Insecticidal uses of nicotine and tobacco ; a condensed summary of the literature, 1690-1934

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Title:
Insecticidal uses of nicotine and tobacco ; a condensed summary of the literature, 1690-1934
Physical Description:
16 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McIndoo, N. E ( Norman Eugene ), 1881-1956
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington?
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Nicotine   ( lcsh )
Botanical insecticides   ( lcsh )
Tobacco -- Industrial applications   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control   ( lcsh )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"May 1943. E-597."
General Note:
Based on The insecticidal uses of nicotine and tobacco, by McIndoo, R.C. Roark and R.I. Busbey, part 2 of A bibliography of nicotine, issued by the Bureau in 1936 (publication E-392). Cf. Arents S 1998.
General Note:
Reproduced from typewritten copy.
Statement of Responsibility:
by N.E. McIndoo.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030284007
oclc - 79321987
System ID:
AA00026030:00001

Full Text




UNITED STATES DEPERTHENT OF AGRICJVTURE
AICLR -PAL RESEARC- ADYINISTPATION
1TPEAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE



INSECTICIDAL USES OF NICOTINE AND TOBACCO

A condensed Summry of the Literature, 1690-1934

By E. 1McIndoo, Division of Insecticide Investigations


CONTENTS

Page
troduction -- - - - 2
ory of ineoticidal uses of tohbacco and nicotine - -- 2
SClasse of insecticides -- ~ ----- - 2
Contact inseoticides ---------------- ----- 3
ntso t e s ------------------- 4
IT.' Repellents, or deterrents
I, Kinds ofnicotine preparations- - - -- -- - 4
Nicotine compounds - - - --- - - 4
Proprietary nicotine compounds -- - - - 4
Othernicotine preparations - - - - - 5
IV. How iotinekisinsect- - -- - --- 5
f ni s aginst which nicotine was effective 6
nets, mites, and ticks controlled by nicotine - - - 6

Plantlice, or aphids (Aphiidae) - - - - 6
Jumping plant lioe (Pyllidae) - - 10




Leaf b or capis iridae) - - - 12
-1e0 or tingitids (Tingitidae)- -----13
Chinchbug and other lygaeids (Lygaenidae)- - - 13
Sqush bug and other coreids (Coreidae)- - -- 13
enatomid bugs (Pentatomidae) and otior Heteroptera 13


V. Hymenoptea - - - -- ..-------- 14
VI Coleoptera- - - -- --- ---- - - 14
VII. Lepidoptera .- - - ----- ----- -- 14
VIII, --- r-- --------- 15
IX. Extrnal parasites on i sanmasand man ----- 16
s ."~ iG~~edI









INTRODUCTION

In September 1936 the Bureau of Etomolgy and Plt Quarantine
of the United States Department of Agriculture issued Part II of."A
Bibliography of Nicotine" under the subitle The Insecticidal Uses of
Nicotine and Tobacco," by N. E. tcIndoo, R. C, Roark, and
This Part II was issued as E-392, a mimeographed irular of28 pages
in three sections, containing 2,497 abstracts, hich include thepublished
information from 1690 to the fall of 194. In trying to compress the most
important data contained in the original 628 pages into this brief sum-
mary, the writer had a difficult task, chiefly because much of the
mation was fragmentary and contradictory, "and the information on a
species was often widely scattered under two or three different scienifi
neaoes.

In the present summary the information on the most important
species that had been controlled more or less successfully before
by the use of nicotine is stated as briefly as possible. Nicotine
been recommended against a wide range of insects which are here
by orders, families, andspecies The unversed reader might inf
this large list of insects that nicotine is a universal inse cide and
that it is the most effective means of controlling the majority of
species discussed. To the contrary, nicotine has a liited use and plays
a minor part in the control of many of the species mentioned in this
review. Prior to 1934 nicotine was the best remedy kw for cer
species, but' more recently other insecticides, particularly oil sprays
and rotenone, have taken that place. To emphasize the importance of the
species mentioned, the present circular includes the geog~ic
bution of many of them, the contries being arranged in the ol
order of the references.

HISTORY OF IISECTICIDAL USES OF TOBACCO AEND NICOTIN

I. CLASSES OF INSECTICIDES

Insecticides are generally divided into three classe, based on
the vway they are applied to the insects. The contact insecticides co
prise both liquids and solids. In the literature on nicotine theliqi
are described as washes, tobacco water, infusions, decoctions,obacco
juice, extracts, and dips; and the solids, as poiders and dusts. T
fumigants are called smokes, fumes, or vapors, and are produed b
burning or heating tobacco in solid or liquid form. When the liqui


This should be understood throughout this summary to mean that the
writers of the various articles listed in the bibliography reco
the specified treatments. No appraisement by the eart t o
Agriculture is implied in citing the arious prepatone m on
or statements regarding them.








so areappliedsoas to be taken into the atomach they are called
ta poisons, Tobaco and nicotine are used chiefly as contact insecti-
an and very little as stomach poisons.

