Department (395);
Anon. (129).

An entire Pacific island of 6400 acres was sprayed with DDT from
a torpedo bomber, which flew at 125 miles an hour at an altitude of
150 feet, spraying 10 gallons of the DDT-oil solution per minute. It
was estimated that 2 quarts of the solution was sufficient to cover an
acre. The DDT was also used in great quantities on more than 7,000
corpses, and around mess halls and latrines, for it is said to kill
every insect on contact.--ilson and Kelly (411); abstracted by Anon.
(L39, 163).

Saipan was dusted with DDT from an airplane to combat a dengue
type of mosquito. Afterwards not a mosquito or fly was to be seen, and
within a few weeks dengue had practically ceased to bother the medical
service.--Anon. (154).

Tests by the Alameda County (Calif.) mosquito Abatement District
indicate that DDT is the most potent and effective larvicide and culicide
known.--Anon. (19).

Nonteohnical references

DDT is toxic to mosquitoes.-12, 26, 27, 30,SO 3355, 40, 44, 68, 75,
76, 84, 88, 121, 142, 161, 188.

DDT has already achieved marvelous results sprayed from airplanes
in northern Alberta to free large areas along the Alaska highway from
mosquitoes.--39, 57.

DDT in solution applied from an airplane at the rate of 5 pci.ids
per acre killed all the mosquitoes in the test plot.--Anon. (Q3, 74, 112);
B. F. R. (344).





- 66 -


Itonididae

Diarthronomyi!. hypogaea (Loee), the chrysanthemum gall midge

DDT had no apparent effect on the larvae and pupae within the
galls, or on egg laying by the adults.-Ross (354, p. 8).

Muscidae

Musoa domestic L., the housefly

Filter paper soaked in solutions of DDT in acetone varying from
0.125 to 16 percent in concentration was dried for 48 hours and then
put in petri dishes with flies. After 20 minutes the insects were
partially paralyzed, and all died practically at the same time regard-
less of the concentration of DDT.--Lepage and Giannotti (297).

A fly was confined under a tumbler resting on paper, a 2-inch
spot of which was sprayed lightly with a DDT solution. After 8
minutes the fly showed effects of the DDT picked up on its feet,
-%Id after 42 minutes the fly was dead.--Woodbury (418).

Tests were made at the Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station
in the summer of 1944 to determine the value of DDT in controlling
the housefly. Two pens were cleaned and painted with white cold-
water casein paint. The walls and ceiling of one pen were sprayed
with a 2 percent solution of DDT in deodorized kerosene, while the
second pen was left untreated. Both pens were then filled with birds
and periodic observations were made on the abundance of flies in
each pen and the prevalence of fly specks on the walls and ceilings.
Examinations consistently showed a striking reduction in number of
flies in the treated pen as compared with the untreated pen. Six
weeks after treatment, 22 flies were counted on the ceiling of the
treated pen, as compared to 380 on the untreated pen. The walls J-md
ceiling of the killing room were also sprayed with 2 percent of DDT in
deodorized kerosene. Large numbers of flies observed on the ceiling
when the building was closed for the night were all dead on the floor
in the morning. A month after the room was sprayed with DDT, 100
percent kills were still being secured when flies were confined to
this room overnight.--Wolfenbarger and Hoffmann (416).

Dr. Victor Froelicher, of Geigy's New York.research staff, said
there's no evidence yet that DDT is a fly repellent. He sprayed a
strip of DDT on a table, and watched its effect. A fly walked across
the table and back again, crossing the DDT area without hesitation.
Soon it began to dart across the room like an arrow. "When it alighted,
it began to clean its legs in typical fly fashion-and to find that it
had navigating trouble. Its front legs were affected first, but flying
wasn't disturbed immediately. Then, after several minutes, all legs
were paralyzed and the fly fell on its back, but showed signs of life
until the next day. Dr. Froelicher calculated how much DDT it takes
to kill a fly. On 1 sq. cm. the amount, he figures, would be 0.00001
microgram. For killing flies some producers think a combination of
DDT and pyrethrum may be better than either one alone.--Anon. (144).





- 67 -


The common housefly in this country and similar species in the
Tropics vwdch carried dysentery and other diseases were readily killed
by a pyrethrum-DDT spray. -Anon. (142).

An AA-grade fly spray can be prepared with 1 gram of DDT in 100
ml. of base oil. This gives a kill of 95 to 99 percent, but the knock-
down may be slow, and more than 24 hours may be necessary for the full
killing effect to be developed.--Cameron (194).

