Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..

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Title:
Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..
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United States. Bureau of Chemistry. Bulletin
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United States -- Bureau of Chemistry
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Subjects / Keywords:
Food -- Preservation -- Physiological effect   ( lcsh )
Coloring matter   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Issued in parts.

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I-I-U.&-' EPA TME T O A RICUJLTURE,
FN BREAUOF CEMSTY-BULETI No 84, PART III.









UT OFFOOD REBEYATIYES AND ARTIFICIAL


COLOS O DIETON AND IIEALTH.

AhAN


Am-ILHRU ACD








W~t~Yu.S. DEPOSITORY By11 IV. AVL0W A1C4W~~, N}OTES















INN





WASHIGTON
GOVENMEN P1INTIG 0FF IC E

N907









ORGANIZATION~ OF TH UEU F MSR
H. W1. WILEY, Clzeit andiefofBreu
AV. D. BELow. sitn Chif ofBue.
F. L. DUNLAP, Associate Ceit
F. B. Lnw~Chief Clerk. Division of Foods:
W. D. 1316ELOW, Chicf
WASHINGTON, FOOD INSPECTION LABORAORYL. 11. TOLMAN, ChiefChief Food and Drug Isetr
WALTRGi L. CAMPBELL.
Food and Drug Inspection Laboratories:A
New York, R. E. DOOLITTE, Chief.
Boston, B1. H. SMITH, Chef.
Pbiladlelphia, C. S. BRINTON, Chief.
Chicago(, A. L. VI-NTON, Chief.
-New Orleans, C. WV. HARRISON, Chief.
San Francisco, R. A. GOULD, Chief.
St..Pauil, A. MITCHELL, Chief.
Detroit, II. L,. SCHfULTZ, Chief.
Savannall. [Not appointed.]'A
Seattle. [Not appointed.]
BtiffaIo, W. L. DUBOIS, Chief.
Kansas City. [Not appointed.]
Denver, A. E. LJ,EA Chief.
Galveston. [NXot appointed.]
Portland, Oreg. [Not~ appointed.]
Cincinnati. [Not appointed.] Sugar Laboratory:
;k BROWNE, Chief. Dairy Laboratory:
Gi.E1. PATRICK, Chief. Miscellaneous Laboratory:
J. K~. HLAYWOOD, Chief. Drug Laboratory:
1- F0. KEB3LER, Chicf. Contracts Laboratory:
P. IL. WALKER, Chief.
, Leather and Paper Laboratory:
F. P. WITCH, Chief. Mirochemical~ Laboratory:
11. JOWARD, Chief. Special Investigations:
PIIYSIOLMOICAT, CHEMISTRYAiinial physiology, F. C. WEBER,~ in charge.
Vegetable physiology, J. A. 1,F &LERU, iii charge.
11ACTERu0o,0ouCAL CHEMISTRY- A
G. WV. STILES, Jr., inchreWaintn
M.F,.PENNINGTONfood rsac), in hrePildpia
GEOLOGICAL CHEMISTRYW. B1. Arwooi), in charge, Charlot.ilet Va.
NJTROGEN SECTIONT. C.T~i~co~rin carge








Issued December 23, 1907.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY-BULLETIN No. 84, PART III.
H. W. WILEY, CHIEF OF BUREAU.






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL

COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH.





III.-SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES.





By H. W. WILEY, M. .
WITH THE COLLABORATION OF W. ID. BIGELOW, F. C. WEBER, AND OTHERS.

















WASHINGTON: I

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1907.





















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BUREAU OF ( CHEMISTRY,
Washington, D. C., Auqgust 15, 1907.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit for your approval the results of the investigations which have been made in this Bureau to determine the effects of sulphurous acid and sulphites upon digestion and health. The work is a continuation of that reported in Parts I and II of Bulletin 84, dealing respectively with boric acid and borax, and salicylic acid and salicylates, and I recommend that this investigation be published as Part III of that bulletin.
The plan of the experiment is practically the same as that followed in the previous reports. The more elaborate study of sulphur metal)()olism, which was of special importance in this investigation, was made 1y Mr. F. ('C Weber who also conducted( the hvrienic table. Mr. WV. D. Bigelow had charge of the general analytical work on the foods and feces. Mr. B. J. Howard made the nmicroscopical examination of the blood and urine. The Bureau of Statistics, as in the previous investigations, rendered valuable aid( in the compilation of the analytical data, a work of great magnitude.
Respectfully,
H-. W. WILEY,
( 'it if of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secret ary of Agriculture.
III







. .... ... .. ...

















CONTENTS.

Page.
Introduction --------------------------------------------------------- 761,

SERIES VII.

Administration of the preservative---------------------------------------- 766
Schedule of administration------------------------------------------ '766
Method of administration ------------------------------------------- 768
Daily medical and clinical notes----------------------------------------- 769
Individual data --------------------------------------------------- 769
Conclusions------------------------------------------------------- 786
Body weights--------------------------------------------------------- 786
Variations in body weights ------------------------------------------ 786
Ratio of food weight to body weight--------------------- -------------- 788
Weight and water content of the feces----------------------- ------------- 800
Individual data--------------------------------------------------- 801
Summaries---------------------------------- ---------------------- 803
The urine------------------------------------------------------------- 810
Volume, specific gravity, and total solids ------------------------------- 810
Series VII---------------------------------------------------- 810
Individual data-------------------------------------------- 810
Summaries------------------------------------------------- 814
Series XIII -------------------------------------------------- 820
Individual data------------------------------------------- 820
Summaries------------------------------------------------ 821.
Presence of albumin and the reaction of the urine ----------------------- 82 4
Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to the nitrogeni excreted
in the urine------------------------------------------------------826
Changes in the relative quantities of sulphur comnpound1s excreted1 in the
urine-------------------.....------------------------------------ 839
Individual data ------------------------------------------------ 839
Summaries-------------------------------- -------------------8ST)
Microscopical examination of tile urine------------------------------...867
Microscopical examination of the blood---------------------------------...877
Series VII--------------------------------------------------------8S7 7
Individual dt---------------------------------8....... S7 7
SummnarieIs-------------------------------------------------8... 80
Series X1II-------------------------------------------------82
Individual daita---------------------------------------------8.. 8SS2
Suimmaries-------------------------------------------------88. ',4
Metabolic processe:-------------------------------------------------8..... 90
Nitrogeni balance------------------------------------------------8...... 90
Indi1vidlual daItu------------------------------------------------8.. 90
Summarie s-------------------------------------------------8.... 93

V








VI CONTENTS.

Page.
lai)olic processes-Cont inueld.
Phnsph eric acid balan -- ........................................... 913
In d iv id ual d ata --------------------------------------------------- 913
S u u n ina r ies .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917
Sulphur balance- 935
Individ ual data 935
Summaries --------------------------------------------------------- 939
F at b a la n c e ............... . . . .. .. ... .. ... . .. . . . . .. --- -- 95 9
Ind iv id ual d ata ...............-.-------............................ 959
S u i iln a rie s .......--.------- -------------------------.............. 960
caloriess )balance. ....................................................... 977
In d iv id u al d ata .................................................. 977
Si m i maar ies. 978
Solids balance ................................................. 996
Individual data ---------------------------------------------------- 996
Summarni eareS --------------------------------------------------------. 997
Sum m ary of results es.............................ts............. ........... 1015

SERIES XI.

The effect of sulphurous acid and so(lium sulphite on the distribution of the
nitrogenous elements of the urine ----------------------------------------- 1021
I lt r d action ......................----------------------------------- 1021
Schedule of administralion of th, I'ec1rN"ItiV---------------------------1021
Presence of allumin and reaction (f e urine --------------------------- 1022
.....n --------------------------------------- 1026
Individual dala ------------------------------------------------1026
Sum inaries ......................................................... 1028

General 'iwiclisions ........ --------------------------------------------- 1039
lis t ) - - - --........ ..................................................... 1041





I US 1' R AT N S.


lI(_ 1. Il)aily and averge )(iv weights for Series VII, Nos. 1 to ( and sumar ............................................................. 775
2. )aily and average, bdy weights f(r Series VI I, Nos. 7 to 12 and 8mnary. to~gethr with ii he general ...uuIaIy for the entire series........ -787
3. I11(livid ual a il siniarized data showing tieeffe( f the 1)res'rvat 1e
(I the re( and white ihi)(l Iurl)uschs, Series XIII .............. 885















INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH.


III.-SUJLPHUTROUTS ACID AND SUJLPHITES.


INTRODUCTION.

The relations of sulphurous acid to health are perhaps of greater importance than those of the preservatives already studied-namely, boron compounds and salicylic acid and its salts. The reason of this is found'in the fact that the use of sulphurous acid at the present time is more general, and in certain classes of food products, according to the statements of manufacturers, more nearly approaches a necessity than is the case with boron or salicylic acid compounds.
Sulphurous acid in some form is extensively employed in many technical operations in the preparation of foods. This is especially true in the production of -wine, in the preparation of evaporatedl or desiccated fruits, and in the manufacture of molasses. The prob~lemi presents itself under two aspects-namely, the use of sulphurous acid or its compounds for technical purposes in the preparation~ of foods and its application to the finished products as a preservative.
In the preparation of foods, sulphurous acid is chiefly employed in the form of the fumes of burning sulphur, applied either to the food products themselves in the course of manufacture or to the containers in which the food products are held. In the ripening of the wines in cellars it is customary to fumigate the barrels with burning sulphur each time the wines are racked. In this manner it often happens that the wine before it is finally ready for sale on the market may have been placed in five or more freshly sulphured containers. By this treatment the wine absorbs a varying quantity of the, sulphurous acid, depending to some extent upon the amount of sulphur used in fumigating.
When sulphurous acid is used as a preservative for food products after the manufacture has been completed it is usually employed in the form of bisulphite of lime or some similar preparation. Sulp~hurous acid has the prope(rty of uniting with c-ertini organic, radicals, such as aldehydes and somic sugars, to form compounds which are 761






762 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

more or less stable, and in this form it is known as combined sulphurous acid. When it exists in the form of an absorbed gas or in combination with an ordinary metallic base, such as soda, potash, or lime, it is said to be in a free state. Combined sulphurous acid is set free from the organic combination by treatment with an acid with the aid of heat, or with a dilute alkali in the cold.
In the accompanying report the effects of the combined sulphurous acid are not to be considered, except in so far as the combination takes place with the foods with which the sulphurous acid may be mixed after entering the stomach. The purpose of the investigation is, therefore, to determine practically the effect of free sulphurous acid-that is, sulphurous acid in a gaseous state absorbed by water or united with a base-rather than the effects of combined sulphurous acid. In no case has any question been considered in these investigations relating to the food value of the organic sulphur existing in proteids and other foods.
It is true that probably in the process of digestion complete saponification of the combined sulphur compounds takes place, so that finally they appear in the small intestines in a free state-that is, as sulphurous acid or sulphites-and are then oxidized to sulphuric acid, as is the free sulphurous acid, during the metabolic processes.
Practically, in the technical use of sulphurous acid in the manufacture of food products only the fumes of burning sulphur are employed. Desiccated fruits, pared or unpared, are subjected, after the removal of the pit or core, to the fumes of burning sulphur in what is known as a "sulphur box." In the manufacture of wines
a piece of so-called "sulphur candle "-that is, a piece of cloth which has been (lipped( in melted sulphur--is burned. This candle is attachlied to a wire, ignite(l, placed( in the barrel, the bung inserted, and the candle allowed( to burn until the whole of the sulphur is consumed. Previous to the sulphuring it is the custom to thoroughly wash the barrel so that the interior thereof at the time of sulphuring is moist. The moist surface of the wood absorbs the sulphurous acid moIre freely than does the dry wood. The ostensible object of the sull)luring is to keep the barrels sweet ; in other words, to destroy a11 yeasts o)r oth er ferments which mlly a(lhere to the surface of the w(oo)(d or be preselit with in it. IThle barrels are often sulphured some (lays, or even weeks, before tlhey are filled; at other times the filling o(f the barrel with wine takes place imnne(iately after the sulphuring. In both cases not able quantitiess of sulphurous acid become (diffused throughout the wine itself. It is evident that somIe care must be exercise(I in the use of sulphur in wine making for two very important reasons. In the first place, if too much sulphur be used, red wines would to a certain extent be bleached. In the second place,






SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 763

if the wines become entirely saturated with sulphurous acid the secondarv fermentations which produce the ripening of the wine would not take place. In such cases the wines apparently appear to be perfectly mature within one or two years, whereas the proper maturation of a wine requires a much longer time. In the manufacture of non-fortified sweet wines much larger amounts of sulphur are used than in the manufacture of dry wines. This is an important fact, since it shows that the large quantities of sulphur are not necessary for the preservation of dry wines, because it is well known that red wines, which are generally very dry, are quite as well preserved as white, although containing much less sulphurous acid. It is claimed that in the manufacture of sweet wines-that is, those in which the natural sugars coming from the juice of the grape are not entirely fermented-larger quantities of sulphur are necessary to prevent fermentations after the wine is mature. If the sweet wine be made from a suitable kind of grape-that is, one which is so rich in sugar that it gives a certain maximum quantity of alcohol and still leaves some unfermented sugar-it is evident that no excess of sulphurous acid will be necessary. In such a case the wine would be preserved by its natural alcoholic content. If, on the other hand, a sweet wine be made from a must so poor in sugar that it is necessary to add an additional quantity, the product can not be regarded as a natural wine, and hence there seems to be no necessity for providing for its manufacture.
In the manufacture of sirups and molasses it is quite customary to expose the freshly expressed juices of the canes to the fumes of burning sulphur. The "sulphur box" used in this case is so constructed that the juice falling over shelves by gravity absorbs the fumes of the burning sulphur rising from the box, which to this extent serves as a clhimney. The sulphur dioxid becomes incorporated with the components of the juice forming more or less stable compounds which are not entirely broken up by subsequent boiling. The sulphur in this form, as well as that which may still be present in the free state (that is either as an absorbed gas or in combination with metallic bases), passes into the finished product. When sugar is made there is a concentration of the sulplhur compoun(ls in the molasses and this concentration becomes greater in proportion to the number of crops of sugar crystals removed. In very low grade molasses the sulphur naturally occurs in extraordinarily large quantities.
In the preparation of evaporated apricots, peaches. pears, and mandarins sulphuring is practiced for the following rasons:
(1) To p~roduce~ as clear and intense av yellow color as psldi~..
(2) To conceal decayed portions ol the fruit which hae been 11 erloked in trailing.
(3) To prevent fermentation and decay during the driug I 1he fruit.







G 4 INFLUE-NCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES 0--N- HEALTH.
(4 To protect the fruit during drvin- fron-i flies aud other insects, the larvae of which W"111(1 (dienvi-o develop after the iruit 4orerll.
(.-) T(- -k-111 dii- cells ,f the fruit and lliu, wzike dw lecture inore pormi.,, which expedllf'.-In the application of the fumes of burning sulphur in the preparation of evaporated apples the principal object appears to be the preservation of the color of the finished product. Fruits which have been sulpliured before evaporation seem to have a lighter color than tliose NNIiieli are dried without stilphurincy. At the same time it is well known dial higlily stilp] i ii red fruits are preserved with 11 lower degree of desiccation than those not sulphure(, and for t1iis reason a greater weight of fruit is produced from a given wei(ylit of tlie raw material NN-lien siill)liur is used. It is not difficult to Preserve a Nvater c()ntent of 30 per cent or over in the fiiiislie(l pro(Itict iN-Iieii liberal sulphurin(r is practiced. The use of sulphurous acid also intakes it easier to protect the finished product from mohl and f ungotis oy() vt ]is in generall after manufacture. That excessive quantities of still)liur are not necessary for the production of evaporated frtilts of I)le-tslll(r appearance is N\,(,Il attested by analytical data obtained d by the exani-\, 11 (r lo-lit an(l
nation of fruits purchased in the open inarket lia 1 a, 1*1 pleasing color, and at the same time containing only a sinall, quantity of sull)lltirous acid. On the otlier hand, it is littlee easy by certain fornis of tre-atillent durino- the w ()ces,,-; ()f inanitfaettiiv to obtaill a product. in NN-Iiich stilphtirous acid is I)i-esent, in excessively la-i-ge, quantitie-, Tlie analytical data also sliow fliat a Imi-tion 4 the Still)] I 11n)IIs "'Icid 1I.Sed in Ilie 1)iv1)ara1I()ii ()f sucli prodtios beconies oxi(lize(l into sulpliuric acid nhei- a certzlin titue, t1iiis -a-rtificially incivasMg the savall amount of stilphates nattirally present In S011le food 1)n)(Iticts, wilich (bws not .il)lwar to be a (lesinible I)i-actIC0.
As sidl)Iiiii-ou-, ncl] iii soiiie f()rm is alniosl iiim-erszilly einl)l()-ve(1 In tlie iiianufactiure (d' \\,ines ', molas,-;es, and sinys, '.111(l ill the 1)i-eparatl()Il (J (lesiccated fruitS7 it is (widelit Ilint t1le J)l-()l1ib1t loll of its Ilse
11cces.sitale (I, 1"'tdical clinii(re iii nietlio(ls of ninnufacture. '11iis fia(17 11mvevel., it, 1111(rill be staled, Ndi"Itever to (10 with
t1le I)III-Im "es ()f* Ille 1)I-eselit I11\*esti(qi11()I1. Assuillillo, t1lat in tl)e Jw(we""es cel-l'1in k)(IR's 41IT 11.1-411d N014-11 tire
fi)IIII(I m l M ve"-A ioll to I)v IIIJ111-1w is to 11caltily t1le rational conclilM I (J 111 i(r,,Iti()Il J)e, II()t to x( e ()I o (I
St I Is -look the
lise (d ,-;I u-1 i lmd ies b] I I I () I list It ti I v I divest By*n t lm )k 111(r t () I. lie)], supI vs.' I () I I 11" 111vI-e1*()1-v' tit(' I-estills (d tll(' J)resellt study indicate tliat. S1111dillrotis acid, evell Ill (111"1111ities, is a deletel'IM IS silbstalice" \01(.11 added to fm)ds it wwlld be reasm)"Ible to eXI)ect t1lat 111111111facI I 1-v I ?- \\-(,Il -I., 111N,( sji(qltol-S WOUld Ininiedintely take steps looking
to III(. earl N' s11J)J)1vsSi()II 44 t1le 1111111-iolls substance. AvIlile it, is not,
-Ill (-N-vilt cm ild be n (-(-()Ill Idisl led N\-*tll' YVIlr Or txN,(),.
Ii ke I I I In 'It
it is re'Ismi"thb. to 'sIII)Imso. th'it it cmlld 1w cN-ellf11:111y bi-miglit almut






SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 76,5

without any disturbance to manufacture and without any diminution in the output of the article.
In matters of this kind it is advisable to proceed when possible .with conservative steps and to avoid any attempt at sudden and revolutionary changes in methods of manufacture. In all such cases, however, it will be found not only possible and desirable to make the food product in question without the use of the deleterious substance, but there is evidence to show that the products thus manufactured will be more palatable, more wholesome, and more valuable than those made according to the methods commonly used at present. Practical experiments have shown, for instance, the possibility of producing a high-grade sirup from cane juice and other saccharine saps without the use of the fumes of burning sulphur. Analytical data show the presence on the market of considerable quantities of desiccated fruits of good appearance in which the quantity of sulphur is so small as to be ascribed rather to the conversion of the natural sulphur content of the product than to the addition of the sulphur in its manufacture. At the present time considerable quantities of wine are made without the addition of sulphur of any description, and these wines are of fine appearance, excellent flavor, and of noted purity and wholesomeness.
In so far as the mere tint of the food product is concerned, it is not a difficult matter to familiarize the public with a tint of a different kind from that which would be produced by the use of sulphur. The only arguments of any force favoring the use of sulphurous acid in food products are those which relate either to the preservation of the food product or to its color. As the preservation of the product can be easily secured, and a slight change in color rendered familiar without working any hardship, these arguments seem to
have no force whatever in justifying the continuation of the use of sulphurous acid in foods. It may be the part of wisdom in the administration of food laws to tolerate existing methods of manufacture for a certain length of time looking to their amelioration or change, but that is a question with which this investigation is not concerned.
There is reason to believe, therefore, as a result of the present studies, which have shown that the use of sulplhurous acid in foods is deleterious, that a rapid change will be made in the processes of manufacture looking to the complete and somewhat speedy su ppression of its employment. The use of sulphurous acid and sulphites never adds anything to the flavor or quality of a 1oo(, but renders it both less palatable and less healthful. Every fact which has been brought out, therefore, in the investigation tends to accentuate t he justness of the conclusion, namely, that the use of sulphurous acid in foods should be suppressed. The data on which these conclusions are based are given in detail in the following pages.
















SERIES VII.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRESERVATIVE.

SCHEDULE OF ADMINISTRATION.

The fore period in Series VII began on February 1, 1904, and the after period closed on March 11. The fore period extended over a
period of ten days, the preservative period lasted twenty days, and the after period ten days, a total of forty days under observation. The divisions of the periods are shown in Table I.
TABLE I.-Dates of periods and subperiods, Series VIL.

Date of
Periods and suhperiods. begin- Da of
nang. ending.

1904. 1904.
Fore riod ......................................................................... Feb. 1 Feb. 10
First subpe riod............. ........... ...........................................do... Feb. 5
Second subperiod................_............................................. Feb. 6 Feb. 10
Preservative period............................................................... Feb. 11 Mar. 1
First subperiod ................................................................ ....do ... Feb. 15
Second subhperiod.............................................................. Feb. 16 Feb. 20
Third subperiod................................................................ Feb. 21 Feb. 25
Fourth su pel riod.............................................................. Feb. 26 Mar. 1
After period ............................................ .. ....................... Mar. 2 Mar. 11
First subperiod .......... ........................................................do... Mar. 6
Second subperiod.............................................................. Mar. 7 Mar. 11

The period extending from December 7, 1903, which marked the
cl()se ()f Series VI on salicylic acid, to February 1, 1904, when the sulphurous acid series was begun, is termed the relaxation period. Inasmuch as the same men served in the two experiments it was deemed advisable to allow this length of time to elapse before entering Ulon the second test.
In Table 11 is given a schedule showing the dates of the administration of the preservative and the amounts given. The salt
used for the administration of the sulphurous acid was sodium
sul)hite, and the quantity of SO contained therein was calculated.
About one-fourth of the weight of crystallized sulphite (Na1SO3 7 11H0) is c)mi)osed of sull)hurous acid (SO2). From the table it is seen that
the quantity of sulpt)hurous acid as sulphites administered during the first preservative subperiod to each man is 1.115 grams and in the fo)rm of sulphurous acid gas 0.856 gram. For the second preservative subperio(d the quantity given to each man is 2.54 grams as
76










SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 767


sulphite and 2 grams as sulphurous acid gas, with the exception of No. 7, whio received only 1.6 grams. During the third preservative subperiod the total quantity of sulphurous acid as sulphites administered was 3.81 grams for all except No. 5, who received 2.54 grams. The quantity of sulphurous acid gas administered was 2 grams with the exception of No.-7,' who received 1.8 grams, and of No.* 12, who received 1.6 grams. For the fourth preservative subperiod the total quantity of sulphurous acid given as sodium sulphite was 3.81 grams for Nos. 1 and 2, 0.381 gram for No. 3, 5.1 grams for No. 4, and none at allfor Nos. 5 and 6, who had become so ill that- they could not take any more of the preservative. The quantity administered during the fourth preservative subperiod as sulphurous acid gas was 2 grams, except in the cases of Nos. 7 and 12, who by reason of illness took none at all.

The total and average amounts of the preservative administered and all individual variations in the quantities taken, may be found in Table IL.

TABLE JJ.-Schedale of administration of preservative, Series VII.


Sodium sulphite asS502 (capsules). Sulphurous acid asS502 (aqueous soluPeriod and date tion).
(104.No. 1. No. 2. iNo. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.!No..7.'No. 8.!No. 9. No. l0.!No. 11. No. 12

First subperiod: gins. gins. gins. gins. gins. gins. s.g .gs g .gil.g .
Feb. 11.........--0. 113 0. 113 0. 113 0. 113 0. 113 0. 113 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.078
12 ...........240 .240 .240 .240 .240 .240 .178 .178 .178 .178 .178 .178
13 .......... .254 .254 .254 .254 .254 .254 .200 .200 .200 .200 .200 .200
14..........-.254 .254 .254 .254 .254 .254 .200 .200 200 .200 .200 .200
15...........254 .254 .254 .254 .254 .254 .200 .200 .200 .200 .200 .2Wo

Total.........--1. 115 1.115 1.115 1.115 1.115 1.115 .856 .856 .856 .856 .856 .856
Average.......-.223 .223 .223 .223 .223 .223 171 .171 .171 .171 .171 .171

Second subperiod:
Feb. 16 ..........._508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400 .4W
17.......... 1:.508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400 ii.400
18 .......... .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400
19 .......... .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 0 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400
20 .......... .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400
Total .........2.540 2.540 2.540 2.540 2.540 2.540 1.600 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000
Average.......-.508 .508 .508 .508 .508 .508 '.320 .400 .400 .400 .400 4.00
Third subperiod:
Feb. 21 .......... .7.2 .762 .762 .762 .762 .762 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400
22 .......... .762 .762 .762 .762 .762 .762 .400 .400 400' .400 .400 .400
23 .......... .762 .762 .762 .762 .762 .762 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400
24 .......... .762 762 .762 .762 .254: .762 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400 .400
25 ............2 .762 .762 .762 .000 .762 .200 .400 .400 .400 .400 000
Total .........3,810 3. 810 3. 810 3. 810 2. 540 3. 810 1. 800 2.000 2.000 2. 000 2.000 14H)0
Average ....... .762 .762 .762 .762 .508 .762 .30) .400 .400 .400 .400 .320
Fourth stibperiod:Feb. 26 .......... .762 .762 .381 1.020 0 0 0 .400 .400 .400 .400 0
27 .......... .762 .762 0 1.020 0 0 0 .4W .40 .00 .0,
28 ..........72 .72 0 100 0 0 0 40 .400 .400 .400 0
2......762 .762 0 1.020 0 0 0 .400 .400 .400 .400 0
Mar. I........... .7G2 .762 0 1.020 0 0 0 .400 .400) T40 1W0 0

Total .........3.810 3.810O .381 5. 10M 0 0 0) 2.000 2.000 2.00X09 2.0M0 0
Average .....72 .762 .076 1.020 0 0 .400 .4W .4W 400 0

Entire preservative
period:
Total .........11.275 11.275 7.846 12. 56,5 6. 19.5 7. 465 4. 256 6. 8.76 6. 856 6. 856 '856 41.45
Average ....... .564 .564 .392 .628 :310 .373 .213 .343 31.43 1343 .343 .223







7068 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION.
The organization of the work in general was practically identical with that of the previous investigations A slight variation in the administration of the preservative was introduced by the fact that it was deemnied important that the investigation should include sulphurous acid in a gaseous state as well as in combination as sulphites. The most convenient method for the administration of the gaseous sulphurous acid was found to be by the preparation of an aqueous solution of the acid of standard strength taken, after dilution with water, as an ordinary drink. Water proved to be a more convenient vehicle than milk or other beverages for this purpose.
In the form of sulphites the method of administration in capsules was practiced. This method, as in the previous investigations, was found not only to be the most convenient, but also, all things considered, the most desirable form in which to administer a substance of this kind.
Attention has been called in the previous reports to the distaste which the subject would acquire for a food product in which he knew the preservative had been mixed, and therefore less disturbance of tihe mental equilibrum was caused by the administration of the capsule, the enivelo)pe of which is itself a food product and would be soon dissolved in the acid digestive juices of the stomach. Moreover, in the solution of this capsule the whole of the preservative is not discharged at once into the contents of the stomach, but the capsule dissolving at (differeilt l)oilts lpresents gradually increasing surfaces at which solution of its contents umay tak place, and this, in connection with the peristalti( nation of the stomniach, results in a complete incorporation (f the preservative with tlie food in the stomach in a reasonable period of time. Thus, in sub)sta nces which do not possess any active escharotic action, 1o possible damagee can be done to the walls of the stomaclih l)y this method of administration. The objections which have beein ma(lde to this form of administration are undoubtedly of a merely (a)tious character, or the pur)ose, if possible, of prejudicing tlhe pl)lic against the conclusions reached. Inasmuch as the caps1le is a cono011111i m etll(d of adminlistering soli1( remedies at the present time the practice of le medical professional approves unaniMIlOlMsly 1 is 1il hod of exhil)ition.
It will )be ob)serve(l hat int I all I the discussions which follow summaries are prepared f)or Nos. I to 6 and 7 to 12, the1w individuals being gr)ul)pe( Ill accordallice \\wtili the 11nature of the preservative administered, i. e., Nos. I to (i receiving soditu sulphite, and Nos. 7 to 12 sllllfhrouiis acid. Add(itioal sumimnaries are given for Nos. 1 to 4, 5 ald (, ai(l S t I 11, l1ese subgr(oups being arranged according to (omn 011111101 Vanri aolls inll ad irliils rt on of th1e preservative.
a lBul. 84, Part 1, p. 11; Part II, p. 479.







