Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..

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Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..
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Food -- Preservation -- Physiological effect   ( lcsh )
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Je4<


US. EPARMENTOV GRICULTURE,








FLU-.OF FOD PRSEYATIYES AND ARIFICIAL

ON IGETIN ANif HEALTH,





YVIBEZOC AIDAND BENiZQATES.




<44 ii

-," TRE OLLABORTION O W. D. BIGELOW, C.~~~~U WXfl NDOLSDEPOSITORY



















GOVENMN PRITING~ OFFICE.
.. 9 8







ORGANIZATION OF TH BUREAU OF
H. W. WILEY, Chemist and Chiefof Bureau.
W. D. BIGELOW, A Che o r
F. L. DUNLAP, Assciate Chemist.
F. B. LIN, Chief Cler. Division of Foods:
W. D. BIow, Chief.
WASINoTON FOOD INSPECTION LAOR.&TORY:
L.. M. TOLMAN, Chief
Chief Food and Drug Ispector:
WALTER G. CAMPBEL.
Food and Drug Inspection Laboratories:
New York, R. E. DOITTLE, Chief.
Boston, B. H. SM, Chief
Philadelphia, C. S. BINTON, Chief.
Chicago, A. L. W NTON, Chief.
New Orleans, C. W. HARRISON, Chief.
San Francisco, R. A. GouL, Chief.
St. Paul, A. S. MrrcHELL, Chief.
Detroit, H. L. ScHuTuz, Chief.
Savannah. [Not appointed.]
Seattle. [Not appointed.]
Buffalo, W. L. DuBOIS, Chief.
Kansas City. [Not appointed.]
Denver, A. E. LEACH, Chief.
Galveston. [Not appointed.]
Portland, Oreg. [Not appointed.] / "
Cincinnati. [Not appointed.] Sugar Laboratory:
Under the direction of the Chief of Bureau. Dairy Laboratory:
G. E. PATRICK, Chief. Miscellaneous Laboratory:
J. K. HAYWOOD, Chief. Drug Laboratory:
L. F. KE1LI, Chief. Contracts Laboratory:
P. H. WALKER, Chief.
Leather and Paper Laboratory:
F. P. VEITCH, Chief Microchemicl Laboratory:
B. J. HOWARD, Chief. Special Investigations:
PYSOLOoICAL CuitImS YAnimal physiology, F. C. WBER, in charge.
Vegetable physiology, J. A. LE CzEC, in charge.
BACTERIOLOGICAL C11EMITYG. W. STILES, Jr., in charge, Washington
M. E. PENNINsTON (food r ),in charge, Phildel i
ENOLWGICAL CE YW. B. A woo, in charge, Charlottesvill, Va.
NITROGEN SEc~-nN
T. C. ThzSCOi', in charge.






Issued July 20, 1908.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF 0HEMISTRT-BULLETIN No. 84, PART IV.
H. W. WILEY, CHIEF OF BUREAU.






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL


COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH.





IV.-BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES.






By H. W. W1LEY, M. ), WITH THE COLLABORATION OF W. I. BIGELOW, CHIEF OF THE DIVISION
OF FOODS, F. C. WEllER, AND OTHERS.



















WASHINGTON:
GOVEIRN.1ENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1OftM8.




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/detaiIs/colorhealtpOOunit





















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY, Washington, D. C., December 26, 1907.
SIR: I beg to submit for your inspection and approval the results of the investigations which have been made in this Bureau to determine the effect of benzoic acid and benzoates upon digestion and health. The work is a continuation in plan of that described in Parts I-11 of Bulletin 84. I recommend that this report be published as Part IV of Bulletin 84.
Respectfully, H.W. WILEY,
Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
'II




















CONTENTS.

Page.
Intod ction .............................................................. 1043

SEES VIII.

Administration of the preservative ........................................... 1045
Excretion of hippuric and benzoic acid ..................................... 1046
Method for determining hippuric and benzoic acid in the urine ............ 1046
Discussion of results .................................................... 1048
Supplementary study ................................................. 1049
Plan of the experiment ........................................... 1049
Analytical method used .......................................... 1050
Discussion of analytical data ...................................... 1050
Daily medical and clinical notes ............................................ 1062
Individual data ............................................... ........ 1062
Conclusions .......................................................... 1084
Body weights ............................................................. 1084
Variations in body weights .............................................. 1084
Ratio of food weight to body weight ..................................... 1087
Weight and water content of the feces ....................................... 1098
Individual data ........................................................ 1098
Sum m armies ............................................................. 1099
The urine .................................................................. 1107
Volume, specific gravity, and total olids----------------------------1107
Individual data .................................................... 1107
Summaries 1108
Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitrogen excreted in the
urine e ............................................................... 1114
Individual data .................................................... 1114
Sum m armies ......................................................... 1116
Changes in the relative quantities of sulphur com111)Umds excrtted in the
urine .............................................................. 1127
Individual data ................................................... 1127
Sum m arises ........................................................ 1132
Microscopical examination of the urint ................................... 1151
Discupsion of observations ........................................... 1151
Conclusion ....................1............... .............. 1152
Micrcopical examination of the b4od ...................................... 1155
Individual data ........................ ................................ 1 55
Sum m arises ..... .......................................... 115t
M etabolic proc sses .................................................... 1159
Nitrogen balanc e ... ............... ................................. 1159
Individual da a .................................................... 1159
Sum m arises ......................................................... 116
-V







V1 CONTENTS.

Metabolic proct-sses-Continued. lPage.
Phosphoric acid balance ............................................... 1181
Individual data .................................................... 1181
Sum m aries ......................................................... 1185
Sulphur balance ................................. ...................... 12 0 2
Individual data .................................................... J202
Summ aries ......................................................... 1206
Fat balance ............................................................ 1224
Individual data ---------------------------------------------------- 1224
Sum m aries --------------------------------------------------------- 1227
Calories balance ........................................................ 1244
Individual data .................................................... 1244
Summaries ......................................................... 1248
Solids balance ......................................................... 1264
Individual data .................................................... 1264
Sum m aries ......................................................... 1267
Summ ary of results ......................................................... 1285
General conClUSiOnS ....................................................... 1293
List of tables .............................................................. 1294





I L L US TR AT IONS.

Page.
FIG. 1. Average body weights for Series VIII, Nos. 1-9 ...................... 1085
2. Average body weights for k8erics VIII, 'Nos. 10-12 and summaries ...... 1086
















INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH.


]IV,-BENZOIC ACID AND BENZ0.1TES.


INTRODUCTION.

In the continuation of the work described in Parts I to III of this
experiments -were conducted, according to the creneral plan already described, to determine the effects ()f beiizoic acid and bellzoates upon health an(I digestioii. This invest lga t ion is of special illiportance because ()f the opinion held, 1) y niany manufacturers, fo()d officials and consumers that beiizoic acid and benzoates are proI)al)lv the least harmful 4 the preservative substances employed. It is believed that for this reason there has been a verV large crease ill the use of these preservatives in the last few years with it e(wresp(m(lilig decrease in the amount ()f (Alier preservative substaiices enipl()N-ed. It has also been claimed that there call be iio reas()mlble ()bjectlml to the use ()f benzoic acid by reasoii ()f its 1111tUral OCCUMT11CO ill 111a]INfood products, either ill traC(1s Or Ill ('01"Isiderable qualititles. AllwMr the products cited the cranberry (wcuples the niost prmlillielit jmsition because ()f the iiotable aitfoulit ()f 1)(,Ilz()i(. acid it cmitaill". I'llese eonsideratioiis, ll()w('\-vr' had ll() (letel-111111111(r ililluence ml the ()f this substaiwe for tilt, experiniental wm-k, lisiwich as it Wils 111cluded in the ()ri(riiial scheine which was prepared before tit(, wm-k relmrted ill Part I was begmi.
'Irlle saille prilicilfles which gtilded the (w(rallizatimi. ()f the Nv(wk as described ill I)art I were ill the 1weselit illstalice. VIM11 tilt&
s(itlectioll ()f tile Illenik.l." (d tilfto it flioroll(ril pX11111illa-tw il ()f the (.11211-acter Idn'll(k. (14-scrihed. N o m it, w as adjllittj (l to tll(- t2Vj)j(, \%-lit) -tjjj*( fr( jjl AM 01" 111lic diseasep wlw 11111111fested 1111 tvildelicY to 114-re(111111-Y 01, W11() had beell sel-W ilsk- ill witilill tilt, I)II'VIM IS to t1le b4h(rilillillt, 4 tilt, experillielltal W(Wk.
10-13






1044 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH

The delay which has attended the presentation of this report for publication has been due to several causes. First, the great burden of collating the data, condensing the analytical tables, and checking the data for accuracy, required, as is usual in such cases, a large amount of time and expert labor. There were also a number of points brought out in the investigations which required further study of the question, both experimentally and in consulting authorities thereon.
Another reason for the delay consisted in the fact that various representations were making on the part of manufacturers and others respecting the effect upon the industries using benzoic acid should the conclusions reached in this report receive executive and judicial confirmation. It was thought advisable, therefore, to give ample time to the industries involved to experiment with methods of manufacture looking to the elimination of objectionable preservatives. Investigations were also undertaken by this Bureau in collaboration with the manufacturing interests along the same line. Results of these investigations have shown that there is not a single article of food which has been commonly preserved by means of benzoic acid or benzoate of soda which cannot be preserved and offered to the consumer in perfect condition without the aid of any chemical preservative. This fact has been completely demonstrated in the case of cider and grape juice, mince-meat, jelly, jams, catsups, preserves, and other articles of the same character, and there seems, therefore, to be no longer any industrial reason for delaying publication even if the former necessity for such delay be admitted.
It is believed that the distribution of the results of this investigation at the present time will neither work hardship to any manufacturing interest nor interfere in any way with any legitimate business. At the same time it will indicate to the manufacturer, as well as to the consumer, the important truth that the use of benzoic acid or benzoate of soda as a preserving medium is not without danger, that its effects are always injurious or tend to injury, and that its exclusion from food products is desirable not only in order to conform to the food and drugs act, but also for hygienic reasons.
The greater care whict is required in the manufacture of food products without the use of benzoic acid or benzoate of soda, necessitating the use of a higher quality of raw material, will place the industries which would otherwise use these preservatives in foods on a better plane, and secure for their products a greater consumption.






SBENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1045

SERIES VIII.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRESERVATIVE.

In Table I are recorded the dates of the periods and subperiods during which this experiment was conducted. A preliminary or relaxation period of one month elapsed between the close of Series VII and the beginning of Series VIII, the subjects being the same in both series with the exception of No. 4.
TABLE I.-Dates of periods and subperiods in Series VIII.

Date of
Period and subperiod. begin- Date of
nmg. ending.
nmng.
1904. 1904.
Fore p iod......................................................................... April 11 April 20
First subperiod................................................... ........ ....do... April 15
Second subperiod............................ .. ............ ............. April16 April20
Preservative period........................ ............ ................... April 21 May 10
First subperiod....................... ........... .. ................... do... April 25
Second subperiod ................................................April 26 April30
Third subperiod................................................. May 1 May 5
Fourth subperiod ............................................................. May 6 May 10
After period ............................................. ............................ M ay 11 M ay 20
First subperiod....................... .... ........ ................... do... May 15
Second subperiod.............................................................. May 16 May 20

In Table II is given a schedule of the administration of the preservative. The sodium benzoate used is calculated in the table as
benzoic acid. The preservative was given in all cases in capsules, as experience had shown this to be the best method from every point of view of administering a substance of this nature.
In the first preservative subperiod there was given to Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, one gramn of benzoic acid per day; to Nos. 7 to 12, inc(lusive, one gramn per day with tihe exception of the first d(lay when only 0.9 gram was given. During the second preservative subperiod 1.5 grams of benzoic acid were given each d(ay to each member. In the third preservative subpl)eriod 2 grams, and in the fourth 2.5 grams were given each day, with the exceptions loted in the table. There were several cases during the fourth subperiod when the preservative, by reason of its ill effects and for other causes, had to be withdrawn. The maximum quantities of benzoic id, therefore,
given during the entire p)reservative period are 35 alnd 34. grails, and only three men were able to take these amounts. In all of the
other cases it wIs necessary to withdraw a portion or all of the
prese-ative for the reasons alreadyY stated.







1046 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE II.-Schedule of administration of preservative, Series VIII.

[In capstules.]

Benzoic acid. Sodium benzoate (expressed as
benzoic acd).
Period and date. bezoic acid).
No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. No. 7.No. 8. No. 9. No. 10. No. 11. No. 12.

First subperiod: Gains. Gis. Gins. G'ms. Gins. Gins. Gins. Gins. Gins. Orns. Gams. Gmsa.
April 21,1904..... 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
22, 1904..... 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
23, 1904..... 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
24, 1904..... 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
25, 1904..... 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.0 1.0 1,0 1.0 1.0

Total per individual....... 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9
Second subperiod:
April 26, 1904..... 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
27, 1904 .... 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
28, 1904..... 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
29, 1904... 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
30, 1904T. .o. 1.5 1.5 1.5' 1.5 1.5 1.5 1. 5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Total per individual....... 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5

Third subperiod:
May 1, 1904...... 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2, 1904...... 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3, 1904...... 2 2 0 1.5 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4, 1904...... 2 2 0 2.5 1 2 2 2 a 2 2 2
5, 104 ...... 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2
Total per individual....... 10 10 1 10.0 8 10 10 10 10 8 10 10

Fourth subperiod:
May 6, 1904...... 2.5 2.5 0 2.5 2 0 1.5 2.5 0 0 2.5 0
7, 1904...... 2.5 0 0 2.5 1 0 2.5 2.5 0 0 0 0
8,1904...... 2.5 0 0 2.5 0 0 2.5 2.5 0 0 0 0
9,1904...... 2.5 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 0
10, 1904...... 2.5 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 0

Total per individual....... 12.5 2.5 0 12.5 3 0 6.5 12.5 0 0 2.5 0
Total per individual for entire preservativeperiod.. 35.0 25.0 13.5 35.0 23.5 22.5 28.9 34.9 22.4 20.4 24.9 22.4

a Took preservative, but hcame sick immediately afterwards.


EXCRETION OF HIPPURIC AND BENZOIC ACID.


In Table III are given the results of the determinations of hippuric and benzoic acid in the urine during the entire time of observat ion.

METHOD FOR DETERMINING HIPPURIC AND BENZOIC ACID IN THE URINE.

The method employed was that described by Bunge and Schmiedeberg.a The essential features of the method are as follows:

Make alkaline 100 to 200 cc o(f urimne with 8s(ldium carbonate, evaporate to dryness, and extract tihe residue with alcohol. Completely distill off the alcohol, make the remaining water solution acid with hydrochloric acid and extract at least five times with acetic ether. Wash the acetic ether extract with water and then evaporate.

a Arch. exp. Path. Pharmakol., 1876, 6: 235; also Analyse des Harns, Neubauer and
Vogel, 1898, p. 226.






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1047
Purify the hippuric acid and benzoic acid, crystallize, and weigh. Separate the hippuric acid from benzoic acid by means of petroleum ether; the difference in weight of the crystalline forms is benzoic acid.
The method is not as exact as could be desired and presents many difficulties, particularly in the case of concentrated urines, where a considerable quantity of fatty and resinous matter is removed by the acetic ether employed to extract the benzoic and hippuric acids. As in other determinations the analyses were made on composited samples.
Hippuric acid occurs as a normal constituent of human urine in amounts varying from 0.1 gram to 1 gram per day (Analyse des
Has, Neubauer and Vogel), and in some cases after eating freely of vegetables and fruit, especially plums, cranberries, etc., it may be more than 2 grams per day.a In the ordinary mixed diet the average quantity of hippuric acid eliminated is given as 0.7 gram per day.
Hippuric acid is the chief nitrogenous constituent in the urine of herbivora. This is explained by the fact that animals feeding wholly on vegetable foods consume a large amount of aromatic substances, which, by oxidation, as toluol (cinnamic acid), or by reduction, as quinnic acid, are converted into benzoic acid, or substances containing the benzene nucleus, and then, by combination with glycocoll, are converted into hippuric acid and excreted as such.
The formation of hippuric acid in the human organism is therefore associated with the formation of benzoic acid. It has been proven conclusively, both synthetically and by feeding experiments, that hippuric acid is formed as the resulting product of the union of benzoic acid, or a substance contaiing the benzene nucleus, and glycocoll. Thus any substance or material taken with the food which contains the benzene nucleus or is capable, by oxidation or reduction, of being converted into beenzolc acid will unite with glcocol, which is derived from the protein metabolism within the body, to form hippuric acid.
There are also a few cases where the benzoic acid is derived solely from protein. Salkowski, Meissner, Shepard, and others found hippuric acid in the urine of starving dogs, also in dogs' urine after a diet consisting entirely of meat. The benzoic acid in these cases evidently originated from the putrefaction of protein in the intestines.
The amount of hippuric acid eliminated is influenced, first, by the amount of glycocoll present, and, second, by the amount of benzoic acid formed. If there is sullicient glycocoll formed during the digestion of proteids to combine with the )enzoic acid, then all will
a Hn, Phyiol.gii'l Chemistry, 19.






1048 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

be eliminated as hippuric acid. Experiments have been conducted on rabbits by Wiener,a in which he administered small amounts of benzoic acid and recovered the entire amount in the urine, combined with glycocoll, as hippuric acid.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.
Table II, page 1046, shows the daily ingestion of benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate in amounts equivalent to benzoic acid, during the preservative period.
In Table III are given the determinations of benzoic and hippuric acid for the fore period, preservative period, and after period. The table shows amounts of ether extract or benzoic acid, varying from 0.00 to 0.07 gram daily in the urine during the fore period, the amounts for Nos. 4 and 7 being quite high. The quantity of benzoic acid excreted in the preservative period varies from 0.064 gram, in the case of No. 11, to 0.784 gram in the case of No. 8. That benzoic acid remains in the system some time after its ingestion is shown by the increased excretion in the after period over the fore period. For Nos. 4, 7, 9, and 10 there is a diminished excretion in the after period as compared with that of the fore period. The average increase during the preservative period for Nos. 1 to 6, who received benzoic acid, is 0.159 gram over the fore period; for Nos. 7 to 12, who received sodium benzoate, there is an increased excretion of 0.255 gram over the fore period. The average increase in the after period over the fore period is 0.031 and 0.029 gram for Nos. 1 to 6 and 7 to 12, respectively.
In that section of the table which shows the excretion of hippuric acid, the variations in the amounts in the fore period are again quite marked, as in the case of benzoic acid, though there is apparently no general relation between the excretion of these two substances, the hippuric acid varying independently of the excretion of benzoic acid.
The amounts of hippuric acid excreted in the fore period vary from 0.330 grain per day for No. 6 to 1.118 grams per day in the case of No. 9. The average excretion for Nos. 1 to 6 during the fore period is 0.508 grand per day, while for Nos. 7 to 12, it is 0.784 gram.
During the preservative period there is, of course, an increase in the amounts of hippuric acid excreted, which again shows quite an individual variation. The average increase for Nos. 1 to 6 is 1.017 grains per day, and for Nos. 7 to 12, 0.677 gram per day over the fore period.
In the after period the average increase over the fore period is 0.293 grain per (lay for Nos. 1 to 6, and for Nos. 7 to 12 it is 0.062

Arch. gram.r. Path. Pharako. 4:13.
a Arch. exper. Pathi. Pharmakol., 1874, 2: 313.






BENZOIC ACID' AND BENZOATES. 1049

In the third section of this table the results are expressed and calculated in terms of benzoic acid, that is, the amount of hippuric acid found is calculated to benzoic acid and added to the ether extract considered as benzoic acid, given in the first part of the table.
The maximum amount of hippuric acid excreted (Part 2 of Table III) occurs in the third preservative subperiod, during which the largest amount of benzoic acid was administered. There is also quite a decrease in this period in the excretion of benzoic acid as compared with the previous subperiod.
In the summary of Table III, the entire amount recovered as benzoic and hippuric acids is 81.32 per cent for Nos. 1 to 6 and for Nos. 7 to 12 (No. 9 omitted) 61.41 per cent of the amount ingested. There is evidently a marked difference shown in the manner and amount in which the benzoic acid and the sodium benzoate are excreted.
It is also seen that the elimination of hippuric and benzoic acid had not returned to normal at the close of the after period and that the entire amount had not been eliminated at the close of the experiment. This point is further discussed in the supplemental study which follows.
It is very probable also that, under the conditions of the experiment, the supply of glycocoll in the body would not be sufficient in quantity at all times to combine with the benzoic acid ingested. Under the powerful oxidizing and reducing actions, to which the drug is subjected, various products resulting from this action as well as substitution products are doubtless formed, resulting in the elimination and destruction of part of the benzoic acid.
For the further elaboration of these points, especially the difference shown in the rate of elimination of the preservative when administered in the two forms, a supplementary study of the excretion of benzoic and hippuric acid was made.

