Insecticidal tests of some materials on the Mexican bean beetle

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Material Information

Title:
Insecticidal tests of some materials on the Mexican bean beetle
Physical Description:
9 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McGovran, E. R
Piquett, P. G
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mexican bean beetle -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by E.R. McGovran and P.G. Piquett.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-682."
General Note:
"February 1946."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030291321
oclc - 779937488
System ID:
AA00026051:00001

Full Text
UL17 'Y
STATE PL\f BOARD
February 1946 E-682


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

INSECTICIDAL TESTS OF SOME MATERIALS ON THE MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE

By E. R. McGovran and P. G. Piquiiett
Division of Control Investigations

The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Muls.) has been
used as a test insect to determine whether materials found toxic to
ether insects were toxic to this species. The materials include a
large number of synthetic organic compounds, various formulations
containing DDT, nicotine preparations, and plant materials. The
tests were made when insects and bean foliage were available in the
field.

Technique

The spray-tower technique I/ was used in making these tests.
In some of the tests adult beetles were used, but in most of them
late third-instar or early fourth-instar larvae were the test
insects. Observations were made on feeding, but since in most
cases moderate or heavy feeding was accompanied by low mortality no
record of the feeding is included in this report. In most instances
4 tests with 10 insects each were made on each material. Acacia
(gum arabic) at 1:1000 was used as the wetting agent in most of the
sprays. Mortality counts were generally made at the end of 6 days.
After the insects had been in a cage with a treated leaf for 3 days,
the leaf was removed and an untreated leaf was put in its place.
This gave an.-opportunity for insects that had been slightly poisoned
but not .killed by the treatment to recover on the untreated foliage.
This change of foliage to some degree simulated conditions in the
field, where a few days after treatment insects can usually find
unwtreated bean foliage upon which to feed. Foliage-injury tests
were made on petted bean plants in the greenhouse.

SMoGovran, E. R., and Mayer, E. L. A laboratory apparatus
and procedure for testing aqueous spray suspensions as insecticides.
U.S. Baur. nt., and Plant Quar. ET-208, 7 pp. 1943. [Processed.]







Berria Standard

Since derris, when available, is widely used for the control of
the Mexican bean beetle, it was chosen as a basis for evaluating the
various materials.* Two samples of derris were used, one containing
4.9 percent of rotenone and the other 4.8 percent. The first sample
was used on adults and the seoeend on larvae. When derris was used
at the rate of 1 pound per 100 gallons, the average kill of adults
was 91 percent and of larvae from.34 to 62 percent (table 2). In
tests en larvae with 4 pounds of derris per 100 gallons the kill was
somewhat higher but usually not 100 percent. Manm adults and larvae
that had not fed appreciably on treated foliage, and appeared torpid
at the end of 3 days, revived and fed extensively on the untreated
foliage when it was put in the cage.

Synthetio Material a/

The results with the more toxic synthetic organic compounds
tested ara givw, in table 1-. Of these, acetone sem--srbazone and
4,6-dinitro-o-cresyl acetate were the most toxic. "ainoacetanilide,
cyclohexanone semicarbasane, dinitro-o-cresyl methyl ether, and ethyl
methyl ketone semicarbazone also showed high toxicity. All these
compounds except p-aminoacetanilide caused foliage injury.

&/ Most of the synthetic materials tested were furnished by
the Division of Insecticide Invesbigations.





-3-

Table 1.-Synthetic materials showing considerable insecticidal
action on the Mexidan bean beetle


Percent


Acetone sermicarbazone


.25
.125


Acetone samicarbazone 50, lime 50

p-Aminoacetanilide


m-Aminoacetanilide hydrochloride

p-Aminoasobenzene hydrochloride

p-Bromo-N-ethylbenwenesulfonamide

N-Butyl-m-nitrobenz2mide

N-sec-Butyl-m-nitrobenzaide

2-(p-Ohlorophenyl)-2-pKnyl-
l ',1. l-trichloroethan.