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 769

DAILY MEDICAL AND CLINICAL NOTES.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
As in the previous investigations, the young men were selected from a number of volunteers and were required to subscribe to the pledges described in Part I.a The members of the table were subjected to careful examination throughout the course of the experiments for the purpose of recording the medical data which are presented in the following pages by periods and subperiods.
No. 1.-C. WT. N.
No. 1 of this series began the fore period with all functions in normal condition. His recorded temperature on the first day was 98.40, pulse beats 78 per minute, and weight 68.5 kilograms. This normal condition continued throughout the first subperiod, the temperature ranging from 98.30 to 98.6', and the pulse being constant for the last four days at 66 beats per minute. His body weight on the last day of this subperiod was 68.5 and the average weight for the five days was 68.44 kilograms.
On the first day of the second subperiod No. l's temperature and pulse were normal, being 98.40 and 66 beats, respectively, and weight 68.5 kilograms. On the second day a slight febrile condition existed, his temperature registering 990 and pulse 84. This condition disappeared, however, by the following day, and for the remainder of the period his pulse and temperature were normal, but the weight had decreased during the period, 68 kilograms being recorded for the last day, while 68.25 kilograms represented the average weight for the second subperiod of the fore period. The average weight for the entire fore period is 68.34 kilograms.
The clinical examination of the urine during the fore period showed the kidneys to be in normal condition, no albumin or casts present. The general condition of the subject was good.
The same normal condition prevailed at the beginning of the first preservative subperiod and continued till the last day of the subperiod, when he complained of pain in the stomach and frequent urinations; his temperature and pulse for this day, February 15, were normal. The body weight had slightly increased, as coinpared with that of the last day of the fore period, the average for the subperiod being 68.31 kilograms.
In the second preservative subperiod the subject complained at intervals of pains in the stomach, particularly after meals, his temperature and pulse were still normal, and the ody weight had steadily increased, giving an average of 68.44 kilograms for time subperiod.
a Page 12.







7
TNFLT-E-\('E OF FOOF) PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

The third preservative stibperiod vas character zed by pains in flie ston-tach tlirou(rlloUt the period, and on the first day of tile perl(A the subject complaiiied of being weak and feeling chilly. His temperature for this 1)eriod rancred from (9S.2' to 9,S.6', and his pulse was soniewhat varied, rano-ing from 055 to 70 beats per iiiinute. The body weight however, slioNved a slight gain, 68.10 kilograms lwino- recorded on the first d,,iN- and 69.20 on the last da-\.- of the period. The average weight, for this subperiod Nvas 68.64 kiloorains.
Z-
Durin(.r the first part of the fourth preservative subperiod No. I still complained of abdominal pains, but by the end of the period tile stibject reported himself as feeling "nortual" and -%N-itli no "Svn1Pt0iiis." The temperature and pulse were normftl during this stibperiod, the avera(re bodN- weiglit beiiio- 6, .94 kilo(rraws. The avera(re W(II(dit for tlie elitire preservative period Nvas 6S.5S kilograills.
During the preservative period -No. 1 developed a very minute trace of alimmin iii Itis tirine; the microscopical examinati(m, ]low(IVVI,? did ii0t AoNv anv worked chaii(re.
'I'll(, presei-N-ative period, as a N\-liole, had quite a noticeable effect oti till-, sul-Ject, tiloU(rii lie was loath to admit it. Mis generall ppeanance was belmv normal and lie seemed much deI)i-essed, btit iiliproN-ed in the last preservative subperiod.
In the after period no syniptorns are recorded; the teniperattire reiiiaiiie(l jiormal 9S.40 tlir()t1(rllout pulse norrnal, and the -\N-liole ,"'(111el'al appearance, somewliat improved.
I'lle avera"v wei(rlit 1,or tile first after stibperiod -%Aas 68.48 kilo(*()i- the secmid after stibI)erio(l 68.76 kil()(rranis, aild foi. the etitire aker I r a i i is.
perio(l G8.62 kdwr
Xo. I I -. 1'.

niis sulJ(Ict betraii the fore period with a teml)erattlre of 9S.1', pldsv (19 beats per 111imite, aiid a body wei(rht, ()f 70.72 liI()ir1-11111s. The ()111N Imilit 4 Ilote (1111-111tr t1le 1'orc- period is the m6k)rinly Imv te"[11)(Iratilre aild t1le 1'act t1lat the pillse i.,-; SoilleNvilat lower
f,( re StIbl)(II-Im l, Hie avvra(rv fiq- tll( JiV(, daN-S 1)(,tll(r 62. N (). 2 lia(I had iio previotts sickiiess aii(I was Hi gomf comlitloii (Itiriiitr t I ic h)rv periml. 'I'lle aven-we bo(IN Nvel(rlit I'm- tlie. first stil)l)eriml ww, i-0.:11 kllwrn-lills k)r flie secmid sttbperiml 70-0-4, and for tI)v violre perl()(l 70-Is (-Jillk-al ex2tillillatioll of 01V
111*1 H I 1 4 d' N o. 2 show ed a SIPrilt -11I)IIIIIH1111-111.
2 throtilorli die first preservative stil)perio(l \vidiotit,
t-111v apparvill clinwre, 111" t(III)perattire ,till reliiaiiie(i stilmorm.41, plils"16011" were very collstailt, rwrlsteriwr 59 alid 60 tIiroti(rl1()11t; Iiis 11V(11'a(rV 1)()(I\. welirlit was w).91 k1l()(r1-a,111,. 0ii flie. f0iii-fli (k y of Ile 1-(,I)()1-te(I a fe(,1Ii11(r ()f (:Jizzill(-Ss
Ille preserv,111ve I
lit I 111les, whicil did 11(4 (wctir' flowever, ml the Sliccee(ling day. 1 lis







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 771

temperature and pulse remained practically the same as in the previous subperiod. The average body weight for the second preservative subperiod was 69.66 kilograms.
The first day of the third preservative subperiod No. 2 reported himself as "feeling all right." On this day his temperature registered 980 and pulsations 65, body weight 69.37 kilograms. The next day he complained of a slight pain in the stomach. No other complaint or symptom is registered on the three following days of the subperiod, his temperature remaining at 980 and pulse 60 beats per minute. The average body weight for the third preservative subpeliod was 69.44 kilograms.
No symptoms or complaints of any nature are registered during the fourth preservative subperiod. His temperature for the first four days of this subperiod was considerably below normal, but not sufficient to cause any suspicion, considering the uniform subnormal temperature of this subject throughout; on the last day the temperature registered 98.6' F., pulse 66, which is just a few- beats higher than in the previous period. His average body weight for this subperiod was 69.41 kilograms. The average for the entire preservative period was 69.61 kilograms.
The condition of the kidneys remained about the same, a slight trace of albumin being shown throughout, with scarcely any change in the microscopical examination.
On the first day of the after period No. 2 had "a little pain in the stomach," which was of slight duration and did not recur again during this period. His temperature and pulse remained practically constant throughout at 980 and 60, respectively. The average body weight for this period was 69.41 kilograms.
In the second after subperiod the subject reported a headache and pain in the stomach on two successive days. His temperature registered 98' F. throughout and pulsations averaged 64, with very little variation. The average body weight for this subperiod was 69.13 kilograms, while the average for the entire after period was 69.27 kilograms.
The examinations of the urine in the after period again indicated a slight albuminuria.
The administration of the preservative seemed to have comparatively little effect on this subject. Ile comIp)lained once of dizziness an(l headache during the preservative period and on three (lays in the after period of pain in the al)(oImninal region aml headache, but for the greater part of the tine was in good condition. Ile suffered an average loss of weight (luring the entire observation amounting to almost 1 kilogram, although his symptoms were not nearly so pronounced as those of No. 1. who made a slight gain in weight
I 12414-Bull. S4, pt 3--)7 .2







772 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
No. 3.-W. F. H.
This subject entered the fore period in good condition with all bodily functions normal. He had reported no sickness previous to entering on this work and had never been very ill. While in college he belonged to the rowing crew and sometimes had palpitation of the heart after severe training. Occasionally he had a touch of heartburn, but no serious indigestion.
The first fore subperiod passed with the subject in good condition, though his temperature was below normal, averaging 980 F., and pulse quite high, being on an average 84 beats per minute.* His average body weight for this period was 63.54 kilograms.
There was no change in the subject's condition 'during the second fore subperiod. His temperature remained about the same, 980, though on the first two days of the period it was normal. His pulse was normal, averaging 74 beats per minute for the period. His average weight was 64.08 kilograms.
He reported nothing wrong (luring the first preservative subperiod, and seemed, from outward appearances, to stand the preservative well. His average temperature for this period was 98.50 and average pulse beats 81. The body weight averaged 64.18 kilograms.
No. 3 began the second preservative subperiod with a temperature decidedly subnormal, 97.70, taken before dinner, and pulsations 76. HIis temperature after dinner of the same day was 98.60 and the body weight 64.25 kilograms. On the evening of this day No. 3 became very much alarmed. Ie reported violent palpitatio of the heart, with occasional loss of a beat at 10.30 p. m. of this iay, which was directly brought about by a brisk walk for half a block to catch a car. lie also experienced a sensation of giddiness and blurred vision and difficulty of breathing. These symptoms lasted during the night, and at 9 a. min. the next day his pulse was beating 120 per minute. In the afternoon he had an attack of indigestion, some headache, and continued dizziness.
At 5.30 p. min. of this (lay his temperature was normal, 98.40, and pulse beats 76 per minute. The )bod(iy weight was 64 kilograms. During the remainder of this period the indigestion evidently contilnued, as he experienced eructations of gas and occasionally belched a mouthful of food. Ile also had pain in the abdomen and over the left side and sensations of dizziness. His temperature and pulse were quite variable, registering 98.60 on February 19 and pulsations S0. On February 20, the last day of the second subperiod, his tenm)perature is reported as 97.90 and pulsations 68. The average body weight for this tubperiod is practically the same as for the previous one, 64.19 kilograms.
The third preservative subperiod began February 21, and a temperature, before dinner, of 98.90 F. and a pulse of 72 are recorded.




. .. .... ... ......... .. ... ...



SULPHUROUS ACID, AND SULPHITES. 773

The subject was all right with the exception of a slight feeling "of weakness. On the next day his temperature and pulse were exactly the same -as on February 21. He was feeling, very tired, although he had not taken any extra amount of exercise; lips were dry and parched and he had a bad taste in his mouth. He did not experience so much trouble from indigestion as on the preceding few days, but was troubled with quite severe heartburn. On February 23 his temperature and pulse were normal, 98.4' and 76, respectively. He reported ".abdominal pains" and expulsions of gas during the day.
He was feeling much better the next day, but on February 25 was quite uneasy again; had a very restless sleep and a return of pains in stomach, also dizziness. His temperature and pulse for this day were 97.9' and 80, respectively. His average body weight for the
third preservative subperiod was 64-39 kilograms.
On the first day of the'fourth preservative subperiod No. 3's temperature was 99.4' F. before dinner and 100' F. after dinner; pulsations, 100; he had decreased considerably in weight from the previous day and reported that he had had severe dizziness during the evening and day andanother attack of palpitation, became nauseated, and had an attack of vomiting during the afternoon. The administration of the preservative was discontinued from this time on, but for the remainder of this period the same symptoms I were noticeable, particularly a feeling of dizziness and pains in abdomen.
The last day of the preservative period No. 3 reported himself as
"feeling good." His temperature was 98.90' F., pulse 72, and body weight 64.32 kilograms. The average body weight for this subperiod
was 63.51 kilograms.
The average body weight for the entire preservative period was
64.07 kilograms, a little higher than-the average for the fore period, but a glance at the daily platted weights (fig. 1) shows a marked falling off in weight corresponding to the large administration of preservative and an increase in weight when the preservative was withdrawn. The subj ec t showed the effects of the preservative to a marked degree. His general appearance at the end of the preservative period was much below normal, his color was not good, and he was in a much depressed condition. He was quite ill on February 26, and thoti gli somewhat alarmed, the fact that he was a senior medical student would permit of full credence being given to the symptoms as Ile described thein. The urine examination during die preservative
period showed a minute trace of albumin at end of period.
In the first part of the after period the symptoms of digestive disturbance were still recorded by No. 3. The last part of the first subperiod he reported himself as feeling), well. Ilis temperature aiid pulse, which bad been somewhat irregular, returned to normal, 98.6' F.







774 INFLUENCE oF' F'o) PRESERVATIVES 0N HEALI1t,

and 74; respectively, at end of the subperiod. The average body Weight was 64.34 kilograris:
Oni the first day of the secofid after subphriod No. 3 reported A slight feeling of malaise and that he easily became tired. His telperature was 99.30 F. and pulsation 80. He felt all right the foliowitig day, but had a headache in the morning of the third day of the period, which passed away before evening. No symptoms are shown on the last two days of the period, his temperature and pulse being normal.
The average body weight for this subperiod was 64.66 kilograms and for the entire after period 64.50 kilograms. The small trace of albumin in the urine still persisted during the after period.
No. 4.,-F. E. B.
At the beginning of the fore period No. 4 was suffering with a severe cold. He had some fever, his temperature on the first day of the period registering 100.10 F. and pulsation 96. He weighed 63.31 kilograms on this day. In the evening he took 4 grains of quinine and 15 grains of phenacetin. The next day his temperature had fallen to 99.6' and his pulse was 86 beats per minute. The cold was still quite severe, b)ut improving. It gradually wore off as the period advanced, till at the end of the first fore subperiod the subject felt about normal, though he still had a slight cold with an occasional headache. His temperature on the last day of this period was 98.60 F., pulse 74, and body weight 62.91 kilograms. The average'weight for the period was 63.11 kilograms.
IHe still suffered slightly from the cold during the first part of the second fore subperiod, but gradually improved, till at end of the period he reported himself as entirely normal and feeling all right. The average temperature for this subperiod was 98.40 and pulse 69, with only slight variations from these averages. The average body weight was 62.89, the average weight for the entire fore period being 62.97 kilograms.
No. 4 passed through the first preservative subperiod without any feeling of (discomfort, and in a normal condition. His temperature was a little bellow normal, 98.20 F., and pulse averaged 67 beats per m11inute. His average weight for this period was 63 kilograms. There were no) abnormal symptoms (during the second preservative subperiod, temperature and pulse being also normal and the average body weight 62.82 kilograms.
The same statement also applies to the third preservative subperid, with the exception of the temperature, which is a little subnormal, esl)ecially toward the end of the period, when only 98' is recorded. The body weight for this 1)eriod averaged 62.69 kilograms,.









SULPHRUROIJS ACID AND SUJLPHITES. 775

FEBRUARY MARCHN










7









700





N-1
m69m mm m















m4 m011 0000 m m

SUMMAR~~~N 3~123456RCIE a O
63--- IDPE6RAIV EIQ FER~RO


-%.o 000 "I'll

FI.1 Diyuu vraebd wihs o ere II o.1 o6N94umay No ~i 62lue ithsumrthog uthFoeprd)







776 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALT H.

During the fourth preservative subperiod No. 4 received 4 grams of sodium sulphite per day (equivalent to 1.020 grams SO2). On the first two days of the period he records that he felt normal in every way. His temperature was subnormal on the first day, 980 F., but normal, 98.60, on the second day, and the pulse was normal. On the third day he developed a slight headache and some fever; temperature 99.40, pulsations 78. The headache and fever continued, though slight, on the fourth day; temperature 99.50 F. and pulsations 78. On the fifth day the headache still continued, though the temperature had dropped back to normal, 98.60 F., pulsations 74. The average body weight was 62.40 kilograms for the last subperiod and for the entire preservative period it was 62.73 kilograms.
He reported himself as normal throughout the first after subperiod. His temperature, however, was quite below normal, averaging 97.90 F. for the period, pulse normal. The average weight was 61.91 kilograms.
The condition was normal throughout the second after subperiod, temperature and pulse normal, average weight 61:85 kilograms. The average for the entire after period was 61.89 kilograms.
No. 4 showed less effects from the preservative than any other members of the class, though starting under rather unfavorable conditions in the fore period. The symptoms developed in the fourth preservative subperiod differ from those of others in absence of pains in lower abdomen and intestines and sensations of dizziness; a headache developed accompanied with a slight and quickly rising fever, which disappeared as quickly as it appeared.
The urine was normal throughout the whole experiment as shown by the clinical examination.
No. 5.-C. C. P.
This subject entered at the beginning of the second fore subperiod, the original No. 5 having been excused. His medical history previous to entering this experiment was fairly good(. Hle had been No. 3 in Series VI on salicylic acid, and( while he was not an ideal subject for such experimental work as concerned(l his own observations, his analytical d(lata are correct. Hle was quite young and easily influenced by surroundings. Further, he was negligent in caring for his own bodily functions and in the previous experiment was very co()nstipate(d, which condition to some extent obtained during this series.
During the relaxation period the subject had had a slight cold the greater part of the time. An examination of his heart revealed a very quick action.
In the fore period his temperature and pulse were high throughout, averaging 99.10 F. and 93, respectively. HIe reported a headache







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 777

on one or two occasions, but, had no other symptoms to account for the continued high temperature except the effects of the cold from which he was just recovering. His average weight for this period was 52.72 kilograms.
The high temperature and pulse continued throughout the first preservative subperiod, the temperature ranging -from 98.90 to 99.20 F. and pulsations 91. On the third and fourth days of the period he complained of pains in region of shoulder and left side. Otherwise his condition was apparently the same as in the fore period. The average body weight for this subperiod was 5-2.81 kilograms.
The same condition was manifest in the second preservative subperiod, namely, high temperature and high pDulse. The subject complained of increasing pains in back and side till on the fourth day of the period, when he complained of headache, pains in left side, and felt- "all broken up." His temperature for this day was 99.80 F. and pulsations 100. He took 8 -grains of quinine in the evening. The average weight for the period was 52.91 kilograms.
In the third preservative subperiod these complaints gradually increased; high temperature and pulse also continued, till on the third and fourth day of the period his, temperature reached 100.2' F. and pulsations 106. He appeared to be contracting a severe cold and was quite ill; Complained of headache, pains -in stomach and chest, and loss of appetite. No preservative was given after February 24, the fourth day of this subperiod. The average weight was 52.57 kilograms.
There was not much change in the subject's condition during the fourth preservative subperiod, maximum temperature -and pulse being reached on the second day of period, 100.50 F. and 100, respectively, the minimum, on last day of period, being 99.20 F. and 90, respectively. His average body weight for the fourth subperiod was 51.69, and for the entire preservative period 52.49 kilograms.
In the after period the subject reported himself as feeling all right; temperature, however, was still high, 99.10 F. and pulsations 90; he did not regain his appetite and gradually lost weight throughout. The average weight for the after period was .51 kilograms. The urinary examination throughout the period of observation revealed nothing abnormal.
This subject was quite unsatisfactory throughout. lHe began the observation under adverse conditions, having hiad a coldI throughout the period of relaxation, but had improved consi(Ierably at the end. of the fore period. It is rathe-,r difficult to (liscriiniate in this case, between the symptoms induced by the preserv-ative andl the effects of the cold.







778 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
No. 6.-L. M. S.
No. 6 was confined to his room eleven days during the relaxation period with an attack of la grippe, his temperature at one time rising to 1030 F. Hle still felt weak at the beginning of the period of observation, but was regaining his strength and feeling normal with good appetite. Aside from the facts above noted the subject passed through the fore period in good condition. He gained weight slightly, as might be expected, the average for the first fore subperiod being 58.65, for the second fore subperiod 58.82, and for the entire fore period 58.74 kilograms. Temperature and pulse were somewhat irregular during the fore period, but not to such an extent as to be abnormal.
The subject passed through the first preservative subperiod in good condition; temperature and pulse were normal. The average body weight for this subperiod was 58.77 kilograms.
In the second preservative subperiod No. 6 had an average temperature of 98.50 F. and pulse constant at 78 beats per minute. IHe had a slight attack of indigestion but was normal in all other respects. The average body weight for this subperiod was 58.71 kilograms.
Temperature and pulse remained normal throughout the third preservative su)period. The subject complained of slight loss of appetite on the first day, which he regained, however, on the two succeeding( days. Hle also complained of indigestion and an uncomfortable feeling in the stomach and headache after meals. He was taken with nausea after lunch on February 24, but retained food, and the nauseated feeling finally passed away. The average body weight was 58.66 kilograms for this subperiod.
No preservative was given (luring the fourth preservative period. The first three days of this period No. 6 had a temperature of 98.20 F., pulsations 78. 11e had sensations of pain in the region of the stoma('1, felt faint at times and dizzy; reported headache on one or two occasio()ns. On the last two days of this period his temperature and pulse were normal, but he still had a touch of indigestion. His average )body weight for this period was 58.50; for the entire preservative peri)(l 58.66 kilograms.
This subject's general appearance (luring the preservative period was decidedly below normal, and he showed the effects of the preservative to (uite an extent.
In the first after subperiod there was shown a tendency to a subnormal te n perature, though on the first (lay the temperature and(l pulse were normal. 11e complained on this d(ay of a faint feeling in the stomach, which was relieved after eating; this same feeling manifested itself on the following (lay, though in other respects he was feeling well. ()n the last (lay of this subperiod his temperature was 98.20 F., pulMsations 78, average body weight 58.65 kilograms.







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES, 7'79

The second after subperiod opened with the subject's temperature at 98.0 F. and pulsations 79 per minute. He reported a headache dur the entire day and a "bad feeling in the stomach." The headache continued during the following two days, temperature for these days being somewhat below normal, 98.1' F. and pulse 78 beats per minute. The after period closed with the subject feeling well, temperature and pulse normal. His average body weight for this subperiod was 58.21, and for the entire after period 58.43 kilograms.
The examination of the urine showed a "small quantity" of albumin throughout the entire observation; this is evidently pathological in this case, as the same is reported in the previous series of which No. 6 was a member; thd microscopical examination is not so alarming, a large number of mucous cylindroids and a few casts being found. As a whole, the urinary examination would point to the existence of a slight nephritis which had been of long standing.
No. 7.-J. N. B.
This subject was in excellent physical condition and had had no illness of any nature during the period of relaxation. His heart action and kidneys were normal; temperature somewhat subnormal, but uniformly so. The normal condition continued throughout the fore period, his average body weight for that time being 70.46 kilograms.
On the last day of the first preservative subperiod the subject reported a slight headache during the afternoon; there was no change in temperature or pulse and the body weight was practically the same as in the last fore subperiod. The average weight for this preservative subperiod was 70.02 kilograms.
No. 7 complained of a headache at the beginning of the second preservative subperiod, but this symptom disappeared by the following day. On the third day of the period he felt tired, especially in the lumbar region, and on the following day had a recurrence of headache accompanied by dizziness and feeling of weakness. His temperature and pulse were somewhat higher on this day. Ilis body weight remained practically the same, averaging 70.06 kilograms for the subperiod.
In the third preservative subperiod this subject complained of feeling weak and tired, with a dull, depressed sensation; also of intense pain in the region of the kidneys. His average weight for this sbperiod was 69.95 kilograms, a slight loss as compared witlh previous records. The administration of the preservative was discontinued at the beginning of the fourth subperiod, as the subject still coinplained of pain in the region of the kidneys and some headache. In fact, by the middle of the fourth preservative subperiod these feelings of uneasiness, combined with a vivid imagination, resulted in







780 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

his believing that he was going to be very ill, and after February 27 of this period the observation of this subject ceases, and the data are therefore excluded from the general summaries. A careful examination of the urine during the time that this subject complained of suffering so intensely with his kidneys revealed nothing abnormal.
Notwithstanding the exaggeration of his symptoms by this subject it is safe to conclude that the preservative did, as in other cases, produce headache, a sensation of dizziness, some loss of appetite, and slight indigestion, though the body weight remained fairly constant.
No. 8.-W. C. L.
This subject presents a very interesting case. He was very conscientious, regular in his habits, and gave the strictest attention to every detail. His personal idiosyncrasies and their possible effect on the metabolic processes must, however, be considered. He regularly took a prescribed laxative throughout the observation and drank a large quantity of water (a quart at a time was no unusual amount) on rising and at other times during the day, and in addition drank a cup of hot water at meal times.
He had suffered somewhat from a cold before beginning the fore period. The heart action and other body functions were normal. During the fore period No. 8 felt that he was taking cold, and took 10 grains of quinine on three different days; otherwise he passed through the fore period in good condition and his temperature and pulse were normal. The average weight for the fore period was 61 .68 kilograms. He passed through the first preservative subperiod feeling "all right," and temperature and pulse remained normal, the average weight being 61.63 kilograms.
On February 16, the first day of the second preservative subperiod, No. 8 became dizzy and nauseated. This feeling came on while he was smoking his usual cigar, and may have been due to that, though he stated it was not a strong cigar. Hle felt all right, however, the next d(lay, and also on the 18th. On the 19th he had a slight headache and a feeling of depression; his temperature and pulse, however, were normal. IHe complained on the last day of this subperiod of headachlie and eyes aching and a "grippe-like" feeling, which largely disappeared after hlie had completed his wheel ride before dinner. The average weight for the period was 61.99 kilograms, a slight gain over the preceding period.
During the third preservative subperiod No. 8 had a great variety of symptoms, some of which seemed to be irrelevant. On the first day he complained of a d(lepressed and drowsy feeling, though he had plenty of exercise; at other times during the period he complained of headache, occasional loss of appetite, and drowsiness. On February 25, the last day of the period, hlie reported that he had a slight







S4UtPHUROIJS ACID ANDb SULPHJT-ES. 781

feeling of nausea the night before and a mild pain in the stomach during the night and day. The sensation of drowsiness continued. His temperature throughout this subperiod shows a tendency to bebelow normal; pulse normal. The average body weight for the subperiod was 61.55 kilograms, a loss of 0.44 kilogram.
In the fourth preservative subperiod No. 8's symptoms were about of the same nature as those of the previous period. He experienced occasional headache and nausea, and the feeling of drowsiness still continued, though he was getting his regular amount of sleep. His temperature was occasionally subnormal; pulse remained normal and very constant throughout. His average weight for the period was 61.74 kilograms, the average for the entire preservative period being 61.73 kilograms.
In the first after subperiod No. 8's symptoms were as varied as usual; he was still in a somewhat depressed condition, which gradually wore off. His appetite toward the end of -the period returned, but he still complained of being drowsy and seemingly not able to get a sufficient amount of sleep. The average weight for this subperiod was 61.78 kilograms.
No. 8 was practically normal in the second after subperiod; his temperature was subnormal on one or two days; pulsations normal throughout. His average weight for this subperiod was 61.88, and for the entire after period 61.83 kilograms., While this subject was the weakest man, physically, in the class, he seemed to stand the effects of the preservative better than any of the other members. The excessive quantity of water he drank allowed of a greater dilution of the preservative and a more rapid elimination, which undoubtedly is the explanation of his ability to withstand its action, though he developed symptoms of headache, nausea, dizziness, and loss of appetite during part or whole of the preservative period. He showed a slight gain in weight throughout the entire period of observation.