SUPPLEMENTARY STUDY.,
PLAN OF THE EXPERIMENT.
SThe supplementary study inclluded six subjects, and was begun on November 26, 1907. IlThe experiment was d(ividedl into a fore leriod of five days, a preservative period of ten d(lays, andi an after period of fourteen (lays, (during which the diet was kept practically constant. A somewhat longer after period inll this case was deemIed necessa, as the data obtained in the previous investigation indicated a considerable lag in the excretion of the ingested benzoic acid, )particularly in the case of the benzoate of soda.
During the p)res rvative period( a total of 12.5 grams of benzoic acid was given to Nos. 1, 2, anil 3, ani an amount of bIllenzoate of
a 1E. W. Brown and I. L. Amew perforwnd unst of theaunlytnal work in this invtigation.






1050 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

soda equivalent to this was administered to Nos. 4, 5, and 6, giving 1 gram per day the first five days and 1.5 grams per day during the second subperiod of five days.

ANALYTICAL METHOD USED.
The same method, essentially that of Bunge and Schmniedeberg, was employed in this investigation as in the original series, the details of its application in this case being as follows:
Evaporate 200 cc of urine to dryness on a steam bath after making alkaline with sodium carbonate. Extract the dry residue with hot alcohol (98 to 99 per cent), using a blunt glass stirring rod or a pestle to break up the coarse particles. Extract by using two 100 cc portions of alcohol and one 50 cc portion, heat to boiling each time and then filter. Finally wash the residue on the filter, using from 25 to 50 cc of cold alcohol. Evaporate the alcohol and take up the residue with 15 to 25 cc of water and transfer to a Squibbs separatory funnel of 200 cc capacity.
Extract five times with acid and alcohol-free acetic ether, using 50 cc for the first two portions and three 25 cc portions. Wash each portion of acetic ether extract with an equal volume of water saturated with acetic ether. Allow the combined extracts to evaporate sponitaneouisly and, when the acetic ether has disappeared, transfer to weighed dishes by a small amount of acetic ether. Again evaporate the acetic ether and( dry the residue in a vacuum oven at a temperature of 500 to 550 C. and a vacuum of 25 to 28 inches for six hours:; cool and weigh.
After weighing extract the residue with from 20 to 30 cc of petroleum ether divided into three portions, dry in vacuo and again weigh. The final residue is hippuric acid and the difference due to the extraction with petroleum ether contains any benzoic acid that may )e present as such.
As was pointed out in the previous study, this method is not as clear-cut as could be desired, but by the procedure described fairly accurate results were obtained and(l the residue of hippuric acid was in all cases crystalline and(l only slightly colored.
In order to test the degree of extraction and to determine whether any hippuric aci(l remained in the residue or was removed by washing the acetic ether with water, a series of these residues and wash waters were evaporated to (Iryness with excess of sodium carbonate and treate(l in the usual manner. In all cases only slight traces of crystals were obtained, showing the extraction to be fairly complete.

DISCUSSION OF ANALYTICAL I)ATA.

The results of the supplementary experiment are given in Table IV. lThe data are calculate(l, from the analysis, on the daily samples and( also on the composites for eachl period, which were kept during Ithe progress of the exl)efrimenit. In the first test only composite samples were used, which l)r)bably accounts in part for such differences as are foundl in the two( sets of results.
In part I (of the table the results are given in terms of hippuric acil, obtaine(I by direct weighing and also by titration of the final residue with tenth-normal so(lium hydroxidl. Unfortunately the






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1051

titrations were not made on the daily samples throughout, and these data are lacking for the first subperiod of both the fore and preservative periods. The titration figures given, however, serve to show that part of the residue which is weighed is not hippuric acid. It is believed that this is, at least in part, a compensating error, inasmuch s all the hippuric acid is probably not extracted and there is a slight loss during the washing of the acetic ether extract with water.
An inspection of the data shows an increase (during the preservative period in the amount of hippuric acid excreted, which is much more marked in the case of the results on the daily samples than on the composites and also is much greater in the case of Nos. 1, 2, and 3, receiving benzoic acid, than for Nos. 4, 5, and 6, receiving benzoate of soda.
In the summary for Nos. 1, 2, and 3 there is in the fore period an average excretion by the d(laily samples of 1.1389 grams of hippuric acid as compared with 1.0361 grams by the composite samples. For Nos. 4, 5, and 6 the figures representing the excretion in the fore period are 1.0389 and 1.1954 for the daily and composite samples, respectively.
During the preservative period for Nos. 1, 2, and 3 the average excretion is 2.7677 grams for the daily samples and(l 2.2833 grams for the composites. For Nos. 4, 5, and 6 the same relation holds between the daily and composite samples and there is a marked decrease from the figures obtained for Nos. 1, 2, and 3, namely, 2.4127 and 1.5026 grams for the daily and composite samples, respectively.
One striking point in the d(lata is the marked decrease in the amount of hippuric acid obtained for Nos. 4, 5, and(l 6 in the composite saimples during the first preservative subperiod(. No. 4 shows about onefourth and Nos. 5 and 6 about one-third as much hippuric acid excreted during this period as is shown by the daily samples. There is, however, a corresponding increase (see part 2 of Table IV) in the amount of benzoic acid excreted, which was obtained in these instances in pure crystalline form and the amount titrated. The composited samples were not analyzed at the (.close of each period or subperiod, but were taken up at the close of the experiment. This particular composite probably stood twenty-five days, p)rese\re(l with thymol and( chloroform. As is well known, boiling with acids or alkalis decomposes liippuic acid into benzoic nid anid glycocoll. There is a probability of such a decomposition having taken place in this instance, and this change is, moreover, of special interest, since it is confied to those subjects receiving benzoate of soda and occurs only (luring the first I)resernative subl)period. Thae average excess of hippuric acid excreted (luring the preservative period in the daily samples inll 16.3072 grains for the subjects receiving belzoc acill iand 13.7381 grams for those receiving sodium benzoate.






1052 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

During the after period the excretion is still in excess of that of the fore period, amounting to 3.1646 grams for Nos. 1, 2, and 3 and 2.9884 grams for Nos. 4, 5, and 6 during the first subperiod, bringing the total excess per man up to 17.3621 grams and 14.7342 grams for those receiving benzoic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. During the second after subperiod the excretion for Nos. 1, 2, and 3 is a little less than during the fore period, while for Nos. 4, 5, and 6 there is again an excess of 2.4263 grams over the fore period, bringing the total excretion from the sodium benzoate subjects up to 15.5430 grams per man. There is thus seen a marked tendency to an earlier excretion of the benzoic acid as hippuric acid than in the case of sodium benzoate.
In part 2 of Table IV the data are expressed in terms of benzoic acid. The total hippuric acid as determined by weighing the residue is calculated to benzoic acid. The residue obtained after the extraction with petroleum ether, which in the original experiment is regarded as benzoic acid, is marked "petroleum ether extract." In this experiment (with the exception of the incident with Nos. 4, 5, and 6 in the first preservative subperiod on the composite samples) no crystals were ever obtained in this extract, and, moreover, by collecting and keeping the individual extractions during the different periods, only slight traces of benzoic acid were recorded on one or two occasions, when tested by Mohler's method. a To further test this point two young men were given 2.5 grams of benzoic acid and two an equivalent quantity of sodium benzoate. In only one case was a positive reaction for benzoic acid obtained, and that was for one of the subjects receiving sod(lium benzoate. It is only fair to assume then that under the conditions of this experiment no benzoic acid as such was excreted in the urine. It must be remembere(ld, however, that in the original experiment only the composite samples were analyzed and a larger amount of benzoic acid was ingested. It is possible, therefore, that under the conditions of the original experiment, in which the amounts of the preservative ingested were much greater, the supply of glycocoll was not sufficient to combine with all of the benzoic acid, and the petroleum ether extract in the first experiment, d(lid contain benzoic acid, although in the supplementary study the results indicate that the benzoic acid is all recovered is hippuric acid.
According to several authorities bhenzoic acid is found in rabbits' urine and sometimes in small quantities in (logs' urine. It is also founlld in human urine in (liseases of the kidneys. This occurrence of benzoic acid seemllis to 1be (lue to a fermilentative decomposition of hippiric acid, such a (lecomosition readily occurring in an alkaline urine or ill one containing ll protei(l. According to Cusling some
a u. S. i)Dept. Ag Bur(.~u f Ciwmistry, Bul. 107, p. 181.
b Citrd in HIanmarstuen's Physiological Chemistry, 190, p. 03.
Phariacology and T11irapeultilc, 1901, 2d cd., p. 412.






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1053

ingested benzoic acid escapes in the urine unchanged, this depending on the general health of the subject, the condition of the kidneys, and the amount administered. This is of considerable interest in relation to the point already brought out in regard to the benzoic acid excretion and also in connection with the lessened excretion of the hippuric acid when ingested as benzoate of soda.
The same relations hold in this part of the table in regard to the excretion, as were brought out in the discussion under part 1, as the benzoic acid is calculated directly from the hippuric acid. The weight of the extract, since it contains oxyacids, phenols, and resinous bodies, and was found to contain no benzoic acid, was not added to the calculated benzoic acid from hippuric acid. Further, this residue, if added to the data for the composite samples, is not sufficient to make up the deficiency between the composite samples and the daily samples, although in general there is an increased amount of "extract" for the composite samples over the daily samples, especially in the after period. This form of expressing the data merely affords a means of readily calculating the percentage amount, excreted as hippuric acid, of the amounts of benzoic acid ingested.
Based on the excess excreted in the preservative period 92.9 per cent of the amount ingested in the case of Nos. 1, 2, and 3 is recovered, while for Nos. 4, 5, and 6 only 71.9 per cent is excreted. There is again an increase in the first after subperiod, which brings the excretion for Nos. 1, 2, and 3 up to 100.5 per cent and for Nos. 4, 5, and 6 to 76.0 per cent. The excretion in the second and third after subperiods is practically of the same magnitude as that of the fore period for Nos. 1, 2, and 3, but in the case of the subjects receiving sodium benzoate there is still a slight increase in the second after subperiod, bringing the percentage excreted up to 77.6.
It is apparent that the rate of elimination and the total amount of hippuric acid eliminated are quite different under the influence of benzoic acid and of sodium benzoate. With benzoic acid the elimination seems to be complete within five days after its administration is discontinued, while in the case of sodium benzoate there is quite a retardation in the excretion, which extends at least over ten days, and 22.4 per cent of the amount ingested still remains unrecovered.
These results are in the main confirmatory of those obtained in the original series, in so far as they show the difference in the excretion of hippuric acid when derived from the ingestion of benzoic acid and from benzoate of soda; also the fact is brought out in this investigation that there is a disparity between the results on the daily samplesand composite samples, evidently due to a decomposition of the hippuric ac (ld taking place on standing, and that these subjects, with the ingestion of 12.5 grams of benzoic acid over a period of ten days, showed no benzoic acid excreted as such.
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1054 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.







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1056 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.





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1058 INFLUENCE OF FOOD- PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.






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1060 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.



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1062 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

DAILY MEDICAL AND CLINICAL NOTES.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
No. i.-C. WV. X.
At the opening of the fore period No. 1 was normal: recorded temperature 98.40 F., pulse 72 beats per minute, weight 70.45 kilograms. This normal condition continued throughout the first fore subperiod with very little variation in temperature and pulse, the recorded temperature for the last day being 98.20 F., pulse 66, weight 71.4 kilograms. The average body weight for No. 1 for this first subperiod was 71.02 kilograms.
ie was also normal throughout the second fore subperiod, the average body weight being 70.51 kilograms, and that for the entire fore period, 70.77 kilograms.
This subject had no illness during the relaxation period and all the vital functions, including heart action, were in normal condition. The clinical examination of the urine during the fore period for No. 1 showed nothing abnormal, no albumin, no casts, the kidneys performing their natural functions properly.
No. 1 started the first preservative subperiod with a temperature of 98.40 F., pulse 72, and weight 70.5 kilograms. This condition prevailed throughout the period with only slight deviations in temperature and pulse, and no symptoms of any nature were recorded. The average weight for this period was 70.21 kilograms.
The same normal conditions prevailed until the last day of the second preservative subperiod when the recorded temperature was 98.80 F., slightly higher than the previous average. The pulse was 84, and the weight 70 kilograms, the average weight for this subperiod being 70.3 kilograms.
()On the first d(lay of the third preservative subperiod the subject's temperature had fallen to normal and his weight was somewhat lower, 69.2 kilograms. This condition prevailed throughout this subperio(l, and evidently the slight rise in temperature and pulse on the last d(ay of the previous subperiod had no special significance. The average body weight for this period was 69.18 kilograms.
No. 1 continued in the samine normal cond(litiun throughout the whole fourth preservative subperiod except that he complained of being hungry for several days anid claie( that h e had not had enough to eat from the beginning of the experiment, although the ration which was allowed him amounted to 4,000 calories a day, with a very wide choice of food. In fact, all of the members of this series were allowed considerable liberty in selecting their ration, with somewhat 111more variation(11 during the first fore subperiod than in Series VII on sul)hurous acid. The average body weight for the






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1063

fourth preservative subperiod was 69.32 kilograms, and that for the entire preservative period, 69.75 kilograms. There were no symptonis uring the preservative period which the subject thought worthy to be recorded at the time; but he mentioned on several different occasions that, although he did not suffer from acute pains, he noticed a gradual decline in strength and a general physical weakness, so that at times he was scarcely able to attend to his work. The kidneys remained normal during this period, no abnormal constituents from a clinical point of view being found in the urine.
The after period for No. 1 is characterized by a remarkable constancy both in temperature and pulse, the temperature throughout being 98.4' F. and the pulse 66 beats. The average body weight for the first after subperiod was 69.33 kilograms, for the second subperiod, 69.41 kilograms, and for the entire after period, 69.37 kilograms. The feeling of hunger still persisted somewhat during this after period, and the subject complained that he felt excessively hungry during the entire period of observation.
There is nothing in the data as recorded by No. 1 which would indicate very alarming symptoms produced by the administration of the preservative with the exception, as stated, of the general depressed feeling and weakness which was evidenced during the time that the greatest amount of the preservative (2.5 grams per day) was given. The body weight showed a slight decrease throughout.

No. 2.-W1 P.
The recorded temperature for No. 2 for the first fore subperiod was 980 F., pulse 61 beats, and weight 70.53 kilograms. Ie remained in a normal condition throughout this subperiod with only slight variations from these figures, the average body weight being 70.57 kilograms.
In the second fore subperiod the recorded temperature on tlhe first day was 980 F., pulse 67 beats, and weight 70.43 kilograms. No abnormal conditions were reported during this subperiod, but on the last two days there was a slight depression in the temperature, 97.S' F. being recorded; the pulse, however, was normal, 66 beats, and the weight 70.65 kilograms. The average body weight for the secoMnd fore subperiod ws 70.46 kilograms, and that for the entire fore period, 70.51 kilograms. No. 2 experienced some difficulty in selecting his ration and complained several times of not relishing his food and of loss of appetite. Il1s general appearance w ts somewhat below normal and he evidently was not in first-class condition.
At the beginning of the preservative period No. 2's temperat Ire was 98' F., pulse 68 beats, and weight 70.45 kilograms. lie conplained of sour stomach, of pains in the stomach, and a slight headache on this day, probably the result of his condition during the






1064 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH,

fore period from which he had not yet recovered. Except for these complaints, registered on the first day, no symptoms were recorded during the first subperiod, and his condition remained practically the same. The average body weight for this period was 70.35
kilograms.
On the first day of the second preservative subperiod the temperature for No. 2 was 980 F., pulse 71 beats, weight 70.28 kilograms. On the third day No. 2 complained of a burning sensation in the stomach; the recorded temperature, pulse, and weight, however, are practically the same as on the first day of this subperiod. No. 2 had a slight headache on the next day and on the last day complained of a sour stomach which persisted during the entire afternoon. His temperature for the last day was 98.40 F., pulse 69 beats, and weight 70 kilograms. The average body weight for the second subperiod was 70.21 kilograms.
On the first day of the third preservative subperiod his temperature was 980 F., pulse 67 beats, and weight 70.05 kilograms. The subject was feeling normal but on the second day there was a recurrence of the sour stomach and the headache, with a slight rise in temperature and quickened pulse. The weight remained practically the same. On the fourth day his temperature registered 97.8' F., pulse 60 beats, and weight 70 kilograms. He complained of being sick at the stomach, of headache, and of a general weariness. The nauseated feeling persisted the following day, accompanied by headache and some loss of appetite. The recorded temperature on the last day was 98.10 F., pulse 68 beats, and weight 69.81 kilograms. The average body weight for this subperiod was 70.08 kilograms.
No. 2 had a temperature of 98.9' F. on the first day of the fourth preservative subperiod, pulse 76 beats, weight 69.21 kilograms. He complained of a burning sensation and pains in the stomach, and also of headache and a nauseated feeling continuing from the day before. The preservative was withdrawn after the first day of this subperiod. On the second day No. 2's temperature registered 980 F., pulse 66 beats, and weight 69.42 kilograms. Hle still complained of being sick at the stomach and of a headache. The temperature and pulse remained the same for the rest of the period, with a very slight variation in body weight. The feeling of wetness continued throughout the subperiod and the appetite remained poor, but the headache gradually disappeared. The recorded temIperature on the nlast (iay was 98o F., pulse 72 beats, and(l weight 69.75 kilograms. No. 2 reported( that he was feeling well on this day. The average body weight for the fourth preservative subperiod was 69.58 kilograms, anid for the entire preservative period, 70.06 kilograms.
Th10 first after subperiod was characterized by a gradual increase in teIpl)erature, reaching normal on the third day of the period and






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1065

then falling to 980 F. on the fourth day, and again being normal on the last day. The pulse on an average was 68 beats per minute. The appetite improved, and on the second and third days of this period No. 2 reported himself as being very hungry. On the fourth day there was a slight feeling of nausea which disappeared on the following day. The average body weight for this subperiod was
6.47 kilograms.
During the second after subperiod No. 2's temperature remained practically constant at 980 F., the pulse averaging 69 beats. lHe complained on the second and third days of having a bad taste in his mouth and a somewhat impaired appetite. The average body weight for this subperiod was 69.28 kilograms, and for the entire after period 69.37 kilograms.
As is seen, there was a gradual decline in weight throughout the period of observation. The characteristic symptoms for No. 2 were headache accompanied by a burning sensation in the stomach, which, as the preservative was increased, produced nausea.

No. 3.-. F. H.