Cyclobeman9ne semicarbazone


Cyclopentanone sanicarbazone

alpha ,bet.-Dibromo-beta-nitro-
*thylbenene


L-U

A


125
.25
.5


L-4

L-3

L-3


L-3

L-4


Percent

85 (m-se)
85
80
46

100* (t-sl)

7
58
78 (n)
91

78

65
69
52*

35*

40*


57*

85*
91*(sl-so)

49*
60*


46*





- -


Table 1.-(Continued)


I.l, V.. i


w r -~


Stage
of
insect


Concentration


Percent

1


N,N-DiethyL .. wi i ade

U4,6-Dinitr.-- .:.; -yl acetate


4,6-Dinitr-
Dinitro-


--resyl ethyl ether

asyi methyl ether


Diphenylene oxide

Diphenylene oxide 50, magnesium
carbonate 50

Diphenyleno oxide 20, stearic
acid 20, t,,c 60

Diphenylenr oxide 50, zinc
stearate 50

Diphonylvne oxide 50, talc 50


N .N-Dipropyll=_-niitrobenzamide

gamma, gftma-Dipyridyl1

Ethyl methyl ketone agmicarbazaone


2-Puraldehyde seamicarbazone


L-A
A


.125
.25
.5


I-3

A


A


A


A

A


L-3

A

L-4


L-4


1


1
1
2

1

1

.5
1

1


Percent

6o0*

80 (si)
9h
88
92

57*

55
93 (sl-n)

51


66


69


52
33
90

65*

72*

95*
85* (se)

55*


Mortality 2/






-5-


Table l.-(Continued)


material l/ Stage Concentration Mortalit3
of
Insect

Percent Percent

Isovaleryl-1,3-indandione L 1 85*

Pen ba chlo r.clI hydroxytriphenyl-
methane sulfonic acid A 1 81
I

Phenazine A 1 81*
2 71-*

Phenothiazine A 1 94

Phenoxathiin A 1 61-*

p-Phenylazoaniline A .125 0
.25 14
1 78

p-Phenylenediamine A .125 13
.25 32
1 67

p-Phenylenedianiine dihydrochloride A 1 74

beta-Tetrahydronaphthoyla ceto-
nitrile. 50, ryrophyllite 50 L-4 2 55*

1-Tn. chloro-2-2 bis (p-methoxy-
phenyl)ethane L 1 65*

2,4-(Trichloromethyl)-s-triocane L-3 1 47*

2-Thio c oumarin A .125 7
.25 51

Xanthydrol A .125 13
.25 20
1 68






-6-


Table 1.-( Ooncluded)


Stage
Material 1/ of Concentration Mortality -/
Insect


W2 tat Percent

Derris (rotenone 4.9) A .125 91*

Derris (rotenone 4.8) L-3 and .125 460 (1942)
L-4 62* (1943)
34' (1944)


1/ Numbers in this column refer to percent.

/ Starred items indicate 6-day mortality, unstarred items
3-day mortality. Letters in parentheses indicate foliage injury
as follows: n, none; t, trace; 9l, slight; a, moderate; se, severe.



The following synthetic materials shoved some toxicity when used
at eight times the concentration of derris, but never more than
equaled the derris standard in kill:
S
l-Benzoylthiourea
pi-Bromo-N. N-dimethylbenzenesulfonamide
B-Bromo-N- i sobutylbenzenesulfonamide
I-Bromo-N-p ropylbenz enesulfonamide
4-Camphor oxiae
R-Chlo ro-N-propylbenzene sulfonaaide
Diazoaainobens one
2, 4-Dimethyl-3-pentanone semi carbazone
4, 6-Dinitro-l-cresyl laurate
4,6-Dinitro-e-cresyl myristate
4,.6-Dinitro-o-cresyl propionate
2, 4-Dinitrophenyl propionate
Di sodiu ethyl enebiedithiocarbamate
Ithylidenebitebenzaimde
2-Juranacrylamide








alpha, alpha, alpha, alpha', alpha' alpha -Iexachloro-U-xyl ene
2-Hydroxy-2.4,4,4', 7-pentanethylflavan
N-I sobutyl-s-nitrobenzamide
5-( p-Methoxybenzylidene) -2-thio-4-thiasolidone
p-Nitroacetanilide
4-Phenylthio semicarbazide
g-Phthalonitrile
4,4' 4' -Triaminotriphenylcarbinol (R-rosaailine base)
alpha,alpha,beta-TrichlorobutyramiAe
Veratrine
Xanthene


The following synthetic materials showed little if any toxicity
to the Mexican bean beetle when tested at a strength of 1 percent


Materials T9esteA as bros


5-Benazyliden...2-thio-4-.thiazolidoane
2-Chlorofluoreae
a., '-Dichlo rophenyl sulfone
Diisophorone
1,4-Dini tro sopiperazine
l,4-Diphenyl euioarbaziie
2-Yluo rylamine
alpha, alpha, alpha, alpha' ,alpha',
alphat -Hexachlere-o-xzyl one
4-( -Mte hyl-alpha-thietoluyl)-
3orpheline
N-Methyl-a-hl trobenzaild.e
Tetrachloroquinone
4.(alpha-Thiotoluyl) orpholine
l-Trichloro-2, 2-bie( -brouophenyl) -
ethane


ajerj'1m Tested as Dust.