No. 9.--G. W7. L.
No. 9 was in excellent condition on entering the fore period. His heart action and other conditions were normal. Ile passed through the fore period very well, having no trouble of any description. his temperature was normal, registering 98.5' F. most of the time; pulsations averaged 80 beats per minute for the period. The average body weight for the entire fore period was 62.23 kilograms.
No difficulty whatever was experienced in the first preservative subperiod; temperature and pulse were normal. The average weight for the period was 62.32 kilograms.
On the first day of the second preservative subperiod a slight rise in temperature is8 noted, 990 F. being registered, and pulsations 81.







782 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

He had a burning sensation in the esophagus and stomach and some headache. This passed off, and he felt all right the next day and for the remainder of the subperiod. Temperature and pulse were normal
after the first day. The body weight was 62.29 kilograms,
He was feeling well and temperature and pulse were normal on the
first day of the third preservative subperiod. The following day he complained of a pain in the chest, and noted that he had passed a much larger quantity of urine for the day, i. e.-1,730 ce. He felt all right on the third day, but on the following day co laied of
being hungry and the ration not being large enough.
February 25, the last day of this subperiod, No. 9 still h a feeling
of hunger, and also complained of a slight urethral irritation, which, however, was not of any ifnportance, as it was not noticed afterwards. The average body weight for this subperiod was 62.70 kilograms.
In the fourth preservative subperiod he complained on one occasion
of a severe headache, but aside from that was feeling well. Temperature and pulse were normal; average weight for the subperiod, 62.71 kilograms. The average weight for the entire preservative
period was 62.50 kilograms.
During the after period the subject reported that he felt well at all
times. His temperature and pulse showed a little more variation than usual, but aside from this he was apparently in good condition.
The average weight for the entire after period was 62.37 kilograms.
This subject experienced very little effect, as far as could be noted,
from the preservative. His general appearance declined somewhat, but judging from the symptoms recorded in the medical history, there
was very little change in the subject's condition.
No6. 10.- R. D. D.
There was nothing abnormal in the case of No. 10 during the relaxation period. The heart action was all right, but with a very strong first beat. He indulged in only normal exercise (during the period of relaxation and was in good physical condition at the beginning of the
o)bservation.
Ills teImp)erature and pulse averaged 98.2' F. and 70 beats per
minute, respectively, for the fore period, being normal throughout this period in all respects. The average body weight was 57.09
kilograms.
No. 0 ( developed a slight cold in the head (during the first part of
thle secon(l preservative subil)eriod and coimplalined of cramps in the stonuchl on the night of February 19, also of a slight headache on Fe)ruatiry 26. IThe temperature and pulse remained( normal throughS out the preservative period, except for a slight rise at the time the
cold was noted. HIis general appearance was normal, and he had







8UL jUHROUS ACID AND SULPHITES 783

the least difficulty of any member of the class in passing through the ob~etvatiohi
The average weight for the entire preservative period was 57.17 kilogfts, practically the same as in the fore period.
This subject complained once or twice of a sensation of hunger during the first part of the after period, but had no other symptoms. iis temperature throughout the after period is somewhat subnormal, pulsations normal. The average weight for the entire after period was 57.42 kilograms, a slight gain over the preservative period.
No. 11.-A. M.
This subject was in good condition during the relaxation period. Heart action was normal, and the urinary examination revealed nothing wrong with the kidneys or other organs. He entered the fore periods in excellent condition, temperature on the first day registering 98.40, pulsations 75 beats per minute, and weight 66.6 kilograms. These figures remained remarkably constant throughout the entire fore period. His average weight for the fore period was 66.46 kilograms.
The same conditions prevailed during the first preservative subperiod, though a slight headache developed on the last day of the period, which passed away, however, before the following day. No rise in temperature or increase of pulse was noted during this subperiod, for which the weight was 66.52 kilograms.
The second preservative Subperiod passed with no incidents worthy of mention. Temperature and pulse for the period were 98.3' F. and 66, respectively. The body weight was 66.55 kilograms, practically the same as in previous period.
On the first day of the third preservative subperiod No. 11 had a slight headache. It disappeared by the following (lay, but returned on the next day, on which there is recorded a slight increase of temperature and pulse, but not sufficient to be called abnormal. The body weight for this subperiod was 66.52 kilograms, being very con$ stant so far.
No. 11 was apparently normal at the beginning of the fourth preservative subperiod, temperature 98.5' F. and pulse 72 beats per minute. He had a headache accompanied with sensation of dizziness on- the following (lay, and temperature registered 990 F., pulse normal. He had no further trouble until the last dlay of the subperiod, when he complained of having pains in the region of the kidneys and symptoms of taking a slight cold. Temperature and pulse on this day were 98.7' F. and 75, respectively. His average weight for this subperiod was 66.75 kilograms, a slight gain. The average weight for the entire preservative )eriod was 66.59 kilograms. A slight trace of albumin in the urine developed (luring the latter







784 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH,

part of the preservative period, which continued during the after period.
In the first after subperiod No. 11 reported normal condition with the exception of one day when a slight cold was noted. Temperature and pulse were normal; the body weight 66.70 kilograms.
On the second (lay of the second after subperiod he complained of of pains in the region of the kidneys all the afternoon. The ternperature registered 990 F., pulse normal. He reported himself as normal on the third day, March 9, but on the fourth day of the period, March 10, he became nauseated during the evening and night and after breakfast of the last day vomited most of the meal. He felt some better at dinner, but could not eat his allowance. His temperature and pulse, however, for these days were normal. This condition lasted one or two days after the observation closed, when the subject returned to normal. The slight trace of albumin continued during the after period.
The average weight for the entire after period was 66.66 kilograms, showing a slight gain in body weight throughout the whole period of observation.
No. 12.-F. B. R.
No. 12 had a slight cold during the relaxation period. There were no noticeable bad effects from it, however, and his appetite continued good. All observed functions were normal during the fore period, the general physical condition of the subject being excellent. His temperature, though slightly subnormal, was constant throughout, and pulse was normal. The average weight for the fore period was 69.54 kilograms.
No. 12 to all appearances continued normal during the first preservative subperiod. His average weight for this time was 69.77 kilograms. On the first day of the second preservative subperiod he reported a "cold in the head" and a bad headache. On the following day he still suffered with dull constant headache and cold; he also reported that at 9.30 p. m. of this day, February 17, his pulse rose to 104, but subsided later in the day. At 5.30 his temperature and pulse were normal, 98.6' F. and 74, respectively. He also mentioned on this day that for the past two or three days his kidneys seemed irritated, and noted that he had passed a larger amount of urine than usual. A heavy, oppressed feeling in the stomach was experienced. This feeling had evidently disappeared some, 1.,hat by the following day, as he reported that his appetite was good. February 19 he had a recurrence of stomach trouble, accompanied by headache, and was much fatigued, this lasting all day. He felt very badly d-ring the night, with pains in stomach and head; also experienced some discomfort in the intestines during the night and the following day. He had very little appetite at breakfast, but felt better toward







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 785

noon. The feeling of weariness and fatigue continued to such an extent that the subject had some difficulty in performing his work, and headache continued during the day. Temperature and pulse were normal throughout this subperiod. The body weight averaged 69.57 kilograms.
No. 12 had a headache throughout the third preservative subperiod. He also complained and had noted on several occasions that immediately after taking the preservative sharp pains would appear in his head, which would last from one to four hours. The taking of the preservative gradually became more and more irritating to the throat, an observation made by several of the subjects. On the second day of the subperiod he had a headache and felt tired, though he had not exercised as much as usual. The tired and weak feeling continued on the next day, February 23, with pain in stomach and head; complained on next day of pains in region of kidneys, heavy sensation in stomach, and the usual headache. On February 25, the last day of the period, he recorded that he had passed a very uncomfortable night; had pains in stomach and intestines; felt very weak and exhausted and had a. severe headache during the day. His average weight for this period was 69.70 kilograms.
No preservative was given No. 12 during the fourth preservative subperiod. The headache, pains in region of kidneys, and general
feeingofweanes cntiued Hs gnerl Ppernewa.osd
erably below normal; his temperature appeared to be slightly lower during this period; pulse normal. A slight trace of albumin was detected in the urine in the fourth preservative subperiod, which continued during the after period. The average weight for this subperiod was 69.63 and 69.67 kilograms for the entire preservative period.
In the first after subperiod No. 12 on the first day felt weak, especially in the back in the region of the kidneys. He felt very well the following two days, with appetite gradually improving; on the last day, however, his appetite was not so keen. The body weight for this subperiod was 69.70 kilograms.
During the second after subperiod his appetite gradually returned, andshe reported himself as feeling very well, but occasionally weak and tired at night. On the first day of this subperiod it is noted that for the week preceding he had suffered considerably with irritable kidneys and bladder. At times hie had np control over the bladder and passed urine almost involuntarily. His general appearance was considerably improved at the end of the after period, though hie was quite slow in getting back to a normal condition again. The average body weight for this period was 69.62 kilograms, the same as in the preservative period, and a slight gain over the fore period, the weight being very constant throughout the observation.







786 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
CONCLUSIONS.
It may be argued that in a class of this size, composed of young men who knew that they might have symptoms during the administration of the preservative, the reports would represent the effect of the subject's imagination rather than the action of the preservative. As in previous experiments, this point was kept in mind, and a careful record was made daily of the mental condition of the men, a personal acquaintance with them helping to a great extent to eliminate any effects from imagination or mental attitude. Where such existed, due credit is given in the medical history; this, as well as any other idiosyncrasy of the subject, being considered in connection with the daily observations.
From a general review of Nos. I to 6, who received sodium sulphite, it may be safe to conclude that the preservative in the majority of cases caused headache and sensations of dizziness. In some cases decided symptoms of indigestion and pains in the stomach and intestines accompanied one or both of these symptoms. Nausea is reported in one case.
With Nos. 7 to 12, who received sulphurous acid, headache was quite common, dizziness not so pronounced; nausea and feeling of exhaustion and weakness noted.
There is some tendency on the part of the preservative to produce albumin in the urine and a marked tendency to increase the amount of urilne.
Taken as a whole, the most general symptom was that of headache, which developed about the middle of the second preservative subp)eriod. There were also some complaints of dizziness,pain in stomach and intestines, and a weak and depressed condition generally.

BODY WEIGHTS.
VARIATIONS IN BODY WEIGHTS.
In order that a comiparisoni of the variations in weight of the several members of the table and the summaries may be more readily made, the data have been reduced to graphic form, as shown in figs. 1 and 2. 'Th'ese graphic charts show the daily determinations of weight forathe several mllelmlbers anil the averages by periods redu(lced to a straight line for pllurposes of compIlarisonl. All of the weight figures are inClulde( in these expressions, irrespective of variations in other data, and therefore they vary slightly from some of the averages as given in Table IlI.
In t he case of No. 1 the chart shows a slight increase of weight (luring l l( preservat ie l)eriod and a very small additional increase inll weight durn111g th le after )period. In th e case of No. 2 there is a marked loss of weight during the )rese-rvative period, and this is continued,






SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 787

though in a less degree, during the after period. In the case of No. 3 there is a marked increase in weight, both in the preservative period and in the after period. In the case of No. 4 there is a decrease in weight in the preservative period, and this decrease is still more marked in the after period. In the case of No. 5 there is a very slight
FEBRUARY MARCH
71 0


.70 7714mm. {
-~ 7T

62 L L


63 N9 9


N9 I0


\57
0.

C- 07
66
70

so NY 12
64 SUMMARY N.s 8-9-10-11-12 REGEIVED H SO, !1
i I L I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ,

64-
64 SUMMARY ENTIRE SERIES-N97 OMITTED

63 i -,-----1
FORE PERIOD PRESERVA-rTIVE PERIOD AFTER PERIOD

FIG. 2. Daily and average body weights for Series VII, Nos. 7 to 12 and summary, together with the general summary for the entire series.
loss of weight during the preservative period and a marked loss during the after period. The average weights, as charted for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, who received sulphurous acid in the form of sodium sulphite, show a slight loss of weight during the preservative period, and this continues in a more marked degree during the after period.
11240-Bull. 84, pt 3-07-3






78S INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

The charts for Nos. 7 to 12, who received sulphurous acid in an uncombined form, show in the case of No. 7 a marked increase during the preservative period. No data are given for the final period for reasons already stated. In the case of No. 8 there is a very slight increase in weight during the preservative period and a continued increase during the after period. No. 9 shows a marked increase in weight during the preservative period and a slight decrease therefrom during the after period. In the case of No. 10 there is a very slight increase in weight during the preservative period, and this is increased to a perceptible amount during the after period. No. 11 made a slight increase in weight during the preservative period and a slight increase over this during the after period. In the case of No. 12 there is a slight increase in weight during the preservative period, but the weight remains the same in the after period as in the preceding period.
There is next brought together in one graphic expression the weights for Nos. 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, who received uncombined sulphurous acid. No. 7 is omitted from the average because the weights were not ascertained d(luring the fourth preservative subperiod nor the after period. These data show a very slight increase in weight during the preservative period and a similar slight increase during the after period. Combining all the data for weight and expressing the same in graphic form, omitting the weights of No. 7, the general average shows that there is no change in weight in the preservative period over the fore period and a slight loss in weight during the after period.
These data indicate that the administration of sulphurous acid co(mnl)ined as sulphites, in the quantity administered, tends to produce a slight decrease in the weight of the body, a continued decrease taking place inii the after period, but its administration in the form of uncomIlbined sulphurous acid, in a smaller quantity, is accompanied by a very slight increase in the weight of the body. The final average effect ulpon weight for thile 11 men shows no change in the preservative period( and a slight decrease in the after period.
RATIO OF FOOD WEIGHT TO BODY WEIGHT.
Tie ratio iof food consumed to the body weight for each member of the tal)le is given in rTable III. In the case of No. I the average body weight during the fore period is 68.34 kilograms, duringg the preservative period 6(S.58, and (luring the after period 68.62 kilograms. These data show a very slight change in the weight of the body (luring the pl)erio(d o()f observation, a slight increase, amounting to 0.24 kilogramI, occurring (lutring the preservative period.
TIle average weight of (Iry food consumed( is slightly less in the preservative period than in the fore and after periods. The weight of







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 789

the dry food consumed is almost 1 per cent of the weight of the body, being 0.98 per cent in the fore period, 0.99 in the after period, and
0.95 in the preservative period.
The average weight of No. 2 in the fore period is 70.18 kilograms, in the preservative period 69.61, and in the after period 69.27. The average weight of dry food consumed daily by No. 29 is 664 grams in the fore period, during the preservative period 658 grams, and in the after period 66.3 grams. The ratio of dry food consumed to the weight of the body is practically constant for No. 2 during the entire period of observation, being 0.95 per cent for the fore period, 0.95 for the preservative period, and 0. 96, for the af ter period.
The average weight of No. 3 for the fore period is 63.81 kilograms, for the preservative period 64.07, and for the after period 64.50. There is thus seen to be a slight gradual increase in weight during the entire observation. The average, weight of Iry food consumedl daily by N.3is very .constant, amounting to 660 grams during the fore period, 662 grams during the preservative period, and 683 grams .during the after period, representing 1.03, 1.03, and 1.06 per cent, respectively, of the body weight.
The average weight of iNo. 4 during the fore period is 62.97 kilograms, during the preservative period 62.73, and during the afterperiod 61.88. In this case there is an opposite tendency shown to that of No. 3, namely, a progressive decrease in weight during the period of observation, and this has taken place in connection with a small increase in the weight of dry food consumed daily, which, in the fore period, is 608 grams, in the preservative period 621 grams, and in the after period 631 grams, equivalent to 0.97, 0.99, and 1.02 per cent, respectively, of the weight of the body.
The observations for No. 5 in the fore period are confined to the second subperiod. The data, although they are given in full in so far as obtained, are not of much value, because of the febrile disturbance in the case of No. 5, described in the medical history.
The data show the average weight for the fore period to be 52.72 kilograms, for the preservative period 52.49 kilograms, and for the after period 51 kilograms., The average daily quantity of dry foodconsumed in the fore period is 626 grams, in the preservative period 536 g-rams, and in the after period 502- grains, equivalent in the fore period to 1. 19 per cent of the body weight, in the preservative pe riod to 1.02 per cent, and in the after period to 0.98 per cent.
The average(, weight of No. G during the fore period is 15S.74 kilograms, during the preservNatix'e period 58.66, aind duringr the lifter period 58.4:3, showing at slight tendency to a decrease in the we(,~iht of the body. The average quantity of dry food consumed (laily lby No. 6 is 598 grams during thie fo(re, period, 614 grains (lur11ing the preservative priod, and 642 grams during the after period. Thus, the







790 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

decrease in weight is associated with a very slight increase in the quantity of food consumed, amounting to 16 grams a day in the preservative period and 44 grams per day in the after period, as compared with the fore period. The weight of the dry food consumed in the fore period is 1.02 per cent of the weight of the body, in the preservative period 1.05 per cent, and in the after period 1.10 per cent.
The average weight of No. 7 during the fore period is 70.46 kilograms, and the average weight of dry food consumed is 560 grams, amounting to 0.79 per cent of the weight of the body. The data for the remainder of the observation in the case of No. 7 are incomplete for the reasons given in the medical history. In this case we undoubtedly find an illustration of the results of a vivid imagination in connection with the symptoms produced by the preservative period, which finally led the subject into a state of susceptibility which rendered it inadvisable to continue the experimental work with him.
The average weight of No. 8 during the fore period is 61.68 kilograms, during the preservative period 61.73, and during the after period 61.83. The average quantity of dry food consumed by No. 8 during the fore period is 647 grams, during the preservative period 641 grams, and during the after period 661 grams. The percentage of dry food consumed compared with body weight is 1.05 in the fore period, 1.04 in the preservative period, and 1.07 in the after period.
These data show a very slight increase of weight during the preservative period, although the quantity of food consumed is 6 grams less per day. During the after period, when the quantity of food consumed was 14 grams per day larger than in the fore period, the average increase in weight amounted to 100 grams over the preservative period.
The average weight of No. 9 (luring the fore period is 62.23 kilograms, (luring the preservative period 62.50, and during the after period 62.37. The average quantity of dry food consumed daily is 550 grams in the fore period, 548 grams in the preservative period, anId 549 grams in the after period. These data show a very slight increase in tihe weight of the body (luring the preservative period and an almost constant q(uantity of dry food( consumed. The percentage of dry food consumed, based on the weight of the body, is 0.88 for each of the three periods.
Thle average weight of No. 10 (during the fore period is 57.09 kilograms, (luring the preservative period 57.17, and during the after period 57.42. The average (quantity of (d ry food consumed daily by No. 10 is 593 grams in t he fore period, 600 grams in the preservative period, andl 589 grants in the after period. The percentage of body weight ('onsumdI as (dry food is 1.04 in the fore period, 1.05 in the preservative period, and 1.03 in the after period. These data show a







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 791

slight increase in weight during the preservative period and a slight increase in the quantity of food consumed. They also show a marked increase in weight during the after period, though the quantity of food consumed is 4 grams less daily than in the fore period and 11 grams less daily than in the preservative period.
The average weight of No. 11 (luring the fore period is 66.46 kilograms, during the preservative period 66.59, and (luring the after period 66.66 kilograms. The average daily quantity of food consumed is 742 grams in the fore period, 754 grams in the preservative period, and 739 grams in the after period. These (lata show a very slight increase in weight during thepreservative period, accompanied by an increase of 12 grams daily in the quantity of food consumed. There is also another very slight increase in weight in the after period, though the quantity of food consumed is 3 grams less (daily than in the fore period. The dry food consumed constitutes 1. 12 per cent of the weight of the body in the fore period, 1. 13 per cent in the preservative peri od, and 1. 11 per cent in the after period'.
The average weight of No. 12 in the fore period is 69.54 kilograms, in the preservative period 69.67, and in the-after period 69.66. The average quantity of dry food consumed (luring the fore period is 659 grams,, during the preservative period 685 grams, and (luring the after period 644 grams. These (lata show a slight increase in weigh-t during the preservative period, accompanied by an increase in the quantity of food eaten. The increase in weight is almost maintained in the after period, while the quantity of food consumedl is 1.5 grams per day less than in the fore period. The amount of dIrv food consumed is 0.95 per cent of the weight of the body ini the fore period, 0.98 per cent in the preservative period, andl 0.92 per cent in the after period.
Several summaries are submitted, (drawn up according to common variations in the data, but only those for Nos. 1 to 6 andl 8 to 11 will be discussed as representing most completely the two groups taking sodium sulphite andl sulphurous acidI, respectively.
The average weight of Nos. 1 to 6 for the fore period is 63.71 kilograms, for the three subperiods, of the preservative period 62.78, and for the after period 62.28 kilograms. The average quantity of dry food consumed for the fore period is 639 grams, for the preservative period 629 grams, and for the after period 634 gramn.,. The dry food consumieol is practically 1 per cent of the body weight for' all three periods.
The summary for Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11 shows ain average, weight in the fore period of 61.87 kilograms, in the, preservative periodl 62 kilograms, andl in the after period 62.07 kilogrrams. The averagedal quantity of food consumed in the fore p)erioml is 633 grams, in the preservative period 636 grams, and in the after period 635 granis. A









792 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


slight tendency is shown here to an increase in weight, while the quantity of food consumed remains practically constant. The dry food
consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, is 1.02 during the
fore period, during the preservative period 1.03, and during the after
period 1.02, showing a remarkable constancy in this particular. As
is seen under variations in body weight, no marked influence is shown
in the case of sulphurous acid, while for those receiving sodium sul)hite there is a decrease in weight both in the preservative and after
periods.

TABLE III.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body wright, Series V .

[Averages are per day.]

No. 1. No. 2.

Average Average
daily ratio daily ratio
Weight of of food of food
Period Bodyfood.oofWefoodo
Body weight to Body food. weight to
weight. body weight. weight. body weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist.1 Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Kilos. 1Grams. Grams. Per d Per ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per (i Per ct.
Total .............. 142.20 14, 168 3,484 4.14 1.02 351.53 13,343 3.87 0.95
Average .......... .68.44 2,834 07 ...............70.31 2,720 669............
Second subpriod:
Total ............. 341.24 12,239 3,229 3.59 .95 350.22 16, 628 3,292 4.75 .94
Average .......... 68. 25 2,448 646 ..............70.04 3,326 658 ...........
Entire fore period:
Total ............ 683. 44 26,407 6,713 3.86 .98 701.75 30,229 6,635 4.31 .95
Average .......... 68.34 2,641 671 ..............70.18 3,023 664............

Preserative period.
First suhperiod:
Total............. 341.55 12,315 3, 133 3. 61 .92 349. 70 16,322 3,243 4.67 .93
Average.......... 68.31 2, 463 627 .............. 69. 94 3, 24 649 ............
Second su1period:
Total ............ 342.20 12,152 3,256 3.55 .95 348.28 15, 816 3,309 4. 54 95Average .......... 68. 44 2, 430 651 -------.....69. 66 3, 163 62 ......
Third suhp'-riod:
Total ............ 343.20 11, 925 3 3.47 .95 347.19 1 1,63 3,317 4.70
Average .......... .I64 2,385 (54 ......... ......69.44 3,328 603
Fourth suhperiod:
Total ............ 344.70 12,170 3, 400) 3.53 .9 347.07 16, 133 3, 21 4.05 .fr
Avrage ........ 6.94 2, 434 6 ...............69. 41 3, 227 65 .
Eiod preservative
periodl:
Total ............ 1,371.05 48,-562 13,059 3.54 .95 1,392.24 64, 90 13,160 4.66 .95
Average .......... f. 5 2,428 65 .............. (1. 61 3,245 (68

After period.
First subperlod:
Total ............342. 40 12, 64 3, 403 3.76 .99 347.07 16,232 3,331 4.68 .96
Average ....... 68. 4Q 2, 573 (I .............. 69. 41 3,246 6CA .........
S(o nd stihlperiod :I
Total ........... 343. 8 12, 036 3,411 3.50 .99 345. 64 16,365 3,302 4.73 .
Ave,(rag .......... ('8. 7G 2, 407 68S2 ....... ....... 69M. 13 3, 273 660....
Entir aftr 1w~riod :
Total ........... 6X 022) 24, 9x) 6, 814 3. W.3 99 692.71 32, 597 G, 63 4.71 .
Anir aerg .......... IN. 62 2, 41 K) 681l ........ 419. 27 31,214) 663....










SUJLPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 793


TABLE III.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 3. No. 4.

Average Average
Wihof daily ratio Weight of daily ratio
Period. Body food. wegh o Body food.ofod
weight.body weight. Wegh. ody weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subperlod: Kilos. Grams.I Grams. Per ct. Per ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per (t. Per ct.
Total............--317.68 14,045 3,231 4. 42 1.02 31-5.53 12,469 3,076 3.95 0.97
Average ...........63.54 2,809 646 ....... ........63.11 2,494 615-------Second subperiod:
Total,.............320.40 16,101 3,372 5.03 1.05 314.19 12,472 3,002 3.97 .96
Average ...........64.08 3,220 674...............-62.84 2,494 600......--.......

Entire fore period:
Total ............. 638.08 30,146 6,603 4.72 1.03 629.72 24,941 6,078 3.96 .97
Average ...........63.81 3,015 660...............-62.97 2,494 60....... .....

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total............. 320. 92 14,350 3,271 4.47 1.02_ 315.01 12,2451 3,025 3.89 .96
Average ...........64.18 280 64....... 30 ,4 0 --- --Second 8ubperiod: 1 ,7 5........30 ,4 0......
Total............--320.95 14,642 3,403 4.56 1.06 314.11 12,448 3,140 3.96 1. 00
Average ...........64.19' 2,928 681................ 62.82 2,490 628. .....
Third subperiod:I
Total............. 321.94 14,658 3,373 455 1.05 313.43 12,525 3,116 4.00 .99
Average.......... 64.39 2,932 675........ ....... 62.69 2,505 623 ..............
Fourth subperiod:
Total............. 317.57 13,497 3,195 4.25 1.01 312.00 12,2291 3,132 3.92 1.00
Average ...........63.51 2,699 639...............-62.40 2,446 1 626......--.......

Entire preservative
period:
Total ............ 1,281.38 57,147 13,242 4.46 1.03 1,254.55 49,447 12,413 3.94 .99
Average........... 64.07 2,857 662........ ....... 62.73 2,472 621............-After period.

First subperiod:
Total............. 321.69 14,209 3,390 4.42 1.05 309.54 12,5241 3,165 4.05 1.02
Averge...........64. 34 I2,8142 678............61.91 2,505 3............-Second subperiod:
Total............. 323.32 14,448 3,435 4.47 1.06 309.25 12,418 3,142 4. 02 1.0i2
Avrae.......64.66 2,890 687....... ........61.85 2,484 62. .....

Entire after period:
Total.........645.01 28,657 6,82.5 4.44 1.06 618. 79 24,942 6,307 4.03 1.02
Average.......... 64.50 2,866 683........ 61. 88 2,494 G31.............










794 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE III.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series VII-Continued.

[ Averages are per day.]

No. 5. No. 6.

Average Average
W h f daily ratio Weight of daily ratio
Period. eight of food of food
Body food. weight to Body food. weight to
weight. toody eight to
weight. body weight. weight. body weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per et. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per ct.
Total ...................... ...... ............. 293.26 14,179 3,015 4.83 1.03
Average................... ............................. 58. 65 2,8 6 (03 ..............
Second subperiod:
Total ............ 263.59 13,745 3,129 5.21 1.19 294.10 13,625 2,963 4.63 1.01
Average.......... 52.72 2,749 626 ....... ...... 58.82 2,725 593 .............

Entire fore period:
Total............. .............. -57.36 27,804 5,978 4.73 1.02
Average......................... ....... 5....... 8.74 2,780 5098 ..............
Preservrative peAod.
First subperiod:
Total ............ 264.07 13,094 3,021 4.96 1.14 293.83 13,100 3,121 4.46 1.06
Average.......... 52. 81 2, 619 o604 ...... ....... 58. 77 2,620 624 .............
Second subiperiod:
Total............ 264.54 12,659 3,072 4 79 1.16 293.54 13,635 3,031 4. (5 1.03
Average.......... 52.91 2,532 614 ....... ....... 58.71 2,727 60 ....... .......
Third stubperiod:
Total............. 262.84 12,235 2,516 4,65 .96 293.32 13,135 3,015 4 48 1.03
Average.......... 52. 57 2,447 503 ....... ....... 58. 66 2,627 03 .......
Fourth subperiod:
Total............ 258. 44 10,525 2,120 4.07 .82 292 50 12,878 3,116 4. 40 1.07
Average.......... 51. 69 2 105 424.......... 58 50 2,576 623..............
Entire. preservative
period:
Total............. 1,049.89 48,513 10,729 4.62 1.02 1,173.19 52,748 12,283 450 1.05
Average.......... 52. 49 2,426 536 ...... ....... 58.66 2,637 614 ..............
After period.

First subperiod:
Total ............. 255.87 11,870 2,434 4.64 .95 293. 2G 12,943 3,313 4.41 1.13
Averge........... 51.17 2,374 487 ....... ...... 58. 65 2,589 (.3 ....... .......
Second subpe)riod:
Total........... 254 14 11,836 2,587 4 (16 1.02 291.03 12,553 3,104 4.31 1.07
Average...........50 83 2,367 517 ..... .... 58.21 2,511 621 ............

Entire after period:
Total ............. 510 1 23,706 5,021 4 65 .98 584.29 25,496 6,417 4.36 1.10
Average .......... 51 00 2,371 5'02 ....... ....... 58.43 2,550 642 .. .......










SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 795

TABLE III.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body

wight, Series VI--Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 7. No. 8.

Averac e Average
Weight of daily ratio Weight of daily ratio
Period o of food of food
dBody food. weight to Body food. weight to
weight. body weight. weight. )ody weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Gram s Per ct. Per t. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per cL Per ct.
Total.... ... 354.19 12,067 2,979 3.41 0.84 308.01 15, 684 3,277 5.09 1.06
Average........... 70.84 2,413 596.......1..61.60 3,137 655 ....... .......
Second subperiod: 7
Total ............350.39 11,021 2,621 3.15 .75 3.80 15810 3,192 5.12 1.03
Average .......... 70 08 2,204 524 ..............61.76 3,162 638............

Entire fore period:
Total ............ 704.58 23, 088 5, 600 3.28 .79 616.81 31,494 6,4t9 5.11 1.05
Average .......... 0.46 2,309 560.------ 61.68 3,149 647 ........

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ............ 350.10 10,993 2,727 3.14 .78 308. 17 16,151 3,169 5.24 1.03
Average......... 70. Q2 2,199 545 ............. 61. 63 3,230 634 .............
Second subperiod:
Total ............ 350.32 10,995 2, 674 3.14 .76 1 309.93 16,178 3, 174 5. 229 1.02
Average ...........706 2,199 56 ............. 61.99 3,236 635 ............
Third subperiod: ... ..... ..
Total ............349.73 10,801 2,580 3.09 .74 307. 73 17,608 3, 262 5. 72 1.
Average ... 69.95 2,10 516 ............. 61.55 3,522 652 ...... ......

Fourth subperiod:
Total ..........------------- ------308.70 15, 496 3,215 5. (2 1.04
Average .......---------- ------------ ........ ...... 61.74 3,0-9 643 ....... .......
First, second, and
third subperiods:
Total ............. 1,050. 15 32,789 7,981 3.12 .76 ........ ......
Average .......... 70.01 2,1S6 532 ............ ....................... .............

Entire preservative
period:
Total............................. .. ............. 1,234.53 65,433 12,8-20 5.30 1.04
Average .......................................... 61.73 3,272 641 ............

After period.

First subp(riod:
Total.... ................. ..................... '. 0 19,705 3,333 6. 38 1.
Average........... .......
Second subperiod: -. --- 23
Total ........ ................. ..................... .41 19,272 3,278 6.23 1. 06
Average ............. ................. .............. 1. 3, 54 .... .......

Entire after period:
Total ........... ..................................... 61.: 1 3 ,977 6, I 1 6 :1 0 1.07
Averag........ .. ........ ...................... ...... 61.63 . .........










796 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE III.-Amouldnt of moist and dryfood consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No 9. No. 10.

Average Average
Weight of daily ratio Weight of daily ratio
Period. Wegh o of food Weight of food
Body food. weight to Body food. weight to
weight, body weight. weight. body weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per et. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per t. Per ct.
Total ............ 310.77 11,856 2,765 3.82 0.89 285.45 11,913 3,038 4.17 1.06
Average.......... 62.15 2,371 553 ....... ....... 57.09 2,383 608 ........
Second subperiod:1
Total............. 311.55 10,898 2,731 3.50 .88 285.45 12,022 2,892 4.21 1.01
Average.......... 62.31 2, 180 546 ....... ....... 57.09 2,404 578............

Entire fore period:
Total ............ 622.32 22,754 5,496 3.66 .88 570.90 23,935 5.930 4.19 1.04
Average.......... 62.23 2,275 550 ....... ....... 57.09 2,394 593............

Preser atir e period.

First subperiod: 2
Total ............. 311.58 11,181 2,709 3.59 .87 285.05 12,040 2,922 4.22 1.03
Average........... 62.32 2,236 542 .......... 57.01 2.408 584 ..............
Second subperiod:
Total ............. 311.45 11,401 2,760 3.6i .89 285.70 12,081 3.104 4.23 1.09
Average.......... (12.29 2,280 562 ...... ....... 57.14 2,416 621 ..............
Third( subperiod:
Total ............ 313.50 11,050 2,757 3.52 .88 286.23 12,004 2,989 4.19 1.04
Average .......... 62.70 2,210 551 ....... ....... 57.25 2,401 598 ..............
Fourth suhpe riod:
Total............. 313.54 11,905 2,731 3.80 .87 286.42 11.778 2,979 4.11 1.04
Average .......... 62.71 2,381 546 ....... ...... 57.28 2,3516 596 ..... .......

Entire preservative
period:
Total........... 1,250.07 45,537 10,957 3.64 .88 1,143.40 47,90 3 11,994 4.19 1.05
Average.......... 62.50 2,277 548 .............. 57.17 2.395 00............

After period.

First snbperiod:
Total ............ 312.50) 12,557 2,774 4.02 .89 286.75 12,287 2,902 4.28 1.03
Averag ........... 62.50 2,511 555............. 57.35 2,457 592 .............
S cond sulh period:
Total ............ 311.15 12,477 2,716 4.01 .87 287.40 11,700 2,924 4.07 1.02
Averag ........... 62.23 2,495 543 ....... ....... 57.48 2,340 585 ..............

Entire after period:
Total............. 6i23.5 25,034 5,490 4.01 .88 574.15 23.987 5,886 4.18 1.03
Average........... 2.37 2, T3 549 .............. 57.42 2, 3 5 ..........









SULPHUR OUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 797


TABLE III.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 11. No. 12.

Average Average
Weight of daily ratio Weight of daily ratio
Period. of food of food
oBody food. weight to Body food. weight to
weight. body weight. weight. body weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist.1 Dry.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per ct.
Total ............ 332.77 17,336 3,715 5.21 1.12 347.20 12,853 3,289 3.70 0.95
Average .......... 66.55 3,467 743 .............. 69.44 2,571 --8.........
Total ............ 331.85 17,674 3,702 5.33 1.12 348.20 13,251 3.302 3.81 .95
Average ......... 66.37 3,535 740 .............. 64 2, 650 660 ............
Entire fore period:
Total ............ 664.62 35,010 7,417 5.27 1.12 695.40 26,104 6,591 3.75 .95
Average .......... 66.46 3,501 742 ....... ....... 69.54 2,610 659 ....... ......

Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total ............ 332.61 16,625 3,727 5.00 1.12 348.83 12,945 3,381 3.71 .97
Average ...........66.52 3,325 745 ..............69.77 2,589 676 ..............
Second subperiod:
Total ............. 332.77 18,053 3,817 5.43 1.15 347.85 13,350 3,479 3.84 1.00
Average .......... 66.55 3,611 763 ............... 69.57 2,670 696 ..............
Third subperiod:
Total ........... 332.76 18,371 3,778 5.52 1.14 348.50 13,148 3,411 3.77 .98
Average .......... 66.55 3,674 756 ....... ....... 69.70 2,630 682 ....... ......
Fourth subperiod:
Total ............3 33.73 17,739 3,762 5.32 1.13 348.15 13,378 3,431 3.84 .99
Average .......... 66.75 3,548 752 ....... ....... W. (6.3 2,676 686 ............

Entire preservative
period:
Total ............. 1,331.87 70,788 15,084 5.31 1.13 1,393.33 52,821 13,702 3.79 .98
Average .......... 6. 59 3.539 754 ...... ........ 67 2,641 685 ..............

After period.
First subperiod:
Total. ...........333.52 17,581 3,717 .5.27 1.11 348.50 12,60 3,27,0 3.,2 .94
Average ............66.70 3,516 743 -.. - ....... 69.70 2,521 654 ............
Second subperiod:
Total............ 33.05 17,767 3,677 5.33 1.10 348.10 11.720 3,171 3.37 .91
Average .......... (.(61 3,553 735 .............. 69. 62 2,344 (34 ..............

Entire after period:
Total........... .6.57 35,348 7,394 5.30 1.11 696.60 24,326 6,441 3.49 .92
Average ........... 66.6 3, 5 739 ..............69.66 2,43 644.
--- ---- ...










798 IN FLIJENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE III.-Amount of moist awl dryfood consumed, pressed s percentage of body
weight, S eres V II- Continued .....

o SUMMARIES.

[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 1 to 6. Nos. l and 4.

Average Average
i daily ratio Period. Weight ofWeight ofof fo
Bedydfood. oof foodo
Body food. weight to Body b weight to
weight M body weight eight body w eight.

Moist. Dry. Moist.' Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Perct. Per ct.
Total ............ i1,620.20 68,462 16,149 4.23 1 00 657.73 26,637 6,560 4.05 1.00
Average .......... 60. 81 2.73 646 ....... ....... 65.77 2,664 656 .............
Second subperiod:
Total ............. 1,883.74 84,810 18,987 4.50 1.01 655.43 24,711 6,231 3.77 .95
Average .......... 62.79 2,827 633 ....... ....... 65. 54 2,471 623 ....... ...

Entire fore period:
Total ............. 3,503.94 153,272 35,136 4.37 1.00 1,313.16 51,348 12,791 3.91 .97
Averae ........... 63.71 2,787 (639 ....... ......I65.6 2,57 64............

Preserrative period.
First subperiod:
Total ............ 1, 8. 08 81,426 18,814 4.32 1.00 656. 5 24,560 6,158 3.74 .93
Average ---------- 62.84 2,714 627 ........ -65.66 2,456 616 ............
Second subperiod:
Total...........1,883.62 81,352 19,211 4.32 1.02 16..31 24,600 6,396 3.75 .97
Avera e .......... 62........ .......
Avrage......62. 79 2,712 640 6.63 2,460 60..
Third subi period:
Total ............. 1,881.92 81,116 18,607 4.31 w 65 63 24,450 6,38 3.72 .97
Averae..... 62. 73 2,704 620 ............... 65. 66 2,445 639 ....... .......
Fut period:
Total ..... .................. ...................... 65. 70 24, 3 6,532 3.72 .99
Tvera ....... 6.......... 7 2,440 653 ....... ......

First, second, aind
third subperiods:
Total ............ 5, (.62 243, 894 56, 632 4.32 1.00 .................
Average .......... 62. 78 2.74-0 629 ........ ........ ........ ........ ..............

Entire preservatives
lwriodTotal............. .................... 2. 626.20 98,009 25,472 3.:3 .97
Average ............................ .... 65. C; 2,450 637

After period.
First subperiod:
Total ............1,869-S3 80,6142 191,031 4.31 1.01 65 1.94 2 5,38 6i ,68s 31. 89 1.0(1
eo vrage ..........62.33 2,6(0 634 ....... ..... 65.19 2,539 67 .
Second suiipwriod:
Total ............. 1, 67. 18 79, 18,981 4.26 1.01 63.05 2 6,553 3.74 1.0)
Average ......... 62.24 2,655 631 ..... ...... 6.5. 31 2,445 655 ..............
Entire after leriod1:
Total ............. 3,737.01 1 ,29 38,017 4.28 1.01 1,304. 9 49,842 13,121 3.82 1.01
A verage......... 62. 28 2,672 634 ....... 65. 25 2, 492 6 .

a No. 5 absent.









SUJLPHUJROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 799


TABLE 11.-Amount of moist and dry-food consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per man per day.]


Nos. 5and 6. Nos.7 to 12.

A ve rage Average
daily ratio Wihof daily ratio
Period. Weight. of food fo.of food
Bod fod.weight to BdIod weight to
weight. body weight. weight. body weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. !Moist. Dry.

Faire period.

First siibperiod: Kilos. Grams. Gramn Per ct. Per ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per et.
Total.-.----------------.-.-------..------.---.---------.1,938.39 81,709 19,063 4.22 0. 98
Avrg ----------.--------.-------.---.-----.!...... .....-- 64.61 2,724 635............-Second subperiod:
Total............--557.691 27,370 6,092 4.91 1.09 1,936.24 80.676 18,440 4.17 .95
A verage......55.77 1 2,737 609.......--.........64.54 2,689 615 ....... .....

Entire fore period:

Total.......................----- ------ 3,874.63 162 ,385 37,503 4.19 .97

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total............--557.90 26,1941 6,142 4.70 1.10 1,936.34 79,935 18,635 4.13 .96
Average ...........55.79 2,619 614 ....... .........64.54 2, 665 2. .....
Second subperiod:
Total.......558.08 26,294 6, 103 4.71 1.09. 1,938.02 82,058 19,008 4.23 .98
Average ...........55.81 2,62 610 ------- ------- 64.60 2,7351 634............
Third suhperiod:
Total............--556.16 25,370 5,531 4.56 1.99 1,938.45 82,982 18,777 4.28 .9"
Average........... 55.62 2,537 55W ............64.62 2,766 626............-Fourth subperiod:
Total............550.94 23,4031 5,236 4.25 .95....---........ ........ ....... .......
Average ...........55.09 2,340 524..... .. ..............--.........................---First, second, and
third subperiods:
Total ............. ....................5,812.81 244,975 56,420 4.21 .
A verage...........---.---------- ..-------..-----.......-64.59 2,722 627............-Entire preservative
period:
Total...........--2,223.08 101,261 23,012 4.55 1.04................ ....... .....
Average ...........55.58 2, 532 575 ........----.--................................--After period.

First subperiod:
Total............--549.13 24,813 15,747 4.52 1.05...............--........ ....... .....
Average.......... 54.91 2,481 575 ....... ............ ........ ........ ....... .......
Second subperiod:
Total............. 545.17j 24,389 5, 69 1 4.47 1.04 ......... .........................---Average.......... 54.52 2,439 569 -----------------........ ....... ...................

Entire after period:
Total .......1, 094.30 49,2021 11,438 4. 50 1.05 .............................. .......
%vr~..... 54.72 2,460 572.......j. .










800 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE II.-Amount of moist and dry jood consumed, expressed as percentage of body wreight, Series ITll-Continued.

[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11. Nos. 7 and 12.

I Average Average

Periol. 11Weight of daily ratio Weight o daily ratiolody food, weight to 1ody food. weight to
weight. body weight. weight. hody weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist.f Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subporiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per Total........... 1,237.00 56,7%9 12,795 4.59 1.03 701.39 24,920 6,268 3.55 0.89
Average.---- ...-- GIl.S5 2,,S 9 6140 -.....-. .-..... 70 14 2,492 627 . .. ..
Second snhporiod:
Total........... 1,237.65 56,404 12,517 4.5tW 1.01 198.59 24,272 5,923 3.47 .85
Average...........61.88 2,820 626 ....... ..... i9.8t 2,427 592 ............

Entire fore period:
Total........... 2,474. 65 113,193 25,312 4.57 1.02 1,399.98 49,192 12,191 3.51 .87
Average.......... 1 -.87 2,8:0 (633 ....... 70.00 2,460 610 ....... .......

Prescreathir period.

First subperiod:
Total............. 1,237. 41 55,997 12,527 4.53 1.01 (98.93 23,938 ,108 3. 42 .87
Average.......... til.87 2,800 G26....... ...... 19.89 2,394 611 ............
Second suhperiod:
Total............. 1,229.85 57,713 12,855 4. 63 1.04 698.17 24,345 6,153 3.49 .88
Average...........1.99 2,88th (643... ....... ... '9.82 2,435 615 ..............
Third subperiod:
Total............. 1,240.22 39,033 12,78T6 4.76 1.03 698.23 23,949 5,991 3.43 .86
Average...........*2.01 2,952 (139. 9.82 2,395 599 ....... .......
Fourth suhperiod:
Total............. 1,242,39 54,918 12, 687 4.58 1.02 ......... ........ ........ ....... .......
Average........... 62. 12 2,846 1134 .... ....... .... .... ........ ....... ..............
Second and third suibperiods:
Total............. .......................... ......2,095.33 72,232 18,252 3.45 .87
Average.......... ........ ......... ...... . 69.84 2,408 608 ......... ...

Entire preservative
pe'riod.:
Total....... 4.39. 87 229,tCA1 50,855 4t 63 1.03 ................. ....... .............
Average.... ..'... 2.00 2,871 113............... .. .. .... ...... ...... .......

After period.

First subperiod:
Total............ 1,241. 67 62, 130 12,786 5 00 1. 0"... ........ ...................
Average..... 62.0 3,0S 107 .. ....
Second subiiriod:
Total.. ...... 1,241.01 61,21t 12,5915 4 93 1.01.
Avernge......... 6i2.05 3,l 630 .... ....

Entire after p4rIiod:
Total, 2, 482 N 12 ,46i 25,381 4.117 1.02 ......... .
Average 0 .4 1 .


WEIGHT AND WATER CONTENT OF THE FECES.

In Table IX are iven thie
21l1d waifer cold ill of the feces0. I1I this 8 o11ect1io attention should

be called to t Ie fcrt tha t Ie feces were collect ed by periods anld not

Stl byI(1 1 st1)arnting the iIIgestl( materials of the various periods by

m11ean2is of charcoal or ot her distinct ive coloring atter. For this reaSall 501110 sIl (l( I P21lacy fl1 1 v iter Into the comllputations 'y reason

of the 1irregular ailiontl oXcrte froll (Illy to (lay. In the large num)vI (d l)OU" ll d 111(er O l)svrVatt in, howeVr, t here WOUld be a marked

en1(enY 10O cOrrect ally ar eciale e or and to secure in the general

expression a fairly acclriate average value for the fecal excretions.







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 801
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
The average weight of the moist feces for No. 1 for the fore period is 66 grams, containing 69.68 per cent of water and 20 grams of dry matter. For the preservative period the average weight of the feces is 89 grams, containing 79.95 per cent of moisture and 18 grams of dry substance. For the after period the average weight of the moist feces is 37 grams, containing 65.14 per cent of water and 13 grams of dry
substance. These data show a very complete absorption of the ingested material throughout and consequently a small excretion of feces. There is a marked increase in the water content of the feces in the preservative period and a slight decrease in the quantity of dry matter excreted. In the after period there is a decrease in the quantity of water in the feces, as compared with the fore period, and a marked decrease in the quantity of (Irv matter excreted.
The data for No. 2 show in the fore period that the average weight of the feces is 87 grams, containing 68.74 per cent of water and 27 grams of dry matter. For the preservative period the mean quantity of moist feces is 99 grams, containing 69.72 per cent of water and 30 .grams of dry matter. For the after period the average quantity of feces excreted is 100 grams, containing 73.03 per cent of water and 27 grams of dry matter. These data show little change in the fecal excretion during the three periods of observation. There is a slight increase in the percentage of water in the preservative period and a still greater increase in the after period. The quantity of dlrv matter in the feces during the preservative period is increased by 3 grains per day, while the quantity of (try matter in the fore period and after period is the same.
In the case of No. 3 there is found in the feces (luring the fore period 55 grams of moist feces daily, containing 64.62 per cent of water and 20 grams of dry matter. During the preservative period the average daily excretion of moist feces is 78 grams, containing 65.49 per cent of water and 27 grams of dry matter. In the after period the average daily quantity of feces is 60 grams, containing 68.38 per cent of water and 19 grams of dry matter. In this case the percentage of water in the feces does not vary much (luring the period of observation, though it is slightly increased in the preservative period and again increased in the after period. The quantity of dry matter in the feces is very markedly lrger in the preservative period, the increase amounting to 35 per cent, while the quantity of dry matter excIreted( during the after period is almost exactly the same as in the fore period.
In the case of No. 4 the average quantityy of loist feces excreted daily is 96 grams in the fore period, 121 grams in the preservative period, and 110 grams in the after period. The quantitiess )f water in the feces for the three periods, respectively, are 73.54 per cent, 79.02 per cent,







802 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

and 77.48 per cent. The quantity of dry matter in the feces remains the same for the three periods. The variations in weight, therefore, of the feces are due solely to the differences in the percentages of water, the amount of water being smallest in the fore period and largest in the preservative period.
The data for No. 5 are, as has before been explained, incomplete. In so far as obtained they show an average daily excretion of 66 grams of moist feces in the fore period, 87 grams in the preservative period, and 74 grams in the after period. The content of water in the feces is 76.53 per cent, 77.88 per cent, and 77.43 per cent, respectively, for the three periods. The quantity of dry matter excreted is 16 grams, 19 grams, and 17 grams, respectively, for the three periods. These data show a slight increase in the percentage of water in the preservative period and a slight increase in the quantity of dry matter excreted in the feces.
The observations made on No. 6 show an average daily excretion of 113 grams of moist feces in the fore period, 128 grams in the preservative period, and 131 grainms in the after period. The quantities of water contained therein are 78.85 per cent, 79.23 per cent, and 80.47 per cent, respectively, for the three periods. The weights of dry matter excreted in the feces are 24 grams, 26 grams, and 26 grams, respectively, for the three periods. These data show a slight
increase in the percentage of water in the feces in the preservative period and another slight increase in the after period. The quantity of dry matter excreted is slightly increased in the preservative and after periods over the fore period.
For No. 7 the average amount of moist feces excreted in the fore period is 94 grams, and for the first, second, and third subperiods of the preservative period 77 grams; the percentage of water and amount of d(ry matter are slightly decreased in the preservative period. By reason of the incompleteness of these data a comparison of those secured is not of much value.
No. 8 has an average daily excretion of moist feces in the fore period of 107 grains, in the preservative period of 113 grams, and in the after period of 144 grams. Thie j)ercentages of water contained in the feces are for the fore period 77.43, for the preservative period 78.08, and for the after period 83.37. The average daily quanttities of dry matter excreted are for the fore period 24 grams, for the preservative period 25 grams, and ,or the after period 24 grams. The percentage of water in the feces is slightly increased in the preservative period and largely increased in the after period. The quantity of dry matter excreted in the feces is slightly increased in the preservative period and is the same in the fore and after periods.
No. 9 shows an average daily excretion of moist feces in the fore period of 57 grams, in the preservative period of 59 rrams, and in the