Contact Insecticides

Tbao was first utilized ir.1690 as an insecticide, a iwash having
ee e to pear trees in France to control the pear lacebug. Tobacco
trco powder vere recommended in 1763 as a remedy for plant lice
n F e, In poe cases tobacco dust. was used successfully in 1773 against
ap s ad the red sp r inr g d 3In 1800 tobacco was in comnon use as
cticide in England Tobacco dust was bloyw from a powder puff, such
as i sers used, upon aphid-infested trees, or Scotch snuff was merely
steupon the insects, Infested leaves were also dipped in a strong
a infusion Tobacco was first used as an insecticide in America at
A1ban .Y ,in 1814, tobacco water having been applied against sucking
t In the same year a force pi ipwas employed to squirt a decoction
arpillars and a leaf roller in England. Tobacco juice was recom-
n n 1829 forthe woolly aphid in England. Tobacco extract was first
Sin 1859, but in the 1880's and 1890's it was commonly referred
he literature. The word "Idip" was first mentioned in 1896, and
later it was frequently used.

Fumigants

In 1773 tobacco was put in an iron pipe vhich was heated and the
smo it as bloiwn onto infested plants by the use of a bellows.
Stype of uigating bellows was used and described in the same year.
S pair of bellows was used to force smoke under a tent which had
beep ve a nut tree infested with aphids. In 1828 a tent on wheels
to oovr a grapevine trellis Bas recommended in America, and in 1839
grors ere advisd to burn paper saturated T-ith tobacco extract under
tent teted over poach and ncotarine trees to kill aphids. In 1851
a i r aich burned tobaEco and ejected the smokeo r-as invented, In
Sa secill cnstucted hood s invented and used in England. This
was rose bushos infested with aphids, and tobacco smoke 'was con-
duct pipes into the hood. In 1902 the Geneva fumigator :.ras employed
to fumigat phids.

'Turni to the use of tobacco indoors, it ias becoming the custom
to u tsmoke in greenhouses as early as 1825, and in 1877 mention
i f putting tobacco juice on a hot metal plate in order to make
in a box containing aphid-infested plants. In 1884 tobacco
extrt asut o heating pipes in a greenhouse, and in 1895 red-hot
bars a in897 hot bricks iere used to vaporize the extract. The method
f d n e quid on hot ;otal was the forerunner of the present
ha l Te t comon method of fumigating with tobacco, however,
s to e~e tobaco extracts in shallo-i vessels over charcoal,
kerosene, or alcohol stoves.




L~';;'








Stomach Poisona .'

Not until recently did i4riters discuss how nicotine affects ntse
and consequently their papers do not mention ioi
poisons. In 1911 it vas obseed that e ingeston of leaves treated
nicotine caused characteristic nvusis of la
died shortly afterward. Larvae of vine nots and be etles wre aartially
controlled in 1913 as a resultf their eating niotie-treated lea
Nicotine was fed to honeybees in 1916, and the symptom of poisoning w
carefully studied for the first time. It vas sho in 192 that ioti
compounds acted slowly as stomach poisons ainst the anu husk


I. REPELLENTS, OR DETERRENTS

Repellents are not really inseoticides, but since they repel se
or deter them from doing damage, their effects and those of insecticides
are .usually discussed together. Tobaooo, ecause of its stron
odor, is considered an insect repellent, and as such first used i

III. KINDS OF NICOTINE PREPARATIONS

In addition to the previously mentioned tobacco and nicone
tions there are about 80 more, and the history of nicotine a
after 1885 pertains mostly to them In regard to most of thei i
be possible to give the exact dates in vAiich hey were first p
used, but the first dates to appear in the literature are tose
be noted here.

Nicotine Compounds

From 1900 to 1934, 15 nicotine compounds or salts were prepa
used, and since 1934 several others have been added to the list,
these a're not to be considered here. The 5, ith dates
occur in the abstracts or could be found in notes and the orig l ler
are as follows: Nicotino sulfate (1900); acetat, lactate itate a
trichloroacetato (1913); resinate (1917); oeate, paitt a
(1918); tartrato (1919); salicylate (1927); casinte (01929
alginate (1931); and bontonite (1934).

Proprietary Nicotine Preparations

The list of proprietary preparations contains 63 trad
domestic and foreign, most of vihich were patented, an~d many of,
to have been short-lived. These names did not represent 63 diff
preparations because one preparation occasionally had
was later substituted for another. Gld leaf Tobacco trac (
was apparently the first of the proprietary preparations, w
Black Leaf Tobacco Extract From 1885to 1900, 12 other pr
including some important dips, vre put on the market. In 12 te
standardized nicotine exract, called Rose Leaf, was ac on t a








Itconailessthan 3 percnt of nicotine and for many years
more e ient and more widely used than any other 'form of nicotine.
Duringthe decade 11 more prepara.tions were introduced, half of
which pro tobeexcellent insecticides. A few of these are still being
used8 a pat was granted covering a method of producing a con-
S slution of nicotie lfate containing as much as 40 percent of
nicotie, T s sulfate mas first called Nico-Su,'but in 1910 it was placed
S a under the e of lack Leaf 40. Froa 1911 to 1920 about 22
prietary i ctices were introduced three-fourths of which
n A new typ of nicetine-bearing dust called Nicodust, was
first placed on the art in 192 From 1921 to 1934, 16 more trade names
wded t t list, Those most frequently found in the literature
inlu io Fmigating Powdor (1922), Vapona (1933), Black Leaf 50,
and Black Lceaf,155 (1934)0