DDT sprayed on walls or screens remains effective against houseflies
for as long as 3 months.-Anon. (158); USDA (389).

It is probable that DDT may be used in fly sprays in combination
with pyrethrum to effect economy and to increase the duration of the
lethal efficacy.-Campbell and West (202).

In laboratory experiments plywood was cut to fit inside zinc-mesh
fly cages. One had plywood painted with DDT (5 percent) paint covering
the floor1 half way up the sides and two thirds of the lid, and a
second cage was covered with an identical area of plywood painted with
the same paint without DDT. One hundred housefly pupae in a crystal-
lizing dish were placed in each cage together with containers of sugar
and water, and the cages were inspected daily. The oil-bound vwater-
paint containing DDT was effective against houseflies, and tests carries
out after 2 months showed that the paint had not lost its insecticidal
properties. Small rooms were then painted with a DDT paint, and by a
fortuitous mistake this paint used contained only 0.5 percent of DDT--
exactly one-tenth the amount used in the laboratory experiments. It
was then found that 90 percent kills of houseflies were obtained over-
night as compared with negligible kills in an identical room painted
with the same paint containing no DDT. Preliminary observations
indicate that the flies tended to avoid contact with the DDT-painted
surface. There is already evidence that in certain continuous film-
forming media DDT retains its insecticidal effect. The results now
being obtained in a factory canteen painted with this DDT oil-bound
water-paint are fully supporting the results obtained in the labora-
tory and laboratory-field experiments.--Campbell and West (201).

DDT In oil paint and enamel, however, did not prove insecticidal
to flies at all. The oil-bound water paint lost none of its effective-
ness after two months, and was only very slightly less effective after
six months. There is evidence that DDT is effective in a coumarone
resin film, and in a wax floor polish, both instances of DDT being
enclosed in a continuous film, so that there would appear to be good
prospects of successful formulation in the more decorative and durable
paints.-Canpbell and West (204).

Nonteohnical references

DDT is effective against flies. 5 7, 8, 15, 18, 22, 23, 26, 27,
28, 30, 3 40, 42, 51, 55, 57, 75, 78, 0 T027 l, T
'T -,- - --- -- -- -- -----





- 68 -


Siphona irritants (L.), the horn fly

Sprays with DDT greatly reduced populations of this fly attacking
beef cattle under ranch conditions as well as the number of severe
injuries caused by bites of these flies. A spray containing 1 percent
of DDT killed all horn flies that alighted on the treated animals for
1 -week. Range cattle sprayed with 2/S pint per animal of a 0.2-peroent
DDT emulsion remained almost entirely free from flies for 7 days,-U. S.
Bur, Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 22).

Nontechnical references

DDT compositions gave satisfactory control of the horn fly in
Texas*-Anon. (55).

S.oioxs calcitrans (L.), the stablefly

In Sweden CGesarol M proved effective in control of the flies in
crw stables and pigsties. One can of Gesarol M was added to 40 liters
of water and the suspension applied with a pressure garden sprayer, at
the rate of 1 liter per 4.5 square meters. One spraying usually lasted
for S weeks in warm weather and 5 or 6 weeks when the temperature was
low. In Denmark, when whitewash containing 3 percent of Gesarol was used
to paint the interior of stables, the effect lasted longer than when
Gesurol alone wis sprayed on the walls and ceiling.--Jarl (287).
A dairy barn in Florida was sprayed with DDT, and 10 days after-
wards flies were still dying as a result.--Watson (405).

Oestridae

Hypoderma boris (Deg,)D the northern cattle grub

Hypoderma lineatum (De Vil,), the common cattle grub

Dusts containing 10 percent of DDT were almost entirely ineffec-
tive against cattle grubs.--U. S. Bur. Ent# and Plant Quar. (388, p. 22).

Twelve grams of a mixture composed of DDT 20 percent, wettable
sulfur 34 percent, wetting agent 7.6 percent, and inert filler 38.4
percent was suspended in 500 cc. of water. Six cows moderately heavily
infested with oxwarbles were selected, and 10 cc. of this mixture was
introduced into the opening over each grub by means of a syringe having
the needle removed. Upon inspection 3 days later none of the treated
grubs were killed.--Stewart (379).

Nontechnical reference

Dairy and beef cattle plagued by heel flies [adults of cattle
grubs] have been quieted by sprayings of Gesarol.--Anon. (55).






-69.-

Sespidae

Themira putris (L.)