SULPHUROUS ACID A ND SULPHITES. 803

after period of 109 grams. The percentages of water contained in the feces are 68.73 for the fore period, 67.51 for the preservative period, and 73.87 for the after period. The quantities of dry matter excreted in the feces are 18 grams for the fore period, 19 grams for the preseratveperiod, and 28 grams for the after period. These data are apparently abnormal, as indicated by the large increase in the feces excreted during the after period.
The average daily quantities of moist feces excreted by No. 10 are 71 grams for the fore period, 108 grams for the preservative period, and 104 grams for the af ter period. The percentages of moisture contained therein are 75.35 for the fore period, 79.38 for the preservative period, and 74.86 for the after period. The quantities of dry matter in the feces are 17 grams for the fore period, 22 grams for the preservative period, and 26 grams for the after period. In this case there is a marked increase in water content in the preservative period, accompanied by a considerable increase in dry matter, which continues in the after period, through the water content markedly decreases.
The data for No. 11 show an average daily quantity of moist feces in the fore period of 112 grams, in the preservative period of 126 grams, and in the after period of 105 grams. The percentages of water contained therein are 75.53 for the fore period, 77.19'for the preservative period, and 76.36 for the after period. The average quantity of dry matter excreted in the feces during the fore period is 28 grams, during the preservative period 29 grams, and during the after period 25 grams. In this instance both the quantity- of water in the feces and the amount of dry matter excreted are largest in the preservative period.
The data for No. 12 show a daily excretion of 84 grams of moist feces for the fore period, 97 grams for the preservative period, and 75 grams for the after period. The percentages of moisture contained therein are 71.62 in the fore period, 74.34 in the preservative period, and 73.36 in the after period. The, average daily quantities of dIry matter excreted are for the fore period 24 grams, for the preservative period 25 grams, and for the after period 20 grams. In this case also the percentage of water in the feces and the amount of dry matter excreted are greatest in the preservative period.
SU"ARIE S.
In the summary for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, who received sodium sulphite, the following results are obtained: The av-erage( d]aily qu1antity of moist feces excretedl in the fore period is S2 grams, during the first, second, and third suhperiodIs of the preservative period 1013 grams, and du111 rin the a fter period 85 grams. The average percentage
11240-Bull. 84, pt 3-07---




7



S-04 T-NFLt'E-No 'E M.' 1.'()()D PRESERVATfVY]s ON HEALTH.

of mt)istitre in t1u, feces ill till, f(we perlmi. i 72.50, (hiringr the preservative period 7G-1.5). and tiring the after period 75-40. The average
daily (Imintity 4 dry inatter excited ill the fore -period is 23 grains, irn
till, plvservative period 95 pums, wild 141 file after period 21 grains.
This stlinliml. v thtt dwre is ,, decided tendmicy on t1w part of
till' slllpllit(- tidmilli.-,tered to catise an increase ill the percentage of ]IMisti,111A in till, fcccs, Ow it"ficnting a slight tenWicy toward catharIt is ;Ik() ll()t(,(l tlivit thew is a distinct twidel y to I c increase the
(11, v mAter (Inwined ill ille fece> this ilicl"IzIse anioul-liting to Q grains in &I j)(Iri0d, ()r Kil per c(q1t. On the withdrawal of the
PD, -01'N"Itive I here is a marked decrease in Me (Imintily of dry matter cowivIted. w I llm lilt in( r 0) S-7 per (-(,lit in this caw also, as compared with
tlI(I Period.
It wIll 1w rec,111cd that flu' averap, daily quantity of dry food C W I > H I I I (' d 1,( ) 1, 111 (' 1'() 1v I w ri ()d hy t I I (Ise I I I c I I I s W), 9 gyra I I Is a I I d fo r t 110 prc ,ervttivc perk)(1 629 grmis. Thiis, while the (Itiantity of food
C()IP-Hl1lCd has heell slightly diminished, thp (Itialitity of' drv matter exclAoId in th, Won's has 1)(111 ilialtedly ill(TC(IS(Id. It would appear,
thell-fol"', ill IN 1i (lilt 4 these datn' that the preservative administered 11;1 11,1d Ill ildlihitinz-Y effect upwi Ow tottil yumot y ()f material digre.,-oed ill(] nh ,()rhcd. This plicilmn(III(Ol IMAN, also) have beeii
(W(IM"TaIlled 1) v ',]I inclensed
Next !() he cotisideved tmv the slinmi'll-ic", ()f the Iliell who received 'wid ill all tillcmilbilled statc. Only the lll()St complete simmiziric4 all, discussed, ;Iltll()Ilvvlt whens are ,-;tibniitted for comThe v ()f N(wsk S to 11, inclusive, shows an average daily
excrellw', (d, ill thepreservative pork)(1 ()f 1 )2 (_vi-mn.- md it) the (ifter period ()f 115 grams. T] i e.
wzll(Ir CWlt'lined ill ill(, Ccces mv I'm. till, fmv period 71. 17, I'41i'llic piv ,crv(ilke pci-I(A 76-60, n lid I'm- t he ,I fter perimi 77.63, 1'(' ,Jwcl i v(d N. The (Ilil v excretion ()f (11-Y in-Itter ill the feces
i> 22 1 1., ill I I", W in I weriod, 2 1 41111 ills ill I Ill' pilIservative period, and
06 ;111111,; ill I he At cl. 1wrild.
Thc ,( (I'll I >11(m Ill ilicl.c.1se 1)()t 11 ill Ille \\ "Iter cmitelit ()f the feces Itild in till, 1111m llo (4 (11-v nittiter (I-\(.1-cled till' preservativo
pci-11 d I ld I I w i I Ic lVil 1(1> 11 IV CW O ill I Wd II I I Ill, n ft (I[. perk)(1.
I I I w (1.11 1 11 m v I "i \\ 11(de It is CV idell t t 11"i t I he adillillis1 1,411 IM I ()f 11 I I p] I I I I-w 1, 1 cid, Imt I I ,I., 'l I I ph It (.- I lid i 11 1 Ill' f'()T-lll of tillcmllhilled 'wid, I lilt[ 1-ked I ('11dellc V 14) mclvn ,(, the percentage cmitelit
Id lll()i,;11jjc in ilw "Illd the tot'll (111,11111ty ()fdry 111:11terexcreted, \:Iti\l. 1w l-iod. Ill till. c.1se ()I* Ow se 1'ecciVillgrsoditlill
-Illphil(. Ille 11.11(hIlIC is Iltm ll ill ille -Ifter 1)(Irim ], w illic in
rill. Nil. stllpllllrm v- 11cid, there is it
o")II111111"d Ill (11-Y 111,111cl. excl-cled nlid ill perceilifit,.re ()f water.









SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 805

TABLE IV.- Weight and water content offeces by periods, Series VIL

[Averages are per day.]

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3.
Period. Dry Dry Dry
Feces. Water. D Feces. Water. fDr Feces. Water.
feces. feces. ~ ~ e.feces.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per (t. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams.
Total ................... 451 70.07 135 356 69.66 108 223 66.401 75
Average ................ 90 ........ 27 71 ....... 22 45 -------- 15
Second subperiod:
Total .................. 212 68.92 66 511 68.12 163 331 63.44 121
Average ................ 42 ........ 13 102 -------- 33 66 ......... 24

Entire fore period:
Total ................... 663 69.68 201 867 68.74 271 554 64.62 196
Average ................ 66 ....... 20 87 ........ 27 55 ....... 20
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total ................... 475 77.48 107 424 69. 07 131 421 66. 02 143
Average...95 21 85 26 84 9
Second subperiod: .
Total ................... 764 84.94 115 572 70.11 171 ,56 67.72 115
Average ................ 153 ........ 23 114 ........ 34 71 ........ 23
Third subperiod8
Total ................... 298 80.21 59 464 70.25 138 449 64.40 160
Average ................ 60 ........ 12 93 ........ 28 90........ 32
Fourth subperiod:
Total ................... 234 68.37 74 525 69 34 161 327 63.93 118
Average ................ 47 ........ 15 105 ........ 32 66 ........ 24
Entire preservative period:
Total .................. 1.771 79.95 355 1, 95 69 72 601 1,553 65. 49 536
Average ................ .89 ; 18 99 30 78 27
After period.
First subperiod:
Total ................... 181 64 09 65 533 73.34 142 263 G540 91
Average............... 36 ........ 13 107 28 53 18
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 189 66 05 64 468 72 63 128 341 70 69 100
Average ............... 38 ....... 1.3 94 ...... 26 68 ......... 20

Entire after period:
Total .................. 370 65. 14 129 1,001 7303 270 604 68 38 191
Average............ 37 ........ 13 lM ....... 27 .. 19









806 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE IV.-11-eight and water content of faces by periods, Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.
P e rio dl. fc esryW t r D yD y
erio. KFeces. Water. ry Feces. Water. 1)ry Feces. Water. Dry

feces. feces. feces.
F'ore period.
First subpriod: Grams. Per t. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per Total................... 382 73.30 102 ........................ 540 79.43 111
Average................ 76 ........ 20 ................ ........ 108 ........ 22
Sec1nd sul wriod:
Total .................. 573 73.65 151 332 76.53 78 590 78.29 128
Average ................ 115 ........ 30 66 ......... 16 118 ........ -26

Entire fore 1eriod:
Total................... 955 73.54 253 ........ ....... ........ 1,130 78.5 239
Average( ................. 96 25 ........ ....... 113 ........ 24

Preserratul e period.

First subperiod:
Total................... 525 78.87 11l 405 76.77 94 559 79.08 117
Average................ 105 ........ 22 81 ........ 19 112 .......23
Second suhblperiod:
Total................... 801 80 53 156 442 75.54 108 828 78.98 174
Average................ 160 ........ 31 88 ........ 22 166 ........ 35
Third subperiod.
Total.................. 500 78.60 107 413 79.40 85 551 79.30 114
Average................ 100 ........ 21 83 ....... 17 110 ........ 23
Fourth sulbperiod:
Total................... 594 77.46 134 485 79.58 99 614 79.64 125
Average................ 119 ........ 27 97 ........ 20 123 ....... 25
Entire preservative period:
Total.................. 2,420 79.02 508 1,745 77.88 386 2,552 79.23 530
Average............... 121 ........ 25 87 ........ 19 128 ........ 26

After period.

First subperiod"
Total................... 540 79 44 111 457 80 95 87 671 80 17 133
Average............... 108 ........ 22 91 ....... 17 134 ........ 27
Second sulhpmriod.
Total.. .... ......... 561 75 56 137 283 71 75 80 640 80.77 123
Average................ 112 ........ 27 57 ........ 16 128 .... 25

Entire after period
Total ........ ........ 1 101 77 48 248 740 77.43 167 1,311 80.47 256
Average ....... .. ..... 110 ....... 25 74 ........ 17 131 ....... 26










SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 807

TABLE IV.-Weight and water content of feces by periods, Series VII-Cniud

[Averages are per day.]J

No. 7. No. 8. No. 9.
Period. FcsWae.Dry Fee.---ae.Dry Fcs ae r
Fees Wte.feces. Fes War.feces. Ffe a er. eDr

Fore period.

First subperiod: Grams. Per et. -Grams. Grams. Per dt. Grams.! Grams. Per a.: Grams.
Total..................-- 393 80.13 78 .525 78.85 111 298 70.14 89
Average................-79...........16 105 ----------22 W U------- 1
Second subperiod:
Total................... 547 82.62 95 5431 76.08 130 268 6i7. 16 88
Average................-109 ----------19 109 ----------26 54------------s

Entire fore period:
Total ------------------- 940 81.60 173 1,068 77.43 241 566i 68.73 177
Average------------------94 ----- 17 107 ..... 24 57 ----- 18
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total................... 4981 76.92 115 3221 74.22 83 343 617.94 110
A verage---------------- 100 23 64 ---- 17 39 ..... 22
Second subperiod:
Total..................-- 373 80. 71 72 4,52 79. 42 93 3.59 70. 47 l{06
Average ................ 75 1 9019 7 21
Third subperiod:
Total------------------.. 277 82.68 48 780 80.14 155 288 64.88 101
Average ---------------- 55 .... 10 156 ---- 31 58 .... 20
Fourth subperiod:
Total---------------- ------- -------- -------- 713 76. 72 166 198 65. 20 69
Average----------------------- --------14 33 401
First, second, and third subperiods:
Total.............-- 1,1481 79.53 235.......................
Average ................ 77.......... 16.---- --t................................

Entire preservative period:
Total...................................------2,267 78-08 497 11,188 67. 51 386
Average . . . -- - -- - -- -- 113 .. . 25 59 -- - -19
After period.
First subperiod:
Total--------------------------------597 81.40 111 632 74.52 161
Average---------------- ------- --------.... 10-------- 22 126 ---- 32
Second subperiod:
Total................... ---........ ........ 846 84.76 129 4,55 72.98 123
Average .........................19-----26 9------2

Entire after period:
Total--------------------------------------....1, 443 83.37 240 1,087 73. 87 284
Average.................44........24 19........14 24 1------28






---- --- ---- -- ---- ----- ---------.. ... ...










808 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABF: IV.- fright and Pwater content of fees by periods, Series VII-Continul.

(Averages are pwr day.]

No. 10. No. 11. No. 12.
Veic.Dry Water
Feces. Water. Feces. Water. Dry Feces. Water. Dry
feces. feces. feces.

Fort pe riod.

First subperiod: Grams. Per d. Grams. Grams. Per Total................... 441 7ti.17 105 596 76.01 143 471 70.68 138
Average................ 88 ........ 21 119 ........ 29 94 ........ 28
Second subperiod:
Total................... 215 74.00 69 528 74.98 132 371 72.80 101
Average................ 53 ......... 14 106 ........ 26 74 ......... 20

Entire fore period:
Total................... 706 75.35 174 1,124 73.53 275 842 71.62 239
Average................ 71 ........ 17 112 28 84 24

Preservatire period.

First suhperiod:
Total................... 739 82.14 132 77.5 79.74 157 540 73.69 142
Average................ 14$ ....-... 26 115 ...... 31 108 28
Second subperiod:
Total................... 540 79.26 112 55$ 76.90 129 466 77.70 104
Average................ 1(N ........ 22 112 -------- .. 2t 93 ........ 21
Third subperiod:
Total................... 255 76.04 61 607 75.44 149 562 74.20 145
Average ................. ......... 12 121 ........ 30 112 ......... .29
Fourth subperiod:
Total................... 629 77.57 141 576 75.88 139 369 71.2S 106
Average................ 12) ... .... 28 115 ......... 28 74 ........ 21

Entire p)reservat ive period:
Total................... 2,16C3 79.38 441i 2, 51i 77.19 574 1,937 74.34 497
Averag....................10S 22 126 ........ 29 97 .. ..... 25

After period.

First subperiod:
Total..................57 77.19 127 532 74.82 134 280 72.49 77
Average..................1 25 106 ....... 27 5 ........ 15
Second suhperiod:
Total ................... 481 72.12 134 517 77.96 114 41$7 73.88 122
Akverag0................ 9t ........ 27 103 ........ 23 93 ......... 24

intire aft er period:
Total................... 1, 038 74. 86 261 1,049 76.36 248 747 73.36 199
............. 104 ........ 26 10 25 75 ........ 20










SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHTTES. 809


TABLE IV.-Weight and water content of feces by periwo, i Sries VIJ continled.

SI-MMA 1I ES.

[ Averages are 1)er nia ier day}.

Nos. 1,2.3,4.,5,and 1. No- 1 and 4. Nos. 5,11d 6.
Period. I
Feces. Watr. ry Fice. Water. Ir Feces. Water. I
fees, fees.ces.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per et. Grams. Grams. Per Total.................. a1,952 a72.80 a1531 -33 71.55 237 .
Average---------------- -----------1. ----------4..................
Second subperiod:
Total------------------ 2,549 72. 27 707 785 72.36 217 922 77. 6 20i
Average------------------85......... 24 79. ........ 22 2.----- 21

Entire fore period:
Total------------------ 4,501 72.50 1,238 1.618 71.94 454.........
Average---------------- -82 -------- 23 81 ------- 23.................

Preservatire period.

First subperiod:
Total....................280 74.97 703 1,000 78.20 218 0G4 78.11 211
Average................. 94 -.-.-.- 23 100 .... ... 21
Second subperiod:
Total.................. 3,763 77.70 839 1,55 ,2. t 271 1,270 77.SO 22
Average................. 123 ........ 2 157- ........ 27 127-........- 28
Third subperiod:
Total................2, 675 7 22 663 798 79. 20 166 '64 79. 36 199
Average................. 89 ........ 22 80-........ 17 So-..-..--. -20
Fourth subperiod:
Total.................. .................. 828 74. 8 20 1.93 79. 62 224
Average.-............. ........ ............ .3 ........ 21 110 --- 22
First,second,and third subperiods:
Total.................. 9,247 76.15 2,205 .------Average................. 103 ........ 25. ...................................

Entire preservative period.
Total...................... ........ ........ 4.191 79. 41 8e .1 4,27 7 69 916
Average................. ....................22 107 23

After period.

First subperiod:
Total.-................ 2,645 76.22 629 721 75. 59 176 1. 1- I. ;A 220
Averag-.................--..---.... -21 72 ------ -1' 113--.----Second subperiod:
Total................ 2.4-2 74.54 632 70 7:1.20 201 923 S. 01 203
Average8................. 83 ..- .... 21 75- -...... 20 92 .. 20

Entire after period.
Total..................5,127 75.40 1.261 1.471 74..7 377 2051 79 31 42:;
Average.............. .. 21 74 1 103 21










810 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE IV.-Weight and water content of feces by periods, Seriers VII-Continued.

[ Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 7. 8, 9. 10, 11,1
Nos. nd 1. Nos. 8, 9,10, and 11. Nos. 7 and 12.
and 12.
Period. -.
DvDry N-Wae. DryFeces. Water. Dry Feces. Water. DryFeces. Water. Dry esfces. feces.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams.
Total................... 2,724 75.62 664 1,80 75.91 448 864 75. I 216
Average................. 91 ...... 22 3 ........ 22 86 ........ 22
Second subperiod:
Total------------------............... 2,522 7& 5.61 615 1,604 73.88 419 918 78.65 196
Average................. 8------------------4 ........ 21 80 21 92 ........--------20

Entire fore period:
Total ................... 5,246 7t.62 1,279 3, 464 74.97 867 1,782 76.88 S 412
Average................. ------------------ 87 ........ 21 87 ........ 22 89 ........ 21
Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ................... 3,217 77.03 739 2,179 77. 88 482 1,038 75.24 257
Average ................. 107 ........ 25 109 ....... 24 104 ....... 26
Second subperiod:
Total------------------................... 2,748 77. 58 616 1,909 76.95 440 839 79.02 176
Average---------------................. 92 ........ 20 95 ....... 22 84 ........ 18
Third subperiod:
Total ................... 2,769 76. 20 659 1,930 75. 85 466 839 77.00 193
Average ................. 92 ........ 22 97 ....... 23 84 ........ 19
Fourth subperiod:
Total..........................---------------------- ----------........------....... 2,116 75.66 515 2,716 76.95 626
Average ................. ........ ........ ........ 106 ........-- 26 91 ........ 21
First, second, and third
subperiods:
Total ................... 8,734 7t6. 94 2,014 ........Average ................. 97 ........ 22 ..... . . ..
Entire preservative period: ::-:
Total-------..........-- .... 7.9134 7--- ,- .....................
Average--------------- ------ ------------122
A average ................ ........ 102 ....- 24 ........ ....... ........

After period.

First subperiod:
Total-------................---- ................ ........ 2 318 77.0 3 .
Average ......------- ---- ...... -------2....... .... 11 ........ ...
Second subperiod:
Total 5 ........ ........
A average ................. ...... ........ ........ 115 ...... 25 ........ ........ ........
Entire after period:
Total ................... 4,617 77. 63 1,033 ........ .......
A verage............. .. ..... ... ........ 115 ........2 ........ ........ .....



THE URINE.a

VOLUME, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, AND TOTAL SOLIDS.

SERIES VII.

IN 1)1 VII) I Al, DATA.

In Table V is found a detailed and suniunarized statement of the
data for the volume, specific gravity, and total solids of the urine of

the twelve IllO during the period of o)serVtion.
The volume of the urine excreted daily by No. 1 during the fore

period is 922 cc, for the preservative period 961 ce, and for the after
period 944 cc. Thie average specific gravities of the urine for the

a These studies, in the previous experiments, Awere conducted by F. C. Weber.







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 811

periods named are 1.0300 for the fore period, 1.0293 for the preservative period, and 1.0297 for the after period. The average total quantity of dry solids excreted during the fore period is 67.7 grams, for the preservative period 68.6 grams, and for the after period 68.7 grams. In this case the volume of urine is considerably increased during the preservative period and diminished somewhat during the after period, but does not fall to the amount of the fore period. The specific gravity is slightly diminished during the preservative period, and in the after period is increased to almost the same figure as in the fore period. The quantity of total solids excreted is increased by nine-tenths of a gram daily in the preservative period and by 1 gram daily in the after period, as compared with the fore period.
The volume of urine excreted by No. 2 in the fore period is 1,577 cc, I Y565 cc during the preservative period ', and 1,470 cc during the after period. The specific gravity of the urine during the fore period is 1.01911during the preservative period 1.0187, and in the after period 1.0195. The total weight of dry solids excreted daily during the fore period is 73.7 grams, during the preservative period 71.7 grams, and during the after period 70 grams. These data show a slight decrease in the volume of liquid and also in the specific gravity in the preservative period, an additional decrease of almost 100 cc per day in the after period, attended, however, by an increase of specific gravity. The total quantity of solids eliminated is diminished by 2 grams daily in the preservative period and by an additional 1.7 grams during the after period.
In the case of No. 3.the average daily volume of urine during the fore period is 1,231 cc, during the preservative period 1,290 cc, and during the after period 1,251 cc. The specific gravities of the urine for the three periods are 1.0212, 1.0221, and 1.0214, respectively. The total weights of dry solids excreted daily during the three periods are 63.5 grams, 69.3 grams, and 65.5 grams, respectively. In this case there is a slight increase in the volume of -the urine and also in the specific gravity during the preservative period. The volume excreted during the after period is less than during the preservative period, but not so small as in the fore period. The specific gravity also falls in the after period, but is slightly higher than in the, fore period. The Wei(rht of total solids excreted is gretttest in the preservative period, falling in the after period, but not to quite so low a 'nuniber as in the fore period.
The averacre daily total voluine of urine excreted by No. 4 during the fore period is 973 ce, during the preservative period 1,041 cc, and during the, af ter period 997 cc. The specific gravities of t lie, urine during these periods are 1.0300, 1.0291, and 1.02996, respectively. The average weights of dry solids excreted daily for the three, periods are 7i.6 grams 74.2 orrains, and 72.2 grams, respectively. There is an







812 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

indication in this case that the administration of the preservative has increased the volume of the urine 68 cc daily. This increase is partly lost in the after period, but the average daily quantity excreted is still greater than in the fore period. The specific gravity of the urine falls slightly during the preservative period and rises during the after period, but does not quite reach the average of the fore period. The total quantity of solids excreted in the urine increases by 2.6 grams daily during the preservative period, falling during the after period, but not to the average amount excreted in the fore period.
The data for No. 5, as already explained, are incomplete. They show an average daily excretion of urine during the single fore subperiod of 936 cc, in the preservative period of 1,049 cc, and in .the after period 862 cc. The specific gravities of the urine for the three periods are 1.0232, 1.0202, and 1.0200, respectively. The average daily quantities of solids excreted in the urine are 53.2 gramins, 52.3 grams, and 42.1 grams, respectively. These data show a large increase in the volume of the urine during the administration of the preservative, attended by a very marked decrease in specific gravity. There is a very marked decrease in the volume of urine during the after period, amounting to 187 cc per day, as compared with the preservative period. There is also a decrease in the total solids excreted, which are 0.9 gram less than during the fore period and 10.2 grams less during the after period than in the preservative period.
In the case of No. 6 the data show the average daily excretion of 838 cc of urine during the fore period, 930 cc during the preservative period, and 933 cc during the after period. The specific gravities of the urine for the three periods are 1.0276, 1.0276, and 1.0275, respectively, showing practically no change. The total solids excreted daily in the urine amount to 56.7 grams in the fore period, 62.9 grams in the preservative period, and 62.8 grams in the after period. These data show a marked increase in the volume of the urine during the preservative period, which is continued and even slightly increased during the after period. There is a corresponding increase in the quantity of total solids eliminated, and this increased rate of elimination c(o)ntinues tIhrough the after period.
In the case of No. 7 the volume of urine excreted in the fore period is 930 cc and in the first, second, and third subperiods of the preservative period 1,038 cc. The specific gravity in the fore period is 1.0210 and in the preservative period 1.0202. The quantity of total solids daily excreted is 47.7 grams in the fore period and 53.6 grams in the preservative period. The data are not complete, but show an increase in both the volume of the urine and the quantity of solids excreted.
The volunie of urine excreted by No. S is 1,536 cc in the fore period, 1,9i59 cc inll the preservative period(1 and 21(,048- cc in the after period.