Other Mcotine- Preparations

In America, ependence as been largely upon the proprietary prepara-
in Europe, partiularly in France and Germany, the proprietary
et not to have been vwidely used, chiefly because the preparation
o i ne insecticides -ias6'ontrolled by the government. The State
s f France in 1909 prepared ordinary tobacco juice and titrated
r the agicuturists. The nicotine content of the former depended
on enst hich, since 1882, as determined "by a hydrometer in degrees
The titrated juice, oentaining sulfates of nicotine and sodium and
ornisalts, Tth a nicinecontent of .10 percent, vas sold as titrated
ni in In 1924 the Fronch Government issued nicotine in 'three forms--
ord y an extract containing nicotine sulfate, and condonsod
Sjuice (amixture of the other two).

IV. HO1W NIrOTINE KILLS INSECTS

A lit casual inonatin on the physiological effect of nicotine
f in numerou papers from 1895 to 1934, but only a few studies
were originally planned to detemine how nicotine kills insects. A few..
S s give ddtio information 'which is probably correct but not
pperients. It s the fundamental information on this point
S thpreparation and use of nicotine dust,

The sytoms of nicotine poisoning in the experiments with bees in
19.dividd into three stages. First, bees that had eaten nicotine
se ormal in behavior, and the legs and wrings were partly paralyzed.
Slysi progressed from partial.to complete, the hind legs
n n ngs s ly being the first to be completely paralyzed, then
fo legs and front wings, and; finally the front legs. Third,
enly dead exce'pt for slight movements of the head appen-
ages eg anab e Regardless of how nicotine is applied, it seems
Sk paralysis; that is, it first affects the nerve centers that
Sm mo ent, Its action on the motor centers causes complete
is supposed to be brought about by absorption of the
n n am of the poison by the nitrogon-fat compounds that make up the
ne tissu, with the rosult that further absorption of oxygen by the cells
is st d a the insect is killed. Since 1916 the word "paralysis" has
bn r edly ed in conection with the effects of various insecticides,
butincorrectly, prhaps in most instancos, because there are very few
insecticidal nerve poisons.










now known that spray solutions, without soap or o.spreaderi do not
pass through the spirales into the tracheae, IW contain a sprea
however, they do pass into the tracheae, althou1r presee insid
the insects does not' necessarily cause death. otin ap fr
spray solutions, alations from nicotine dder,
dried films of spray solutions, and fumes from
into the tracheae and are dely distribted to -all the tissues, art
to the nerve tissue, vhich is the first t be affted fatally

V. KINDS OF ASEMAL AGINST IOTIE AS

According to the literature prior to 1954, nicotine as eff i
and had been Feco mended against only those organisms hav
and others of minute sie, such as mites, thip, aphids, pyi
hoppers, crawling scale insects, capsids, laebs lie on poultry,-
midges, m shroom flies, sawflies, and grapein moths These and a
=are are discussed somevatt in detail in the following pages, being
arrange4 by orders, families, and ope.ies.

IYSECTS, ITES, A!D TICKS CONTROLLED BY NICOTINE

I 11MO]TRA

Plant Lice, or Aphids (Aphiidae)

oolly apple aphid.-Th applicationof nicotine has
a satisfactory control of the woolly apple aphid (risoma lani
since 1814, but as this species is covered with a wooly or waxy
spreader is alys required in the sh or spray solution
in two foms--the aerial form living on the libs and leave
form on the roots. It appears to be universally distrbuted with the
tree, for according to the literature it has been treated in
In Europe up to the 1890i s the vash or spray mixture onsistd o
juice, -ater, and soap, and sometis slfur or lie w ad
concentrated tobacco juice, whose nicotine content s deteined
by the hydrometer or by titration, as incorporated withat
and it -as comion in Europe to add alcohol, sodium or potass
or even oil. Aftr 1910 it became como p tice to use
cent nicotine) and Black Loaf 40 with soap or an oil mlsion in h
ountries (chronological arrangent): Uited States, N
Australia, Korea, and Canada.

Since 1884 tobacco has been used as a remedy for aphih
The method is to remove the earth around the base of the t
roots, then to put an abundant supply of waste tobacco or tobacco dust
against the -.ood bearing the aphids, and finally t vr t t
roots ith earth. The inects in time should be kill or
this method is often unsuccescsful.