No. 3 began the fore period with a temperature of 99.10 F., pulse 90 beats, and body weight 64.3 kilograms. This high temperature and pulse must have been due to some irrelevant circumstance, as on the succeeding days of this subperiod his temperature and pulse were normal, and on the last day the recorded temperature was 98.40 F., pulse 72 beats, and weight 64.35 kilograms. The average body weight for the first fore subperiod was 64.13 kilograms. All the body functions of No. 3 were in normal condition, as was shown by the clinical examination.
In the second fore subperiod the subject reported himself in good condition the entire time. His heart action was normal and he had had no sickness during the relaxation period.
On the first and second days of the first preservative subperiod the recorded temperature was 990 F. and 99.30 F., and the pulse 85 and 78 beats, respectively. On the third and fourth days the temperature and pulse were normal, while on the last d(ay the recorded temperature was'99 F., pulse 84 beats, and weight 64.45 kilograms. The average weight for this subperiod was 64.64 kilograms.
The temperature on the first d(ay of the second preservative subperiod was normal, but the subject reported that he had passed a restless night. No other symptoms were recorded until the Ilst day of this subperiod when he reported that he had a burning sensation in the esophagus and pit of the stomach which persisted all day. Ilis i temperature showed a gradual increase until the last day when it was recorded as 1000 F., the pulse as 90 beats, and the weight as 64.4 kilograms. The average body weight for this subperiod was 64.62






1066 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

kilograms, which was practically the same as the weight for the first preservative subperiod.
During the third preservative subperiod the high temperature still continued, 100.20 F. being registered on the first day, pulse 94 beats, body weight 63.75 kilograms. No. 3 complained of having a headache, indigestion accompanied by severe heartburn, and of tiring easily, also of poor appetite. He was unable to eat his full ration at dinner on this day, and the administration of the preservative was discontinued. The high temperature continued throughout the rest of the period. The same symptoms, that is, pains in the stomach, a feeling of weakness or faintness accompanied by nausea, headache and dizziness, and burning sensations in the throat and esophagus, were manifest on the next two days, diminishing somewhat on the last day; but the subject still complained of a slight touch of indigestion.
On the first three days of the fourth preservative subperiod the temperature was somewhat high, the pulse gradually approaching normal. The average weight for the period was 63.58 kilograms, which shows a slight gain over the weight of the third preservative subperiod. The average body weight for the entire preservative period was 64.04 kilograms, a loss of nearly 0.2 kilogram as compared with that of the fore period.
On the first day of the after period No. 3 complained of a slight headache, a feeling of dizziness, and a disagreeable sensation in the stomach. His temperature was 98.40 F., pulse 74 beats, and body weight 63.8 kilograms. No abnormal conditions obtained during the remaind(ler of this subperiod. The body weight showed a slight increase, the average for the first after subperiod being 63.95 kilograms.
Normal temperature and pulse were recorded throughout the five days of the second( after subperiod. The only symptom which persisted(l up to this time was the bad taste in the mouth. On the first day No. 3 reported that he was hungry. The average body weight for the subperiod was 63.58 kilograms, while that for the entire after l)erio(l was 63.77 kilograms, still showing a gradual loss of weight, which is nearly 0.3 kilogram less than the average of the preservative period.
No. 4.- -. 1.
No. 4 of this series, who replaced the original No. 4 of Series VII, Iegani the fore period(l with all bodily functions in normal condition. lie never had had any serious illness, his family history was good, his heart action normal, and all other body functions apparently disc(harged in a lperfectly healthy manner. The temperature and pulse were normal throughout with the exception of the first day, when the temnlerature was slightly higher. The body weight on the last day of






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1067

the subperiod was 58.52 kilograms, the average for the entire subperiod being 58.89 kilograms.
This same normal condition prevailed during the first and second days of the second fore subperiod, but on the third day a temperature of 99.20 F. was recorded. There evidently existed a slightly febrile condition at this time, as the temperature on the following day was slightly above normal. The temperature and pulse for the last d(lay were 98.60 F., and 90, respectively, and the body weight was 57.6 kilograms. The average body weight for this period was 57.92 kilograms, that for the entire fore period being 58.41 kilograms. The clinical examination of the urine for No. 4 during the fore period showed nothing abnormal, the kidneys performing their function properly.
The temperature and pulse were normal during the first preservative subperiod with the exception of the first and last days, when a slightly higher temperature was recorded. The body weight for the last day was 58.05 kilograms. The average body weight for the entire subperiod was 58.02 kilograms. No. 4 reported himself throughout the subperiod as feeling in good condition.
There were no striking symptoms during the second preservative subperiod in the case of No. 4, although a recurrence of the high temperature on two days of the period, preceded and followed in each case by a normal condition, was noted. There was a complaint, however, on the second day of a slightly uncomfortable feeling in the stomach which disappeared during the succeeding days of the subperiod. The average body weight for this subpl)eriod was 58.26 kilograms.
At the beginning of the third preservative subperiod, No. 4's temperature was 990 F., pulse 78 beats, and weight 57.8 kilograms. lHe reported during the afternoon of the first d(ay that he suffered from an acute pain, accompanied by a burning sensation in the stomac(.h, which continued, however, only for a few hours in the afternoon. The temperature for the next (lay was still somewhat high, 9S.So F. being recorded, pulse 72 leats, and body weight 5S.35 kilograms. The temperature and pulse for the remiainler of the period were normal, and the body weight on the last day was 58.3 kilograms. There hadl been no recurrence of the syiptoins he experienced on the first day, and the average body weight for this subperiod was 5S.17 kilograms.
On the first day of the fourth preservative subperiod No. 4 reported that he had acute pains in the stomach and evidently experienced some indigestion. Ils appetite, however, was not impaired. The recorded temperature for this day was 99 F., pulse 72 heats, and weight 58 kilograms. This high temperature continued on the next day, pulse and weight being practically the sa me. On tt hird





1068 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

symptoms continued on the following day, and on the last day of the period he suffered from pains in the stomach, a constant dull headache, and a loss of appetite. The temperature and pulse for this day were 99.20 F., and 78 beats, respectively, while his weight was 58.15 kilograms. The average body weight for this subperiod was 58.1 kilograms, that for the entire preservative period being 58.14 kilogram* showing a loss of 0.27 kilogram from the average weight of the fore period.
On the first day of the after period the pain in the stomach persisted(l and the recorded temperature and pulse were 98.80 F., and 72 beats, respectively. The only abnormal symptom for the remainder of the first subperiod was a slightly increased temperature which persisted(l until the last day, when it returned to normal, 98.60 F. The weight for this day was 58.1 kilograms, and the average body weight for the subperiod, 58.22 kilograms.
The second after subperiod was characterized by a slightly increased temperature, the pulse a little above normal, and the average body weight, 58.11 kilograms. The body weight for the entire after period averaged 58.17 kilograms, being practically the same as that of the preservative period. There were no symptoms whatever during this last after subperiod.
The characteristic symptoms for this subject during the preservative period were pains in the abdominal region, a dull headache, some loss of appetite, slight indigestion, and, as was reported d(luring the time of observation, a general feeling of weakness which was so marked as almost to incapacitate him at times for his work.

No. 5.-C'. P.

This subject passed(l through the relaxation period without any sickness. The heart act ion and all the other vital functions were normal. No. 5 began the first fore subperiod with a temperature 98.4' F., pulse 90 beats, body weight 51.43 kilograms. All bodily-functions at the beginningr of this series were normal. The clinical examination of the urine showed( it to be normal, and the subject passed through the relaxation period without any disturbance worthy of mention. This conIition continue(l throughout the first fore subperiod, on the last day of which his temperature was 98.60 F., pulse 82 beats, and weight 51.24 kilograms. The average body weight for this subperiod was 51.56 kilograms.
The same normal condition prevailed throughout the second fore sulbperiod, the t IemIperlature reIaing quite uniform and the pulse showing very slight fluctuations from d(ay to (lay. The average body weight for this subperio(l was 51.23 kilograms, and for the entire fore period 51.39 kilogramIs.






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1069

At the beoinnin(r of the first preservative sul)periml the temperature and pulse of No. 55 Nvere 9,S.4' F., an(l 80 I)e,its, respectively, NvIdle the body weight Nvas 51.44 kilograms. Ile Nvas normal oil the Second
day, but on the third day reportedly a sliglit hea(laclie in the afternoon; no increase of either temperature or puke, Iimvever, iviis note(]. The headache continued (turino, the folloNvill(r turnin(r in the stomach and the flirmit 1'or a few inimites after brezikfast. No increase ill either teMperat tire or ptilse, lioNvever, Nva.s recorde(l. On the last (lay the teniperattire Nvas iiormal, pulse SS beats, and I)o(lv Nveight 51 kilo(rraiiis. No svinptom- ()f aiiv kilid
were reported oil t1iis (IaN- and tile subject state(i til-at Ile felt Nvell. The average bo(lN- Nvehrlit for t1iis sul)periml Nvas 51MS I l lo(ri-a ills.
The recor(led temperature for No. 5 on tile first (I'a v of the secoil(l preservative sul)periml Nvas 9(S.G' F., pulse SS bezit,- zilld bo(Iv Nvelo-lit 51 kiloorains. Ile conipl-iiiie(l (Itirin(1- the day (4 a Imi-nill(r _,ejj. ,1tlojI
in the throat aml lia(I felt verv bit(l1v (Ittriii(r t1le 111(rlit. Oil tile next jj I te(I sl*(rIlt
dav lie ha(l sN-iiiptoms \vlilch i(lica I I I?appeared, llo\N-eN er, oil tile folloNN-ing 111(1 t sill,111 both ill
temperature .in([ ptilse. Nvas noted. Ills (1011(litiMl W111-1 1101,11MI oil t1le
fourth dav, 1)[it oil tile List (Liv of tile subperlod tile sYmptollis ()f indigestion reCtirred. ills telliperattire all([ ptike. Ilowever, velv llorand t1le ])()(IN- N\-Cl(rllt -,\-,,IS 5().,S kilo(rraills, the z1verzi(re Nvel(rIlt for the sul)perio(I 1)ejillo,
No. 5 reporte(I fliat lie I'elt Nvell ,it tile be-(riiiiiiii(r or tile t1iint preservati NT( Stj I)perlod. 011 the 11ext day, lloNvever, I r I I t 1, 1 ,, e
temperature iiii(I. ptilse noted, illid he collipllilled of severe
p,IiIIS in tile st0jjj,-j(-jj (Itjl-*lj(r tile ll'(-rllt, ,I(-C-oll)j)ajl'('d I)v Ilead'.1clio
and a general fcefiiig of iilaIaL-;e. A very (lecide(l 111CRItt'- (I ill 11ppetite WtIs 110te(l NvIlick \vzis liot szlti fie(l at Ille'll tillic.-4. 011 the folIoNving (lit\- Ills pIII.-;v '.111d telilperolliv tlli I-ellm illed higher flian norm-,il tind he expel-lellced S11:11.1p Ill tile licad.
kfter breiild'ast lie ,tld(lclllv tlkell \N-,tli 11,111"e.1 :111d
Tile tellil)(11*0 MV for tile llc: t (I'l v wa Iml-Ilml. km\C W r! repolte(l tll,,Il Ile ll,,Ift I ,I*(rllt Ile.1d w Ile .111d Celt m l-erable, I i I i
telliperatilre wa--; still lim -111"li, the pu[c ill(Tt"l-cd, '111d Illc
j'(q-Iijl(r ()I' 111111trey l)ej,.,l te(I toret II(q- \\it 11 1 Iw ,rclltral 1*(,cI1ll,, (d, 'I'lle tjN-ej-jj(;-e 1)1)(IN, \\,(q(rI11 Ii)l- t 11P, t1h 1w ril)(I \\,i-. loss oI' iiem-k- 0.1 kl1wri-am, a.,-,, compalvil \\it il I lit, Pl*11(VtllWr periml.
The reconle(I tem pel,211111v 1111(i plll ,(' at Ille he -rillillil (d ille I'm il-111 presel'N.1tive slibpel-Iml \\elv 9".0; V., alld he"11- 11cl. Immill''
respectivelY, \6 0i it lm dY wel ''111 ()t' :-)().1 ill'. 'I'lle -11hit-cl r(T orted 111111"ell, ;Is fet,1111'r \\cII hill vcI..\ Ill11l1'_'1-.\, ( )11 Ille 111.Lr
(111Y it sli.0 1t ]-P.;v Ill IV1111)(11,111, M V \\aS m 0ed. 1111)(111rd that aftet,
233(m Bull. s 1, pt I (,),s :11




4


1070 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

meals he had a decidedly nauseated sensation for a few hours. Fearing a recurrence of the nausea and vomiting, the preservative was withdrawn at this point. On the following day his temperature and pulse were normal but the subject still complained of a feeling of hunger and pains in the side. On the last two days there were no symptoms recorded and the temperature and pulse continued normal. The body weight on the last day was 50.25 kilograms, that for the fourth subperiod 50.28 kilograms-again a loss of a little over 0.3 kilogram as compared with the preceding subperiod-and that for the entire preservative period, 50.73 kilograms-nearly 0.7 kilogram less than the average weight of the fore period.
In the first after subperiod the temperature and pulse were normal throughout, but a few symptoms, such as hunger and pain in the back, were noted on three different occasions. The average body weight for this subperiod was 50.33 kilograms.
On the first two days of the second after subperiod No. 5 still had a feeling of hunger; the temperature and pulse, however, remained normal throughout. The body weight on the last day of this subperiod was 50.63 kilograms, temperature and pulse 98.40 F., and 86 beats, respectively. The average body weight was 50.56 kilograms, showing a slight gain over that of the first after subperiod. The average weight for the entire after period was 50.45 kilograms.
The characteristic symptoms developed by this subject during the observation, as noted, are a burning sensation in the esophagus and alimentary canal, headache, and later, as the preservative was increased, a nauseated feeling which came on suddenly and on one day resulted in vomiting. The preservative was diminished on this occasion, but when it was again increased the nausea returned and the preservative was withdrawn entirely. The subject complained of a feeling of hunger from this time on until well into the after period.

No. 6.-L. M. S.
No. 6 entered the period of observation in good co ndition, having had no illness during the relaxation period, and his heart action was normal. The recorded temperature and pulse for the first day of the fore period were 98.50 F., and 79, respectively, with a body weight of 59.9 kilograms. The subject remained normal throughout the first subperiod, at the end of which hlie weighed 59.4 kilograms. The average weight for the subperiod was 59.6 kilograms.
I)uring the second fore subperiod the subject remained in good coMndition; his temperature on the last day was 98.30 F., pulse 72 beats, body weight 59 kilograms. The body weight for this subperiod averaged 59.26 kilograms, and for the entire fore period, 59.43 kilograms.






BE-NZOTC ACLD AND BENZOATES. 10 71

In the first preservative subperiod the recor(le(l. temperature an(I pulse for the first (lay were 98.7' F., and 94 beats, re..,I)ectivelyl, the body weight being 59.34 kilograms. A slight rise in temperature was noted on the second (lav, the pulse (Iroj)j)Ii-lg back to normal, and the subject reported that lie ha(l a sli(rht attack of in(li(restion and headache Ili the morning. The saine temperature and plilse
were recor(led on the followino- (1av, the (Itill hea(lache coi-ttinuill", On the fourth (lav the subJect's tem1wrature an(I jml e Nvere 99' 1resI)eCtivel-v and a sliorlit attack of iiii.11(restioll NV<1.11.) and 84 beats, I t 71
noted. The temperature on the last day of this sublvi-io(I was
98.8c' F., pulse 78 beats, and bo(ly Nveight 59 kilo (rra Ile o_-oIllplained of a (Iry, irritate(I feellnor Ili the t1iroat. The avcna(re bo(I-v weight for the first subperiod Nvas 59.24 kilo(rraiiis, practically the same as the average -\N-ei(rht for the prece(Iiii(r subjwrio(l.
On the first day of the secon(l preservative stibperiod -No. 6 liad a temperature of 99' F., pulse 79 beats, t1ild \\-Chrlit 59.1 Ixilograins. Ile complained of Sore diroat and Ili's tolprile N\-,-IS coated. Tempera t tire and 1)ulse were lil(rli oil the second (1ay of tills subperiod, I)C*ll(r 99' F., and 90 beats, respectively, alld tile (11-v allot irritated feelill(r In tile tilroat (-olltillue(j. ()Ij tile next (lav, ll()Nvever, the temperature an(l. pulse Avere noniial bitt lie still conij)Iallied (d a sliglit irritation ill the tliroat. Iligli telliperattire aild pulse NNclv recorded on the followliio, (lav but no ot ]ler "N-111I)t oIlls Ivol-t Ily (d were mentiolle(l. Tile tellipel'attire all(I pillse NNATC Ilol'Ilial ()It tilt,
last day of tile second subjwnwl, but tlie stil),ject colliplaille(I ()I* Ilavincr a sli(rlit lica(laclie accollipallie(I bv rill(rill(r Ill the ear,-;. Tile 1)()(IN,kkeprlit for tills (lay was 5S.9 kilograills and t1le averao-e 1,()I. tile stlbperiod was 59.11 1- Ilogralllsl a verY sl4rilt as (-()Illp.jI-e(I 1\-*tll tll(
first siibpen()d.
kt tile opellillfr ()f tIle tilil,(l presel-\-ati -e Sjlj)peI-i()(j Ill
ture was 99.,S' F., ptilm, 7S bcats, aii(l b()(IY weiglit 5S.94 1\Iil() rnaiiis. j sli(rllt Ilea(j-jo-Ij(,
?
accoillpalli(q'I 1) ill Ill(, Ill Ille
of appetite. AltImw,11 telliperatiliv Nva-- lwl-111111. ille plike \\'1's ex(Te'(1111-rIv 111(rll, rw ri.-Ael,1114r 9's he'os. T 11c teilllw n11111 c "111(l plike Were 11"I'llial oil flie 11111-(l (lav, but tile 1-111"Hig Ill Ille elll,:- c()1l11T111c(l cAl t Ilis all(I t Ile Ilw (I'l v I Ili Itli'll I Ile 11 1v it 11(l pi I ke reillailled lw n lull. (h) H it, 1,1.1-It (liltY (d' the ,,11bpvl'i()(I N (i. G ('(1111I)I;1111c(l
(..)f sevel-e livil(I'IcIle, rill"Ill-, Ill d iv 1111(I P1*()1lM 1l1cv(l P 1111 ill tilt, Stoll)-acli. ili Illc evell1w r he hecalile INIW-elltc(l 2111(l v()11111v(I a
Sli(rIlt a ill( 11111. t
%verv 79 1.(,-,. pvv11vvIY, 1111(l 111v k itlY
1i i I () (r 1.11111.,-4. 'I'lle nvcriw e 1)()(I\- \\vi"'111 1*()I. kilograiiis, ().55 kllwraiii IVS.4- lifflil tilt, IlVenwe \\ci"Ilt (if tht. "ect)II(I preservative S11bl)eI-1()d.






10-,) INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

1n the fourth subperio(I ll() preserN-,-jtive was administered. Oil the fir-- t day the subject's t tempera t tire was 99' F., pulse 79, and body. M1,111,11t .5,s.55 k1loo-rains. Ile complained of headache nausea, and a t(Itich of' iii(ligestion', also a dry, parched feeling in the throat. His tempetattire and pulse Nvere noriiml oil the following day, but a loss of appetite AN'tis reported; otherwise lie felt very Nvell. The normal tempeniture mid putse continued throughout the remainder of this Uhpenwl, the subject feeling, well. with the exception of a loss of appetite. T'lle body welo-lit oil the last (hiv was 58.25 kilograms, while for the subperi()d it averaged 58.4 kiloo-rams, and for the entire preservative period 58.83 kilograms, showin(r a decrease of 0.6 kilo(ITZ1111 from the average of the fore period.
'I 'lie first (ha v of the tifter pet-iod i temperature of 98.6' F., pulse 78 bezits, "Illd bodv welo-lit 5S.55 kiloo-n-mis were recorded. The subject COIllphlilled of a dry. parched feelflio, in III,-, throat which, however, was ]lot 114)tc(l on the succeedMo- (1--ays when, t ell ipera t tire. and pulse, also, remained ji0mizil. The bo(IV wel(rht oil the hist day was 58.4 Mlwrrallls alid the avent(re foi the subperimi 5S.47 kilograms prac.i ica I I v the smie zis that for the hast preservative suhperiod.
N(). G was 1111del. ()b,,erv,1tIoii milv flii ve davs in the second tifter s I 11) pe li (4. HIS lempel".1ture 111(1 pulse were nornial with no Symptoills of allv killd, t1w subject recording- that lie felt ill (rood condition. The zvvenwr(l W(li"'lit for this !-mbpemod was 5S.44 kilograms and that for the ciolre akei- pef-H)d 5S.46 kilh),(ri-ains.
The chanicterl"tic pt0III,-; developed by No. 6 during the period
III which the pl-eservative \\as adillillistelvd Avere livadache ill the cars' 11)(11(restimi, Irritated fcclMo- in the throat and
CS()pIIa(,JI,-,, "Ill(I lia-use"I.
X". 7.-J. A-. B.
'1111" silb.lect was the jenst accurate of ;dl the members of this
"Illd Ill's rectw(le(I ()hsel-vatIMIS NVCIV :--Ill b*ccted to the closest
11c luld a 66d 'Illwrill"ItImi alld the leilst excitement.
I I I I Z-1
devchqwd tllllm.- l aliv symptimi-, MlIch Ills might dictate. A t
tll( I)( (rjIjIIIIpr (j the fmv pel'iml the lempenll ulV W(Ils 9S.V puLse
hca ,I I Id I I le bml v \\ cl (d I 1 -0. 1 k I h), -.1-a I I is. 11v was ill excellent ph v."Ic'll cm l(lillm l :11)(1 11,111 cloll-clY I,(1cM ,c lV(I h-olli the Supposed cffcct:- I'vc(W(le(l Ill Sel-ics Vill. 11c had ,I unikwml v low temperature I I "t1bpel-Im l, pul'se 11(will.11, '111d Im(I v well(rilt 10.15 kilo-nlllls ()Il the The mvill."I(re b()dv weldit for the subperiod

'I'lle IvIllpel"Itill-c C"10111111(ld 111)11(wllnll dlll illo- Ille -wcolld forv Subpel-iod blit Ille p I I Ise \\ns Ilm-111"ll. The b(IdY weight oil the last (hiv
()f thl'-, pel-iod wns D) kil(wi-ams, 1he averwre for the subperiod 70.02 hil()(ri-allisl aiid tho fiw thc cialre fmv period 70.09 kilograms.