SULP HUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 813

These data show again an increase in the volume of urine under the administration of the preservative. The specific gravities are low, as would be expected where so large a volume is excreted. The numbers expressing the specific gravities for the three periods are 1.0162, 1.0133, and 1.0124. These figures are very low, and the specific gravity is diminished~in the preservative period and again in the after period. The average daily weight of solids excreted is for the fore~ period 61.2 grams, for the preservative period 63.5 gramss, and for the after period 61.5 grams, showing an increase in the excretion of total solids amounting to 2.3 grams per day. This increase disappears during the after period.
The data for No. 9 show an average daily quantity of urine of 989 cc for the fore period, 1,146 cc for the preservative period, and 1,075 cc for the after period. The -specific gravities for the three periods are 1.0251 for the fore period, 1.0237 for the preservative period, and 1.0251 for the after period. The average quantity of total solids excreted is 60.7 grams for the fore period, 66.7 grams for the preservative period, and 66.2 grams for the after period. These data show a marked increase in the volume of the urine during the preservative period, attended with a slight decrease in specific gravity and an increase of 6 grams daily of solid matter excreted. The increase in solid matter continues during the after period, but with a tendency to return to the conditions of the fore period.
In the case of No. 10 the average daily volume of urine is 937 cc in the fore period, 1 ,142 cc in the preservative period, and 1,230 cc in the after period. The specific gravities for the three periods are 1.0257 for the fore period, 1.0197 for the preservative period, and 1.0193 for the after period. These data show a great increase in the volume of urine during the preservative period, which is. accentuated during the after period. The specific gravity rapidly falls in the preservative period and is not increased during the after period. The qulantity of total solids excreted decreases, 4.8 grams during the preservative period, a part of which is regained during the after period.
In No. 11's case the-volume of urine excreted during the fore period is 1,321 cc, during the preservative period 1,361 cc, and during the after period 1,307 cc. Thte specific gravities for the three periods are 1.0221 for the fore period, 1.0205 for the preservative period, and 1.0221 for thie after period. The quantity of total Solidls diininished notably during the pr-eservative period, the decrease amounting to a daily average of 3.4 grams daily. This was partially recovered during the after period.
In the case of No. 12 the average daily volumne of urine excreted during the fore period is 1, 156 cc, duriingr the PIeser'Vit lye period I ,3SS cc, and during the after period 1,12:3 cc. These dlata show a strong







814 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

tendency to increase the volume of the urine during the preservative period. During the after period the quantity of the urine excreted diminished to even a smaller figure than in the fore period. The specific gravity of the urine decreased during the preservative period and was restored to a little higher than the normal during the after period. The total quantity of solids excreted daily is 66.1 grams in the fore period, 69.6 grams in the preservative period, and 64.7 grams in the after period. These data show a notable increase of 3.5 grams in the preservative period, while in the after period the quantity excreted is 1.4 grams less than in the fore period. The diuretic effect of the preservative is very marked in this case.
SUMMARIES.
The summaries for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, are complete, with the exception of the fourth preservative subperiod. The average daily volume of urine for the six men is 1,092 cc in the fore period, 1,139 cc in the preservative period, and 1,076 cc in the after period. The specific gravity is practically the same in the three periods. The average daily quantity of solids excreted is 1.2 grams greater in the preservative period and 1.9 grams less in the after period than in the fore period. These data show a slight diuretic effect, the total increase in the volume of the urine in the preservative period being 47 cc daily.
For Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11 complete data are available for a summary. In these cases the average daily increase in the quantity of the urine excreted under the influence of the preservative is extremely great, amounting to 207 cc daily. This diuretic effect is continued in the after period, though with diminished intensity toward its close. The quantity of solids excreted daily in the preservative period remains practically unchanged, and in the after period the quantity is only 0.7 gram greater than in the fore period.
The general effect of the administration of sulphurous acid upon the volume, specific gravity, and total solids in the urine is therefore seen to be to increase the volume of the urine, to increase the total quantity of solids eliminated, and to decrease the specific gravity. In so far as the volume is concerned the diliretic effect is more marked in t he eases where the preservative is given as sulphurous acid (Nos. A to 11) than when it is given as sodium sulphite (Nos. 1 to 6). These data indicate plainly a disturbance of the metabolic activities produced by the preservative, in both forms.









SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 815


TABLE V.- Urne determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series VII.

[Averages are per day.)

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3.

Specific Total SeiiToaSpifcTotal
Period. Vo-gravity sld Vo-gravity sld Vo-gravit.soid
Vo- t olds Vo- at sld Vo- at sld
umne. Oq (factor umne. (factor' umne. 2,50/5 (factor
.- 0.245). C. 0.245.) 0.2..

Fore period.

First subperiod: CC. Grams. cc. Grams. c.-Grams.
Total................---4,685 1.0300 344.3 7,584 1.0200 371.5 5,565 1.0225 306.8
Average................. 937...........68.8 1,517 ..........74.3 1,113-----------i61.4
Second subperiod:
Total .................. 4,530 1. 0300. 332.9 8,190 1.0182 365.2 6,740 1. 0199 328.6
Average................. 906......66.6 1,638..........73.0 11,348...........65.7

Entire fore period:
Total.................--9,215 1.030 677.2 15,774 1.0191 736.7 12,305 1.0212 635.4
Average................ 922......67.7 1,577..........73.71 1,231...........63.5

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total..................--4,940 1.0265 320.7 7,515 1.0175 322.2 5,460 1.0242 323.7
Average................ 988..........64.1 1,503......... 64.4 1, 092...........64.7
Second subperiod: 341 720100 6.
Total.................--4,080 1.0312 311.9 8,21.10 1.0186 341 720100 6.
Average................ 816......... 62.4 1,642..........74.8 1,448.......... 73.1
Third 8ubperiod:
Total.................--4,640 1.0310 352.4 7,750 1. 02*00 379.7 6,645 1.0215 350.0
Average................. 928..........70.5 1,550..........75.9 1,329...........70.0
Fourth subperiod:
Total................---5,550 1.0284 386.2............................-----........ ......
Average..............--1,110 .........77.2...............................----...............First, second, and third
Total ............... ........ ........ ........ 23,475 1.01871,076.0 19,345 1 .0221 1,039.1
Avberagi ----------------------- 1,565......71.7 1,290 ..........69. 3

Entire preservative period:
Total .................. 19,210 1. 0293 1,371.2 ........ ........ ........ .................----Average................ 961.......... 68.6--------------........ ........ .................

After period.

First subperiod:
Total .................. 4,970 1.0288 350.7 7,935 1.0186 361.6 6, 49 4 1. 0204 324 5
Average................ 994..........70.1 1,587. ....73 1-99--....64.
Second subperiod:
TPotal .................. 4,470 1.0307 336.2 6,770 1.0204 338.4 6,015 1.0224 330.1
Average................ 894......... 67.2 1,354......... 67.7 1,203........ 66. 0

Entire after period:
Total................ 9,440 1.0297 686.9 14,705 1.0195i 700.0 12,509 1. 02141 654. 6
Average .................944 ..........A87 1,470..........70.0 1,251...........65.5









816 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTIL.


TABLE V.-- Uine dt nations- Volume. specific gravity, and total solids, Series VIIContinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.
SpcitSpecific _.
Specific Total Specific TotalSeic Total
Period Vol- gravity solids V gravity sd ol- gravity solids
0oid 1ol- solids Voo-ids
tme. (factor ume. at (factor ume. at
25/25 0.245). 0.245). c. 0.245).


F ore period.I
First su1priod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total ..................4,730 1.0307 55.8
... 4,3 1. 307 8 ---- ------ -- 4,140 1.0276 279. 9
Average ................ 946........ 71.2828....... 56. 0
Pod s ~ i d ..... ..........................4-.282
Second suhperiodl:
Total .................. 5,000 1.0294 361.0 4,680 1.0232 26.0 4,240 1.0276 286.7
Average...1,000 72.2 936 ........ 53.2 848 57.3
A ve.age..... 1,000 ..... ........

Entire fore period:
Total .................. 9,730 1.0300 716.8 .......................8,38 1.0276 56.6
Average ................ 93 ......... 71.6 ..... ........ ........ 838 ........56 i. 7
Presrtatiru e period.

First suhperiod:
Total .................. 5,220 1.0278 355.5 5,880 1.0208 29.6 4,615 1.02M 303.0
Average ................ 1,044 ....... 71.1 1,176 .........59.9 923 ........ (.6
Second suliperiod:
Total................... 5,410 1.0279 369.8 5,420 1.0222 294.8 4,7W0 1.0277 323.0
Average ................ 1,082 ........ 73.9 1,084 ..........5.0 952 ........ 64.6
Third suhperiod:
Total ................... 5,020 1.0303 372.7 5,115 1.0200 250.6 4,595 1.0286 322.0
Average............... 1,004 ........ 74.5 1,023 .........50.1 9164.4
Fourth subperiod:
Total ................... 5,175 1.0304 35.4 4,510 1.0180 201.1 4,640 1.0272 309.2
Ave rage ................ 1,035 ........ 77.1 912 ........ 40.2 928 ........ 61.8
Entire preservative period:Total ................. 20,825 1.029 1 1,483.4 20,975 1.0202 1,046.1 18,610 1.027(i 1,257.2
Average...............1,041 ......... 74.2 1,049 ........., 52.3 930 -.------ 62.9

After period.

First suhperiod:
Total.................. 5,080 1.0296 36-.4 4,(00 1.0185 208.5 4,720 1.0275 318.0
Average ................ 1,016 ........ 73.7 920 ...... 41.7 944 ........ W. 6
Second suhperiod:
Total ................... 4,8 9 1.0295 35.3.4 4, 0*20 1.0216 212.7 4, 610 1.0274 309. 5
Ave rage. ................ 978 ........ 70.7 804 ........ 42.5 922 ........ 61.9

Entire after period:
Total..................9,70 1.0296 721.8 8, 20 1.0200 421.2 9,330 1.0275 627.5
Average ................ 997 ........ 72.2 862 .......... 42.1 933 ........ 62.8









SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 817


TABLE V.- Urine determinations-- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series VIIContinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 7. No. 8. No. 9.

Specific T lSpecific Specific
Period. Gravity sotl Total Vol_ gravity Total
Vol- fi sotls Vl gravity solids Vo- at solids

atat (factor ume
S25050 (factor une. 50 0245) (factor
c25. 0.245). 0.245). C. 0.245).
C. C. C.


Fore period.
First subpriod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total ................. a 4,325 1.0220 a233.1 a7, 025 1.0160 a 298.9 4,550 1.0258 287.6
Avxe r,)ge.................-865.......-- 46. 6 11,525..........59.8 910...........57. 5
Second subperiod:
Total ................. 4, 970 1.0200 243.5 7,735 1.0165 312.7 5,335 1 .0244 318.9
Average.................994 --------.48.7 1,54 ......... 62.5 1,067 ........ 63.8

Entire fore period: I
Total ................. 9, 295 1.0210 476.6 15,30 1.0162 611. 6 9, 885 1.0251 606. 5
Average ................ 930 ......... 47.7 1,536 ........ (;1.'2 989 ......... 60. 7

Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total .................5.790 1.0187 265.3 9,850 1.0131 318.5 5,580 1.0238 325.4
Average .... ........... 1,158.... .53.1 1,970 63.7 1,116 ......... 65.1
Second subperiod:
Total .................3,925 1. 0231 269. 4 9,155 1.0139 311.7 5,650 1.0237 328.1
Average ................785 53.9 1,831 ------- 62.3 1,130..........65.6
Third subperiod: ---------Total ................ a5, 850 1.0187 268.8 10,470 1.0120 307.8 5,845 1.0221 316.5
Average ............... 1,170 53.8 2.094 ..... (61. 6 1,169 ...... I Q. 3
Fourth subperiod: ,
Total ................ ...... ................9,705 1.0140 332.9 5,840 1 0254 363.4
A verage ---------------------- ........ ....... 1,941 --- --- 66. 6 1,168 ------. 72. 7
First, second, and third sub- 1
periods:
Total .................1 5,565 1.0202 803.5.........................................
Average...............1,038 ........ 53. 6 ..... ........ ................

Entire preservative period:
Total ...................... ...............39,180 1.0133 1,270.9 22,915 1.0237 1,33..4
Average .................... ................ 1,959 ........6 63.5 1,146..........66.
After period.

First subperiod:
Total ..................................... 11,320 1.0111 307.8 5,300 1.0257 333. 7
Average ....................... ................ 2, 264 ........ (i. 6 1, 060 ......... 66. 7
Second subipriod:
Total ...................... ................ 9, 160O 1.0137 307. 4 5,450 1.0246 328. 5
Average. ................... - --..1, 2 .........61.5 1,090 ..5. 7

Entire after period: 1
Average .....................................2,048.........61.5 1,075 ... 66. 2


a Average added to complete record.









818 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE V.-- Urine determninations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series VIIContinued.

[ Averages are per day.]

No. 10. No. 11. No. 12.

Specific Total Spifi Total Specific Total
Period. Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids Vol- gavity solids
at at at
ume. 2 factorr ume. 25 5 (factor ume. 2 (factor
c. 0.245). C. 0.245). 0.245).


Fore period.

First sublperiod: ce. Gramins. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total.................. 4,53 1.0257 286. 8 6, 655 1.0222 3537.1 5,850 1.0230 329.6
Average................ 911 ......... 57.4 1,313 ........ 71.4 1,170 ........ 9
Second subperiod:
STotal.................. 4,810 1.0257 302.9 6,640 1.0221 359.5 5,.710 1.0237 331.5
Average( ................. 92 ........ 60.6 1,328 ........ 71.9 1,142 ........ 6t.3

Entire fore period:
Total.................. 9,35 1.0257 589.7 13.205 1.0221 716.6 11,560 1.0233 c1.1
Averag............... 937 ........ 59.0 1.321 ........ 71.7 1,156 ........ (iti.1

Preserratir( e period.
First subiperiod:
Total................... 4,540 1.0247 274.7 6,385 1.0226 353.5 6,750 1.344.0
Average................ 908 ........ 54.9 1,277 ........ 70.7 1,350 ........ 68 .8
Second subIperiod:
Total................... 5,50 1.01(66 237.9 6,520 1.0196 313.1 8,015 1.0185 363.3
Average................ 1,170 ........ 47. 6 1,304 ........ 62.6 1, 03 ........ 72.7
Third suhperiod:
Total.................. 6, 190 1.0180 273.0 6,920 1.0198 335.7 6,605 1.0222 359.2
Average................. 1,238 ........ 54. i 1,384 ........ 67.1 1,321 ........ 71.8
Fourth suhperio(d:
Total...................260 1.0194 297.5 7.405 1.0200 362.8 ,400 1.0207 324.6
Average ................. 252 ........ 59.5 1,481 ........ 72. I 1, 2 80 ........ (64.9

Entire preservative period :
Total................. 22,840 1.0197 1,03. 1 27,230 1.0205 1,315.1 27,770 1.0205 1,391.1
Average................ 1.,142 ........ 54.2 1,361 ......... (68.3 1,388 ........ 6(9.6

After period.

First subperiod:
Total.................. 7.140 1.0174 304.4 5,720 1.0238 333.5 5,500 1.0232 312.6
Average ............... 1,428 ........ 06 .9 1,144 ........ i6.7 1,100 ........ 62.5
Second subperiod:
Total .................. 5,10 1.0213 269.3 a7,350 1.0205 a369.1 5,730 1.0238 334.1
Average................. 1,032 ........ 53.9 1,470 ........ 73.8 1,146 ........ 66.8

Entire fter period:
Total................. 12,300 1.0193 573.7 13,070 1.0221 702.6 11,230 1.0235 646.7
Avenrage ................ 1, 230........ 57.4 1,307 ........ 70.3 1,1 ........ 6 4.7










SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 819

TABLE V.- Urine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series VIIContinued.

SUMMARIES.
[Averages are per man per day.)

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Nos. 1 and 4. Nos. 5 and 6.

Specific Total Specific Total Specific Total
Period. Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids
atl at at
ume. o (factor ume. 25o/25o (factor ume. 125 (factor
0.245). C. .245). C. 0.245).


Fore period.
First subperiod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total ................ a26,704 al. 0262 al,658.3 9,415 1.0304 700.1 .....................
Average ............... 1,068 ........ 66.3 942 .........70.0 .......................
Second subperiod:
Total ----------------- 33,380 1.0247 1,940.4 9,530 1.0297 693.9 8,920 1.0254 552.7
Average ............... 1,113 -------- 64.7 953 ........ 69.4 892 -------- 55.3
Entire fore period:
Total ................. 60,084 1.0254 3,598.7 18,945 1.0300 1,394.0 .......................
Average ................. 1,092 -------- 65.4 947 -------- 69.7 -------------------Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ................... 33,630 1.0239 1,924.7 10,160 1.0272 676.2 10,495 1.0238 602.6
Average ............... 1,121 ........ 64.2 1,016 ........ 67.6 1,049 ......... 60.3
Second subperiod:
Tot&.................35,120 1.0247 2,039.0 9,490 1.0295 681.7 10,180 1.0249 617.8
Average ................ 1,171..........-68.0 949.......... 68.2 1,018.......... 61.8
Third subperiod:
Total .................. 33,765 1.0252 2,027.4 9, ('0 1.0307 725.1 9,710 1. 0243 572.6
Average ................ 1,126 ........ 67.6 966 ........ 72.5 971 .........57.3
Fourth subperiod:
Total .................-..................... 10,725 1.0294 771.6 9,200 1.0226 510.3
Average............. ................... 1,073 ........ 77.2 920......... 51.0
First, second, and third subperiods:
Total .................. 102,515 1.0246 5,991. 1 .........................................
Average ............... 1, 139 ........ .6 ..........................................

Entire preservative period:
Total ....................................4005 1.0292 54. 2,303.3
Average .................................... 1,001 -------- 71.4 99 00 -------- 57. 6
After period.

First subperiod:
Total ................... 33,799 1.0239 1,931.7 10,050 1.0292 719.1 9,320 1.0Q230 526.5
Average ................. 1,127 ......... 64.4 1,005 ........ 71.9 932 ......... 52.7
Second subperiod:
Total ................. 30,775 1.0253 1,880.3 9,360 1.0301 689. 8, (30 1.0245 52.2
Average ................. 1,026 .......'62.7 93 I ).0 863 ........ 52.2

Entire after period:
Total ................... 64,574 1.0246 3,812.0 19,410 1.02997 1,408.7 17,950 1.0237 1,048.7
Average...............1,076 ........ 63. 5 971 ........ 70.4 697 ......... 52.4

a No. 5 absent.
11240-Bull. 84, pt 3-07 5










820 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE V.- Urine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series VIIContinued.

[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 7,8,9, 10, 11, and 12. Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11. Nos. 7 and 12.

Specific Total Specific Total pacific Total
Period. Toalgrait Toa ra-ity old
Period. Vol- graty solids Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravty solids
ume. 2a250 (faor ume. 250/250 (f tor ume. 25/25. 2(5to
(factor (factor u. (factor
S 0.245. 0.245).


Fore period.
First subperiod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total................. 33,470 1.0224 1,793.1 23,295 1.0224 1,230.4 10,175 1.0225 562.7
Average............... 1,116 ........ 59.8 1,165 ......... 61.5 1,017 ........ 56.3
Second subperiod:
Total...... ........... 35,200 1.0221 1,869.0 24,520 1.0222 1,294.0 10,680 1.0218 575.0
Average............... 1,173 ........ 62.3 1,226i ........ 64.7 1,068 ......... 57.5

Entire fore period:
Total .................... 68,670 1.0223 3,662.1 47,815 1.0223 2,524.4 20, 855 1.0222 1,137.7
Average............... 1,145 ........ 61.0 1,195 ........ 13.1 1,043 ........ 56.9

Preserratire period.

First subperiod:
Total .................. 38,895 1.0206 1,881.4 26,355 1.0211 1,272.1 12,540 1.0198 i09.3
Average............... 1,296 ........ 62.7 1,318 ........ 63.6 1,254 ........ (10.9
Second subhperiod:
Total ................... 39,115 1.0192 1,823.5 27,175 1.0184 1,190.8 11,940 1.0208 632.7
Average .............. 1,304 ........ 60.8 1,359 ....... 59.5 1,194 ........ 63.3
Third subperiod:
Total ................... 41,880 1.0188 1,861.0 29,425 1.0180 1, 233.0 12,455 1.0204 628.0
Average................. 1,396........ 62.0 1,471 ........ 61.7 1,245 ........ 62.8
Fourth subperiod:
Total................. ......... ........... 29,210 1.0197 1,356.6 ........................
A verage.. ..... ................ ........ ,3 .6 .. .. .
Average ..... ........ .....1,460. ........ 87.8.... ........ ........
First, second,and third subperiods:
Total............... 119, 890 1.0195 5, 65.9 ..................... 36,935 1.0203 1,870.0
Average................. 1,332 ........ 61.8 ........ ....... 6........2.3

Entire )prfservative period: 0
Total ................... ........................ 112,1 1.0193 5,052. ........ ........ .......
Averag......................... ........ ........1,402.. 2............. ........

Afler period.

First subpertod:
Total........... ............ ................ 21,480 1.0195 1,279.4 ..... .....
Aver e...................................... 1,474 ........ 64.0 ...... .. ... ........
Sieconid subpe-riod"*
Total ................................... 27,120 1.0200 1,274.3........................
A erage ................. ........ ........ ........ 1,356 ........ (3.7........ ...............
Entire after iriod:
Total......... 51i,C00 1.0198 2, 553.7 ........ ........ ........
Averag ................. ........ ................ 1,415 ......... 3 8 ........ ........ ........
...... ............



SERIES XIII.


INDIVII)I AL 1)ATA.


In order to confirm or disprove the marked tendency shown by
the preservative in the original series to diminish the red blood cells,
a special stud(ly of six young men was inaugurated, beginning December 1, 1906, and extending to December 20,1906. (See p.882.) In

addition to the effects noted on the blood, (data for the fore and preservative periods were obtained in regard to the volume and acidity

of the urine. The data on acidity will be considered under the
following caption.







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 821

The data for No. 1 show an average excretion of 1,109 cc per day* in the fore period and 969 cc in the preservative period, indicating a considerable diminution in the volume of urine. In the case of No. 2 the average quantity of urine excreted in the fore period is 1,296 cc and in the preservative period 1,150 cc, showing again a decided decrease in volume. In the case of No. 3 the average quantity of urine excreted in the fore period is 1,053 cc and in the preservative period 1,142 cc, showing a marked increase.
These three men received sulphurous acid in the form of sodium sulphite. For Nos. 4, 5, and 6, who received sulphurous acid in the form of a gas in solution, the following results were obtained:
In the case of No. 4 the average quantity of urine excreted in the fore period is 687 cc and in the preservative period 1,028 cc, showing a marked increase. In the case of No. 5 the average quantity excreted in the fore period is 1,198 cc and in the preservative period 1,170 cc-practically no change in volume. In the case of No. 6 the average quantity of urine excreted in the fore period is 953 cc and in the after period 1,080 cc, showing a marked increase.
SUMMARIES.
The summary for Nos. 1, 2, and 3, receiving sodium sulphite, shows the average quantity of urine excreted in the fore period to be 1,153 cc and in the preservative period 1,087 cc, a notable decrease in volume. In the case of Nos. 4, 5, and 6 the average quantity of urine excreted in the fore period is 945 cc and in the preservative period 1,093 cc, showing a notable increase.
The summary for the six subjects shows that the average quantity of urine excreted in the fore period is 1,056 cc and in the preservative period 1,090 cc, showing only a slight increase in volume.
The data in regard to the volume, while not showing as distinct a diuretic effect as in the original series, still shows some relationship. In the average for Nos. 1, 2, and 3, who received sodium sulphite, there is seen some tendency to diminish the quantity of urine excreted during the preservative period. On the other hand, in the original series an increase in the volume is observed. The quantity of preservative administered, it may be well to note, was considerably smaller during the preservative period of this special stuly than during -Series VII---a fact which prol)aly influenced the results considerably. Nevertheless, ii t h{e (ase of those sul)jects receiving sulphurous acid there is seen a slight increase in the volume during the preservative period, which seems to bear out the conclusion indicated in the original study, namely, that free sulphurous acid exerts more of a diuretic effect than when administered as sodium sulphite.










822 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VI.-Urine determinvitions-Supplemtental study of volume and acidity, Series XIII.

No. 2. No. 3.


Acidity. Acidity. Acidity.

By lit- By lit- By litPeriod.mus. Inus.
Vol- Vol- Volume. o C. ume. t z= ume. o .


Z- 8 Z
Z


Fore period: cc. cc. cc. cc. cC. cC.
D)( t. 1 ....... 2 765275
2 ............,....... .......2,750 ........ ..........2,750................
3 ............ 83 .............. 1,260 ........ .......... 630 ................
4..........8........... ......132........ ..... .......845 ........ ..... ....
5........... 1,125 .......... 1,150............. .....1,040 ............. ...
Total .......... 5,545 ..... 6,480 .. .... 5,265................
Average ....... 1,109 1 30.9 .0" 1. 4 1,296 26...........1,03 2.9 1 3

First preservative
subperiod:
Dec. 6 ........... 790........ .......... MO ........ .......... 1,020 ................
7 .......... .950..................--1,150 ....... ..... ......1,300 ...............
...........2,000..........2,650 ........ ..... ..... 2, 640. .......
9 ............
9. 2, c ........ ... . 50.. .... -,- ----10 ............ 810 ........ .......... 90. ........ ..... .....685................

Total .......... 4,550 --. 5,640 5,645 ..
Average......- 910 5.....""0 1,128 41.8...... .1,129 27.7 3

Second preservative
subperiod:. Dec. 11 ........... 1,040 ............ ... 1,3708 ...... ..
12 ........... 990 ..................1350 ........ ..... ..... 30.................
13 ...........1,020.. 1,200........ ..........1,310 ................
14 ........... I0 0............ ..... 1,300..... .....11530.............
15 ........... 1,015........ .......... 1,075 ........ ..........1,010
Total.......... 4,965 .................. 6.25 ... 5,920 ..
Average ....... .993 53:9 11 0 1,259 457. .... .1,184 "87 4 i

Third presrvative
suhperiod:
DWe. 16 ........... 1,015 ................. 1,075 ..................1,010....... ....
17 ........... 920 .................. 940 ................. K ............
1 ........... 1,0R .................. 1,250 .................. ....... .....
19 ........... 1,1 .................. 1,10 0............ .....1,315 ....... .....
20 ........... 920 .................. 950 ................ 10........ .....
Total ........... 5,015 ................. 5,315 ...................
Average....... 1,0)3 51.9 5 0 1,063 44,7 5 1,113 32.2 4 i

Entire rjreservative
period:
Total .......... 14, 0 17,250 ......... 17,130 ........
Aver1ge........969 52.7 140 1,150 44.0 04 0 1,142 29.5 11 3









SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 823

TABLE VI.- Urine determinations-Supplemental study of volume and acidity, Series XIII- -Continued.

No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. Amount of preservative.