-7-




been controlled n apple trees th nicotine in russia, the hited States,
Canad, gland, Geo y, and Ireland. In the earlier years, Rse
ef, Black Leaf, Aphis Pk, Nikateen, icoticide (40-percent nicotine),
-tobaco dust and hme e tobacco extracts ere used -in sprays or as fui-
forthisaphid Since 1915, particularly in the United States and
a Blak Leaf 40 has be used as a delayed-dosmnt spray, ch is
coroted t sulur but soetimes h sap, an oil
em on, Pnrol atic soda, or potassim oleate

The rosy apple aphid (Araphis roseus Baker) appears to have been
treated only in he United States and Canada. The best spray used against
it s a abination in the proportion of 100 gallons of nter-strengh
r ad /4. pint of 4-percent nicotine. The best time fr treat
ment asuring the delayed-donMAit period just en the buds were begiing
to show green. Nicotine has been used effectively aist is aphid since 1902,

SPeahaphids.-There seen to be four r five species of aphids at
esteach trees The black peach apid (Anuraphis persicae-niger (Smith))
s ee ontlled th nicotme snce 175 France,r fo a shorter
S the ted States, Astralia, Italy, and Souh Africa. Before 1910,
toa decoction, tobacco dust, Black Leaf, and Black Leaf Dip 7re used.
r 0 it as cmn to use Black Leaf 4, sheep dips, -e other
standardied tobacco etracts in kersene or petrole elsio, soap
solutio or lime-slfur. Nursery trees to be trnsplante were fmited
Sin a nicotine spray mixture Aphids Aon the roots of pech trees
ed by putin po der on he roots as alr y described


e geen peach aphi (Mzus prsicae (Sulz.)) ifests many plants
tree According the literature, nicotine corntrol
it on pea potato, tobacco, beet, tmato, pepper, spinach, e lt
S d other vegetables Nictine s first used a inst it in
1908, andit s reated in the United States, ii Australia, Suh
Afc, T nia, Fnce, Ital, ngland, and India. The most c spray
f 40-peent nicotine as the sulfate w sap, but in 1925 car-
boled obcco extract s used in taly nd tobacco decotion th sap
in India as late as 1932. Sprouting seed potatoes --re figted ith
nicotine and tbacco dust, this species vas most easily controlied on
vegetbles by si 3 perct nicotine dust,


In iof plts the oder is g vernedy e nmber of references that
were cited fro the literature.










..! .... .
@::Ni














Black cherry aphi ~.--Tobaco and nicotine have beea
for theblack cher aphid ceasi (F.) on herry
In GeFrany it was treaed io nd so
States the following were used: Black Leaf, Black Leas o r e
percent nicotine with or without soap, lime-sulfur, or .s
peroent nicotine sulfate plus ptassium leate ainodsti andh asa
dust. In Russia it was uigatod with tobacco dust or spray th
belated tobacco emulsion. In Canada it w pryed with 4 rcen nic
sulfate and limo-sulfur. In France it was treated with a niotine-soap
spray heated to. 212 F.

Other fruit aphids.--According to the literature reviewed, many o
species of fruit aphids have been successflly controlled otine
These include 1I species on almond, I on banana, 2 on citrus, 6
and gooseberry, l'on fig, 2 or more on grape, I on loganberry, 6
I on. pear, 2 or 3 on plum, 3 on prune, I on raspberry, and 4 on sra rr

Bean aphid.--During the past decade the bean aphid (Aphis m
has become the standard insect for testing contact insectiides,
reared and is more easily killed .than most aphids. S e 11 it s
readily controlled with weak concentratilons of nicotine t infests a
variety of plants, but the literature on nicotine mention oly the
Beans, boots, tomatocs, artichokes, sorrels, chryanthemums, Eunu a
nasturtiums. This species has boon treated in the United S
Russia, Donmark, Algiers, Italy, Czochoslovakia, England, Franc and-
Cyprus. Against it the following have been used: Nicoti
percent); nicotine sulfate (25-, 30-, and 40percnt); niotineresina
nicotine oleate; nicotine with sodium oleate, potassium stearate.
caseinate, Penetrol, or soap; sulfur impregnated with 2 pecent of nioi
sulfate; 5-percent Nicodust; 3-percont nicotine sulfat6 'ustused
rate of 40 pounds per acre; and almost perfect control on lima be
obtained by one treatment with a 1.6-prcent icotin dust applied with a
solf-mixing power du7ster equipped with a canvas drag hich covered the ow
for 10 feet behind the duster.

Cabba and turni hids.--The cabbage aphid (Brevic e brassi
(L.)) has been controlled with nicotine since 1908 and has be
Australia, the United States, Hawaii, Italy, and Canada. Tobacco tea pl
soap, carbolated tobacco extract plus sodium carbonate, Black Leaf, Nio
Fume, )lack Leaf 40 -with or without soap or miscible oil, tobacco dus
and nicotine dust have been used against it.

The turnip aphid (Rhopalsi m (Dvis)
times called the faise c aphid, has been controlled
the United States since 1915, 40-pOreont nicie s
tine dusts having boon the most popular controls up to 1934, ahou








tly rotenonehas i become the favored material,
Potato aphids.--There are only two aphid tiat eseriously attack
plants. f hese, the green peach aphid, has been discussed.
The other ia the potato aphid (Macroaiphum aolpELigolli (Ashm.)), which,
hove, infstplants other than the potato,. This species has been
Sontr d since 1915, having been mentioned as so treated
nly theUnitd Statsand anada, The beat remedies up to 1934 woere
stin of nicotine sulfate and soap, 2- and 3-percent nicotine
dd dust coosed of tobacco powder and hydrated lime.