IENZOTC ACID AND BENZOATES. 107 3

At the beginning of the preservative period No. 7 had a teniperature of 98.3' F., pulse 72, and body vehrht 69-65 kilwrrams, the temperature and pulse remaining nominal throwdimit the first S11I)pel-lod. The recorded NN-ei(rllt for the last day \vas 69.5 the avera(re
z.' 7 Z71
for the entire stibPeriod beino, 69.8 kilmrraiiis.
The continued subnormal temperature was note(lf at the be(rinn*111cr of the second preservative subperio(l, 1)uI-,,;e normal, aiid I)o(l-\- weltrilt 69.9. kilograms. Teinl)erature an(I ptike were normal oil the tillr(l day, but the subject, complained of A totich (d Mdl(r( ;tion was note(I on tile next, (1, N ten-II)erature and lioNvever,
continued normal. -No synilAonis vere rec()r,,Iv(l oil t1le last day, the
-0 1
subject closing, the second stihl)eriml -\vIth a temperature ()f 9s.i F., pulse 78 beats, an(I bo(IN- -\ -ei(rlit G9-S kllwrrain. Tile avera(re bo(IV weight for this suhl)vriod Nvas 69.,' 4 kll()LrI--,I1lls, a, Sli(rllt 111(11'(1(1.1 411 f"I's compared with the average Nvelo-lit of the first preservative subperiod.
In the third preservative subperiod the temperahire and Inil'se showed a sli(rht varlatioil. but not e1I()tI(rJI to be con 41dere(l abnormal. Slight in(fige ,t'()n an(I a feelimr 4 nervoiisness are rep(oo(I ])tit no other symptonis worthy of not(, (1111-111o, the reill'1111(ler 4 tll(' sliblvrimi. The body weight on the la ,t (1,ay G9.4 kilograni,, au(I the average
weight f(w the subl)erlo(I 69.49
The recor(le(I tetil. perat tire f,,)r 'No. 7 on the first (Itay ()f the fourth preservative stibl)eriod -\vas 9S.4' F., I)til.se 7S beats, 1)()(I\- A\-( i(rllt kilograms. Temperattire an(I Inilse Ivere oil thO '- ecmld (I'l v
but the stibject rolmrte(l flial Ile -\vas taken "Ick 111111le(liately -,I I't (11. luncheon. Oil the folloNvitio- dav the rec()nle(l to,'1111wrattin, Nvzl: tile 1)111se J)t at, 1(
stibnorii)al N\ e'(rllt IJ
grain,,. There \vas ,I Ios ()f al)pellte \-Illcli cmitilliled (1111-111(,r
the followilig tNvo (lav", a(TO III pa!I *(qi oll tll( l-,lSJ hvisittl(le. 'I"cill1wrat 11re alld ptll!-w Nvere (1111-111 till., tilll(' "Illd the recorde(I 1)()(IN- N\-eiirlit for the last dav G9.0--) 1114,
average Nvvio'llt for t ho hist -'11bperiml Iwillir '111d 111,11
for the entire PI'v"(11-vative G9.6 I I S
11(4111N, 0.5 kil()(ri-am ,I-, ci)iiq),l1v(I \vIt 11 tll(' (d the 1*()I.(, peril. No In-esvi-vatIVO Wits 1-rlVen No. 7 --ifter Ile devel(TO(I 11,111-41"1.
'I'lle tv-111perat Ilre all(I pillso for this slihject Nven, 11m.111:11 illI-()IIt"I1mI1 tile first after "Ilbiwi-im l "Ill(I tile k )(I v Nvel:Irlit ()II the (111Y 69.2.5 No ,vinpt()iiis (d* aliv 11,11111v Wel'(' 111c(T(leil \6 111
tll( t ()'XCVl)tiMI 14 a lm!- Slldv fechilif 44' 111,11al-w mi the third The
averap b()(I \\'(,1,rJIJ for tll* ,111jilw i-im l I-*Iw rv'i1l1The tviiilwrantiv (Iiii'litir Hit, wcmid after :'l1bP(11*1()d --MIWWhatsitbiwi-111"11 1111-mighold, pillse 1wi-111:11, 111)(1 kilk. \\cl!zIlt till 1111. I as t datN, 69.05 ki I i )(r I, i k i I I s 14 I-( \v i n I i sy iiii)t A f k I I Y I I : I I I I 1.o






1074 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESEEVATIVES 0-N HEALTH.

recorded aiid the stil)ject, had regained his normal condition. Tlie averia(re bodv wei(rilt for the la.st, subperiod was 69.17 kiloirraiiis, practically the saine wei(rht as was recorded for the last preservative sliblu'riod, but there is a decrease of 0.33 kilogram coinparing the avera(res for the ei-itire preservative and after periods.


This; c;ubjeet was by far the most regular in his habits and paid the stricte,,t atteiAlon, to detail of all the members of the table. As is mentioned iii the medical data for Series VII (Part III of Bulletin 84), lie, had certain idiosyncracies AN-1l.ich would make a study of his nietabolic processes somewhat different, from that of flie ot her inembers. Ife re(rularly took a prescribed laxative throughout this experiment. an(l drajik large quantities of water during the day, as well as at ineal lines. Ile had a very vivid ima(rination and sorne of the syn-iptonis
-\N-lilch lie noted -\N-ere entirelv irrelevant requiring considerable analysis before credit could be (riven them.
Ile entered the fore period with a temperature of 98.4' F., pulse
and a body wei(rht of 61.6,5 kilo(rrams. His t eniperat tire 68 beats, Z,was slightly subnormal on two days, during the subperiod, pulse normal throughout, and recorded body weight 61.42 kilogranis oil the li.lst (I'ay. I fe liad stiffened no sickness of any nature duringg the rel,,ixation period and entere(l the experinmit in excellei-it C011dition. JjiS -\N-ei(rjjt for this subperiod was 61-59 kilograills.
n n r-4
He normal t1irougliout the secoiid fore subperiod witli the
Oxcel)tIon of it sli(Irlit lietv I aclie on flie last day, probably due to exciteIlient. cati-wd I)N- aII exaniiiiation wlilcli Ile had under(rone the (lay hvfw.e. His a\,enure N%,ei(rlit for tlie secoiid fore subperlod was 61-08 kilwrralll-, and that for tlie entire fore 1)eriod 61.33 Ii.1logranis.
No. 1 entered the prescrN-ati,\-(, I)eriod witlia, temperature of 9S.5' F., pulse 67, and 1)()(I N\-p'(rIjt w.9 I ilogranis. I lis temperature t1iroughout the fiist sul)jwrlml wits slightly stilmormal, imlse noriiial NN-itli
VII1,10ion, alld bmly wel(rht oil flie last day 60.5 kilogranis. No "yI1110mil-, (J any liature were recorded fliat liad any I)earin(r oil the
The :wera(rv \\,( '(rht 1'()r till,, suh1wriod N\-iis 60.74 J jlo(rrzj Ills r It- ?011 the first d"I of, the Second I)rvs(,rN-.-itiN-e stil)1wriod fliv teiiiper1) M id ])()(IN, N\ ( j(rji' I flo(rriljlls. ,tlui-e (d No. (S \\,as )S.:)o 11", pulse W, I Ie cmilld'ailled on this dily of 11 Slight feeling of 111di(restioll all-Id loose()I* Imwel.". On the follm6lig ll(, it large (1111111tity of
:111d these s I yIIlI)toIii,, disal)Iwin-vd: his teni1writhire and I)tilse WITO II(Wim11. 011 111(. third dily Ilis telli1wrattire, N\-as slio'llfly Sub11"I'Mill '111d the ])ukv ImI.111:11,I)t1t com I)IIII [it \\.ns Inade of 1111 tillcollifort11ble III Hie -A011111(.11. "I'vill1wrature 1111d Inike on tll(' follo\611cr
IlaV W(Tv 11M,111111, the ImIn III Hie stoninch, lioN%-(wer, contiiiiiiii(r tiring






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1075

the night and the last day of the subperiod when the temperature recorded was 98.30 F., pulse 60, and body weight 60.8 kilograms. The average weight for this subperiod was 60.91 kilograms, a slight increase as compared with the preceding one.
On the first day of the third preservative subperiod the temperature and pulse recorded were normal and the body weight 60.2 kilograms. The subject complained of a restless night and a slight pain in the stomach which still continued in the morning. The temperature and pulse on the fourth day were normal and the pain in the stomach previously noted had disappeared, but he experienced a slightly nauseated feeling in the afternoon and did not relish his meals. However, later in the day, he developed a feeling of hunger. IHis temperature on the last dlay of this subperiod was slightly subnormal, pulse normal, and body weight 60.4 kilograms. He complained of a slight headache after luncheon and developed quite a strong nauseated feeling after dinner. His average weight for the subperiod was 60.36 kilograms, a loss of 0.55 kilogram as compared with that of the second subperiod.
On the first day of the fourth preservative subperiod the subject's temperature and pulse were 98.40 F., and 65 beats, respectively, and the body weight 59.8 kilograms. Hle reported that he had not slept well the previous night and had a slight headache during the day, with some pain in the stomach. The following day he again complained of a slight headache during the afternoon and a feeling of weakness. A slight pain in the stomach was also noted just before dinner on this day. His temperature for the third day of this subperiod was 98.8o F., with pulse normal, but he still complained of a slight headache and weakness. Although his rations seemed a little large at this time, he experienced no difficulty in eating them. A feeling of drowsiness was noted during the afternoon of each day of this sublperiod. On the fourth day his temperature and pulse were normal, although a slight headache and a marked feeling of weakness were noted. Also a feeling of hunger developed in the afternoon which was accompanied at intervals by slight nausea. The recorded temperature for the last day of the subperiod wais 980 F., pulse 62, body weight 60.5 kilograms. The subject reported that he felt very weak during this and the previous day. Hlis average weight for this sulbperiod was 60.14 kilograms, a decrease of 0.22 kilogram from the average of the preceding subperiod. The average weight for the entire p)reservative period was 60.54 kilograms, representing a loss of 0.s kilogram as compared with the fore period.
An analysis anl summary of the symptoms developed by No. 8 during this period( show that he suffered with headache, slight pains in thle stollmach at various tillies, a marked feeling of weakness, andl slight nausea which was nIoticeable several times luringi the lst pre-






1076 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

servative subperiod, in which the highest amount of preservative was given, namely, 2.5 gramins per day. This record accords with the symptoms noted by Nos. 1 and 4, who developed the same feeling of weakness when this amount of preservative was given. It might be well to mention here that No. 8, although physically the weakest member of the class, had in this observation as well as in Series VI and VII taken the entire amount of preservative during the whole series. Although he developed the same symptoms as the other members of the class, his general appearance at the end of each observation was by far better than that of any other member who took the same amount of preservative, or even less. This may well be ascribed, as was suggested before, to the large amount of water which he drank, and this should be taken into consideration in studying the data for this subject.
The temperature for No. 8 at the beginning of the after period was quite subnormal, pulse normal, and body weight 60.05 kilograms. He reported a slight improvement in his condition over that of the previous (lay, but was still weak. The same condition prevailed on the second day, the subject reporting that he felt quite weak, but otherwise in good condition. The weakness and malaise continued on the third (lay, the temperature and pulse, however, being normal. The temperature and pulse continued normal on the following day, the subject reporting that he felt considerably better. On the last day of this subperiod the temperature for No. 8 was 98.70 F., pulse 75 beats, body weight 59.3 kilograms. The subject reported that he slept poorly during the night and awoke with a headache, but felt fairly well during the day. Ile also reported a slight headache and nausea immediately after dinner, and the symptoms of a slight cold. The average weight for this first subperiod was 59.93 kilograms, which shows a slight loss as compared with the last preservative subperiod, and a decrease of 0.61 kilogram from the average of the entire preservative period.
On the first (lay of the second after subperiod the temperature was normal, pulse slightly above normal, and body weight 59.45 kilogramIs. The subject reported that he felt very well. On the following (lay the temperature and pulse were normal, but hlie complained of having had a slight head(lache during the previous night and forenoon. Tellmperature and )tpulse were Inormal on the last three days of this subP1)eriod and t he subject rep)orte(d himself as feeling all right.
No. !. GU. W1. L
No. 9 passed through the relaxation period without trouble of anly sort a as in excellent condition at thile beglDing of the fore period.
In the first fore suhperiod the temperature and pulse were normal thrMoughout, and the 1)od(y weight on the last (lay was 62.1 kilograms, the average for the entire subperiod being 61.79 kilograms.






BEN ZOIC ACTD AND BENZOATES. 10 1- 7

His temperature was normal throughout the second fore subperiod, pulse sll(ybtlv 111(riier than in the previous subperiml, registering 81 beats. The body weight for the Last day -was 61.,1 5 kil()(rrallis, the avera(re for this stibperiod bein(r 61.7,1 IN-Ilicli was
practically the same as that for tile first subperiod, giN-ing all CqNer,(Ere of 61.79 kilocrrams for the entire fore period.
There NN-ere no chan(yes from this nornial condition t1ii-ougliout
the first preservative subperiod, the teniperattire renilainill(r practically constant at 98.4' F., pulse 81 beats. 'Ill(, sid)1wriml, cb)sed
with the subject weighinor 62 kilograins, the averwre N\-el(rllt f(jr tile
Z7 Z71
five davs being 61.S1 kilograms.
zn r7l
There was no deviation from this normal condition. t1ir(al(rhout
the second preservative subperiod -with the exceptD)ji ()f 1,1 sllrlit ri e in temperature on the second (Lay. 'File b()dy welglit ()ii flic I'ast
da was 61.S2 kilo(yranis the ti,\,erage NNehrlit for the siibperWd bell)(11 61.77 kilograms.
On the first day of the tIiird preservatiN-e sul)period No. WS telliperature re(riStered 98.6" F., pulse 82 beats, and body wei(rilt 61.65 kil()grains. The same normal condition prevailed ()it tlie second day, but on the following (Lay a teillpenatilre ()f 99, 1". was lwted, pill"q1
and the subject complained of li.avillo. a VVl*V SMV all(] 82 beats, rinflained t1iroat and of 1)(1111(r s0illeWliat const ipat ed. ()It tit(' ing day the teinperatLire was still 99' F., ptilse 82 beats,, lind lbe subject complained that lie felt sick, having pains in tile stolllacl;, and bowels, and a sore throat. Later after dillnel. ()It fliat da N-, I Ie became nauseated and vomited part of flie nical. ()it flie last da\of the third subperiod Iiis temperature registered 99.1' F., I)tilse S beats, find bodN, wei(rilt 61.7 kil oora ills. Ile colill)1allwd 4 feelill(r verv weak ()f soreness ill tit(, reo-ion of tile stoillacil. 'I'lle "Idlilillistration of the pre.servat.iN-e was discontintied after tlil,, daN-. '11 le average body weiglit for t1iis stiblwriod was G1.73
No. 1) was ill and remained ill Ill,-; rm)n] ()It t1le fil-st da N- (d, Ille fourtli preselwatWe slibperil)(1. 011 the llext (111Y 1w rel)(Wit'(1 111:1t lie felt s()l1lewInit better. blit liad no apiwtite alld c()1ll1)l:11llt.d 44 soreness in tit(,, regk)n of tile stoinacil. I lis teill1wriltiliv \\. 1', 99.-16 V., plilse s-1 beats. ()It tile tlill.(l (111N- tellilw i-11011-v \\,IS still l1l;J l.
1 1. I ptilse S2 beats, btit c()ntiinwd Ii Ill P1,(1VVll1(1ll I WIts 1111m l-ted. Ilis tellilwi-at ilre oil t1le ft)JI(Iwillif (111N, \\as I)iilse S2 bents, and Ile \\-11S (rl-jj(IjjjjIlN- I-eirli"ji'llr 11' ?_ r I 1 -1 IS 11M A11,1
alt.11oll(rIl lie still lind 11 Neling 4 sol-elless ill tit(. st(Illincli alld Ille I)owels. 'I'lle telill)(.1-11t ill-e tffl tit(, last (Ill 4 Illis slibpel'Im l lind a(rllili risell h) 99.1, F., I)IIIse 1 1 beat", b(1d\- weiirlit ld ..-) k1b)-l-11111s, and flie siibject rejmrted fliat liv was wraln reellil", 1111 I-l'-dit. 11 Iv bodv weitrIlt fol this SlIbIwrif)il, \\-Ilic]] inclildf-S Ille 121st (Ill-ve dn\,-,






1078 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

only, averaged 61.27 kilograms. The average body weight for the entire preservative period was 61.77 kilograms.
All of the analytical data for No. 9 during the fourth preservative subperiod were discarded as he was ill on the first day and was allowed to eat other food than the prescribed ration.
On the first day of the after period No. 9's temperature registered 98.40 F., pulse 82 beats, and body weight 61.3 kilograms. He reported himself in good condition throughout the first after subperiod. His pulse and temperature were normal and his body weight on the last day was 61.4 kilograms. The average body weight for this subperiod was 61.39 kilograms.
Normal conditions prevailed throughout the second after subperiod, temperature and pulse were normal, and No. 9 reported that he was in fine condition in every way. The body weight on the last day was 61.5 kilograms, and the average for this subperiod 61.46 kilograms. The average body weight for the entire after period was 61.43 kilograms.
The characteristic symptoms for No. 9 were burning sensations in the alimentary canal, but this subject did not pay the strictest attention to these details and may not have recorded them all. He had one attack of nausea with vomiting which was noted after dinner on May 4, and another attack after breakfast on May 6. He did not complain of being nauseated at any other time, and these attacks apparently came on suddenly.
No. 1.-R. D. B.
No. 10 entered the period of observation in first-class condition. ie had had no illness during the relaxation period and all of his bodily functions were normal. Hle continued normal throughout the first fore suhperiod, the body weight on the last day being 57.4 kilograms, and the average weight for the subperiod 56.73 kilograms.
IIe was normal throughout the second fore subperiod with only a slight deviation from time to time in pulse and temperature, the body weight for the last day being 56.45 kilograms and the average for the sulbperiod 56.49 kilograms. The average weight for the entire fore period was 56.61 kilograms.
On the first day of the preservative period No. 10's temperature and pulse registered 98.2o F., and 80 beats, respectively, and the body weight 56.4 kilograms. His temperature for the remainder of the first subperiodl was normIal with only slight variations from day to d(ay, the1 pulse, however, showing a wide range each day. On the second and fourth days 102 and 120 beats, respectively, were recorded. This can hardlly be attributed to any influence of the preservative, the only plausible explanation being that No. 10, who had to walk a considerable distance from the medical school in which he was a






BENIZOIC ACID AND BEINZOATES. 1079

student, had hurried and, ,vas not allowed SLIffiCient. time, to rest before taking the pulse. Ills body 'weitylit on the last, day Nvas 5G.G kilograms, the average, for the first preservative, subperiod beingr'5 56.41 kilograms.
On the first day of the second preservative snbl)eriod the stibject',; recorded temperature was 98.6' F., pulse 86 beats, and bo(IN- weight .56.65 kilograins. Temperature and pulse Nvere ii0rinal throll(rhout this subperiod, but on the fourth day No. 10 complaiiied of cramps in the stomach which continued during the foltowiiigr (lay accompanied by headache. 11is body weiOrlit on this day was 56.5 kiloulse, 94 beats temperature normal. The averacre weight foigrams, p l M 0
the second subperiod was -6.53 kilograms.
On the first day of the third preservative subperiod the temperature and pulse w(- re normal and the body weight 56.6 k'Jo(ri-aills. The subject still suffered from craiiil)s in the stomach. On. tlie following day bis temperature registered 98.8' F., and pul-se 82 beats. There was a slight increase in temperature ii0ted ()it the thii-d daN-, 99' F. being recorded, and pulse 108 beats. He conilflained ill)on this dav of having pains in the stoinach with a return of hea(laclie in the frontal region. On the following day his temperature was s0iiie,\vhat subnormal, pulse slightly aboN-e nominal, and he coniplaiiied of having a sweet, sickening taste in his mouth and pains ill the stoiiia(-h. The saine conditions existed ul)on the Itast. day oftlils stibIwi-iod, wheii his tempei-ature registered 9S.9' F., his pulse 88 beats, -kind Ills bo(ly wei(rht 56 kilo(yrains. The avera(re bodN- Nveioht for the 0111-d sIlb-, period was 56.26 kilop-anis. The stibject's appetite had beell ina less (1111-illcr the ]list few (lays until oil the inoriiiii(y of the fiftli (lay of this stibperiod lie ate very little breakfast. No I)rvSv1,vat*V(1 \V:IS given oil tlils (IaN- i-et, lie \\-its stid(leiiIN- taken sick dfil-111(f flie iii(rilt, svith cranil)s, followed bN- voniiting
No. 10 did i)ot receive Hie preservative (Itiriii(r tll(,, foIll-tll
tive sllblwriod wiliell lie eiltered with it telli1wratill-e of 9S.9' 14 "., 1)111se SO beats, all(I it bo(IN- wei(rilt of
r",
SOVelle ])all I 1 11 t1le fl-ontal 1-(,(ri()Il of tll( llva(l IIII(I it J)aill ill Ille stolillicil (1111-ing this fil-St (IIIN-. 'Fit(, Ileadlicile (.()lit ifilled ()I) Hie ,ec()II(I dav, the SlibiecCS telill) (% 1-atlif-e I. (,tristel-illcr 14 "., aii(I Iiis I)iilse 70. 11 telillw l-at ill-v 1111(1 ))III-w lJol-111211 ()JI til(I tllll-(l (IIIN-, J)Ilt ill, -I(rillil S11frel-e(I fl-olli 111)(I Ila(] lin tit tack of iiatisva aii(i V01111t 111ir :Iftvibi-eakfast. H e \\-it,, feviiii(r \vell ()It tll(, 111st t\\.() (d 'Ilbpe)-iod, I)IJIsv i1ol-111111 211)(1 teillim-f-litiliv smile\vIllit Slibimnillil. 'I'lle bo& \\ (q(rllt fol- Ill(, lll.,t (Ili\- \vas 5.-.65 1 llwrnmis aii(I tli(, venture 1,()I. the stibl)vnm 1 5.5.30 I "Jo(ri-21 ills, \\-It WIl Is li 14 s-, 4 d liell H v lk 1 il( wni ill Its (10 1111 )11 1-(,(l \\ it I I t I 1 :1 \\,(-*irl It (d t lle I 11ir(I I Ive -;IIhe r i o fol- t 11( (qll Ife lWesel'Vilt iV41 Pel'im l \vw,






10SO INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON- HEALTIFI.