Acidity. Acidity. Acidity. Nos. 1-3 re- Nos. 4-6
ceived sodi- received
By lit- By lit- By lit- urn sul- sulphurous
P4 mus. mus. mus. phite. acid.
Peio. Vol- Vo~ Vol-~. *
tdme. C(6_ ume. ume.
z


Z E Z E Z & &4

F Nos. No.
1906. 4 5
Fore period: cc. cc. cc. cc. cc. CC. GM. Mg. Mg. Mg.
2ee 1. /,600co. cc
Dec. 1- 1680 .. .... 2,250
3 .......... I ---i-------3.. .. ...67 0.......... 1,010 1,40i ... ............20
o...... ,435.. 600 ----- ..,90.420 .... 9,80 ..... .. .............. .........
5 .. .... 6701- -- - 1,310 .. .9. 20 ..... .... . . .- - -. .. . .
Total. 3,435 5,990 --.--. - - -- - - --

Average... 687 36.7 2 2 1,198 24.5 4 0 953 28.8 3 0 ------ .............
First preservative subperiod: 1
7 ........... ..... 1,415... 960.... .... 1.0 508 300.....
...... ..... 8w..... .. 1.0 508 300......
10.... 485............1,100.. --" 1,210... ---- 1.0 508 300-.
Total ...... 4,325 ----- ---.... ,395-----" 4,810. -.... ..... 5.0 2,540 1,500 .
Average 865 36.9 4 01,279 27.2" 3 1 962 36.6 5 0 1.0 508 300 .--Second preserva- ---tive subperiod:
Dec. 11 1,260 1,300 ........ 1, ..... 2 400 300
De .1 ..... 1,200 ---- -- 1,5 ..0031
.... .. ---- 1,210 .- -- -- 2.0 01( j 40 300
12.....,0.....1 ,100..........,1.... ........ ,1 0
13..... 0 ..... ... .... 1,400 .......20 1,0V 400 300
14.. .... 1,100 ...........1, 060............ 920 ..... ... 2.0 1,016 400 300
15 ....... 1,270 ............990 .....-- -- 920 ..... ..... 2.0 1,016 400 300
Total ......5,670'....... ....5,410......... 5,990 ........... 9.5 5,026 2,000 1,500
Average... 1,134' 25.9 5 0 1,082' 36.6 5 0 1,198 30.3 5 1.9 1,005 400 300
Third preserva-
tive subperiod: 1.,
De........ 9,270 ......... .... 1,280 3.0 1,524 500 400
17 ....... 9("0) I[ I..-- - .... == === = = = = = [ [ [ .0,5 4
De.16......1,270. 3.0 1,524 500 400
18...... 1,1 ........ ....1,020 ................... .... 3.0 1,524 500 400
19 ...... 1,170 ...... .....1,120 ........... ...... ..... ... .... 3.0 1,524 50 400
20 ...... 870 ..... .......1,340............. ...... ...". "" 3.01 152, W 4M
I ___ ------- ________ _--___
Total ...... 5,430 ..... ... .... 5,750 .................. ...........15.0 2 2,500 2,00
Average... 1,086 31.6 5 0 1,152 36.0 5 0........... ... 0 3.0 1,524 500 400
Entire preservative period:
total ..... 15,425_..... 17,555. 10,800 ... .... 29. 15,18, 6,000 3,500
Average... 1,028 31.5 14 0 1,170 3.3 3 1 1 1,0 i,3.5 "1) 0 1.3 1,012 4) 350

a As sulphurous acid at breakfast of this date.








824 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VI.-Urine determinations-Supplemental study of rolume and acidity, Series XIII-Continued.
SUMMARIES.
Nos. 1. 2, ond 3 received Nos. 4. 5, and 6 received Nos. I to 6.
sodium sulphite. sulphurous acid.
Acidity. Acidity. Acidity.
By lit- By lit- By litPeriod. rmus. mus. n us.
ol- **. Vol- t i Vol- 0.
ume. 7:1 ti m 7 me. OC)
7 C,



Per Per Per Per Per Per
1906. cc. cent, cent. cc. cc. rent. .eent. cc. ec. cent, cent.
Fore perid.......... 1,153 28.1 33 (67 945 30.0 83 17 1,056 29.1 58 42
First preservative su peri..... 1,056 40.6 ..... ......1,035 33.6 ..... .. 1,04t6 37 1.. ....
Second preservative
suh)period.......... 1,145 42.8---...--.... 1,138 30.9 ..... ......1,142 361.9 ......
Third preservative
subperiod.......... 1,0W) 42.9 ..... ..... a 1,106 a 33.7 '..... ......1,083 38.3 ......
Entire preservative
period............. 1.0s7 42.1~ 9.3 7 1,093 32.7 98 2 1,090 37.4 96 4
a Ave rage of first and second preservative periods adlded1 to complete record for No. 6.

PRESENCE OF AIJBUMIN AND THE REACTION OF THE URINE.

During Series VII the presence of albumin was qualitatively determined only a limited numbller of times. The reaction of the urine was not observed in this series, but was determined in connection with additional (lata on alb~umin in the two special series, XI (see p. 1021) and XIII, recorded in the preceding pages.*
In the case of No. 1, (luring the fore period there was no positive test for albumin obtainedl, andI the same condition continued (luring the first preservative subperiod and part of the second. During the latter part of this subperiod, however, a very iflinute trace was ob~servedl, which continued throughout the remainder of tihe experiment with the one exception of an observation made in tihe fourth preservative subperiodl, when no( alb~uIn was found.
In the case of No. 2 there is a positive test for albumin throughout the entire p~eriodI of observation. Minute traces were observed during the p~r(servative period, while the twe observations made during the after period ind(icatedl the presence of a trace.
No positive react ions were obtainedo for' No. ~ unit il the latter part of the preservative period, when a miinute trace was reported. During the after period a very minute trace is recorded.
Ini the (cases of Nos. 4 and~ 5 negative results were obtainedl throughout the period of observat ion, while No. (1 shows a small quantity in ('very instance without regard to the administration of the preservaT1here is only a broken records for No. 7, and all the observations recordled are negative. Ini the (lase of No. S the tests for the presence







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 825

of albumin are all negative with the exception of that for the third preservative subperiod, when a very minute trace is reported. Nos. 9 and 10 are negative throughout. No. 11 is negative until the third preservative subperiod is reached, when a very minute trace is recorded, which continues throughout the remaining periods of observation with the exception of one negative result in the after period. No. 12 is negative until the fourth preservative subperiod, when a minute trace is reported, which continues throughout the after period.
These limited data are not sufficiently decisive to establish any general effect as produced by the preservative, and further studies were made of this point in the special series, as before mentioned, where the same contradictory evidence is furnished by the data obtained for five men, which precludes the drawing of any positive conclusion in regard to the production of albumin in the urine by this preservative. In the cases of Nos. 1, 3, 11, and 12 of Series VII, however, a slight tendency is shown on the part of the sulphurous acid, whether combined as a sulphite or in a free state, to develop albumin in the urine when it is not present.
In the special Series XIII before mentioned (see Table VI) the question of the influence of the preservative on the acidity of the urine is considered.
The acidity is expressed as cubic centimeters of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid per 100 cc of urine, and the number of acid and amphoteric reactions obtained with litmus paper is also given. With the exception of No. 4, an increase in acidity is shown in every case throughout the preservative period. Summarizing the average
figures according to the form of preservative administered, it is seen that fQr those receiving sodium sulphite the acidity in the fore period is expressed by 28.1 and for the preservative period by 42.1. There is also a marked increase shown by the reactions obtained b)y testing with litmus paper, 33 per cent of the tests being acid in the fore period and 93 per cent in the preservative period.
In the case of Nos. 4, 5, and 6, who received sulphurous acid, a slight increase is also shown, from 30 in the fore period to 32.7 duringg the preservative period. The litmus-paper tests show an increase in these cases also, from 83 to 98 per cent. Considering the set of subjects together, it is seen that as an average 29.1 cc of tenth-normal sodium hydroxid were required to neutralize 100 cc of urine (luritr the fore period and 37.4 cc during the preservative period. Litmus paper gives an acid reaction in 58 per cent of the tests during the fore period and in 96 per cent in the preservative period.
There is evidenced a strong tendency to render the urine acid, which tendencv is much more marked when sodium suilphite was administered. This subject is further discussed under Series XI, page 1021.







826 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
RATIO OF SULPHUR, SULPHATES, AND PHOSPHATES TO THE NITROGEN EXCRETED IN THE URINE.
In Table VII a study is given of the relations of sulphur as total sulphur and as sulphates, and phosphorus as phosphoric anhydrid to the nitrogen. Inasmuch as in this case the quantity of sulphur and sulphates is largely increased in the preservative period and increased to a certain extent in the after period, theoretically the ratio of these bodies to the nitrogen would be smaller in the preservative period and in the after period than in the fore period. The practical point, therefore, to be kept in view would be the influence exerted by the sulphurous acid upon the relative proportions of nitrogen to phosphoric acid in the urine. For this purpose the small variations in the amounts of these two bodies ingested in the various periods may be left out of consideration. In the case of No. 1 the ratio of phosphoric acid to the nitrogen rises in the preservative period from 1: 6.1 to 1: 6.4. This increase is maintained also in the after period, where the ratio rises to 1: 6.5.
In the case of No. 2 the phosphoric acid ratio in the preservative period remains almost the same as in the fore period, and is the same in the after period as in the preservative period, namely, 1: 5.3. In No. 3 the ratio of phosphoric acid to the nitrogen is increased, rising from 1: 6.8 to 1: 7.1. This increase is practically maintained in the after period, where it is 1: 7.0.
The ratio of phosphoric acid to nitrogen in the case of No. 4 is considerably decreased in the preservative period, falling from 1:6.0 to 1:5.2, and remaining practically the same in the after period, namely, 1:5.3. In the case of No. 5 the data are incomplete for the fore period, and a comparison is of little value. For No. 6 the ratio of i)hosphoric acid to nitrogen is increased from 1:5.0 to 1:6.0 in the preservative period and maintained almost at the same point in the after period, namely, 1:5.9, the phosphoric acid in this case being greatly reduced.
In the case of No. 7 there is a marked increase in the magnitude of the phosphoric acid ratio, which rises from 1:6.6 in the fore period( to 1:7.2 in the preservative period. There is a decrease in the ratio of phosphoric acid to nitrogen in the case of No. 8, where it falls from 1:6.2 in the fore period(l to 1:5.7 in the preservative period, rising, however, in the after period to 1:6.6. The ratio of phoslphoric acid to nitrogen is decreased in the case of No. 9 in the preservative period from 1: 6.5 to 1 : 6.2. A slight increase is observed in the after period, the magnitude of the ratio reaching 1:6.3. The phosphoric acid ratio rises in the case of No. 10 from 1:5.9 in the fore period to 1:6.0 ini the preservative period, falling again in the after period to the same magnitude as at first.
Ini the case of No. 11 there is again an increase in the magnitude of the )hos)horic acidl ratio in the preservative period, rising from







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 827

1:5.9 in the fore period to 1-:6.2 in the preservative period and increasing to 1:6.3 in the after period.
In the case of No. 12 there is a gradual decline throughout the observation in the ratio of phosphoric acid to nitrogen, falling from 1:6.2 in the fore period to 1: 5.9 in the preservative period and to 1: 5.3 i: the after period.
Comparing the summaries of Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, with those of Nos. 8 to 11, inclusive, it is seen that the ratio of the phosphoric acid to nitrogen for Nos. 1 to 6 in the fore period is 1:5.8, in the preservative period 1:5.9, and in the after period 1: 5.8.
This shows a slight tendency on the part of the preservative, namely, sodium sulphite, either to increase the excretion of nitrogen or to diminish the excretion of phosphorus in relation to each other. In this case it is noticed that the quantities of nitrogen and of phosphorus excreted are both decreased somewhat. In the after period the ratio is restored to the same magnitude as that in the fore period.
In the summaries for Nos. 8 to 11, inclusive, the ratio of the phosphoric acid to nitrogen is 1:6.1 in the fore period, 1:6.0 in the preservative period, and 1:6.3 in the after period. In this case the opposite condition obtains from that noted in thepreceding instance. The administration of the sulphurous acid in the form of -a free acid or gas has apparent]- increased the excretion of phosphoric acid in relation to the nitrogen excreted, since the ratio is less.
The disturbances which have been caused by the administration of the preservative between the relative excretion of nitrogen and phosphoric acid are not of a sufficient magnitude to warrant any certain conclusions. If the two summaries be considered together, it is evident that there has been practically no disturbance of the relation between the excretion of these two substances. Considering the two summaries separately, it would appear that the administration of the sulphurous acid in the form of sulphites tends to decrease the elimination of phosphoric acid in relation to nitrogen, while if administered in the form of uncombined acid it tends to increase the excretion of phosphoric acid in relation to nitrogen. This change, however, is so minute that it may be said that very little influence is exerted by the preservative upon the relative excretions of phosphoric acid and nitrogen in the urine.
The problem may also be looked at from a different point of view, as illustrated in Table VIII. In this table the ratios are based on the amounts of nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphoric acid excreted in the urine, expressed as percentage of amounts ingested, instead of making the comparison between the actual amounts of these substances excreted. In the preservative period the calculation for sulphur excreted is made on the sulphur exhibited in the food plus the sulphur administered as a preservative.







828 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

In the case of No. 1 the ratio of the phosphoric acid in the preservative period remains unchanged, while it is slightly increased in the after period. In the case of No. 2 there is no change whatever in the ratio of the phosphoric acid to the percentage of nitrogen in the food excreted in the urine. In the case of No. 3 the ratio is slightly increased, and this increase is maintained in the after period. In the case of No. 4 the nitrogen is diminished in the preservative period, and this loss is partly regained in the after period. In the case of No. 5 the ratio is considerably increased in the preservative period, and decreases in the after period alhnost to the initial point. In the case of No. 6 the ratio of the phosphoric acid is again increased, and this increase is maintained in the after period. In the case of No. 7 the ratio in the preservative period is slightly increased. In the case of No. 8 the ratio is slightly increased in the preservative period and again in the after period. In the case of No. 9 the ratio remains unchanged throughout the three periods. In the case of No. 10 there is a slight increase in the preservative period, and this is maintained in the after period. The same remark is true of No. 11. In the case of No. 12 there is a slight diminution in the preservative period, and this diminution is maintained in the after period.
Summarizing the data for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, and Nos. 8 to 11, inclusive, we find in the first instance that the ratio of the percentage of phosphoric acid ingested that is excreted in tihe urine to the percentage of nitrogen excreted in the urine is 1:1.46 in the fore period, 1: 1.55 in the preservative period, and 1: 1.53 in the after period. These figures indicate a tendency on the part of the preservative administered in the form of sulphite to diminish the relative excretion of lphospho)ric acid, as coinpare(d with that of nitrogen. This tendency is also noticed in tihe after period, but to a less extent. In the second sununary for Nos. 8 to 11, inclusive, having received sulphurous acid in a free state, it is noticed that the ratio in the fore period is 1: 1.49, in the p)reservative period 1: 1.53, and in the after period 1: 1.58. In this series, as in the first one, there appears to be a tendency on the part of tie preservative to diminish the quantity of phosploric acid excreted in proportion to the quantity of nitrogen excrete(l, and this tendenlicy is even more marked in the after period.
The average results expressed( in this manner are concordant for )otb sunuaries, showing a slight teii(ndency to diminish the relative excretion of pI)lospl)h(ri( acild, with the one1 exception that the results as given in Table VII show a slight tendency on the part of free sulphurous acid to increase the relative excretion of phosphoric acid.
Taken as a whole, and considering the sligllht variations of the ratio from the normal, it is evident that the preservative does not exert any great influence in changing the relative amounts of phosphoric acid and lnit rogen excret(ed.










SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHIITES. *829












Z ............. *

t t- C6 vi t m -1 4 m





c-0C;t C ~0 CD 4 i C~- c> ctcni tr~ e -lz ~ L-c:

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830 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.












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SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 831



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832 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES OIN HEALTH.






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SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 833




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c 00 w C4 x cq "IT cq c cc C> V- L
x vi 4 Ci gi
z tc



cq m c1l

1:4 1 4




t6 6 6 k6
4j



- - ------c
7i 17! 7i



0'", to 114 t- M t- X -V ct m
cl I L; o 00 to oo c- -el t- --Z" CYD t- 0
c cli 4 C r tf m o cli m CIZ ^-I C,71 "I N
ci ci N. ci ci
z


t4 0-1 c r c C14 c 11 =-T
M CZ- C' -Z I

t cs -4 C5 -.4 N C4 c,-. c ci,--i vi c-i -.1 -4 -4 ci
cil to


cq
x c,

t6 4e L6 4 IZ 1



M go r---o -Z
tz
C-6 Lm

















tc-:z t tk
7= 7=
c

E-4

P4














834 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.










vi c'i cc.










0 C4-,
C4



t12, -4 U 4 I A







c~~ic40 cc cc' Cc' T~c a'c~ 4c




t -- -0








C4 00 t







c1~ t-L0 ---o m cic



ccl o'l OCI N~ N- t- -.- N.I -, C-i* CA
t. ,
.. .... ..... .














-ro,






H - ,q~tI, L:












SULPHUROUJS ACID AND SULPHITES. 835














7! 7 7: 7!'







1-4 ;5 Iti '-f 0~ N t- 0-" 1 t C14 L l '
cm e_ Z6 Ei 06 __ C4_ _ __* o =N c N I'DN

MC 00 C 0C 0eq m c c-~ mc 0-4 0 t- 4-i" to ci c; I .-i 6 -4 OCv C- 1-0 6cIq C-1. o01 6
4-DDC N -1 cli CO N- COD- V5 ~ OcCl N 0 ~ ~


t- C- mI =- --z t-0
t- C>~ -4 t 00 =c g

r4 4 44 C .4 -l ,i v 4 6 4 r- -4 4 (0viz~~~I r-1___ --q __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _
l~9-_-4_ _ __ _ _L'






1- = .4 ll* 1-4 -( .T 1- Lo --14 -4 -4 lt- -. t I 00 C. .~ eq u-.) c. ( 'o0






bi L',



to 00_ _t-_ _o_ .D



C)o



co v~ C6' Oi '
to 71 'n 7- 71



4= .t ,: oo (m
I 4-J,




o A 't0 to u ', t- '.5- N Z000-NN**





ca 0f cq t 00 9
~ 0 ~ .~t4

Li t- [N c- ~
1140Bul 84, p o 3-7--6117MN '0-4h














836 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTAf.


t4 C14 eq M

















--- ---- - ----- --
ct C' c

*or c'e eqC', .,
"gt- -' gc~i gc~

-- ------C>0 C 00 eq

z0. Cc' "sie ~ci ci C4e ei4 '


eq z to *~0 C C~0 M'4C001

... eq ... -- --



-' M;I r. l I cl l dv









.... --- ------- .. ~ -_ -- -- --- ...
00~ oo lc~*0





I~ ~~ .. eq eq. eq.q ......- -Z C4 *


-i "i C s iC
-iC4 ccqe





(=5 -7!0


-7 7

I 0- 77















SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 837








____ -4_ -4_ -4 -4__ :4:




411









c UD "t -- ~- 4N-i1




4 o 4 i i (=5~ oci ci -4 ii :: c c'i ::





00

00 t-~ 000 -q) of 00ll c'll C)0 *q 1C00C 0(1> -q m m *q




_ -4 Cll ____ C-4








t. 00 m 1-4 LC) m *l cq 1= M 00 I ,

0 e d 4 -4, *l 14 ~
2: A~;:yj< :: 2













00 m1 t- t--~*






00 c o' o





cd c'0 c 00 0w 00 0cr) N0 m m~ mm'~
M t- o Cii c m-' t- i c c m i- lf =1 m0 cr

L6oi o'io'i ci c 4 6 i z Co' 3oi coli i cli v'i ti C5cli





0-4 Z Cl r- (OR O2 00 00U IT 0 q 0,~* )0 )


01 N1 01 t* t- -n t7 l00

*r N 03 1- IT x I I- c* 8 ~
v IV al ac~ ** 'Sz
t* I *4 -4, Cj 4 c 4 06, C3m' '5l *.U2 *s) l

.. .. .. .. .. .' .. . . .. . .
t-* oc C N




." ... .. : : . ... .....












0)~tf '0 -: EL,~ ~ ) '