Tests with poultry manure showed that DDT may be of considerable
value as a larvicide. When the manure under wire sun porches for
turkeys was sprayed with solutions of DDT, phenothiazlne, thiourea,
and borax to control the development of fly larvae, DDT was equal to
phenothiazine and superior to the other materials tested. Larvae in
DDT-treated manure rose to the surface and perished in large numbers.
Treatment with DDT reduced the number of flies emerging by 90 percent.
--Wolfenbarger and Hoffmann (416).

Simuliidae

Simulium app., black flies

A 20-acre tract of woodland in Jefferson, Pa,, was treated with
a concentrated spray of DDT at the rate of 5 pounds of DDT per acre.
The purpose was to kill the gypsy moth caterpillars, but all black
flies were eliminated from the area for at least a month jfter treat-
ment.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 8); also E, F, 1. (314)
and Anon. (53, 74, 112).-

Trypetidae

Anastrepha ludens (Loew), the Mexican fruitfly

In Mexico preliminary studies with DDT in dusts and oil preparations
showed promise in preventing fruit infestation.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and
Plant Quar. (588, p. 6).

Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), the apple maggot

In laboratory tests with several new insecticides DDT appeared to
be the most promising. Cage tests with DDT sprays and dusts indicated
that the dust kills very rapidly at comparatively low concenitations
(1.5 to 5 percent). The sprays were relatively ineffective. Exposure
of DDT under an ultraviolet sun lamp did not destroy its effectiveness
as a dust.--Garman and Townsend (248).
A 3-percent Gesarol dust showed excellent promise against the
apple maggot.--Geigy Co. (255).

Rhagoletis sp.M cherry fruit fly

In 19M9 Gesarol was found effective against this fly.--Anon. (I_).






70 -

SIPHONAPTERA

Pulicidae

Ctenocephalides canis (Curt.), the dog flea

C, fells (Bouche), the oat flea

DDT is deadly to such common household pests as dog's fleas.--
Anon. (27, 30 32, 33, 55, 75, 141).

A single application of Neocid containing 5 percent of DDT to
dogs has remained effective for over 6 months of daily brushing and
constant exposure to reinfestation. Washing might remove enough of
the material to require another treatment.--Cameron (194).

Dr. Thienes and his associate, Homer C. Lawson, dusted their
Siamese cat and three kittens, a Persian cat, and a dog with DDT six
times in 4 months. The amount applied to the oats and dogs controlled
the fleas for 10 days and did not produce any symptoms of poisoning.-
Cox (216).

ACARINA

Argasidae

Ornithodoros megnini (Duges), the ear tick

1ith a nondrying adhesive containing DDT it was possible to pro-
tect the ears of cattle, sheep, and goats from this tick for 90 to
120 days. The spraying of salt troughs and the areas under them with
equal parts of kerosene and used motor oil also destroyed many of these
ticks. When both these treatments were used, marked reductions of tick
populations in pastures were observed.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar.
(388, pp. 22-23).

Ornithodoros moubata (Murray), the argasid tick

DDT in Shell Oil P31 or in Shell Odorless Distillate (1:19) killed
10 percent of the third-instar nymphs only at a dosage of 0.37 mg. per.
square centimeter. DDT undiluted killed 10 percent after 3 days and
40 percent after 6 days.--Robinson (350).

Eriophyidae

Eriophyes sheldoni (Ewing), the citrus bud mite

Field tests of DDT for control of this mite have not been en-
couraging.--Calif. Fruit Growers Exchange (192).

Citrus bud mites were successfully controlled with different com-
binations of Gesarol dusts or sprays.--Geigy Co. (255).






-71-


Ixodidae

Amblyooma maculatum Koch, the Gulf Coast tick

In preliminary field tests 5 percent of DDT in nondrying adhesives
gave protection from reinfestation for 3 to 5 weeks, whereas the mate-
rials now in use by ranchmen did not give protection for more than 8
days.--U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 23).

Dermacentor albipictus (Pack.), the winter tick

Investigations on control were concerned principally with washes
that would kill all stages of this tick and protect horses against
reinfestation. Considerable progress was made toward the development
of a wash consisting of DDT and soluble pine oil in water.--U. S. Bur.
Ent. and Plant Quar. (588, p. 22).

Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the American dog tick, also the commonn
wood tick

Experiments in killing wood ticks were less promising than in
killing the spruce budmoth in Colorado. Forest rangers dusted with
DDT said the ticks were slower in attacking them, but several days
were required for the chemical to kill the ticks.--Geiger (249).