L-Acetyl-alpha-naphthylaaine
N-Acetyl-beta-naphthylamiae
Allylthiourea
3-Anilinophenothiazine
Aoebenzene
Asozubenzene
Beazalazine
S-Chloroacritoae
Copper sulfoleoareonite
Dichloramine-T
j, .' -Difluorodiphenyl
Bi e( -diaethylaainophenyl)
sulfide
4-Hydroxyacridone
Nitroguanidine
N-BJi trophenyl suLzfaiyl)
acetanilide
Piperonal exiae, anti' form
Piperonal oxine, 4syns form


DD Sprays

The results of tests with various sprays containing DDT (1-
triohloro-2,2-ble(-chlerophenyl) ethane) are givea ia table 2.
When used alone DDW? was acnot highly toxic to Mexican bean beetle
larva.. The addition of sulfenated castor oil to the spray greatly
increased its toxicity. The mixtures were prepared by dissolvinag





- 8 -


the DDT in acetone and then adding U!e sulfonated castor oil.
Calciiuir, cy-nziaide combined with DDT and sulfonated castor oil killed
all the larvae, but calcium cjanr.:iide alone caused appreciable
mortalty.,


Table-2.--Toxicitj of various- Tprays contLaining DDi' bo the Le-ican
bean beetle


DDT Iortality
Formulation caoncentrati.on in 6 days
in spray

Percent Percent

DDT (technical) 1.0 C4

DDT 10 percent in pyroph rllite 35

DDl 10 ,Tn., sulfonated castor oil 10 nl.,
acetone OC ml.: .
I'c added infredien1t 95
Plus cilciumi carbonate 5 gin. 95
Plus calcium cyarnamide 5 o. 10iO
PIlus calcium sulfate 5 j. 95

DDT 5 r., sulfonated castor oil 1C ml.,
acetone r1.< : .2l5
o adIcd in'-r'-dient 65
Slu, rlj.ionium chloride cT. 57
p-lus ar-Lj.oniun hrdro:xid-e 5 l. 55
plus arxnoniunm sulfate 5 *r. 70

2,lciirz cyanrai i!e 1.0 I/ e

Derris standard P.125 V/ 3)4


/ Percent of material indicated,





- 9.-


Nicotine Preparations 3/

A number of preparations containing nicotine were tested against
Mexican bean beetle larvae. Nicotine refers to the uncombined
alkaloid often referred to as free nicotine. Mixtures with nicotine
contained 10 ginm, of the compound to 4 ginm. of nicotine. Of these,
o-nitrodiphenyl mixed with nicotine gave the highest mortality.
This preparation, when used at about 25 times the concentration of
I derris (4.8 percent rotenone), caused 88 percent mortality as com-
pared with 34 percent for the derris standard. A 5-percent solution
- of o40 percent nicotine sulfate was slightly more toxic than 1 pound
of derris per 100 gallons of spray. Nicotine was somewhat less
effective under the conditions of these tests. The following
preparations showed little or no toxicity to the larvae when used at
many times the concentration of derris :

Benzyl nicotinium stearate
Butyl earbitol plus nicotine
Butyl ether of ethylene glycol (Butyl Cellosolve) plus nicotine
Cupric mononicotinammino oleate
Cupric nicotinammino hexoate
Cupric nicotinammino compounds of coconut oil fatty acids
p,p-Dichlorodiphenyl sulfide plus nicotine
Uioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT) plus nicotine
Ethyl ether of ethylene glycol plus nicotine (Cellosolve)
Glycerol plus o40 percent nicotine sulfate
Methyl carbitol plus nicotine
Molasses plus o40 percent nicotine sulfate
Sodium salt of sulfonated ethyl oleate (Artic Syntex) plus
nicotine


3/ Most of the nicotine preparations tested were supplied by
the Eastern Regional Research Laboratory, Bureau of Agricultural and
Industrial Chemistry.

Plant Sample
A sample of plant material that was tested, Humulus lupulus,
showed only very slight toxicity to Mexican bean beetle larvae.

Summary
Results are given of laboratory test of the insecticidal action
of 94 synthetic organic compounds, 8 MT and 13 nicotine combinations,
and 1 plat material, with the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachn&a
varivestis Muls.) as the test insect. Acetone semicarbazone and
41,6-dinito-o-cresyi acetate were highly toxic to the insects but
caused injury to bean foliage. DDT combined with sulfonated castor
oil was more toxic to Mexican bean beetle larvae than DIT alone.




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