1k-llourams,, NN-bicb is a decreasee of iwarly half a kilocri-ani from the average of tll(' fore perlo(I.
Dul-Illu, t1le fil-st after subperiod No. 10 reported tLat lie was feeling Nv e 11. His telliperature still reoiStered slibnornial. throughout the Periml, pulse normal, and Ins body m-elcrltt for the last day was 57.05 J.,ilo(ri-ams. The averacre Nvelurlit for thiS SL1hp(T10d -was -6.6 kilograms.
7_ t_ Ll t)
Tile same gnmlual impro-vement was noted (luring the second after subperiml, the subject reporting that, )I(, was iii good condition at the eml ()f Otis time. The bo(Iv weiorht on the last (lay was 56.82 kilo(rrams tit(, average wvioht for the subperiod belmr 57.08 kilocrrams
Y k-) 1114 Z_ zn
all(I t1lat -1,()I- fit(, entire after period 56.S4 kilograms-0.71 kilogram moi-e titan tit(, avei-acre for the preservative period.
T I I e c liaracterist 1c. SA'Illj)Wms for this subject during the preservatl\-(, period were (Talllp.s ai-ld pains in tbe ston-lacit. and in the frontal 1,0(rloil Of tit(, head. Ife also NN-Its imuseate(l to such an extent that lie voinned on tx\-o different occasions. This feeling,, as in the case of
came oil very suddenly. In it(Mition to tli(,s(, symptoms, No.
10 also liad a sweetisl), (1"sagrecaMe tastv ill Iiis molith for several daY.,; (luring tile period.
No. I I.-A. F. M.
No. I I ('11tered tit(, fore period in excelleiit condition. Ife was normal in (wei-N- particular and had no sickiiess (Im-Hicr the, period of relaxati(.)n. On the first day his temperature an(i pulse N\-ere 98.2'
-especti'vely, aml it's I)o(IA- weiglit, 68.1S kilograms. 1". 111d W; beats i I izn tI I e was 1-iormal durim- tli(, remainder of flie first, fore subperiool, the NA y weiglit for the last (]a-\- being 68.3 kilograllis and the average for tile Isubpei-iod 6S.12 I Jlograms.
I'lle saille Ilormal comlition prevaile.A throughout the five days of Ole secoml 1'ore subperlml, tbe bo(ly N\-eiglit on tbe last, (lay being 67.6 I Ilmrr itllls. 'I'lle weiollt for this subpei-iml averaged 67.95 kilop-ams aml fiw tile clitin. fore perlo(l G(S.03 lJograllis.
X0. I I lia(l it tempejutui-e of 9S.2' 14 '. an(l pulse 66 on tile fil'st (lay of tile pl-esel-Natix-v perio(I ali(I 67.54 kilograms. Ile had a
1101111,11 tem1wriltul-e aml pulse 1111fil III(' foul-fli (Ia-y wilen tile tempoi-aftif-e i-ose to 99.20 F., aii(l tlie pulso to 72 beats. Ile note(l in Ilis b ltvlllal ks" t1lat Ile N\-as stifreI-ill(r ftoill 11. ,,Ii(rllt Ilis tellipel-attin, was 1". ()It tll(, follmvilig ol. ]ast, (111-\, of flie Subl)erio(l,
S'l be"Its, 2111(t bml : y weight 67.61 kiloglIft ills. Ile lmte(l tilat lie I)n,(l it. (Ifw' pal.clw(l Fevill)(r ill his till-oati \\.Ili(.Il Ill Ilis case was ahly (111(h to the (.()I(l whIch still Im -siste(l. His ave,.-age \\,eicrlit. for llm, sithpenml wa.-; 67.6.1 1'*.ilognmis.
011 ille fil-st (1.1 N (d tit(, svcoml I)resvr\,ati\,e subperiml No. 11's vie(l 9S.2" F., pulsv -2 bents, mi(I \veiglit, 61.4 1 ilolie i-epm-le(I that Ill,,; (-()I(] \vas bettei-, but, tbe (Ii-.y sensation






BENZOIC ACID kND BE-NZO.kTES. 1081

in his throat still renialned. Temperature and pulse were nornial on the second and third dtl.-N-s of this subperiod, but a slight headache was noted on the third and fourth days. The teiiiperattire and pube
on the fourth day Nvere normal, but on the hist (hiy the teiriperature SO beats, while, tile body Nveio-ht Nvtis rose to 98.9' F. and the pulse to I
67.1 kilograms. The subject reported thfit lie liztd ,i feellil(r of Nvezikness in his stomach and was soinewhat feverish. The tIver',1(re body weight for the second stil)period iv,-is 67.2S kilograms.
No. 1 I's temperature and pulse were 9S.7' 1, ., -tuid 72 be,-tts, respectively, on the first dayof the t1dr(I preserv.itive subpeiiod: Ills body weight Av-as 67.14 kilograms. Ile recorded tli-(it Ite lizid i (reiler,11
feeling of -\veakness, and on the follolvilio, his teillper"Iture rose
v lie zilso suffered
to 99' F., iind his pulse to 7' be,tts. On this da '
from a slight headtiche which continued duriii(y. tit(, third (hiv. I'lle
temperature 'ti-id pulse, however, Nvere norm.il luid reimiiiied so oii tile next da-v thollo'll the Sli(rilt hezid'icliv still persiste(I. Ill's teillpei'ature registered 9,S.S' F., pulse G9 be'Its, "llid body weigIlt 67.0,1 kilograms on the last (Liv of this subperiod, for tit(,
t!) Z-1
body weight wits 67.10 I Iilogrtuns.
On the fij st (hty of the fourth presel-vittive Ilbperiod. No. 11 11,1(1 a tempe--ature of' 99.4' F., pulse 66 bezits, wid zi bodv Nvvio-ht (d 67.()l kilograllis. Ife coiiiphiiiied of feeling very Nvezik :.md of Juivill(r natisea -ifter dimmer. "I'lie ,id 1111111st..".1 t ion of tile presel-1-:1tive N\,ls StoPped -,It tills tilile. I'lle followilig llis tvillperziture '111d ptilse
were noriiitil, but he collipl"lliled of' ,I Ave,-lk "Illd 1111collifort",I)Ie feclillir ill his stoill"Ich. Oil tile third (hl v tit(, pillse :111d tvillpe".1t: ille Nve --e
tile Subject Nvzls feelilig filillv Nvell "llid luld ]w ablion 11,11 sylliptollis. I I is teiiiperttture slim ve(l -i ,11,,Iit in C VC "I'SC ()It t 11c foll! t 11 day, but ]its pulse Nvzis noriii.II -ill(] It(' felt well. Oil tile Inst (I'lY Ile Wtis norim il -Illd 11"I(I no (11sl-essill(r svillptoills. 'I'lle bm ly \\el,- rlll ()]I this dwv w its (;7.- -)l Ixi Io(rl--l ills, 'aild tile zlverzl(re for t1le 1'.1"'t ,-;1l1)pc1-l()d 67.13 k-iloo-1-111lis tile ,,,Ill)v (as ill flic previou-, ". 11bpel-Wd. 'I'lle !lVcl*zltr(1 N\'(Ii(rllt fi),- tit(, elitil-e pj es(q-N--jt"\-e
No. I I w-'Is norilull tlil.()Il(rll()ttt ille Ii!-'t aftel. subperild % 011 till, excel) t I w i of I i I s t c I I I pe l".1 I I I re () I I I c I I I'll (1, 1Y N\ I I I c I I I-c; I I c (I and Ills pul-w \% llich 1-(),se t () S I bv'I I Ic I*(11)(Wt (1(1, 1 l(m (,\ el" It,[ t Ite felt verv w ell ()It tIlls (1,1v nild (1111*111tr tit,,,, 1*(,1ll.1llld(T (d, IIW Ilis bodv \\vl(rIlt ()It t1le I'w't \\11 f*)(;. I Nveitrlit 1*1)1. this subpe.14)(i bcill r 1\1
011 Hie first d'.1y 44 tit(, ,-wc11l1d "Ifter sl I I I pt-1.1 (d N 'S I of I I P 11'I t I I re and pu[-w were ll()l 111"ll, 1111d tit(, J)tjjj\ \\(,j rIlt (;f;. J.-P

en tire iiiv d ()ll fit(, f(jll()\\jjjr I 1( f( lj \\( ll I)III 111s It-ill
pel-110 11-v w ils slilditlv lli"li, F. I Its p1l['e, IlIm IlIVvi \\Iks 114)1,111.11, and there were no libliol-111til sylliptoills 011-oll"110(it tiR, 111111-4111141VI, (d,






1082 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

this subperio( which he closed weighing 66.65 kilograms and feeling well. The average body weight for this subperiod was 66.34 kilograms, and that for the entire after pe iod 66.49 kilograms, showing a gradual decrease throughout the period of observation,
The characteristic symptoms for No. 11 were slight inflammation in the throat, some headache, a weak and distressed feeling in the stomach, a general lassitude, and nausea which occurred even after the administration of the preservative had stopped.
No. 12.-R. B. R.
No. 12 had an attack of measles during the relaxation period and was confined t) his bed one week and to his room for nearly two weeks. All symptoms of the disease had passed away at the opening of the peiiod of observation and his physical condition had been restored to a perfect normal.
On the first day of the fore period his temperature was 98.40 F., pulse 74 beats, and weight 67.55 kilograms. His condition continue(l normal throughout this subperiod and when it closed his body weight was 67.7 kilograms, the average weight for the subperiod being 67.45 kilograms.
During the second fore subperiod the temperature and pulse continued normal with slight variations from day to dlay, the body weight for the last (lay being 67.7 kilograms and his average body weight 67.76 kilograms, thus making the average for the entire fore period 67.61 kilograms.
No. 12 entered(l the preservative period ( with a temperature of 98.20 F., pulse 76 beats, and body weight 67.95 kilograms. His appetite was noted as being very "keen." The temperature and pulse
remained normal (luring the following days, and the subject reported that lhe felt all right. The body weight on the last dlay of the first subperiod was 67.85 kilograms and the average for the subperiod 68.01 kilograms.
On the first d(lay of the secon(l preservative subperiod the tenmperat ure an(i pulse were normal anl the body weight 67.8 kilograms. I(e subl)ject relporte(l that he felt well and that his appetite was rgool. The following (lay a sul)normal temperature wNas note(l, the pulse 1 re1maiied normal, anll the sul)ject complained that he felt somewhat fatiguel, but he still ha(l a good appetite. Ie was norIal ag11ain ()n the following 1Ihree (lays allnd (dse the second subperiol with a )(body weight of 6(8.3 kilograms, the average weight for the sul)perioml being 8.32 kilograms.
On the first (lay of the third preservative sub)periom No. 12's tenm-perat ure aml pulse were 98.6 F., and 76 )beats, respectively, his ody weight being 6(8.4 kilograms. Ile replorte(l that he had(l a heavy and depressed feeling in his stornach, and on the following day expe-






BEINZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1083

rienced a decided loss of appetite e so that lie (lid not eat his ratioll with the usual enjoyment. Moreover, lie felt very tired, although
he had not taken an un(lue arnount of exercise. His temperature and pulse were normal and remained so on the following day, but the gradual loss of appetite continued. On the fourth (1a X- the stlbject's temperature and pulse were normal btit lie rel)orted t1lat lie had a headache and did not rest welt (luring tile night, also tliat lie had some pain in his stoinach an(l felt generally uncoinfort'able. Temperature and pulse were noritial on the last (1a y of the tliil-(l subperiod and the bo(ly *N-elcrlit 68.2 kilograms; but on Hie eveiiiiia of this (Jay -No. 12 rel)orte(I that lie felt quite sick, haV11101 lut( I a severe pain Ili his stomach (all (lay accoinpanie(l by hea(laclic', aild pains in the region of the ki(Ineys. His average ivehrlit for the tillf-d subperiod, however, was 68.42 1cilograins, showing it grzi(liiiil increase.
t) r7) ZIn the fourth preservative subperiod 'No. 12 (lid not receive an y pi-eservative. Ills temperature and pulse were nominal ()n tlie first da and the body welglit 68.2 kilograins, but lie coiiij)laine(I ()f sonie, pain in the stoniach. On the following lie still slioNve(I .1 11()1-111al
temperature and pulse, and rel)orted that his 1tl)j)etltc' was 110111,111M -r but that lie lia(l experienced a sensation of weakness for ,I f(,\\- liotii(luring the morning. On the thir(l day t1le telliperattire all(I Pulse were normal, but a loss of al)I)etite was noted. A tired feeliii(r," continuing t1irougli()tit. the fotirtli (IaY, was rel)()l-te(l "111(l the said that lie no longer relislied Ills ideals. Pic teiiij)(1rat UlT Ill(] pulse were noriiial ()ii the last (lay of tills stibl)eriml aii(l t1w lm(ly weight was 68.3 kilograiiis. No. 12 rej)orted fluat lie felt veiw wCll (luring this (lay and diat Ili.-; al)j)ctlte was soille\N-11at I e
average weight for this stiblwrio(l A\-,-tS l-,*j()(rl-;jljj,
r-1) I s,
entire preser\-ati\,e jwrio(l GS.23 (Ntill Of* ().62
kilograiii its coinl)ared with tlie aN-vr,-I(-,rv (d tllc fore
nirougliout tlie first. after stlbl)vl-lo(1, X(). 12's tvll1j)cl-;It1ll'e all(I pulse were nom ial N\-Itll S11(rilt N-111-latiolls I'l-w il (jay to (Ia\ I I e reporte(I Iiiiiiself as feclHig \vell, biit ()It 011V M1121 ll()t I diat Ilis
apl)etit(,- w as st I i it ow I i it t I )c I() \\- i i n i i -,I I t I I( T\6 I I v N as 'I 1 4 n )( )(I
con (I it io it. 'I'lle j)()(j\, \\-( *(rllt ()It tlj( 1-Ist (1,1\* \\-It-, a\7erw rv, \\,elyllt for t1lis s1lb1)vl-1()(l beiii(r GS.2.) 1 i1w rl,2111I.s.
7,11c, tellilw l-111 111-c ()Il t1le first foill. (]a \-s 4 1 11c artel. sill) pel-k)i I W as SOHIPW Ilat stibli()1-111111, 1)111 ,e O il tll(. (1"I v I 11c
subject relmlte(I t1lat. It(. \%-Ils 11:111seate(l, -dtll()1l1rll be (11(l ll()t vW111t, an(I felt N\-eak- 1 tlt ()It tll( fojlt)\k-ljj(r (Ill\- ]I(, fell \\-(41 w ritill al)(1 closely tlle ()bservatioll \\,itli it teiiil)cratttre ()f F., 71 bents, an(I it bm k, \vvilrlit 4 GS.25 1xil(),rl-jlljls. \\,(-"4rjlt fol, tlj*,average(l GS.1 kll()(ri-amis aii(I t1l1Lt fol' (11V Viltil-V Ith(T 1)(TH141 11,S-17






1084 INFLUEN('E OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

A summary of the symptoms of No. 12 shows a most striking loss of appetite, although his ration at the beginning was eaten with a relish. Ileadache, slight irritation and pains in the stomach, and a nauseated feeling on one occasion near the end of the after period are also recorded.
CONCLUSIONS.
These data show that the preservatives in the quantities administered produced marked symptoms of discomfort and positive malaise in the majority of cases. The most common symptoms are nausea and headache, which occurred in nine and eight cases, respectively, the nausea producing vomiting in only three cases. Seven of the subjects complained of weakness and burning and irritating sensations in the esophagus. Symptoms of hunger and indigestion occurre(ld in three and five cases, respectively. It is thus seen that there was a marked effect under the administration of the preservative to produce headache and nausea, accompanied by lassitude.

BODY WEIGHTS.
VARIATIONS IN BODY WEIGHTS.
The data showing the variations in body weight are given in Table V, and in graphic form in figures 1 and 2.
The platted figures represent all the weight data irrespective of variations in administration of the preservative.
The data show a loss in the preservative period in nine cases and a gain in one case (No. 12). In only two cases, Nos. 4 and 10, is there any appreciable gain in the after period over the preservative period, and these grains are very slight. In the case of No. 1 the chart shows a very great loss of weight (during the preservative period, and this loss is continued, though in a less degree, in the after period. No. 2 ex)erience(d a slight loss of weight during the preservative period and ani increased loss during the after period. The chart of No. 3 shows a very slight loss of weight (luring thie preservative period, followed by another slight loss of weight in the after period. The data for No. 4 show a slight loss of weight during the preservative period and a very slight gain during the after period. No. 5 suffered a marked loss of weight in tihe l)reservative period and a slight loss in the after period. No. 6 shows a notable loss of weight in the preservative period and ahnost as much in the after period. No. 7 experienced a consideral)le loss of weight in the p)reservative period and a slight loss in the after period. No. 8 shows a marked loss of weight in the preservative period and another loss equally great in thie after period. No. 9 is probably the only member of the table whose weight is not perceptibly affected during the preservative period. There is, however,









BENZOIC ACID A--\-D BE-NZOATES. 1085




APRIL MAY

n 4 0 0 T No N Nn N't NLO 'No Nr Q 'a) W, I Ln 0 r, 00 a)
N
t I
3 A- 1 T 4 4
I t I l
71 or
41 1 J --i T-1-i- I f

70

4 I IL
C,
17
N I v
Zp
70


6 f !IT
65
N 9

4

t
41
63


62,
0 14 1 7- 4
i N 9
. . . . . . . . .


:A


t I t .. . . . .
57 . . .
52
N 9
,4
t
51

l< 50 60
t N9
1 4 1

59



71
7
+

0



62






6 o

. . . . . .
53 [ -L-L I I i .- I I --- 1- ...... ........ ... .
6 2 -7


N c? 9



601 r- i Li
FoRr PF'Rloc) PRESERVATIVE PETOOD AFTIL R PER 10 0

Avonigo lm),JN, S, ri. Vil I






1086 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

a very slight Toss of weight in the after period. No. 10 shows quite a loss of weight in the preservative period and a larger gain in the after period, so that his weight at the end of the observation is greater than at the beginning. No. 11 suffered a notable loss of weight in the preservative period and a still greater loss in the after period. No. 12 shows a marked gain in weight in the preservative period, and his weight during the after period remains the same as in the preservative period.
APRIL MAY
N0 10



557


N It

68

67

66

69
1- es







-I- -[-. -mm -.
SU M R No? 7-810-1







.. ...... RECEIVED.SODIUM.BENZ0AT
SUMMARY Nos 1-2-4-5-6-7-8-910-I-12
FORE PRSOD REEVAT V "AIO AFE PE[O






FI 2. 1rge body weight: for Series VIII, Nos. 10 to 12 mnd summaries.