For killing ticks about the premises of camps, playgrounds, parks,
kennels, and residences, a spray containing 5 percent of DDT was effec-
tive. An emulsion of this material caused no injury to the vegetation, and
when applied at the rate of 1 pound of DDT per acre it gave control of the
ticks for about 6 weeks.--U. S. Bor. Ent. and Plant Quar. (388, p. 21).

Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latr.), the brown dog tick

According to Sameth, chairman of the National Pest Control Asso-
ciation Technical Committee, for brown dog tick control DDT was "100 per-
cent superior to anything used in the business before."--Anon. (150, 169).

Nontechnical references

DDT will be a boon to thousands who have suffered from ticks.- 22.

Ixodes ricinus scapularis (Say), the black-legged tick

Same as for Dermaoentor variabi lis.-U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant
Quar. (388 p. 21).

Tetranychidae

Paratetranychus citri (McGregor), the citrus red mite

Laboratory tests using dusts, water suspensions, and oil contain-
ing DDT were ineffective. Field observations on citrus trees which have







,-'. .. at that frquently the red
a, o.C- other t'st.nents.--Calif.


pider ,.-, ",'G o
.ruit Gr *,.rr ; "..


4), ;he RFropean red mite


&'a a~te
"'* .." ? *, a;,

: :, 1 .- .*i .,f i hr a ," .
on, t .i ,,aoe tre-,A,. *
J ,* ta66- i -'
T-1iF i


In a ia tg .
m4.asi in the .'.t -
t .- .- ; .'
; s e n t : $ ,1 *
J g ,li "-,-i. ...,. .' .t

;,v tj ,. .-. .- -.-, "


:- 2T in' *.* .
t x! thu ut hur
T.ew Jersey in bh: ..
itruotively in oerA:
there were either ",

Tetranycho_ ;' i:-. _


.... Vt a o 50 mixture of
S ".. ...-' 1r l:; gall~,.:s had a substantial
''?tor<- ware entirely absent
.. "-'*, o ho" ....ae .mtres in check on
c on *<- ha T-ul 3: .qsocsticide materials
rt Sla-t <* _.- ,. r.ps .'hner.a in apple orchards the
;-, .ha beacone excessively abundant in
oli>. ,:t 'r, these trees was in roor condi-
.- or .'.. t.tr nerd often with severe
".,- gis :,ik,;a.; to excessive mite
S- ... .... -.. d directly by the DDT.
...-er .f in.,-.ry to fruit trees does


e -. c ar.d other e-imnier. of an insect
t i'..:,if This }a. already happened in
-',. mite, which has increased does-
----rgr with DDT while on adjacent plants
no ".,... noticeable,--Doehlert (227).

**, -cmite


,awe is for FPt-......- ..s Ilos ,--orter (M4).

T-trajayohus a .,p-* 'p.''-

In na.grnd ,DT "' u *n .i. f- .-ied to *'r.n1rol the red spider
u t a.. ,-. o'ontrol ,. be obtained
'e .? :^ :;,. e ...c . *: ',- A I .--.- : -* y (C .....


In Ontario M a' ., 1. I/a p-.,rds '-er 100 imperial
gallons (both ox ;. : ,':" in Vels;ool) caused no appreci-
able kid.l1 of any -'.: ... (-: p ).

DDT is a. '-,'er, %.: _:... or r;O W'.i.e for the control of mites
such as red 8p~d'?r-- s' ,.,


Unaati.rf actor-v .
iJ, S. 1P,: Eut.-i, n:r -

lIr: -.);'.p r .j --. '
u.re&raae,& gre;s.l, on 8.1'
per 100 ia ,.-,.
usual arsenical s: -,.,-


,, : ,-'. r--.:,ts -';er" obtained with DDT.--


1 "r mites)
) A.. .,' i ', r -. tedi with the
' .. -' ... T "- i *'" ; -- .*I :nTites
t o 2 o 3 )0. "t.a. ,..'e._; 0^1 %" :.-"^ -i- zded *with tli
- C).


, I






- 73-


Although extremely effective against the codling moth, DDT is
apparently without action on the red spider, which so often accompanies
the codling moth and which if unchecked, might be a serious menace to
fruit orops.-Anon. (35, 48, 69).

Nontechnical references

DDT compositions have given poor results against the red spider.
.-3Z, 5*, 102, 11#, 173, 186, 212.

Trombidiidae

Nontechnical references

DDT will be a boon to thousands who have suffered from chiggers.
--22.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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