Two other aphids infest potatoes, but they are unimportant, for
e s ntioqd only three times. The remedy for them was the same as


Pe a-phid.-The pea. aphid (Iaorosiphum pisi (Kalt.))has been treated
a and the United States vrith tobacco preparations since 1909, but
not sccessully. Nicotine sulfate sprays and dusts were often
remnded, aId the mosteconomical remedy seemed to-be a 3-percent nicotine
lied to rows of peas with a tractor duster having a canvas trailer.

Aphids on other egetabes.--Ten other aphids on vegetables have'
y dicussed in the literatre. Tobacco extracts controlled all
S species on sugar beet and lettuce in Europe, 2 each on tomatoes
ad ii the United States, 1 each on beans and artichokes in the
United States, and 1 on parsnips in Canada.

Hop pid.--This species, Phorodon humuli (Schr.), had been easily
controlled since 190 ith nicotine because it is perhaps the most easily
kild of aphids. It was treated in the ited States, Bohemia,
Germany, Cada, and gland. Against it were used tobacco decoctions,
Black Lea, ack Leaf Dip, nicotine sulfate plus soap or flour paste, 5-
per t icodust, ad 1-percent nicotine dust. The last seems to be the
most frequently used in hop yards.

Apple grain aphid.--This insect, Rhopalosiphur prunifoliae (Fitch),
h n d h ncotine in Canada and the United Sttes since 1914.
Sb remedy was nicotine sulfate plus lime sulfur.

Mlon or cotton aphid--This species, Aphis gossypii Glov., attacks
a win but the abstracts mention only cotton, melons,
cucuber ourds, and hibiscus, the first two being attacked the most
se. It is widely'distributed, and has been treated with nicotine,
first in te te States, then.ater in Belgium, Nyasaland, Mexico,
IChile, Cana, Fnc West Africa Be muda, Peru, Pussia, and Brazil. In
1901 tobacco decoction, Ros Laf, Scabure Dip, and Iikoteen Punk wore
used aainsit but sin the Black Leaf, nicotine sulfate solution, free
nic ad rious tobacco-fugating preparations have been used.
Nicotin dusts r first tried aainst it in 1921 and since then they have
gradually become more popular. In 1926 a 2-percent dust, applied at the
rate of 35 to 40 pounds per acre on melns, as recommended. A dust com
posed of94 parts of calcium arsenate and 6 parts of nicotine sulfate solu-
tion (4t icotine), applied at the rate of 8 or 9 pounds per are of
co wsd aainst the boll weevil ( thonomus grandis Boh)
and this ac hid.









Aphids on conifers.--In the cited literature six species are dis-
cussed. To1 s em to be economically important and they were successfully
controlled on spruce, fir, and pine trees wih tobao extratnicotine
(98Mpercent), or nicotine sulfate solution, each with the addition of soap
or an oilj or vith' nicotine dust. The eastern spruce g aphid (Chrmes
abietis L.) iwas treated in Poland and the United Statesol Gill.
in the United States, C piceae Rat in Germany and Swterlaneu
pin (Macq.) in Norway and the British Isles, the pine ba aphid
strobi (Htig.)) in the United States, and P simils (Gill
Scotia and the United States.

Aphids on other trees.--Nine other aphids were controlled
tine but were discussed only briefly. These are one species eachon ba
boxelder, Carolina poplar, willow, and tuliptree, and tw spcies eah
elms and otlher shade trees. The species on thewillpw was treated i
France and all the others in the United States.

Rose aphids.--There are at least two species of aphid~ hi i
rose bushes. They are among the aphids most resistant to niotin
be readily controlled by applying heavy doses. The most com h
aphid (Macrosiphum rosae (L.)), has been controlledwith nicotine sin
1907 and was treatedeT Belgium, Germany, the United States, Francean
Ireland. Sprays consisting of nicotine sulfate solution and soa p ad 5-
percent Nicodust were recommended as remedies. In greenhouses, fmigat
spraying, and dusting with nicotine preparations were practiced.
The small green rose aphid (Capitophorus rosarum (Kalt.)) wa
treated only in France and the United States.

Chrysanthemum aphid.--This species, Mcrosphniell sa
has been controlled with nicotine since 1911 and was treated in
the continental United States, Black Leaf 40 plus soap was theusu
Aphids on other flowers.--Four aphids infesting other flowers wre
easily controlled with nicotine. They were on the leaves and bulb
tulip and iris and on violets in Europe, and on gladiolus corm and ge
in the United States.

Jumping Plant Lice (Psyllidae)

Apple sucker.--The apple sucker (Psyll mali (Schmb.)) h b
trolled vith nicotine since 1913. It was treated in Genany, Russ
England, Norvmay, Ireland, Denmark, Nova Scotia, Sweden, zechosol ia
Finland, and Switzerland. The common method was to spray with nicot
tobacco extract plus soap. In Russia it was successfully controlled
fumigating orchards with tobacco dust mixed with straw.