The vIarts show a loss lilfugll1out the observation in nine cases and a gain in one ease, while in two vases, Nos. 4 and 10, there is a ss ill the )preservative period and a gain in the after period.
('mliiing the data for Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6, who received benzoie avid, it is seen that the average loss of weight during the preservative period is about half a kilogram and the loss during the after I)eriod an aihlitional 0.4 of a kilogram. The average weights of Ns. 7 to 1., who received sodium bezoate, show a loss of weigt of






BENZOIC ACID A-ND BE' NZ OATES. 1087

about 0.3 kilogram durinp- the preservative period and an additional loss of about the same ma(mitude durin(r the after period. The (relleral effect upon the weight, of the body appears to be more marked in the case of benzoic a(,id than in the (,ase of ,;()diiim belizoate, thou(yh the effect is to decrease t1le -%x-el(rllt Ili both o--ases. The (rVI-leral avera(ye, omitting No. 3 on amount of imperfe(-timis in the ()bsershows for the eleven men a notable 1()ss ()f welo-lit din-111" nations, ? Zthe preservative period and an additional loss, of about the same magnitude, in the after period. The generall (-mw1usimi., tlierefore, to be drawn from these observations is that the admillistratiml of benzoic acid as such or as sodium benzoate, in the (jumititiCs 111(111tioned, tends to produce a (-on(lition ()f the system wlil(Ai (-;mses a loss in the N%-ei(rllt of the I)o(jV; flicat is, the actiN-itles 4 a katalmlic nature, (lestroyin(j, and ex( retijj(r tissue, are greaterr tlian fliose ()f aii anabolic nature, absorbin(r and ])Uil(l*ll(r up tissue. This efl'ect (ioes not cease immediately upon the withdrawal ()f the, pres"em-atiN-e, blit, is continued in the majority of cases, to a greaterr ()r less extent throughout the after periml.
RATIO OF FOOD WEIGHT TO BODY WEIGHT.
In Table V are found the data i-clatill(r to tlle, qllllltlt.N- ()f fo()d consuined bv, eacli in(HN-ldiial and the ratio of the \\-(,i(rllt ()f tlle fo()d consumed to tllo_, IN-ei(rllt of the bodv. The avera(re wehrlit ()f No. I for the fore perio(I is 70.77 kll()(rr,-iiiis aii(I the a-\-erjj(r(,, N\,(,'(r moist food mistimed is 2,3SS e(jjI'N-,ljeIlt to (;()(j
substance. Tliv IN-ei(rllt of the (Iri- foml cmismiie(l l" WS6 per cefit of the bo(Iv NN-eight. Ili tlie presem-at].N e periml tliere was a ]()ss (d NVOli(r1it, of about I k*j()(rr-jIll, t1le (1111111t1tv ()f limist ftmd cmi"1111le(I I)eill(r sli(rlltl-\r- rl m creased all(l t1lat ()f fo I
ratio of fl ie \\-e'(rIlt ()f (11-N- 1'()()(I to t1le 1)()(I\- t1le same ws; fliat ()f flie fore perim]. hi t lie after pel-Iml I licre Is a. hil-t Itel. loss ()f welglit all(I a smaller (111alltitY 4 (11-Y fm)(f C"11-1-4111le(j, amomitill(r ti) WS2 pet- ceiit (d tlie wel(dit 4 tlie bmk .
No. 2 wei(rlis almiit tlie same as No. I but cmil-11,111101-1 11 Idi(dltjv ltll-(r(,r (jumitity 4 foml, flie ammillt (d, (11w foml III Hie 1,(we
periml belli(f 0.93 per cellt (d tile 1)()(I\, I'V -If I I* V I t I V V
perlm l 0.93 per cefit, 1111(1 ill t1le aher 0.91 1)(11, (,eIll. 'I'lle (111alltity 44 (Iry rm ml cm isl1ille(I I-ellI21111S (1111-jiltr tit(,
t1iree 1)(111MIS, lWitig 659 gnmis Ili tlic fm-e periml. (;51 grallis Ill t lie presematk-e pvt-iod, 2111(1 1;:),l ("I'llm s Ill Hit, aftel. pel-Im l. 'I'llen. \\ as \\(,Iqrllt (1111-111tr t1le expel-Illiclit. (Jcclva-, ilw fl-4)111 70.51 kilmri'llills Ill tlic foiv pvn()d to 70.01; lit dio, pi-esetwntlVe till(I (,;9.37 1 *]()(rnl ills Ill t1le 211*1t.l. pel-iod.
X(). N\-e*trlle(j iiotald\, less Hum Nt)s. I mid 2 mi(l ate, pn)P 1Itj1)Ilatc] it larger (1112111titY 4 fm d tllv 11111m illt 4 (11..\ f()m l (.()list I [ill-d belmr 1.01 per celit 4 t1w bmk wci"Alt Ill. t1le f(we Penml, 0.96 PT cclit






1088 INFLUENCE OTF FOOD PRESERVATIVES 0- IFEALTH.

ill t1w preservative period', ai-Id 1.04 per cent in the after period. 'I'llere waQ ,I Pr(WIT.SSIN-V 1() ss ()f (ItIrIjj(r tll(, observation. The
rea-soi-lablv constant, Z-rh
quantity v ()f (Ir v fo()(I cmisitined was thou(
I Mlwwliat less III the pivserv'atlve Ivriod, the quantities being 648
(j]:3 (rl-aills. 111(1 C6(j (ri-ains foi- the t1irce i)eriods, respectivelv. 'I'llere a c()l1tilitle(I ()f N\-el(rllt M the -ifter period, ,-tltll()UOIII tfie quantity v ()f dry fo()(I Nva" Iwtabl v increased.
4 11(rllt(,I, III fliaii -No. :)), but ate about the same
qualltit : v ()f food ill I)r(q)(wti0ii to t1w weiglit of Ills body as No. 2. 'I'lle wel(rht of di'v food IS 0.90, O.SS, Itild WS9 jwr ceilt of the weia-lit of Hie bod v f(ir till, three perimls, respectively v. 'I'll(, quantities of dry f(wd cat('11 M t1l", tIlre(' 1wrimis are aiiii()st i(ieiiticai. rhere is a sli(rht
of w(.1Alt Ain til", preservative period and a very Sli(rilt, gain
the I)reserv"Itive lwrlml In till, after I)erlwl.
_V). 5 .t ,iiialler iii.in tlizin any ()f t1w 1)recedliig subjects, weighiii(r
()Ill\- ;51 k*1()0TalM,-,1 but cits I)ractically the saii-te quantity of food ill to tll(' welglit ()f Ills bmiv the Nveiudit of the (Irv food
lwiiw 0.94, 0.96, mid ().9S cent ()f the vvel(dit, of the I)o(lv for the
t'lliee jwrlmk re Iwctlvelv. I'llere I*S a, PI'0(rrCsQTV(1 loss of wei(rht dur'I'h(-- quaiititv of dry food remains almost the, 'Stille, tll()tl(ril it i,- "11-(YlltlN- riveterr In preservative and after 1wrimis tll(lll ill t1te folv periml.
No). G 'A-el(r1l" 60 at the b(,(rilljlill(r of the experiIllent 'tild wel(dit tli,,, period of obserV(I t M. -; 0.'I'lle wel(rilt ()r tll(, drv fimd colislillied 1. 0.95, a-i-ld 0.98
1wr ceid ()f t1w wel(rlit ()f t1w lmd.v f(w t1w dirce periods, ITSI)ectively.
It) till, case (d No. 7, till, Nvel(rlht ()f dry food is 0.74, 0.72 alld 0.64 pel. cefit ()f t1w b()dY wc1g.lit fiw tll(' tilree 1wriods. Ill this case tlivre V"W-, It decrease ill tile wel(dlt of tll(, bodv, aild the
(11](11111tv ()f (11w 1,m)(I cml ,uiiwd also decreased, eslwcially M the after Pe I- I ()(I 'I'lle 1()S" (d wel(dit, tilel-cf(wel lilax be ill tilts case justly '1111.1huted to till, decre"I"c Ill tile (111"llitit V Of fom l.
No. lltIj()jj(rlj ,I ate iiiore food fliaii No. 7,
O w pel-celit'l(re ()I* (11-v 1,()()(I Is til(- 1)()(I\- NV(,itrljt. ])( *Ihr
().91, alld 0.96, l'(-,Iw(.tIv(,I v. Ill tills CaSO also) t1lerv was it decrea.-w Ill \0 1H.11 call 11"Irdl\_ 1)( (111(' to :1.
tl1v (4 1*(md, till, alllmlllt" vatell 1)(111111, lWacticallY tile saine iii the fore 4111d pel-k)(k nild mll v -diglillY lv.ss ill Ille preservative 1wriod.
Ill till, cnse (11, No). 9, Olt, (4 Ow (it-\- food is O.S41 I
()..' 2 per ueiit ()I' III(, 1)()(I\- 'll jjl( tj t i ve I v .
Till. wvIrllt Ill ille f'()I'(, P(TH)d Is pnictic"I'lly t1w saille as ill the
P.111S(TV411 1Vv -Ind t1wiv Is n slPjit ]it till, after 1wriod. Tliv
(11IN1011 V id, df- 1,4)()(1 (.101SHIM 'd 1,-, givater ill div fore jv riod 111.111 Ill 11w pl-t-wI.N."Itive M, "dtel, 1)(111m l. Little effect is Iloticed oil HH, J)"ll'I ( J* t1w I)iv ,.w lw ntlve to) t1le nlti( Ill tilts Clise. T I ie dat"I. for No. W sllmv tilat 1w wll.- Ille livartic.st, cater iii proportion to






BENZOIC ACID AND BE-XZO.%M-- -S,. 1OS9

his weight of all the members of the ttablel, Nvith the exception perhaps of No. 12. The percenta(res are 1 -0')), 0-96, ai-Id 0.9s, respectively. The quantity of dry food consumed Is notah! v less In flie preservative period, and somewhat less in the after periOdy t1lan In the for(, perlo(l. There is a sli(ypbt loss of Nvehrlit lit the I)rvserv,1tIV(, Period, NvIllch I'S more than re, Yained in the "'Ifter period, altilm](rh the (111alitity 4 food consumed is not so crreat -as in the fore period. 'Fliere 1 4, therefore,
practically no effect produced in tlils case by tlie pre ,ervatlvc oll the relation between the weight of the j)(Ay tind the Nvel(dit of flie dry food consumed.
In the case of No. 11 7 the weight of (IrY food is 0.04, 0.95, and 0.96 per cent of the body -%velght in the three period", r(,sI)('ctlvc1Y. 'I'lle
quantity of dry food coii ,unicd III the fore perim! alld ill(' prescrvatIN-C period is almost identical. the (plantit v coll"tililed ill Ille 'Ifter
period is larger than in either. 'I'liere is .1(r.11111 .1 loss (d,
weight -svhIch is MON, Marked in till:-; Cctsel slice the v of fm)d
consumed is increased to\vard the end of the ob.servatlolls rather illan, diminished.
No. 12 is also a very hearty eater, as, shown by the relation of body weight to tlle NveHylit, of tit(, (II'v food collstillied, t1li's 1wi-cellia-(re 1)(1111(f 1.021 0.9sy aiid 0.94, resj)ect. N 1*()()(I IS (IM Istillied ill
the preservative period tlian ill the fore I)erlod .111d illucli less ill Ille after period, IjotN\-itIjSt-jIj(I*lj(r NvIlich t1lere a (raill ill Nvel(rilt Ill Ille preservative I)eriod aiid oiily a sliglit dccr(,:),,e M flic aft er peril Hie final wel(rht I)elll(r Illyller tliaii fliat ol' tl)(, 1'orv i)criml.
Thedata, for.Xos. I aiid 4 iiia.vhe suillillarized 1,()I. Ole clitire periml of observation. 'I'livre is 11 Pr0(1*rV"-,ivc decrca:w M Nvei(rllt \011cli (.,Il be accounted for oidv ill a VVIW de,(rive bv ill(, dlffelvllce ill fm)d.
There is 1:3 gnmis less food collsuilled (1,111Y ill thc pjvscl valivc 1)(TiMl than iii the fore period, hut I lic 1()s 111 1,- G 10 Ill ille
after 1wriod tlivre is -ill a(ldl11,()11al ()F \\cl lrlll (4 1 SO (M lY 10 grains of ctm be asci-lbed i() ille deun",I., ed (Iliallill v (d, 1*(wd.
'I'llv variatioll.-; Ill \vel(rilt (4 (h.v foml c()Illp:llvd \6111 hmlv \V0I,_,*hI expressed 1) v (). 's7, W sGy 1111d o-,,-,.) p kl (-('lit 1,()1. 1114, 1111,00 P(Tlm k res lwc t I've IY.
A suiiiiiiar v fi)r N o ,. 1, 21 '1, -5, alld 0 1.- Ilinde I,()[. the 4d Illel 1)1.(, period for I Ill-ce (11* 1 lic l)rvs(,rv l I Ive ,11)(1 1 lit, \\ li'de ()I* I he
after I)vrim l. 'I'llis ,11M VIS di 44 \\(,'A it \\ 'Ill I vol.v
Slitylit decrell.,w ill Ole 11111w ilit (d, (11-v [()m l nillw 1111111tr to 5 "THIlls Ill flW PNISCI'Vill IVV :11141 11; 111"'11w, ill I Ill, t'iffel, Polh)(1. The \vviglits f*oi- di-y kwd.- an, 0.92, 1).91 aiid ().91 per ceill ill' ille kod.v weight for. ille tIll-ce J)vnml,'- 1'espuctlVelY.
A coiii1fletv :,iiiiiiiiiii Y 1*()i- \ ()s. 7 t4) 1,2, iiicill... ive. 1-,-; 1112ide fill, 1111, entire obseivanoll 1)(1110d, W011 OW cX(*vp11f)ll 44 Illc fmil-111 lin"cnative subperiod. 'I'lierv, is airaiii slimvii it








1090 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


attended by a very slight decrease in the daily food consumed of 8

grams in the preservative period and 25 grams in the after period.

The ratios are 0.92, 0.91, and 0.88, respectively. They also show

that the quantity of dry food consumed by the men composing this

table is slightly less than 1 per cent of the weight of the body.
Omitting No. 3 (on account of incomplete data), a summary for all

the members of the table may be made for the entire observation with

the exception of the fourth preservative subperiod. This summary
shows the progressive decrease in weight, amounting to about 0.75

kilogram if the averages for the fore and after periods be compared.

The amount of dry food consumed daily is 7 grams less in the preservative period, and 21 grams less in the after period than in the fore

period. The relations of food weight to body weight are expressed

by 0.92, 0.91, and 0.89 per cent for the three periods, respectively.

TABLE V.- 10o0El of moist and dry food consumed, c.rpressed as percentage of body weight, Series VIII.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 1. No. 2.

Average Average
Weidt of Period. food weight food weight
Body food. to body Body food. to body
weight. weight. weight. weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First suhperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Pert. Per 0. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per t. Prct.
Total........... 355.10 11,815 2,980 3.33 0.84 352.85 Iti,354 3,255 4.63 0.92
Averag......... .71.02 2,363 59t ....... .......
Second st1hpwriol: 70.57 3,271 651 ..... .......
Total........... 352. 55 12,067 3,070; 3.42 .87 352.28 16,153 3,335 4.59 .95
Average........ 70.51 2.413 F15 ....... ...... 70.46 3,231 67 ....... .......

Entire fore period:
TotIl ......... 707.Co5 23.882 t;,03ti 3.37 .i 705. 13 32,507 6i,590 4.(1 93
Average........ 70.77 2.388 (10 ....... 70.51 3,25 1 .6.9

Preseratire period.

First suibperiod:
Total....., :il.05 12,311( 2,957 3.5l .84 351.77 1.1,939 3,294 4.53 .94
Average....... 70.21 2,4,3 91 ... ...... 70.35 3, 188 ... . .
Second si ~riod
Total ........ 351 .50 11,571 2,9153 3.29 .84 ;51. 05 16, 983 3, 250 4.84 .93
Average ....... 70.30 2,315 591 7....... ....... 70.21 3,397 6 .
Third stibleriod:
Total ....... 345.90 12, 101 2.908 3950 .84 3530.38 16,797 3,309 4.79 .94
Average....... 69.18 2,422 5S2 ....... ....... 70.08 3,359 6tti2 .
Fourth sub period:
Total .... 346io 12,404 2,976 3.8 S .86 347.92 17.7157 3, 16 5.10 .91
Average....... 69.32 2,481 595ul ..... ....... 69.Ks 3.1 ....... .

Entire presrrvativf'
period:
Totld...,...... 1,3:s.0 48,405 11 ,7!14 :..47 .s5 1,401.12 67,47. 13,018 4.82 .93
Average.I.... 159.75 2,420 90a ... ....... 70.0l 3.374 651

A/ter period.

First shbperilod:
Tttal.....o... 346.65 11,321 2,860 3.27 .83 347.3: 17,448 3,1617 5.02 .91
Average.... ... 69.33 2,2(4 572 ..... 69.47 3,490 GM ....... .......
Second ablweriod:
Total ... 347.07 10,782 2.813 3.11 .81 346.41 15.731 3,168 4.54 .91
Average...... t9.41 2.1560) 163 ........... 9.28 314 34.......

Entire after I riod*
Total........ it3.72 22. 103 5,673 3.19 .82 f603.74 33.179 iT,335 4.78 .91
Average. ...... 19.37 2,210 .7 ............ 69.37 3.318 634 ....... .......
..__ . ......... ... ._...... .......








BEINZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1091


TABLE V.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, Series 1II- Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No.3. No. 4.

Average Average
d f daily ratio of 11eight o daily ratio of
Period. i d food weight food weight
Body food. to Ibody Tily food.
weight. weightl. weight. toweod

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per t. Pert. Kilos. Gram. Grams. Per 0. Per ct.
Total.......... .320.65 13.808 3,225 4.31 1.01 294.47 11,151 2.6054 3.79 0K)
Average....... (4.13 2,762 645 ............... 5'.8 2,230 531 .......
Second subperiod:
Total........... 321.62 13, 811 3.257 4.30 1.01 289.f2 11,010 2.57, 3.0 .89
Average........ 4.32 2, 763 1l. ....... ....... 47.!r12 2.02 i........

Entire fore period:
Total........... 642.27 27,624 G,4s2 4.30 1.01 5-4.09 22.161 5,232 3.79 .90
Average........ 6i4.23 2,762 648 ............

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total t....... 323.20 13,821 3,300 4.28 1.02 21o.10 12.130 2,610 4
Average........ 64.64 2,764 "00 ....... ...... 75s.02 2, 42t 522............
Second subperiod:
Total .......... 323.10 1,269 3,301 4.73 1.02 291.31 10885 2-509 3.74 .88
Average........ 64.1i2 1,054 600 .......2......... 2ti 2,177 514 ....... .......
Third subperiod: I
Total.......... 31G.10 12,899 2,483 4.07 .78 290.1 1150 2,5-)t 3.97 .89
Averag ........ 63.32 2,580 47 ............... 5S.17 2,312 51! ....... .......
Fourth subperiod:
Total........... 317.90 15,206) 3,1%3 4.7' 1.00 2!0.3) 11,377 2,51-7 3.92 .S7
Average........ 63. 58 3,041 637 ....... ....... 5.10 2.275 .

Entire preseryntive
period:
Total.......... 1,280.80 57.15 12,267 4.47 .9t 1,t12.761 45.952 10.290 3.95 .8s
Average ........ 14.04 2,86O 613 ....... ....... .j.14 2. 294 ............

After period.

First subperiod:
Total.....-- ... 319. 7515, ll36 3,3t2 4.73 1.05 291.10 10)837 2Ai0 3.72 s
Average........ 63.95 3,027 672 .. 58.22 2.167 5 12 ....... .......
Second subperiod:
Total........... 317.92 14,835 3,295 4. 67 1.04 21N)..V5 10,86 2.t15 3.74 .90
Average........ 63.58 2,917 139 .. ..... 8.11 2.173 323

Entire after period:
Total........... 637.67 29,971 6,657 4.70 1.04 581.65 21 7(. 5 171 3.73
Average........ t3.77 2,997 610 ........... 58.17 2.171) 1 .. .








1092 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE V.-Amholnt of moist an(d dryl food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, Sries VIII-'ontinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 5. No. 6.

Average Average
Weight of daily ratio of Weight of daily ratio of
Period. Body food food weight food food weight
to hody Body to body
weight* weight. weight. weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist.1 Dry.

Fore period.

First suhperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Peret. Perrt. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per et. Peret.
Total. 257. 80 10,558 2, 3163 4. 10 0. 92 298. 01 12,386 2,880 4.16 0. 97
Average......... ;.5G 2.112 473 ....... ....... 59.60 2,477 576 ....... .......
Second suhperiod:
Total........... 25).13 11.027 2,486 4.31 .97 296.32 13.776 2,888 4.65 .97
Average......... 51.23 2,205 497 ....... ....... 59.26 2.755 578 ....... .......

Entire fore period:
Total........... 513.93 21,585 4-849 4.20 .94 594.33 26.162 5.768 4.40 .97
Average........ 51.39 2.159 485 ....... ....... 59.43 2.1il6 577 ....... ......

Preserratire period.

First suhperiod:
Total ............ 255. 39 10.493 2, 451 4.11 .96 296.22 13,339 2,938 4. 50 .99
Average....... 51.08 2,099 490 ....... ....... 59.24 2,6686 588 ....... .......
Second suhperiod:
Total........... 24.8I 11.424 2,505 4.48 .98 295.54 13 487 2,767 4.5 .94
Averge.. ........;097 2,2S5 5......59.11 2.(97 553
Third suhperiod:
Total........... 252.93 11,518 2,435 4.55 .96 292.82 13.727 2.743 4.('9 .94
Average........ !50.59 2.304 487..5 2,745 549 ..... .......
Fourth subhperiod:
Total........... 251.39 11.004 2.397 4.38 .95 292.00 12,854 2,695 4.-0 .92
Average........ 50.28 2,201 479 ....... ....... 58.40 2.571 539

Entire preservative
pe rio(d:Total.......... 1,014.57 44,439 9.788 4.38 .96 1,176.58 53.407 11,143 4.54 .95
Average........ ).73 2,222 489 .............. 58.83 2.1170 557

After period.

First subperiod:
Total........... 251.41 11,414 2.462 4.54 .98 292.36 12.648 2,7t9 4.33 .95
Average....... 50.33 2.283 492 ....... ...... .58.47 2.530 a554 .... ...
Second Suhpriod:
Total........... 252.81 11,5,7 2,495 4.57 .99 292.21 12,33 2.814 4.22 .ti
Average........ 50.15 2.311 499 )......S..... 58.44 2,417 563 .. .......

Entire after period:
Total .......... 504.45 22.971 4,957 4..5. .98 .5-4.57 24,984 5,iS3 4.27 .9
Average........ 50.o45 2 297 49. ..... 5S.4 2,498 55s ........

a Daily average added in order to complete record.








BENZOIC ACID. AND BENZOATES. 1093


TABLE V,-Amounl of moist awd dry food consumed, ex'pressd as percenitage of body
weight, Series VIII-Contiiiued.



No. 7. No. S.


~~eihtof daily ratio (4Wegf o 'I'~lit 20I of
Pro.Iegiof food weight )eghof food weight
Body toobody Body fo(Io, to1.l
weight. weight. weight. weight'.


FN oist.: Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry\. Moist. Dry.