838 INFLUENCE OF'FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.





--4- I" w 4-0 0t~ -4- N6 0N0



44

-ndjn~



en C4c r








-c0 0





".-4"

~~~~~C 11 xndr1




o acttls-i-q~giqdn t

8 R


0A** -141 50 Jim
U '30_ __






N : 0

C4 It _I __;









olfo.111 '10 C> 0


t-00 PL.*~






... .z.. .. ....





-- -t iIm fJ; (I ,, 7
















0-4,



~Lq~Vw







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 839
TABLE VIII.- Urine determinations-Relative amounts of nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphoric acid excreted, expressed as percentages of amounts ingested, Series VIIContinued,
SUMMARIES.
Nos. 1 to 6. Nos. 8 to 11.
Period. Quantity. Ratio. Quantity. Ratio.
Nitrogen. P205- P205: N. Nitrogen. P205. P205: N. Percent. Percent. Percent. Percent.
Fore period ............................... 86-43 59.26 4: 1. 46 80-50 54.09 1:1.49
Preservative period ---------------------- 91-24 58-96 1: 1.55 79.55 52.00 1:1.53
After period .............................. 88.37 57.77 1:1.53 81-51 51.73 1:1.58

CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE QUANTITIES OF SULPHUR COMPOUNDS EXCRETED IN THE URINE.
The fact that sulphur was administered both in the form of a preservative and in the food presents a very interesting problem in tracing its final elimination from the body. This point is also considered in the discussion of the sulphur balances. Since the kidneys practically have the entire duty of eliminating the preservative, the urine in this case is worthy of special study in regard to the sulphur content. In Table XI are the data for the various sulphur determinations made on the urine, including total sulphur as S and as SO,, and the following determinations as SO:,: Total sulphates; neutral sulphur (representing the sulphur which is held in organic combination and is not completely oxidized) which is the difference between the total sulphur and total sulphates as SO,; ethereal sulphates; inorganic sulphates (total minus the ethereal siilphates), and the ratio of the ethereal to the inorganic sulphates. In addition, neutral sulphur, and total ethereal and inorganic sulphates are expressed in percentage of the total sulphureliminated.
To determine whether any of the preservative was excreted as sulphites or sulphurous acid the distillation method for the determination of sulphurous acid was used.a Volumetric determinations of the iodin were useless, as small amounts were found on blank determinations. The iodin was. boiled off and the sulphates formed precipitated by barium clilorid. By this method blank determinations on normal urine gave 0.08 milligram of SO, in 200 cc of urine. Determinations tiring the various preservative periods on 200 cc of the urine never gave over 1 milligram, the average being 0.07.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
It is seen in the case of No. I that there is an average daily increase of 300 milligrams of total sulphur eliminated in the preservative period and an average increase of 36 milligrams in the after period
a1J. S. Dej)t. Aar, Bureau of ('heinistry, Bul. 107, p. 187.







840 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

over the fore period. Referring to the table of administration of the preservative it is seen that 564 milligrams of SO,, equivalent to 282 milligrams of sulphur, were given in the form of sodium sulphite. The feces, however, showed a marked decrease in sulphur during the preservative and after periods (Table X), which might be thought to account for the increase of sulphur excreted in the urine above the amount exhibited in the preservative. The average data given in Table X do not indicate, however, that such an influence was exerted.
One point worthy of notice is the increase of neutral sulphur during the preservative and after periods. This increase during the preservative period amounts to 203 milligrams of SO3, or 81 milligrams of sulphur. There is a little over half this increase in the after period over the fore period. Considering the sulphates determined as such it is seen that there is an increase of 549 milligrams of SO3, which is equivalent to 219 milligrams of sulphur. There is a decrease in the after period to a quantity less than in the fore period. Further, it is seen that this increase is entirely in the quantity of inorganic or preformed sulphates, the quantity of ethereal or organically combined sulphuric acid remaining remarkably constant in the case of this subject throughout the period of observation. If, as is said to be the case, the ethereal sulphates are an indication of putrefactive changes taking place in the intestines, there seems no evidence of such a condition in this instance.
The average ratio of ethereal sulphates to inorganic sulphates is commonly given as 1: 10. In the case of No. 1, this ratio in the fore period is 1: 13.4, in the preservative period 1: 17.0, and in the after period 1: 13. Naturally the ratio would be greatly disturbed when sulphur is exhibited in the preservative, but it is of interest to note the Inagnitude of this disturbance in the individuals and that it is due, in every case b)ut two, to a large increase in the amount of inorganic sulphates.
The results expressed in percentage of the total sulphur eliminated show a large increase of neutral sulphur in the preservative period which is slightly increased in the after period. The total sulphates show a gradual falling off during the observation which is quite marked in the preservative period. The ethereal sulphates fall from 6.2 per cent i t lile (fore period to 4.8 per cent in the preservative period(, rising again to 6.1 per cent in the after period, while the inorganic sulpates gradually decrease in percentage amount throughout, not wit lhst an(ding their large increase in actual amount eliminated.
A Point wo()rthiy ()of conmiment here is the increase in the actual and percentage amount of neutral sulphur and the decrease in the per cent of ethereal sulphates. Since the total sulphur is so largely increased it does not follow that the decrease in the percentage almuillts ofd the0 other formlls iaiis a (decrease in the actual amounts,







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 841

and as is seen, such is not the case, but the increase of neutral sulphur shows an increase of unoxidized sulphur from some source.
The data for No. 2, as given in Table XI, agree very closely with those discussed for No. 1. One notable exception is the decrease in this case of the percentage amount of neutral sulphur during the preservative period, though there is an increase in actual amount of 63 milligrams of neutral sulphur, as SO,. The ethereal sulphates in this instance are again constant, ranging from 213 milligrams of sulphur as SO3, in the fore period to 216 milligrams during, the preservative period and 205 milligrams during the after period. The ratio of ethereal sulphates, to the inorganic varies from 1: 11.2 in the fore period to 1: 13.4 in the preservative period, and 1: 11.3 in the after period. As in the case of No. 1, the greatest increase of sulphur is in the form of inorganic sulphates.
In the case of No. 3 there is an increase in total sulphur, sulphates, and neutral sulphur, and also a notable increase in the ethereal sulphates, during the preservative period. The percentage amount of neutral sulphur and inorganic sulphates is slightly increased during the preservative period, while the total sulphates show a slight decrease in percentage amount and the ethereal sulphates a considerable decrease during the preservative period. The ratio of the ethereal sulphates to the inorganic varies from 1: 11.7 in the fore period to 1: 14.0 in the preservative period, and 1: 11.9 in the after period.
With one exception the data for No. 4 agree with those of No. 1 in every respect. The percentage of inorganic sulphates of the total sulphur excreted shows an increase of 0.8 per cent in the preservative period, while there is a decrease in the case of No. 1. There is a continued decrease in the af ter period in both instances. The ratio of the ethereal sulphates to the inorganic is 1: 15 in the fore period, 1: 19.5 in the preservative period, and 1: 17.4 in the after period.
In the case of No. 5 there is an increase in all the sulphur constituents, during the -preservative period, with a decrease in the after period to a less amount than is shown in the fore period. The percentage amounts of these substances remain practically the same in the preservative period as in the fore period. Trle neutral sulphur and inorganic sulphates show a decrease in the after period over the fore period, while the total ethereal sulphates show ain increase. The average ratio of the ethereal sulphates to the inorganic is 1: 16.9, 1: 17.2, and 1: 12.7 for the three periods respectively.
No. 6 shows an increase of neutral sulphur throughout the observation, while in the case of the ethereal sulphates there is an increa(' se during the preservative period, returning, however, in tHie after period to the same aniount as in the fore period. The chief 11increse, as in the previous subjects, was in the amount of inorganic sullphates. The ratio of ethereal sulphates to the inorganic is 1: 14.3 inl the fore







842 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

period, 1: 17.8 in the preservative period, and 1:17.1 in the after period.
The amounts of sulphur expressed in percentage of the total sulphur excreted shows practically the same variations as those previously mentioned. The data for No. 7, being incomplete, are not included in the averages, but are inserted as a matter of record.
For No. 8 there is seen an increase in the amount of total sulphur, neutral sulphur, and inorganic sulphates. The ethereal sulphates in this case remain practically constant, there being a slight diminution in the preservative and after periods as compared with the fore period. The ratio of ethereal sulphates to inorganic sulphates is 1:9.2 in the fore period, 1: 12.1 in the preservative period, and 1: 10.3 in the after period. The percentage amounts of neutral sulphur for this subject show a decrease in the preservative period from the fore period, with a large increase in the after period, to an amount greater than in the fore period. The total sulphates show an increase in the preservative period and a decrease in the after period. The ethereal sulphates are decreased in the preservative period, while the inorganic sulphates show a corresponding increase.
In the case of No. 9 the data in a general way agree closely with those for No. 8. A striking contrast, however, is the decrease during the preservative period of the ratio of ethereal to inorganic sulphates, falling from 1: 14.1 in the fore period to 1:13.4 in the preservative period, remaining constant, namely, 1: 13.3 in the after period. This decrease is due to the relatively larger increase of ethereal sulphates over the inorganic during the preservative period. This is also seen where the amounts are expressed in per cent of the total sulphur. The ethereal sulphates are practically constant throughout.
Trlhe data for No. 10 agree in a general way very closely with those of No. 8. The increase in the sulphur elimination is shown entirely by the neutral and inorganic sulphates, the ethereal sulphates remaining practically constant throughout.
No. 11 shows a noticeable increase in the ethereal sulphates and a ratio of this form to the inorganic sulphates which is abnormally high throughout. In the fore period it is 1:21.4, in the preservative period 1:20.3, and in the after period 1:21.4. This ratio is similar to that of No. 9 in the fact that it is lower in the preservative period.
The neutral sulphur shows an increase throughout the period of observation, while the inorganic sulphates are largely increased in the )preservative period, but fall to an amount less than in the fore period (luring the after period.
In the case of No. 12 there is a notable increase in the actual amount of ethereal sulphates which causes the ratio to inorganic sulphates to l)e but slir htly higher during the preservative period. The neutral








SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 843

sulphur shows a decided increase during the preservative period, which is maintained during the after period, but to a less extent. The inorganic sulphates again bear the greater part of the increase. The percentage elimination of neutral sulphur is increased during the preservative period, while the other forms are decreased.
Reviewing the entire individual data, there is seen an increase in every instafice in the amount of neutral sulphur, while there is a decrease in the percentage amount in the cases of Nos. 2 and 8 and a noticeable increase in the actual amount of ethereal sulphates in the cases of Nos. 3,5, 6, 9, 11, and 12. The percentage amount of neutral sulphur is largely increased in the cases of Nos. 6 and 8 in the after period. Nos. 9 and 11 present a peculiar condition, namely, a decrease in the 'Preservative period in the ratio of the ethereal, to inorganic sulphates. This shows a relatively larger increase in the ethereal sulphates for these subjects than in the inorganic sulphates.
The relative increase or decrease in the sulphur compounds which are affected by the administration of the preservative are shown in Table IX. In the case of those subjects receiving sodium sulphite it is strikingly shown that when there is a decrease or but a slight increase in the percentage amount of neutral sulphur eliminated there is an increase in the inorganic sulphates. In the case of No. 1 the converse is true, there being a large increase in neutral sulphur and a corresponding decrease in inorganic sulphur.
The subjects receiving sulphurous acid show that when the percentage amounts of neutral sulphur are largely increased the inorganic sulphates show a corresponding decrease. In this instance the converse is true of No. 8, which shows a decrease in neutral sulphur and an increase in inorganic sulphates.
TABLE I.X.- Urine deierin inations-Lily increase or decrease of ihe percentage amounts of neutr-al sulphur and inorgani sul1 phates elim inaited dii rin'g ike preserrat .ire Period, Series VII.
Received sodliuml siil- R(eceived sulphuiirous
Number. -Number.
'Neutral Inorganic Nent ri I Inorg:~ ile
sulphuir. suipia t es. ip ir stpht.

2 .......................... +3-3 +2.4 7........................ -1+.132.
23...................... .4 1. S............ ..........3.2-S
3.............................. 7. 9....... .................. -.I
4 .......................... + .4 +0. I. ..................1;-.
6 .......................... + .4 + .7 12 .....................2,6 2



In the summary for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, complete dlata aire given for the fore period, the first three suibperiods of the preservative period, and the after period. In this s1ummar'11Y the inraeIII thle total sulphur excreted in the preservati.Ne period amounts to 270)







844 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

milligrams. The aminount of sulphir in the after period is 4 milligranis less than that excreted in the fore period. There is an increase of 107 milligrams as neutral sulphur over that found in the fore period and an increase of 60 milligrams in the after period over the fore period. The total sulphates show an increase of 567 milligrams in the preservative period and in the after period a decrease from that of the fore period of 70 milligrams. The amount of ethereal -ulphates is practically constant throughout the fore period and preservative period, falling to 156 milligrams in the after period. Inorganic sulphates show an increase, namely, 565 milligrams. The ratio of the ethereal to the inorganic sulphates for the fore period is 1:13.1, for the preservative period 1:16.4, and for the after period 1:13.5. This increase in magnitude in the preservative period is due wholly to the increase in the inorganic sulphates, which points to the fact that the sulphur ingested( in the preservative has all been oxidized. It should be noted in this table that the data for the after period fall to the same amounts, or even less, than the amounts eliminated in the fore period. In considering this, it should be explained that the fourth preservative subperiod is omitted in the summary for these subjects, as three of them, namely, Nos. 3, 5, and 6, did not receive the preservative during the fourth subperiod and No. 5 during only part of the third subperio(l. Since the actual after period in the case of these subjects covered fifteen days, it is only natural that the data for the after period as given have returned to normal, showing that all the sulphur ingested was eliminated during this length of time. It is seen that there is a slight increase in the percentage amount of neutral sulphur eliminated, which increase is shown also in the after period. The percentage o()f total sulphates is fairly constant for the fore period and( the preservative period, but is reduced somewhat in the after l)period(. There is a decrease in the percentage of ethereal sulphates in the l)r eserlative peril d1 and( a slight increased percentage elimination of the inorganic suilphates, which decreases in the after period to a quantity less than inll the fore period. Inll this summalry it is seen that the large increase of sulphur excreted is found as inorganic sulphates. The average (laily amount (of sulphur ingestedl in the preservative for these six r1n( for the three su1hperiods is 484 milligrams, as So., or 242 milligrams of silphllur us 8, and( the total sulphur eliminated in the preservaive wperio(l is 270 miiilligrams above that of the fore period. It is evident, therefore, that there has b)een an increase in the excretion (of Iietabholized sulphur during the preservative period over the aimmount of sulphur given in the preservative, indicating an increased katal)(oisml. There is also an increase inll the amount of neutral sul1)111ur eliminated(l, which tenl(Is to slmhow that some of the sulphur, whether ol)tain(1d directly from katabolismi or from the sulphur







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 845

ingested in the preservative or food, has been eliminated in an unoxidized or organically combined form.
In the summary for Nos. 8 to 11, inclusive, the increase in sulphur eliminated in the preservative period is 164 milligrams. In the after period there is also an increase of 81 milligrams over that of the fore period. Taking the fore period as the normal elimination of sulphur for these men, it is seen that the total elimination of sulphur during the preservative and after period is 245 milligrams (as S) above that of the fore period. In tracing the course of the preservative, this manner of calculation-namely, including the increased elimination in the after period-may be considered permissible, as whatever disorder is occasioned by the administration of the preservative may still influence the excretion during the after period. The amount of neutral sulphur is here increased during the period of observation, there being an increase of only 90 milligrams in the preservative period and 128 milligrams in the after period over that of the fore period. The total sulphates show an increase of 321 milligrams over the fore period, there being a slight increase also in the after period over the fore period, amounting to 75 milligrams per day. There is also an increase in this case of ethereal sulphates in the preservative period, returning however, to practically the same magnitude in the after period as in the fore period. The increase in the amount of inorganic sulphates, therefore, is not the increase of the total sulphates, but, as is seen, is 306 milligrams, the ethereal sulphates increasing 15 milligrams, while in the after period there is a strong tendency to return to normal, only 73 milligrams of sulphur being excreted in excess of that in the fore period. The ratio of ethereal sulphates to inorganic sulphates is 1:13.9 in the fore period, 1:14.5 in the preservative period, and
1 :14.2 in the after period.
As is seen, the relation between the ethereal sulphates and the inorganic sulphates is not so strongly marked as in the case of Nos. 1 to 6, where the sulphur, in the form of sodium sulphite, and in a large quantity, was ingested. In the summary for Nos. 8 to 11, who received sulphurous acid, this relation was disturbed by the increase in the ethereal sulphates.
The percentage elimination of the neutral sulphur in the fore period is 11.9, in the preservative period 13.4, and in the after period 15.9. The total-sulphlates show a corresponding decrease throughout the period. There is very little difference in the percentage excretion of ethereal sulphiates in this suniniary, while the percentage of inorganic sulphates shows a gradual diminution for the three periods. The average amount of sulphur in the cases of Nos. 8, 9, 1, a(nd 11, ingested( in the form of sulphurous acid, is 343 milligrams of sulphur as SO, equivalent to 172 milligrams of sulphur as S. The increase in sulphur elimninated in the preservative period alone is 164 milligrams per day. It







846 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

is evident, therefore, after considering the preservative period alone, that practically the entire amount of sulphur was eliminated in the urine. The increase in the total sulphates, which is 321 milligrams (as SO3, equivalent to 128 milligrams sulphur as S) accounts for the greater amount of sulphur which is ingested in the preservative. In addition to this there is an increase in the amount of neutral sulphur of 36 milligrams (as S), which, if added to the increase in sulphates during the preservative periods, amounts to 164 milligrams, 8 milligrams less than enough to account for the sulphur given in the form of sulphurous acid. Taking into account the increase of sulphur in the after period, it is again apparent that more sulphur has been eliminated than was ingested as preservative and in the food and that the greater part (nearly 75 per cent) of the sulphur, which was given in the form of sulphurous acid gas, is eliminated in a completely oxidized form, namely, sulphates. One point of difference shown in the comparison of these two summaries is a considerable increase in the amount of ethereal sulphates eliminated in the preservative period for Nos. 8 to 11. It may be well to mention in this connection the opinion held by some authorities that the ethereal sulphates result from free sulphurous acid formed in the intestines during digestion.
The data, as a whole, show the same tendency throughout, namely, the elimination of practically all of the sulphur in an oxidized form. In the case of the subjects Nos. 1 to 6, who received the preservative as sodium sulphite, there is a greater excretion of neutral sulphur during the preservative period than in the cases of Nos. 8 to 11, who received sulphurous acid, while in the after period the converse is true. In the case of sodium sulphite more sulphur is eliminated during the preservative period than is ingested in the preservative.
In order to obtain the d(lata in a more comprehensive form for comparison, Table X is compiled from the sulphur balance sheets (Table XVII), schedule of administration (Table II), and Table XI, and shows the amount of increase or decrease of sulphur in the food in the preservative and after periods over the fore period; also the amount of increase or decreasee of sulphur in the feces, the average amount of sul)hur given in the l)reservative, and the increase of total sul)phur, of neutral sulphur, and of total sulphates in the urine.
For ready comparison with the amount of preservative administere(l the numerical values o()f the increase or decrease of the sulphur (com1)ounlis are expressed in terms of the element S in Table X, though the data in Table XI are expressed as SO, and(l in the table of administration in terms of SO. This is (lone in order to compare more easily the ingestion and excretion of the preservative, and the figures are easily obt gained from the other tables by taking one-half the value expl)resse(l as S()O, and two-fifths of the value when expressed as SO,.










SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 847

TABLE X.- Urine determinations-Average daily increase or decrease of sulphur excreted
in the preservative and after periods over the fore period, as compared with the amounts
ingested, Series VII.
PRESERVATIVE PERIOD.

Increase or de- Average increase of sulphur
Sulphur crease of sulphur. in the urine.
ingested
Individuals, totals, and averages, as pre- Astotal As
serva- As total sul- neutral
stive. In food. In feces. sulphur. plates. sulphur.


Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
No. 1 ..................................... 0. 282 -0.081 -0..020 0.300 0.219 0.081
2 ................................... 282 + .026 + .010 .236 .210 .025
3 ................................... 186 + .010 + .043 .319 .274 .044
4 .................................... .315 .008 + .001 .291 .255 .038
5 ................................... 155 -- .230 + .014 .165 .139 .025
6 ................................... 187 .062 + .003 .340 .292 .048
7 ................................... 106 .145 .012 .132 .095 .036
8 ................................... 172 .023 + .005 .188 .168 .019
9. .................................172 .049 :L .000 .316 .244 .071
10 ................................... .172 .042 + .020 .065 .040 .024
11 ................................... .172 .023 .001 .090 .061 .029
12 ................................... .112 + .003 .015 .17-4 .124 .050

Total (12 men) .................... 2.313 624 + .048 2. 616 2.221 .490
Average ........................... .193 .052 + .004 .218 .185 .041
Total (Nos. 1-6) .................... 1.407 .345 + .051 1. 651 1.389 .261
Average........................... .235 .058 + .009 .275 .232 .043
Total (Nos. 8-11) .................. .688 .137 + .024 .659 .513 .143
Average ........................... .172 --.034 + .006 .165 .128 .036


AFTER PERIOD.


No.1..................................... 0 +0.005 -0.057 0. 036 -0.010 0.046
2 .................................... 0 + .051 .011 .014 .029 .016
3 ..................................... 0 + .078 .010 .030 .004 .025
4 ..................................... 0 + .042 .007 .030 .003 .030
5 ..................................... 0 -.403 -.008 .223 -25 -.039
6 ..................................... 0 + .001 .005 .197 .134 .02
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - i . . . .- "-
......... .............. ............ 51 .072
9 .....................................0 .002 + .046 .169 .114 .054
10 ....................................0 .019 + .030 .02s .020 .047
I1 ......... ...........................0 + .003 .032 .006 026 1032
12 ....................................0 089 .051 .000 .025 .025
Total (11 men) ............................ .305 .114 .382 .089 .370
Average ............................ 0 .028 .010 .035 -.008 .034
Total (Nos. 1-6) ........................... .226 .098 .056 .183 .140
Average ............................ 0 .038 016 .(0 .031 .023

Total (Nos. 8-11) ............................ + .010 + j035 .32.. .119 .205
Average ............................ 0 + J02 + 0() .081 30 .051


The sulphur increase or decrease in the food and feces is al(ded to
the table in order to show whether the apparently abnormal increase
in the elimination coul be due to an increase in the amount ingested
in food or to a diminution in the amount eliminated in the feces.

An inspection of the table shows in all but three of the cases a
decrease in the amount of sulphur in the food (luring the preservative
period, the average for the 12 men showing 52 milligrams of sulphur
less than in the fore period. The sulphur in the feces shows some
variation, but not enough in magnitude or regularity to warrant the
conclusion that any of the sulphur of the preer-ative was il-m ite(
through this channel, the average increase for the 12 men amounting







848 IN FLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

to only 4 milligrams. The average daily amount of sulphur as preservative given to each man throughout the entire preservative period amounted to 193 milligrams. The total increased elimination of sulphur in the urine is 218 milligrams, and of this amount 185 milligrams is in the form of sulphates and 41 milligrams in the form of neutral sulphur.
The summary for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, who received sodium sulphite, shows an average decrease of 58 milligrams of sulphur in the food during the preservative period and an increase of 9 milligrams in the feces, both of which would tend to decrease the amount of sulphur in the urine, though this influence would be small.
There is an average ingrestion of 235 milligrams of sulphur per man per (lay in the preservative period from the administered preservative and( a total increased elimination of 275 milligrams, 232 milligrams of which is in the form of sulphates and 43 milligrams as neutral sulphur.
Nos. 8 to 11 show practically no influence by the decrease of sulphur in the food, which is but 34 milligrams less than in the fore period, while the amount eliminated in the feces is only 6 milligrams greater than in the fore period. The average daily ingestion of sulphur in the form of sulphurous acid amounte(l to 172 milligrams per day. The increase in total sulphur eliminated amounted to 165 milligrams; 128 milligrams of this was in the form of sulphates and 36 milligrams as neutral sulphur.
A comparison of the averages of Nos. 1 to 6 and 8 to 11, who received sodium sulphite and sulphurous acid, respectively, shows in the case of Nos. 1 to G a consid(eral)ly greater quantity of sulphur eliminated than was given in the preservative, while the amount of sul)hur which was eliminated in an oxidized form is practically the same as that a(ldministeredl in the preservative. In the case of Nos. 8 to 11, the increase of total sulphur eliminated in the preservative perio(l ani the administered sulphur agree very closely. In the after period the conditions seeing to be reverse(l for these two summaries. N(os. I to 6 show more of a ten(lency to return to normal, with an average decrease in the excretion of sull)hates as compared with the fore p)eriol, while Nos. 8 to 11 still show an increase of sulphates excreted in thle after period. This difference may be partly due, as is explain el in the (isussion of the summary, to the comparison of only t hre plreservaive sUlbperiors for Nos. I to 6 with th le four preservative subhperiods for Nos. 8 to 11. The neutral sulphur in the cases of Nos. S to 11 is seen to be increased, and this increase still persists t1) a greater degree (luring the after period.
Prescha found a large 1111increase )f nIlmeulitral sulphur1110 after the ingest1011 of Iowers o(f sulphur iII X)eprimlleIlts on menl, and c111oncluded that
SVirch.w's Archiv, 1890, I 1: 148.







SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 849

the, elimination was in part in form of organic compounds, and indicated that the organism synthetically made use of inorganic sulphur. Whether sulphurous acid and sulphites would be used in this manner is somewhat doubtful, and from the data it would be difficult to say with any assurance that these two substances Were used in the body economy' even though the neutral sulphur is largely increased, particularly in case of sulphites where the total sulp ur eliminated is m excess of the sulphur ingested, and would indicate an increased tissue katabolism. That the sulphurous acid is disposed of in a soniewhat different manner is evident. In the preservative period 95-93 per cent of the preservative sulphur is immediately eliminated, assuming that the total increase of sulphur is derived from the sulphur ingested in the preservative; 74.4 per cent of this being as sulphates and 21.5 per cent as neutral sulphur, while in the. after period the increased elimination of sulphur is still marked, particularly, y as neutral sulphur. In the after period the variations of the quantities in excess of the fore period are naturally not so marked and, in fact, not much more marked than one would expect to find in the period following any derangement of the metabolic processes. This without doubt shows a very rapid elimination of the preservative from the body, with scarcely aDy'kccumulative action.









850 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE XI.- -Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series VII.

[Averages are per day.]
N o. 1.

C; . Results expressed in
In o percent of total sulc phur in ternis of SO,.


-, ,O [J
Period. 0 9O =O -O w

&-. ".d -.
0 0


Fore period.
First suhperiod: Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct.
Total........... 5.645 14.09 1.350 12.746 0.953 11.793 1:12.4 9.6 90.4 6.8 83.6
Average......... 1.129 2.819 .270 2. 549 .191 2. 359 .............................
Second subperiod:
Total........... 5.681 14.185 1.740 12.445 .791 11.654 1:14.7 12.3 87.7 5.6 82.2
Average ......... 1.136 2.837 .348 2.489 .158 2.331 ...............................
Entire fore period:
Total.......... 11.326 28.281 3.090 25.191 1.744 23.447 1:13.4 11.0 89.0 6.2 82.9
Average ......... 1.133 2.828 .309 2.519 .174 2.345 .................. ...... .....
Preserrat e period.
First subperiod:
Total.......... 6.054 15.117 2.057 13.00 .772 12.288 1:15.9 13.6 86.4 5.1 81.3
Average......... 1.211 3.023 .411 2. 612 154 2.458 ......................... ..
Second suhperiod
Total........... 6.487 16.198 1.948 14.250 .839 lt.411 1:16.0 12.0 88.0 5.2 82.8
Average ......... 1.297 3.240 .390 2.850 .168 2.(682 .............. ... ..............
Third subperiod
Total........... 7.909 19.749 3.049 16.700 .797 15.903 1:20.0 15.4 84.6 4.0 80.5
Average ....... 1.582 3. 950 .610 3. 340 .159 3.181 .............. ...... ... .....
Fourth subperiod
Total.......... 8.217 20.518 3.178 17.340 1.009 16.331 1:16.2 15.5 84.5 4.9 79.5
Average........ 1. 643 4.104 .636 3.4(68 .202 3 266 ...............................
Entire preservative
period:
Total......... 28.667 71.582 10.232 61.350 3.417 57.933 1:17.0 14.3 85.7 4.8 80.9
Averag ........... 1. 433 3.579 .512 3.0 8 .171 2.897 ..... .............. .....
After period.
First subperiod:
Total.......... 6.113 15 264 2.474 12.790 .903 11.887 1:13.2 16.2 83.8 59 77.9
Average....... 1. 223: 3.053 .495 2. 558, .181 2 377 ........................ ...
Second slhperiod:
Total.......... 5 581 13.936 1.776 12.10 .878 11.282 1:12 8 12.7 87 3 6.3 81.0
Average...... 1.116 2.787 .355 2. 432 .176 2.2 ........ ..........

Entire after period.
Total.......... 1i 694 29 200 4.2.) 24 950 1.781 23 169 1:13. 0 14.6 85 4 C.1 79.3
Average...,.. 1. () 2. 920 425 2 495 178 2.31 ......









SULPHUROUS ACID AND SULPHITES. 851


TABLE XI.- Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]
No. 2.

Results expressed in
0 percent of total sulphur in terms of SO3.


P eriod. 0

4 0 .4 2. 6 .
eo a) P4 4r;d


E ore period.
First subperiod: Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. P. Ct. P. Ct. P. et. P. et.
Total ........... 1055 15.119 1.919 13.200 1.030 12.170 1:11.8 12.7 87.3 6.8 80.5
Average ......... 1.211 3.024 .384 2.640 .206 2. 434 .................................
Second subperiod:
Total ........... 5.850 14.607 1.937 12.670 1.095 11.575 1:10.6 13.3 86.7 7.5 79.2
Average ......... 1.170 2.921 .387 2.534 .219 2. 315 .................................
Entire fore period:
Total ..........11.905 29.726 3.856 25.870 2.125 23.745 1:11.2 13.0 87.0 7.2 79.9
Average ......... 1.0191 2.973 .386 2.587 .213 2.375...........................
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total ........... 5.893 14.715 1.635 13.080 1.043 12.037 1:11.5 11.1 88.9 7.1 81.8
Average ........ 1.179 2.943 .327 2. 616 .209 2.407 ...............................
Second subperiod:
Total ...........7.025 17.541 2.411 15.130 1.134 13.996 1:12.3 13.7 86.3 6.5 79.8
Average ......... 1.405 3. 508 .482 3.026 .227 2. 799 ................................
Third subperiod:
Total ........... 8.483 21.182 2.692 18.490 1.060 17.430 1:16.4 12.7 87.3 5.0 82.3
Average --------- 1.697 4.236 .538 3.698 .212 3.486 ...........................
Subperiods1,2and3:
Total ..........21.401 53.438 6.738 461700 3.237 43.43 1:13.4 12.6 87.4 6.1 81.3
Average ......... 1.427 3. 563 .449 3. 113 .216 2.898 ................................

After period.
First subperiod:
Total...........6.093 15.214 2.474 12.740 1.061 11.679 1:11.0 16.3 83.7 7.0 76.7
Average ......... 1.219 3.043 .495 2.548 .212 2.336 ................ ...........
Second subperiod:
Total ........... 5.681 14.185 1.775 12.410 .989 11.421 1:11.5 12.5 87.5 7.0 80.5
Average ......... 1. 136 2. 837 355 2. 482 198 2. 284........................... ---Entire after period:
Total ..........11.774 29.399 4.249 25.150 2.050 23.100 1:11.3 14.5 85.5 7.0 78.6
Average ......... 1.177 2.94M .425 2.515 .205 2.310......... ...... ...... ......

a Average added to complete record.

11240-Bull. 84, pt 3-07- 7









852 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
0

TABLE XI.-Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

'Wo. 3.

C2 a 2 Results expressed in
go per cent of total sul+--I, phur in terms of SO.

04
Peio. : = -O -_44 a



Fore period.

First subperiod: Grams., Grams, Grams. Gra ms, Grams. Grams) P. ct. P. Ct. P. Ct. P. Ct.
Total ........... 5.220 13.03-4 1.204 11.830 0.923 10.907 1:11.8 9.2 90.8 7.1 83.7
Average ........ 1.044 2.607 .241 2.3 .185 2.181 ........ ...... ...... ..........
Second subl~priod:
Total ........... 5.716 i14.273 1.833 12.440 .99 11. 446 1:11.5 12.8 87.2 7.0 80.2
Av-erage ......... 1.143 2. S5 .36;7 2A 4S .199 2. 289 ........ ...... ...... ............

Entire fore period:
Total ........... 10. 936] 27.307 3. 037 24.270 1.917 22. 353 1:11.7 11.1 8&9 7.0 81.9
Ave(,r; igo ....... 1.094 2. 731 --.304 2. 427 .192 2.2,35 ........ ...... ...... ...... .....
orert Grms Grm.ermriraod.as.Gam.





First subperiod:
Total ......... 6.129 13.01 1.744 13.50 1.076 12.484 1:11.6 11.4 806 7. 81.6
Average ......... 1.226 3.001 .349 2.712 .215 2.497 ..........................
Second su bpvriod:
Total ........... 7.06 17.639 1.789 12.0 .060 14.790 1:14.0 10.1 89.9 6.0 80.2
Average ........ 1.413 3.528 .358 3.170 .212 2.958 ...........................
Third surriod:
Total .......... 7.95 19. 2. 17.280 .975 16.305 1:16.7 11.4 88.6 4.9 81.7
Average ......... 1. 9 3. 3 .537 3.456 .195 3.261 .... .......................

Su periods 1, 2, and
Total ........... 21.129 52.7 6.217 46.690 3.111 43.579 1:14.0 11.8 88.2 5.9 82.4
Average ........ 1.413 3.527 .414 3.113 .207 2.905 ........8..................6....
Avea .......122 3.61 .34 2712 .25 249................. ,,,..,.,.,.



After period.

First subrwriod:
Total ...........7.64 1.19 1.990 12.10 .040 11.790 1:12.0 14.0 8 .0 6.6 79.3
Averaige ........ 1. 13fi 2. 8:6 .398 2. 4- .188 2. 2,5 ........ ...... ...... ...... .....
Soid suhpriodl:
Total ........... 7.551 13.873 1.(8 17.20 .957 11.235 1:11.7 12.1 87.8 5.9 8.9
Average ......... 1.111 2.775 .337 2.46 .191 2.217 .......................... ....
Entir fter 1ariod:
Total ........... 1.823 28. 053 3. 673 24.69 1.897 22.483 1:11.9 1.1 8.9 6.8 80.1
Average ......... 1.12 2. 525 .367 2.13 .20 2.208 ...........................

a Average added to complete riord.