Pear psylla.--This psyllid, Psy pyricola Foerst., as first
treated in 1842, in England on pear trees, with a tobcco infusi
the practical control of it seems to date from 1912, when Black
and soap were used. It has been treated in England, the Uited
Canada, Germany, Sw.eden, Czechoslovakia, and tay h nicotine
tion rith soap or line-sulfur. Various nictine dusts have also
mended against it, and a 2-percent dust seems to have been the
1=








Seven other psyllids have'been controlled with nicotine, but these
species are not economically important.

Leafhoppers (Cicadellidae)

Potato leafhopper.--This insect, 2ripoasca fabae (Harr.), is also known
as the apple leafhopper or bean leafhopper ad as the potato jassid. It has
been treated with nicotine since 1908 in the United States and Canada. In
most instances nicotine sulfate as either spray or dust was recomended as a
satisfactory control, but in a few instances it was inefficient or was not
so good as bordeaux mixture, vhich acted as a repellent.

Grape leahoppers Those leafhoppers, Eryhroneur comas (Say) and
ela fom wr roated th nicotine in the United S T nd Canada.
in 1828 tobacco juice was only partially effective and a tobacco fumiga-
tion tent on Theels to go over the grapevine trellis was recommended as
effective, but was soon discarded as impracticable in vineyards. A more
serious attempt to control these leafhoppers was begun in 1910. The nymphs
are easily killed ith nicotine, but in order to control the adults the
dosages must be vry strong. Black Leaf 40 vith soap, bordeaux mixture,
or other substances added to the sprays were used. Nicotine dusts, if
unustally strong (7.5 or 10 percent), vere generally efficient.

Rose leafhopper.--This jassid, ypilocyba rosae (L.), was treated
I~n, the i.te a Switzerl d, Canaa, and Czechoslovakia.
It was controlled by using nicotine with soap, Black Leaf 40, and nicotine
dust.

Other leafhoppers.--About tywo dozen other leafhoppers have been
controlled with nicotine. The most important of these appears to have
been the Thite apple leafhoppor (Typhlocjba pomaria McAtee).


Malybugs, Scale Insects, and Coccids (Coccidae)

Citrus meabu.-This coccid, Pseudococcus citri (Risso), has been
treated ith nicotine-since 19011 in the United States, Uganda, Grenada,
Russia, Bermuda, and the Philippine Islands. Tobacco dust was inefficient
and tobacco extract gave indifferent results. Black Leaf 40 and nicotine
were usually effective, but other control methods were available.

San Jose scale.--This scale insect, Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst.,
has been treated with nicotine since 1901 in Queensland, the United States,
India, and Fungary. Nicotine with soap, lime-sulfur, or an oil was usually
-effective against the i mature scales.

Oystershell scale.--Nicotine sulfate. with soap or lime-sulfur has
been ue sccessfully since 1916 against the young of the oystershell scale
(Lepidosaphes ulmi (L.)) in the United States and Canada

Other coccids.--About 42 other species of coccids were tested with
nicotine, and it was found effective against all but 4. The best spray or
dipping solution Ywas kerosene emulsion containing nicotine.









Species Belonging to Other Fmilies of Hoptera

Whiteflies..--Seven species of' Aleyrodidae w ested wi
.drhich was nearly always inefficient.

Other species.--Thirteen species of the Cicadida.e, Flgoridae
Cercopidae, and Mmbracidae were treated with nicotine, It wa e e
against a cicada, 4 fulgorids, 3 froghoppers, and I treehopper.

UI. HETEROPTERA

Leaf Bugs, or Capsids (Miridae)

Appile redbug,--Nicotine has been used against Lyia
since 1911, vwhen sprays containing Black Leaf (1 part to 65),Ni
(1 to 700), and Black Leaf 40 (1 to 816) were found effeotive. Thi
as well as other capsids, is difficult to control, and nicotine is e
only against the nymphs. Sprays containing 40-pernt nicotine sufate
( to 800) and soap or lie-sulfur usually gave good control A
nicotine dust was also said to have boon officient, This imor
species was treated in No.r York, Ohio, Connectict, PennsylvanianNova
Scotia.

Tarnished plant bugs -These species, L s oblineatus (S)
L. pratensis (L.), havy been treated .ith nicotine since 1915 in C
the United States, Germany, and England. Nicotine in various fons a
recoBmnended, but in the United States there vwas no complete control, although
a 5-percent nicotine dust and a nicotine sulfate spray (1 to 200) plus soap
were used.

Dark redbug.--Since 1911 Heteooordylus malinus Reut, h b
treated K TEThotine in New York and Pennsylvania. Dusts were as good a
sprays.

Pear plant bug.--This insect, Lyu comuvnis Knight, has alo bee
called the green apple bug and false tarni ste plantt bug. It. inf
and pear trees in New York, Nova Scotia, and Ontario. Nicotine ha. s
used against it since 1916, a 5-percent dust (2 percent actual nicotin
having been better than nicotine sprays.