First subperiod: Kilos. Gramin Gramins. Ptr) Perc!j Kilos. G ram G ra n,. Pe r t. Pe r i
'otal,------- 3570. s1 10,8s4s 2,530 3.0W 0.72 307.93G 16. 091 2.,\-43 .). 2. ( I.
Average... 70---- A.16l 2.170 506........ ........6)1.59 321 P 69...... .....
Second su fiperiod: I
Total ...........3:50.10 10,9 6 29,6(72 3.13 .76 305. 41 1!, 06 2. 9,33- 6.24 i
Average ..........70.02 2. 193 534............ fI (I' 3.s13 0 7....... .....

Entire fore period:
Total ........... 700.91 21.81I3 5.,N02 3.11 .74 613.34 35.1 o 577 7 3 .44
Average .......... 70.09l 2 11 520........ ........6to1.3 3.16 3)7,1....... .....

Preservatirte period.

First subperiod: I
Total ........... 349. 00 10.,693 2,463 :3.0 .G71 303. 70 16i,457 2. 1.33 3.42 .97
Average ...... 69.80O 2.139 49:3..............6.74 :3,291 II ...,..... .....
Second su bperiod:
Total ........... 349. 20 11.31 2 2, 591 3.24 .74 304. 55 1s 036 2.20 .9 .93
Averag .... .8S4 2, 262 518.......... .9 1 3.id to1 64 ...... .......
Third subperiod:
Tout I .... 347.15 10-875 2,619 3.13 .,a 30)1.8 16O I~ 1)~ 5.3) .94
Average ..........69. 49 2, 175 524.......-........(. 36 338 5..........
Fourth su hperiodl:
Total ...... 346'.40 10,.5 1 2,290) 3. 1:3 .60l 300,70 16o,279 2.,806 3 41 .93
A ve rg..... W9.28s 2,170 45,S........ .......641).14 3.3A '011...

Entire preservative
period:
Total.........1,392.0.51 43,731 9,' 3.14 .72 1, 210. 75 6)7. 580 1, I .5 .04
Average..,...1 69.60) 2. lt7 410............. ..4 3,3.79 ....


First subperiod:
Total,,,,. 348 10S 37 310)
Avv~,. ., 10.361 2.2141 477..............9. 9 ......58

I Al........,. 345.7.8S 8,29~ 2, 07T5 2.55 .1,0 2940 197 2 (it I S 70
Averg........ 10.17T 1.6 415 ............. 9. 60 ....7.

Entire after period:

A verag........ IA. 7 1.9 4 ....... 5.7 .








1094 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE V.-AinOunt of moist and dryfood consumed, expressed as percentage bcdy
weight, Series VIll-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 9. No. 10.

Average Ave age
Weight of daily ratio of Weight of daily ratio of
Period. W h food weight Body fo f. food weight
Period. Body food. to bod Body food. to body
weight weight. weight. weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First sulpriod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per t. Kilos. Grams. Grams. Peret. Per ct.
Total......... 308.96 11,371 2, 3.t8 0.5 283.1 65 11,544 2,808 4.07 0.99
Average........ 61.79 2,274 523 ....... ....... 56.73 2,309 502..............
Second sulhwriod:
Total.......... 30.90 11,422 2,59t i 3.70 .84 282.45 12,196 3,018 4.32 1.07
Average........ 61.78 2,284 519 .............. 56. 49 2,439 (104 ............

Entire fore period:
Total.......... 617.8 22,793 5,211 3. 69 .84 566.10 23,740 5,8 26 4.19 1.03
Average ........ 61.79 2,279 521 .............. 56. 61 2,374 583 ..............

Presere atire period.

First subperiod:
Total.......... 309.04 11,828 2,566 3.83 .83 282.05 11, 40i 2,803 4.04 .99
Average ........ 61.81 2, 31 513 .............. 56. 41 2,28"1 561 .............
Second subperiod:
Total.......... 308.85 11,473 2,536i 3.71 .82 282.67 11,7ti6 2,844 4.16 1.01
Average ....... 61.77 2,295 507 ....... ....... 5t.53 2,353 5i9............
Third subpriod:
Total.......... 308. (I 11,849 2,502 3.84 .81 281.30 11,359 2,647 4.04 .94
Average... .... 601.73 2,370 W 00 .......- ....... 56i.26 2,272 529 .............
Fourth subwriod:
Total............................................... 27ti. 48 10,75 2,446 3.89 .88
Average........ ........ ....... ...... 55.30 2,153 1 489 ...... .......
First, second, and
third supiwriods:
Total.......... 926.55 35,150 7,(C04 3 79 .82 ......... ................ ..............
Average........ 61. 77 2,343 07 ....... ....... .................. ........ ..............

Entire preservative

To a . ...... .......... ........ ........ .. ...... 1, 122- 5) 45,2%6 10,740 4.04 .96
Average.............. ................ ............ 56. 13 2,265 537

After period.

First suhriod:
Total........... 30. 95 12,0S4 2,547 3.94 .83 282.99 11,658 2 ,858 4.12 1.01
Average........ 61.39 2,417 09 .............. .i.60 2,332 572 ............
Second suhpriod:
Total........... 307.32 12,283 2,,02 4.00 .81 285.42 11,382 2,717 3.99 .95
Average........ 61.4 2,457 500 ............ 57.08 2.27 ....... .......

Entire after period:
Total ........... l14. 27 24,3)7 5,049 3. 7 .82 8.41 23,040 5,575 4.05 .98
A erage l....... 43 2. 437 5 56 84 2.304 558 ............








BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1095


TABLE V.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, Series VIII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 11. No. 12.

Average Average
Weight of daily ratio of Weight of daily ratio of
Boyfood. to bodly Body foodl. to body
Body food weight food weight
weight. eh weight. eight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Motit. Dry. M1toist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Per ct. Kilos. Gra ms. Gra ms. Per et. Pe r et.
Total.....- 340.61 15,501 3,092 4.55 0.91 337.25 13,492 3,382 4-) 1.I0
Average....... 68.12 3,100 618 ....... ....... 67.45 2,698 67o ....... .......
Second subperiod:
Total ........ 339.73 15,206 3,295 4 48 .97 338.82 14,148 3,503 4.18 1.03
Average........ 67.95 3,041 659 ....... ...... 67.716 2,830 701 ...........

Entire fore period:
Total......... 680.34 30,707 6,387 4.51 .94 67ti.07 27,640 6,MS 4.09 1.02
Average........ 1 68.03 3,071 6)39 ....... ....... 67.61 2,714 ts .

Preserratire period.

First subperiod:
Total......... 338.20 14,531 3,319 4.30 .98 340.05 14,674 3,4NA6 4.32 1.03
Average .. 67.64 2,906 164 ....... ....... .6.01 2,935 697............
Second subperiod:
Total........... 336.40 15,269 3,201 4.54 .95 341.58 13,9,1 3,432 4.19 1.00
Average... .. 67.28 3,054 440 ....... ....... .832 2,79t 116 .
Third subperiod:
Total -------- 335. 63 16, 022 3, 263 4. 77 .97 342. 10 14, 430 3,329 4.22 .97
Average. 67.13 3,204 i53 ....... .. 6 42 2,wu 666 ...O. .......
Fourth suhperiod:
Total ........... 335. 3 15,940 2,948 4 75 .88 340.90 14,I0 3,114 4.13 .1
Average........ 67.13 3,188 59K0 ....... ....... 68.1 2,l4 621

Entire preservative
period:
Total. ......... 1,345 86 )1,762 12,731 4.59 .95 1,364 63 57,154 13,331 4.19 .98
Average........ 67.29 3,088 637 .............. (is 23 2,858 0)" ..

After period.

First subperiod:
Total.......... 333.14 15,357 3,305 4.13l .99 341.15 13,312 3,212 3 91
Average. .... Pt.t 3,071 titil .. . L.. .. (5 23 2,titi2 1,52
Second subperiod:
Total .......... 331.71 14,28ti 3,22t 4 31 17 340. 0 12,922 ,144 3.-0 .12
Average........ 1t.34 2,857 i145 .-. 111 ... i I-1 2,C4 6. ..

Entire after period:
Total.-....... l664 s5 20,643 31 446 .1. '1. 2f:,234 Ilk. 194
AveragI........ Cti.4! 2, 94 t .....,. .... th.17 .. .2 41








10O#)f' INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLmE Y.-Awwut of twist and dry food consitmed, expressed ais percentage (, body
eight, Srr'ics VIIL-Cont iiiuid.

SUIM M AIIES.

[Averages are per mian per day.]

Nos. l and 4. N .,2, 4, 5, 1n (I

Average Aratieo
Weiglit of dal ai fWeight of d1yrtof
Periodd NNl fooo. dweight to bodyfod Body food.
wgt.weight. -iht. weiglit.

Moist. IDry Mois t. Iry Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.



F-irst suhperiod: Kiilos, G ramin GYramsn. Per ort. Pr r 0. Kilos. Grams. Gr a ms. Perect. Per ct.
To a 4 I------ 9oP. .57- 22, 96)6 5,634 .3. 54 0-1-,7 1,5,58, 2:) 62, 264 14.1:32 4.00 0.91
AVeragel..........64. 96i 2, 297 6........ .... '3 2, 491 56. .....
Sc dsullperiod: ~6,3
Totall...........(642. 17 21, 0 77 5, 654 3'.519 SS 1(~ .9 4I0A 4 63 41
Averag........... 4. 22 2, 30X 565....... .........61. 88S 2, 56 1 574........
Entire f,,ri' jwriod:
To)tal.......---- .2.11.74 46, 043 11, 288. 3.56 S87 3105. 13 126.297 28, 49.5 4.07 .92
A rg......4. 5!9 2,302 565......... ....... 62. 10 2,-546 570........-Prescir / atiei e pe (r iod.

First silipwriod:
Total........(41. 15 24,.446 5,567 3.81 .8s7 1. .54 4. 5 6 64,217 14,250 4. 16 .92
Avera9(,.......64.12 2,445 57............... 1, 2,569 570 .......
Seodsilp-riod:
T t I......... G-42,.81 22, 46 1 5,522 349 .86i 1, 544. 26 6 4,3:155 14.044 4. 17 .91
A v r g C)4. 28- 2,246 52....... .........6 1.77 2,574 562........
ThIi ird sh;pwrio d:
To t; dI...........63675 2"), 669 5,504 3.72 _86 1, 532.88 65.711 13,9901 4. 29 .91
Ave(,r;aigo,.....63. 681 2,367 5........ ........61.32 2, 628 5W0.....
Yourth stiliperiod:
TotaI ...........63:;7. 10( 231,7S1 5, 49I1 3. 73 .86 .................................
Avra........3.1 ,38 49........... ...... ........ .............. .....
First, second, a1nd
third suliperiods:
Tota...................................4,62167 1914, 283: 42, 28,5 4.20 .91
Avrg. ........... ....... ............. ........12


Entire-p ......~'ai
1N'ri(,d: 72284 3'9 6
T"Lrag... .... 2, 35 55_, 2.............................


Aljlhr po, tod.I

YirstI si )4-ri4 odI: I I
T o ta . 3.7 .215 .5... o420 31.417 .85 1,.08 1 O 668 13,818S 4. 16 9
Averu#,.r..v.,....6. 7 S 2, 216 -42 ,.,.....,..... 61. 16 2, 5 47 0553 ......

Toa... ..... 6317. 62 211,47 5, 4'28 .85 1,-529-05 6 1, 271 13,905 4.01 !91

A vera e.... . ... 7 2,...54 ... ...... 6.1 5 5
'Iot~~~~~~il~ :..~,. 1,75 :1 4,05 1,88 3.3 .53,5. 13 124,0939 27, 723 4.09 .1








BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 109t)7


TABLE Y.-Anount of moist and dry food conisumed, expressed, as percentage of body weight, Series VIII-CMntinuedA.

SUMMARIES-Continued.
(Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 7 to 12. N-os. 1 to 12 (omit ting No. 3j.

AverageAvrg
Wegtof daily ratio of Weihi o)f dafil rattio o (f
Period. ~~i~ food weight I g fooil weigh 1t
Body food. to bod vd food. toId
etweieit. veight.wegt

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Molist. Dr.

Fore period.

First suhperiod: Kilos. G ramsGm ms P tt Per ct. Kilos. Grams. G ram. Pr (, Pr, .
Total ........... 19921 78,847 17.270 4.09Y. 0. 90 ,4-7. 44 141.111 :11.,4(2 411 11'~0
Ave(r~t...------- 64.:;1 2, 62-S 57(i........ .......6..41 2,366 71...... ......
Second subperiod:
Total..--------- 1.925. 41 83;,00X2 1,019( I 4.31l .94 3, 472.31l 147,035 3 2,3 42 .93
Average ,.... (4. 1s 2, 767 60..........61. 1:" 2 673 .........

Entire fore period:
TotL ---------- 3',8,54.6G2 161,849 35,8 9 4. 20 .92 6,9591.75 2-,.14 (i6: 7i,4 4.14 f)2
Average..........64.24 2, 697 588 ,s ------- ------- 2 7 2, 620 ...... .......

Prcservatire period.

First 8ubperiod:
Total ---------- 1,922. 04 79,58 17,57-0 4. 14 .91 3, 466. 57 143,806 ,2(1 4.15 V92
Averi ----- 64. 07 2, 653' 586........ ........63.0 2,6(;15 .7
Total.......--- ..1923. 25 18 1,8,5 7 17,424 4. 26 .1,1 3, 467.5-1 146.,212 :1, 41 ON 4. 22 .1
Averap ......... 64. 11 2, 72 51....... ........63.0(5 2,658) 072........
Third subp.eriodl:
Total .......... 1, 91G. 94 81,3)2: 17, 200 4.24 .90 3.,449. 82 14704 :1111 4.2 .9
Average.. ... 63 .9K) 2,7111 573........ .....-- 62. 72 2.,G73 ..... 7..

First, second, and
third siuhperiods:
Total ........... 5,762.23 2-1, 7(;!) 52, 14 4.21 .91 10Is38.3,90 4317,(052 941,71 4.2 1 .91
Average ........ t6i4. (2 2, 697 580q ....... ....... 62. 03 2, 64'J 57

After period.

F irst subpe riotdI
Total .......... 1,9 10.68s 79, 114 17, 266 4.14 ,439, 76 14,' 31- 4.1
AX vra gi ..... 63. 69 2, 637 576 ....,.. 62. 54 12,59 5 65 ......
Second suh qwriod:
ToUa........... 1,908S. 80 711. Gs1 16,522 4.(i2 .87 31,43,7.8 137 2 :1,2 4.01 -S
AvergIt..... 663 2, 5-3 I5 ..~.,.. 62. 51 2,56 .-A 1.

Enit ir naf te r pr iod:
To)t iIl......... 3,19 1 511.Is 795l- 37 s 4.T I~ -A776 I8,74 I151 N9
.Av e r.....a g........e........ ... . ........... ...... .. ..... ., 9 .. ....... .... ... ... .. .......... .? .






1098 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

WEIGHT AND WATER CONTENT OF THE FECES.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
In Table VI are given the individual data and summaries of the weight of the moist feces, their water content, and the dry weight thereof. In the case of No. 1 the relative weights of the moist and dry feces and the percentage of water are practically the same for the fore and preservative periods. During the after period the percentage of water and the weight of the feces are considerably increased. The dry feces also are greater in weight than in the other two periods.
No. 2 excretes more than double the weight of feces indicated in the case of No. 1. The water content is diminished d(luring the preservative period, but the total weight of feces is very much increased. There is again an increase in the amount of water in the after period, but a decrease in the weight of the dry and moist feces excreted.
In the case of No. 3 there is a diminution in the water content of the feces during the preservative period, but an increase in the total moist and dry weight of the feces excreted. There is a great diminution, however, in both these weights and also in the percentage of moisture during the after period.
In the case of No. 4 the amount of water in the feces is diminished in the preservative period( and the total weight of dry feces is also slightly diminished. The weight of moist and dry feces remains the same in the after period as in the preservative period.
In the case of No. 5 there is a decided increase in the weight of moist and dry feces in the preservative period, but the water content remains practically the same. There is little change in the composition of the feces in the after period as compared with the preservative period.
No. 6 excretes by far the largest quantity of feces of any member of the table, and the water content is also the highest. There is a diminution )both in the amount of moist feces and dry feces in the preservative period, though there is a slight increase in the moisture. There is a still further diminution in the quantity of wet and dry feces in the after )period, and the amount of moisture therein also decreases.
In the case of No. 7 there is a diminution both in the weight of moist and dry feces and in the percentage of water in the moist feces during the il)reservative period. Here is a great increase in th1e weight of 111moist anid dry f1eces ill the after )ril(od, Ilthoughl the iamouiint of water l)reseit is slightly less than in the preservatIve period.
Ill the case of No. 8 there is a marked increase inll the weight of the moist all dry feces in thle preservative period, and the percentage of water is also greater. This increase is co ntinued in a mIarked degree in t he after p)erilod.






BETTZOTC ACID A__N'D BENZOATES. 1099

The data for No. 9 show fa decided diminution in the weight of the moist and drv feces excrete(L The percentage of water in the feces is also slightly less than in the fore period. In the after period there is a very large increase in the quantity of feces excreted, thougi-I the, percentage of water therein is not sensibly change(l.
In the case of No. 10 there is a inarked increase in the weight of the moist feces and the percentage of water therein, and a slight increase in the dry feces during the preservative period. There i- a n()table increase both in the weight of inoist feces and (11-v feces In the after period, but the percentage of water is less than in Hie preseiwatlVe period.
In the case of _Xo. 11 there i4 ,t inarked increase in the nioist and dry feces in the I )reservative period and a slight (lecreasc. ill tile centacre of water. The (lata for the after period are aliii0st the as those for the preservative period.
In the case of No. 121 there is a (Jecrease in moist flnd (Iry feces III the preservative perio(l, the water content reiiiaining alillost the sanie as in the fore perio(l. In the after period tli(,i-(, IS t1l, 111,11*ked increase in the niolst feces withotit a c(mv.,q)(m(ling HIC1,0111.-W in the drv feces, due to an increase in the percentage ()f water.
SU"ARIES.
The suniniary for Nos. I ,in(] 4 is the only one which is Complete for the whole jwrio(l ()f ()bservati(ni, iiiasiiiuch as they are the ()]illmembers of the cLass for \\-hoiii unt)n)ken (lata were ()btallle(l. "I"he suinniary slioN\-s that III the j)rcs(,i'vatl\'e 1)erlml there 1,, a sli(rlit decrease in the welolit of tlie insist f'ece's excrete(l. a('c()IllJ)alIie(l bV ti decrease in flie I)ercentacre ()f \\-ater tlierelli all(I a N cry sllglit (kcl-ease ill t1le wei(flit ()f (11-v 1'eces excrete(l. D111,111(), tlle after J)enm l t1lel-e is all increase ill t1le Welmit 44 Illoist rece", \011cli (ri-etiter t1lall ill the fore perlo(l. 'Iliere 1,, ,ill I I IC r(It'l I'-;(, ill Hit' lw lvellta(re ()I* a's jl\-j% ,111(l t1le \\-( '(r
c0llipare(l N\'Itli flie 1)re.seiwa i irdit k)f (11.\. t'ecvs
excrete(l 1.,-; the Sallie as ill t ]w I'm-e lwrlml.
The stiiiiiiiary for Nos. 1, 2, 1, 5. aii(l 6, \ -ho i-eceive(l belizoic acid, is 11111(le for tile clitire Sel-les, excludilltr ille I'mil-111 I)I-es(Tvative slihperlm l ()n accm iiit t)t' Ill ad fill ilist na I l()Il ()I* the I t I Vc.
A sli(irlit 111VI'V1111C ill t Ile w el(rilt (d, I lit, lll()Ist 1'eces 1.- slitm 11 Ill t Ile P[.vservatk'e Pel"m iz I ure
t1liereiii, a iid ,1 .11 tljf (11-\after 1)crlm l tlivre is a itull-11W (l I ill tlj( \\tqrilt ()f tiltit (-A)lltlllllv(1 41111111111tioll ()f I he lw n -viltat'-4, 41f m ol-4 111'e, \\1111(' tlw N\'eI(j111 t ()f I I 1v (I I.\- fecc" 1.,.; '.J I tri I t 1 (11 t1ij- fj,,111-4, if t1le fore in-l-Iml.
t 12, kichisk-e (\\ho nwck'el
I I I I
z(_)atC).'C0VVI'S the elit wit I) IlIvexcepth)II(d tilt-fourtli. presel-V_






1100 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

ative subperiod, and shows a slight increase in the weight of the moist feces and the percentage of water therein, while the amount of dry feces excreted is the same as in the fore period. In the after period there is a marked increase in the weight of the moist feces with practically no change in the water content as compared with the preservative period, and a correspondingly marked increase in the weight of (rv feces excreted.
The summary for Nos. 1 to 12, inclusive, omitting No. 3, also covers the entire observation with the exception of the fourth preservative subperiod1. It shows that in the preservative period there is a slight increase in the quantity of moist and dry feces, as well as in the moisture content. In the after period there is again a slight increase in the weight of the moist feces and a slight decrease in the percentage of moisture as compared with the preservative period, while the weight of dry feces excreted is the same as in the preservative period.
The data do not show any notable effect upon the composition of the feces which can be attributed to the preservative administered, but the following points may be noted: There is evidently no pronounced tendency to produce any diarrheal condition, though the quantities of moist and dry feces do not vary in any uniform way in the preservative period as compared with the fore and after periods.
The summary for Nos. 1 to 12 is the most complete expression of the mass action of the preservative, and shows little change in the excretion of the feces, either as respects the weight of the moist and dry feces or the water content. It is fair to conclude, therefore, from a study of these data that the preservative has not produced any effect of a systematic character in these particulars. Attention should be called, however, to the fact that the summary for those receiving benzoic acid (Nos. 1 to 6) and that for those receiving sodium benzoate (Nos.7 to 12), while agreeing in i that they show a slight increase in moist feces excrete(d and practically no change in the amount of dry feces in the preservativ' period, show in the first case a continued decrease in 11moistire 11011throughout and in the othe a continued increase. In the after periodd also opposite tenidenicies are shown, the weights increasing for No)s. 7 to 12 and decreasingg for Nos. 1 to 6. It seems probable, therefore, that the form in which the preservative is admiinistered should be considered in inteI) retig these results.