Apple capsid bug.-Since 1916 Plesiocori ru icllis (Fall.)
been controlled with nicotine (usually 98 percet plus soap in Englan
Denmark, and lHolland.

Other capsids.--According to the literature nicotine was used
a small scale against 32 other capsids. Eight of these species be
the genus Lygu, one of which, gu pabulnus (L), sm to be
importnmt economic species, for it was treated with nicotne in Ireland
Denmark, England, and Germany.
1~:11A.








Lanebucs, or Tingitids (Tingitidae)

SPear bug Stehanitis pyi (F ) was the first insect to
trea with nictne, thedat ande placefeing 1690 in France. It is a
rio s trees in aurope. In France tobacco fumes and nicotine
s we n Gemny tobacco leaves were burned -beneath the trees
d lutions wire used; in Sweden tobacco extracts were found
Si al h lted tobacco extracts with soap were recommended
ussiboth sprayin ad dusting with nicotine were successful,

on ebu,-This insect, Stephanitis rhododendri (Hor,),
as t b a mport pest in Holland and France, where nicotine in
s fors as recommended against it,

O r ingitids.--Nine other tingitids vwre tested once, and nicotine
s unsatisfactory against three of them,

Chinch Bug and Other Lygaeids (Lygaeidae)

Since 1913 nicotine has been applied against the chinch bug (Blissus
es (Say)) in the United States and Canada. Black Leaf 40 and soap,
e ete and soap, and nicotine sulfate dusts were .the forms mostly


Eigt other lygaeids were tested, but the records about them are meager,

S ; Squash Bug and Other Coreids (Coreidae)

Notine has been applied against the squash bug (Anasa tristis (Deg.),
noe i 3te United States,, It kills only the nymphs, particularly the
g oes. One vaitr recommorded 4--percent nicQtine sulfate (1 to 600)
a 10-perot Nicodust, whercas another niter said a 3-peroont nicotine
t or spray should be used,

Three other coreids are mentioned but there is little information


Pentatoid Bugs (Petatomidae) and other Heteroptera

nder this heading nine species are mentioned, but no definite state-
ntabee made a-out nicotine being effective against them,

III, TiHYSAFOPTERA, 0 TriTPS

'nion t1i ,--Since 1898 this species, Th-ios tabacic Lind., has been
'uitrolled :ni-o~a, I. as tre&ted in thre t1r:.a:icd ;..,s, iSweden,
1stralia Cena, pEtios, Boruda, Germany, oi.l Pibli, Maurice,
ica, d pnlan d Niiotine sprays wsre mostly vused ar-L w :.:'c t:ually
i. icotine austs and nicotine tamnate were Lso omno yod,

thrips--This species, Heliothrips hawor.oidalis (Bouche),
as be oil e 1868 with tobacco products, TF areafed in
an Ge any, L'xebourg, the United States, Argentina, Sweden, Belgium,






141
Pear thrips.-Ths thrips, TaeniothrinsUhs
been controlled Yith nicotine since 1-09. 1 was treated I e ited
States, Canada, and Noray.

Other species of thrips.-About 356 other species were treated with
tobacco products, but there are only a few records regarding each of the
Nicotine was effective sagainst most of these, inluing t
(Drepanothrips reuteri Uzel), Florida flower thrips (Franklinilla o
(Crawf.)), bea;n thrips (Hrcothris fasciatus (Per.), ugarbeet thrips,
red-banded thrips (Selenothrips rubroinctus (Girard))ad citrus t ps
(Scirtothrips itri Moult.)), but it had little value as a control
the gladiolus thrips (Taeniothrips simplex (Mlorison)).

IV. DIPTERA

Tobacco products were tried against numerous species of Dipteraand
the use of nicotine gave a good degree of control but was not found
cal against parasites on cattle because of the toxicity of nicotine
host. It vas effective against the following: Cattle grubs Hypoderma
bovis (Deg.) and H. lineatum (De Vill.); various species of mosquitoes;
the pear midge (Cntarinia pyrivora (Riley)) the chrysanthemum gall midge
(Diarthronomyia hypogaea Lowe)~7 the boxwood leaf miner (Monarth
buxi Lab,T various species of mushroom flies belonging to the M
and Phoridae; and the spinach leaf miner (Pomya hyosyami (Pan

V. TMENOPTERA

With regard to the Hymenoptera, the use of nicotine has be
mended as a control against only the sawflies, the larve of hich are
like insects. The following were the species most commonly treat
.sa-fly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug), cherry fruit sawfly ( (Clar
and Neurotoma nemnoralis (L.).

VT. COLEOPTERA


belonging to many families, but nicotine s foud effective against oly
4 compkrptiwely few sppo&q, These included seveml apeci-s o? flea
in Europe, reported long before 1934, and two species of cucumber beee
in America. Nicotine is still used as one of the controls against t

VII. LEPIDOPTE RA

Grapevine moths.--According to the literature being s i
vine moths, Phalonia ambiguella hbn.) and Polychrosis botrana ($
which are serious pests in continental Europe ad Ni we
tested .ith nicotine in 1870. Prior to 1915 the use of nicotin
recommended control against both generations of moths, but by 1917 toba
products were too costly and almost unobtainable because of the Fist
War, and it became necessary eto find a cheap and effectv ins
1925 the use of lead arsenate had become the recommende control ag
the first generation of these moths ihil ne icotine was still use
the second generation.
n~nlj~~d a e.C~n~rol agarzs o~l th ~B~ig, t3"i ~~e''~"A








Codliy moth.-Nicotine vas. first tried in '1897against the codling
mh Caoapsa Ipomonella (L.)), which i a serious post wherever apple
rees are gron Frm this year up to October 1934, inclusive, 133 abstracts
n pertain to the use of nicotine against this moth, although
ie n i wa often usd in an arsenical spray mixture primarily to con-
r ortain bugs. In 1916 nricotine sulfate was reported in
Sta to have been as efficient as lead arsenate. This report
ed nsiderable experimental work to be dono during the next 12 years.
e Washingtn entomologists still claimed that nicotine sulfate could
Sud as a substitute for load arsenato in the second and third cover spray,
though this ombination'was somewhat loss effective.

icotine in combination with oil emulsion was apparently first tried
t te codling moth in 128, There are 70 abstracts which discuss this
o ntion. It was generally agreed that nicotine sulfate combined with
-il emulsion as a good substitute for lead arsenate, The following
t t give some of the details: In 1929 and 1930 this combination proved
a effcve as the arsenate. The combination of oil (1 to 100) and nico-
ulfate (1/2 pint to 100 gallons) gave'a control of the codling moth
qual to t of 1 pound of lead arsenate to 50 gallons of vater. In 1931
erts from nie investigators wrere compred. Some said that the oil-
ctine combination gave results equal to those obtained with lead arsenate,
hle others did not get such good results. It was as effective as the
rsnate in preventing entry into the fruit and was decidedly more effective
n the arsenate in preventing "stings." In 1932 the nicotine-oil spray
ed both ovicidal and larvicidal properties for the codling moth and
ontrolled aphids and ites. This combination, used for several years
te late cover sprays, aliays gave excellent results which were approxi-
equal to those of lead arsenate. In 1933 the trend of results
lhy favored lead arsenate. 1n 1934 the consensus of opinion was that
ed sonate was superior, but nicotino-oil was vory close to it and was
most promising substitute.

There is 1 abstract about nicotine bentonite, 2 about nicotine dust,
about nicotine oleate, and 25 about nicotine tannate, The last gave
xtmely variable results, ranging from no good or not satisfactory to
t than lead arsenate for use against the codling moth,

Qther moths.--Nicotine .as tried against other moths..and it was
ctie gaiit many of them but was rarely recommended as a control
Iecus there were usually other better and more economical insecticides.

SVIII, ACARINA

d spiders.--The common red spiders (Tetranychus spp.) have been con-
lledie with nicotine combined with other materials such as oil,
tro soap, or lime-sulfur. They were treated in Germany, Switzerland,
oh Australia, the United States, Argentina, England, Canada, Russia,
and Italy.

uropean red mite.-- This species, Paratetranychus pilosus (C. & F.),
as sccessfuly treated in most instances with nicotine in Sweden, Denmark,
h nited States, and Englazid, but the nicotine was added to other materials.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09224 7013






other species' of mites, but not all of th rep es sful.cont


IX. KETERIIAL PAPASITtS ON ATIKAW4 ITDM

The ites nd ticks, which re no insetsbelongto e Aca
thesvckin lie to Anoplura, the biting lie tq Mallophaga, the f les
Siphonaptera, and the flies to Diptera. The iter asunable-to Ue
of the abstrcts in E-392 because they iscuse lie itho-t giving thei
aientific names. The wor lice" includesthe Aop a, the allo
and the sheep louse or tick, which is really a fly.

Mites.--Nicotne sulfat was effecv againstLipo
(C. & F:)The chicken mite (Deanyssus gallinae (D ) the mites Po
communis Fuerst and P. ovis Her. onrabbit-and sheep andthemange
E i s scabiei De.,. gi Gerl., and S. uis Gerl on attle, ho


Ticks.--There is very little informatio on the. use1 Qfni&otine-
ticks. Ticotine was apparently effctie against. nly the immature stag
on cattle and sheop. It may be applid tothe vegetation ad aboutke
to kill the newly hatched ticks.,

Sucking lico.--Five species are mentioned. Niotine fmi o
effective against thebody louae (Pediculus hum corpori D
tine is not recomrmended because of its possibe-toxit features to hue -a
or animals.

Biting Lioe.--Nicotino was used satisfactorily aLD nst fur out or
five species.

Fl0as.--Only one species was montionod by scientific nae ot
was usually effective against fleas when it was sprayedon r egation
basement floors..

Flies.--Nicotine was also ffective against the sheep'lose
(Mfelophagus ovinus (L.)) and the pigeon fly (Pseudolynchia canarins
in lo- concentrtions, but at leat dippigs are requis
absorption and subsequent toxic qualities it i not favored.








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