BENZOIC ACID AND BEN7ZOATES. 1101


TABLE VI.--eigkt and water content of feces, by periods, Series VIII.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3.

Period. Feces Water ce Feces, Water Feces, Fees, Water
moist. tent. dry. moist, tent dry. moist. tent. dry.


Fore period.

First subperiod: Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Pr 0. Grams.
Total ................... 134 68. 60 42 389 73.34 104 321 71. 5o 91
Average ................ 27 ........ 8 78 ........ 21 64 ........ Is
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 218 70.56 64 480 73. 83 126 316 70.54 93
Average ................. 44 ......... 13 9 ........ 25 63 ........ 19

Entire fore period:10 89 733 20 67 711
Total -.............. 352 69.89 106 86 73.53 230 637 71.11 184
Average ................ 35 ........ 11 87 ........ 23 64 .......

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ................... 202 69. 62 61 482 71.51 137 355 3. 37 112
Average ................ 40 ........ 12 2....... 7 71 22
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 119 64.74 42 509 71.82 143 430 70. 41 127
Average ................ 24 ......... 8 102 ........ .2! 6 ......... 25
Third subperiod:
Total .............. 237 72.20 66 -50 70.22 1 154
Average 13 101 ........ 30 31 10
Fourth "uipe ........
Tota .................. 16 70. 40 437 S. 92 136 422 70.60 124
Average............... 27 -------- 8 87 ........ 27 84 25
EntireprervatiN-e priod:698.
Tota ...................694 6988 1,931 70.69 k; 1,31415
Aveae ............... 35 ....... 10 97 ........ 21

After period.
First subperiod:
Total ............... 222 71. 12 64 491 72.10 137 210 64. 20 75
Aver ............... 44 ........ 13 98 27 42 ....... 15
Secnd sti M:erod
Total................... 231 73.28 62 409 70. 42 121 214 .94 73
Avera4 ...............8 ........ 12 s2 24 ........ 15

Entire after period:
Total ................... 453 72. 19 126 90 71.33 258 424 65.0 148
Average ............... ........ 13 10 ..2 42 ....... 15

2360-Bull. S4, pt4-








1102 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VI.-Weight and water content offece8, by periods, Series VHI-Coutinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.

Period. Feces, Water Water t:ces. Feces, Wat er ys
Fee: Feces, FcstAces Fcsee,
moist. tent dry. moist. tent. dry. moist. tent. dry.


Fore period.
First subperiod: Grams. Per t. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per cf. Grams.
Total ................... 323 74.32 83 187 75.34 46 736 77.96 162
Average ................ 65 ........ 17 37 ........ 9 147 ...... 32
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 246 72.63 67 308 74.58 78 661 79.60 135
Average ................ 49 ........ 13 62 ........ 16 132 .......... 27

Entire fore period:
Total ................... 569 73.64 150 495 74.95 124 1,397 78.74 297
Average ................ 57 ........ 15 50 ....... 12 140 ........ 30
Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ................... 274 72.30 76 369 76.48 87 752 80.46 147
Average ................ 55 ........ 15 74 ....... 17 150 -------- 29
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 236 71.29 68 251 71.41 72 578 80.98 110
Average ................. 47 ........ 14 50 ....... 14 116 ........ 22
Third subperiod:
Total................... 227 70.23 68 316 76.34 75 6 79. 08 134
Average ................ 45 ........ 14 63 ...... 15 128 27
Fourth subperiod:
Total ................... 241 69.36 74 344 72.62 94 W 80.52 114
Average ................48 15 69 ....... 19 117 ....... 23
Entire preservative period:
Total ................... 978 70.76 286 1,280 74.38 328 2,554 80.23 505
Average ................ 49 14 64 ....... 16 128. 25
After period.
First subperiod:
Total ................... 276 71.39 79 382 74.74 96 582 76. 58 136
Average ................ 55 ........ 16 76 ........ 19 116,, 27
Second suhperiod:
Total ................... 210 70.60 62 244 74.93 61 332 79. 98 66
Average ................ 42 ........ 12 49 ........ 12 6 ..........13
Entire after period:
Total ................. 486 70.99 141 626 74.92 157 914 77.90 202
Average ................ 49 ........ 14 63 ........ I 91..... 20








BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1103

TABLE: VI.-Weight and water content of feces, by periods, Series VIII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 7. No.8. No. 9.

Period. Feces, Water Feces, Feces, Water Feces, Feces, Water Feces,
moist.y con-t con- dy
moist. con- dry. moist. n dry. moist. ent.- dry.
mostent.tettn.


Fore period.
First subperiod: Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per e. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams.
Total................... 464 80.07 92 564 77.72 126 297 '9. 10 92
Average ................ 93 ........ 18 113 ....... ........ 18
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 381 76.99 88 182 72. 186 49 214 69. 38 S
Average ............... 76 ........ 18 36 ....... 10 53 ........ 16
Entire fore period:
Total................... 845 78.70 180 746i 76.54 175 541 60.16 173
Average............... 84 ........ 18 75 ........ 18 56i ........ 17
Preserrative period.
First subperiod:
Total .................. 344 77.35 78 559 80.02 112 140 i t :i 47
Average........ ......... 16 112 ........ 22 21 ........ 9
Second subperiod:
Total.................. 377 72.08 105 500 79.9A) 101 264 6t5, 66 91
Average ............... 75 ........ 21 100 ........ 20 53 ........ 18is
Third subperiod:
Total .................. 337 78. 62 72 497 80.10 099 103 61.70 39
Average.........7 ....... 14 99 ........ 20 21 ........ 8
Fourth subperiod:
Total .................. 296 75.26 73 471 77. 64 105 357 73.80 94
Average................ 59 ........ 15 94 ........ 21 71 ........ 19
Entire preservative period:
Total ................... 1,354 75.78 328 2,027 79.43 417 8I4 Is.63 271
Average................ 6 ....... 16 101 ........ 21 43 ........ 14

After period.
First subperiod:
Total................... 434 78.22 95 504 78.46 109 21A0 7. GS 84
Average................ 87 ........ 19 101 ........ 22 52 ........ 17
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 402 70.90 117 668 82.49 117 400 6!). 40 122
Average ................ ........ 23 134 .... 23 8) ........ 24

Entire after period:
Total...................... 836 74. 64 212 1.172 80.72 226 (4) 68.79 26
Average ................ 84 ........ 21 117 ........ 23 tii ........ 21
....__ _ .. .....








1104 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VI.-feight and water content offeces, by periods, Series VIII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 10. No. 11. No. 12.

Period. Water Wtr F ae
Period. Feces, Feces, eces, FeFeces, F eces, eces, Feces Water Feces,
moist. tent dry. moist. ten- dry. moist. tent. dry.


Fore period.

First subperiod: Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per t. Grams.
Total ................. 353 72.84 96 320 76.70 75 520 74.92 130
Average............... 71 ........ 19 64 ........ 15 104 ........ 26
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 198 74.32 51 396 78.75 84 496 77.28 113
Average................ 40 ........ 10 79 ........ 17 99 ........ 23

Entire fore period:
Total................... 551 73.32 147 716 77.79 159 1,016 76.08 243
Averag ................ 55 ........ 15 72 ........ 16 102 ....... 24
Preserratire period.

First subperiod:
Total................... 231 79.32 48 487 74.45 124 648 82.26 115
Average.............. ...... 10 97 ....... 25 130 ....... 23
Second subperiod:
Total................... 551 74. 32 141 466 76. 02 112 383 74. 46 98
Average............... 110 ........ 28 93 .....22 77 ........ 20
Third subperiod:
Total.................. .32 u.0i2 72 26 75.68 72 370 74.44 5
Average................ 72 ........ 14 59 ........ 14 74........ 19
Fourth subperiod:
Total.................. 227 71.80 64 408 75.46 100 478 70.84 139
Average ................ 45 ........ 13 82 ........ 20 96 ........ 28

Entire preservative period:
Total................... 1,371 76.29 325 1,657 75.38 408 1,879 76.21 447
Average ................ 19 ........ 16 83 ........ 20 94 ........22
After period.
First subperiod:
Total................... 394 76.16 94 456 76.70 10N 540 80.86 103
Average ................ 79 ........ 19 91 ........ 21 108 ........ 21
Second subperiod:
Total................... 379 75. 16 94 380 74. 56 97 535 79.86 108
Average............... 7 ........ 19 76 ....... 19 107 ........ 22
Entire after period:
Total................... 773 75. 68 188 836 75.72 203 1,075 80.37 211
Average ............... 77 19 84 20 108 ........ 21








BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1105


TABLEVI.-Weight and water content offeces, by periods, Series VIII--Continued.

SUMMARY FOR NOS. 1 AND 4 THROUGHOUT SERIES.
[Averages are per man per day.]

Pd Feces, Water Feces, PeFeces, Water Feces,
Smoist. content. dry. moist. content. dry.

Fore period. Preservative periodContinued.
First subperiod: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Total........... 457 .......... 125 Fourth subperiod: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Average ........ 46 72.65 12 Total.......... 377 .......... 114
Second subperiod: Average........ 38 69.76 11
Total ........... 464 .......... 131
Average........ 46 7L 7177 13 Entire preservative
period:
Entire fore period: Total ... .. 1,672 ......... 495
Total .......... 921 ......... 256 Average ........ 42 70. 39 12
Average........ 46 72.20 13
After period
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
First subperiod: Total.......... 4S 98.......... 143
Total ........... 476 .......... 137 Average........ 50 71.29 14
Average........ 48 7L.22 14 Second subperiod:
Second subperiod: Total.......... .441 .......... 124
Total.......... 355.......... 110 Average........ 44 71. 88 12
Average........ 36 1 69.02 11
Third subperijod: Entire after period:
Total .......... 464 .......... 134 Total........... 939. .......... 267
Average........ 46 71.12 13 Average ........ 47 71.57 13


SUMMARY FOR NOS.1,2,4,5, AND 6, OMITTING FOURTH PRESERVATIVE St-BPERIOD.
[Averages are per man per day.]

Feces, Water Feces, Feces, Water Fees,
Period. moist. content. dry. Period moist. content, dry.


Fore period. Presertvative period
Continued.
First subperiod: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Total.......... 1,769 .......... 437 Entire preservative
Average.... 71 75.30 17 period: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Second subperiod: Total......... 5 .......... 1,436
Total.......... 1,913 .......... 470 Average ........ 76 74.78 19
Average ........ 77 75.43 19
....After period.
Entire fore period:
Total.......... 3,682 .......... 907 First suhpebriod:
Average ........ 74 75.37 18 Total .......... 1,95 .......... 512
Average 78 7'_78 2
Preserrative period. Second subperiod:
Total ........... 1,42 ..........4 :26
First subperiod: Average....... 57 91 15
Total ........... 2,079 .......... r4
Averagf ....... K3 75.57 20 Entire after period:
Second n riod: Total ......... 3,:39 ... .
Total.. 1,693 ......... 435 Average...... f 73.x4 I8
Average........ IN 74.31 1S
Third subperiod:
Total........... 1,922 .... ..... 493
Average.... 77 7435 20








1106 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH,

TABLE VI.-Weight and water content of feces, by periods, Series VIII-Continued.

SUMMARY FOR NOS. 7 TO 12, OMITTING FOURTH PRESERVATIVE SUBPERIOD.
[Averages are per man per day.]

F sPeriod. es. Water Feces Period. Feces, Water Feces,
Period. moist, content. dry. Period. moist. content. dry.

Fore period. Preservative periodContinued.
First subperiod: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Total ........... 2,518 .......... 611 Entire preservative
Average........ 84 7&5.73 20 period: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Second subperiod: Total........... 6,915 .......... 1,621
Total .......... 1,917 .......... 466 Average ........ 77 76..56 18
Average........ 64 75. 69 16 ..
After period.
Entire fore period: Ater period.
Total......... 4,435 .......... 1,077 First subperiod:
Average ....... 74 75.72 18 Total.......... 2,588 .......... 501
Average ........ 86 77.16 20
Preservati e period. Second subperiod:
Total .......... 2,764.......... 655
First subperiod: Average........ 92 76.30 22
Total .......... 2,409 .......... 524
Average ....... so80 7.25 17 Entireafterperiod:
Second subperiod: Total........... 5,352 .......... 1,246
Total ........... 2,541 .......... 648 Average....... .. 89 76.72 21
Average ....... 85 74.50 22
Third su period:
Total .......... 1,965 .......... 449
Average ........ 66 77.15 15


SUMMARY FOR NOS. 1 TO 12, OMITTING NO. 3 AND THE FOURTH PRESERVATIVE
SUBPERIOD.
[Averages are per man per day.]


Period. Feces, Water Feces, Period. Feces, Water Feces,
moist. content. dry. moist. content, dry.

Fore period: Preservative periodContinued.
First subperiod: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Total........... 4,287 .......... 1,048 Entire preservative
Average ........ 78 75.55 19 period: Grams. Per cent. Grams.
Second subperiod: Total.......... 12, 00 .......... 3,057
Total.......... 3,830 ..... 936 Average ........ 76 75.76 19
Averag........ 70 75.56 17
-- ---After period. Entire fore period:
Total .......... 8,117 .......... 1,984 First subperiod:
Average ........ 74 75. 56 18 Total 4,541 .......... 1,103
Average. 83 75.71 20
Preservative period. Second subperiod:
Total 4,190 .......... 1,027
First subperiod: Average ....... 76 7549 19
Total .......... 4, ........ 1, 032
Average........ 82 77.01 19 Entire after period:
Second sulbperiod: Total .......... 8, 731 2,130
Total........ 4,234 ......... 1,083 Average ....... 79 75 .00 19
Aver age........ 77 74.42 20
Third suhperriod:
Total ......... 3,887 .......... 942
Average ....... 71 75.77 17





BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1107

THE URINE.
VOLUME, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, AND TOTAL SOLIDS.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.

In Table VII are found the data relating to the volume of the urine excreted, its specific gravity, and the total solids therein. In the case of No. 1 the volume of the urine is less in the preservative period than in the fore period, and it is still less in the after period than in the preservative period. The total solids excreted are slightly greater in the preservative period and less in the after period than in the fore period. In the case of No. 2 there is a notable increase in the volume of the urine during the preservative period. This increase is partly lost in the after period, but the volume of the urine is still greater than in the fore period. The quantity of total solids excreted is larger in the preservative period than in either of the other periods. In the case of No. 3 there is a diminution in the volume of the urine in the preservative period, but a larger quantity is excreted in the after period than in the fore period. There is little change in the amount of -total solids excreted in the three periods, though the quantity is slightly less in both the preservative and after periods than in the fore period.
In the case of No. 4 there is a marked diminution in the volume of the urine in the preservative period which continues, though to a less extent, in the after period. The diminution in the quantity of total solids is not so great as that in the volume, inasmuch as the specific gravity is higher in the preservative period and in the after period than in the fore period. In the case of No. 5 there is also a diminution in the volume of the urine in the preservative period, and the quantity remains almost the same in the after period as in the preservative period. The specific gravity, however, is high and the amount of total solids excreted in the preservative and after periods is greater than in the fore period.
No. 6 also shows a diminution in the volume of urine in the preservative period and a continued decrease in the after period. The total solids excreted in the preservative period are the sane is in the fore period, while in the after period there is a loss in the quantity of total solids excreted. In the case of No. 7 there is again a diminution in the volume of the urine in the preservative period and this loss is still more marked in the after period. The total solids excreted are slightly diminished in the preservative period and notably diminished in the after period. In the case of No. 8 the normal volume of urine excreted is very large, but there is a considerable diminution in volume in the preservative period which is partially restored in the after period. Although the volume of the urine varies considerably,






1108 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

the total solids excreted remain almost the same throughout the three periods. In the case of No. 9 there is an increase in the volume of the urine excreted with practically no diminution in specific gravity, and therefore a considerable increase in total solids. During the after period there is a further increase in the volume of the urine with but little change in the specific gravity and a marked increase in the total solids. In the case of No. 10 there is a notable diminution in the volume of the urine in the preservative period and a notable increase in the after period over the fore period. The total solids excreted are somewhat less in the preservative period than in the fore period, while in the after period they are greater than in the fore period. The case of No. 11 shows a marked diminution in the volume of the urine, but with such an increase in specific gravity that the
total solids excreted are greater than in the fore period. The diminution in volume continues during the after period. There is a marked increase in the total solids excreted in the case of No. 11 in the preservative period, although the volume decreases. The amount of total solids in the after period is almost the same as in the fore period. No. 12 shows an increase in the volume of the urine in the preservative period, a slight increase in its specific gravity, and a marked increase in the amount of total solids excreted. In the after period there is again noticed an increase in the volume of the urine, but a diminution of the specific gravity and total solids below the figures for the fore period.
SUMMARIES.
The summary for Nos. 1 and 4, which extends over the whole series
of observations, shows a notable decrease in the volume of the urine in the preservative period and this decrease is continued in the after period. The decrease in volume is attended with a slight increase of specific gravity and a very small decrease in the total solids in the preservative and after periods. The summaries for Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6, and Nos. 7 to 12, inclusive, offer a comparison of data for those who received benzoic acid with those who received sodium benzoate. In the former summary it is noticed that the volume of urine is not greatly changed in the preservative period but it is notably less in the after period, the figures being 997, 992, and 922 ce, respectively. The specific gravity is slightly greater in the preservative and after periods than in the fore period, the figures being 1.0230, 1.0246, and 1.0246, respectively. The total solids are increased in the preservative period and somewhat smaller in the after period than in the fore period, the numbers being 55.5, 57.8, and 54.2 grams daily for the three periods, respectively.
In the case of Nos. 7 to 12 there is also a slight loss of volume in the preservative period, and this volume remains practically








BENZOIC ACID A'ND BENZOATES. 1109


unchanged in the after period. The specific grravity is slightly higher in the preservative period than in either thie fore o)r after periods. The total solids are 57.6 gIramis in the fore period, ris'e to 60.9 inl thle preservative period, and fall again to 58.1 in the after lperiod. These data indicate but little change in the volume of the urine, especially as to any effect of the preservative, inasmuch as thie weather was owing warmer during the progress of the experiment, anld this slight decrease in volume may be accounted for part ly Iy the rise inl temperature. There is, however, a tendency shown i to icrease the amount of total solids excreted under the influence of the preservatiVO'. The two points, therefore, brought ouit by this study are that neither the benzoic acid nor the benzoate of soahas anyx diuretic efFect, but that they do have a ten-denicy to icrease slighitl the total sld excreted in the urine, and this general effect is further confirmed b\r the summary for Nos. 1 to 12. T.ABLE VI.- Urinedtrninnos-Vl C specific glracity, and total s olid".S, &ti08


[Averages are pe(r (lay.]

N o. 1. No. 2. V)N 3Spveif- T1,otal Specif- Tot] SPCCIf- Tli
Period. 10 gray- X Oj1 \( ic gr:s Ioi ~ ~ t r~ ~ld
itv at Solid N at~dd
~ ity at (fact or m i .r (fact or hl. .5 $ 0,245) 145,(


Fore periodi.

First subpe.riod: CC. (fj ms. CC. 6 (aIli. 6 1.
Total ................~.. 410 1(M I. 029 7 1,,.3 6,740 1. OPIS 32114.')1. -o Kiui I '.

Sec-ond subperiod:
Total ....... ........43. 1.02r3 I 3 1. 7.,5 $ 17. 11,2711 1 $ ~ l
Average ,87.......... 1,w7 --- 62- 3 1,4;71 ....~.. 7. ,5 !

Entire fore period:
Total ........... J3 .26i 61. 11,01 1, 0 ()1. 7 12 1 -4 1.0, 1'U. X
-kvevra gi................9, ... 10 140.... 702 1 ,21 ~

Preaervative pe riod.

First suhperiid:
Total ............. 4. fI.A 1. O',, I 30.. :1 71100 1 ,01 1 6% 1 i 106 ~ ~

Second su bperlod:
Total ...... .. I, 410 I.0~ 1~ ,75 I JM a .~ :. iu ~ .4
A verage.............. L~17 70I.'J**
Third subpt'riodl:
Tota I .. ... I,~) 1031 12 1 7,10NJ1 1107- 3S.1 ',I0 1 1kJ 1 ~ 1
AVtrg. . ....7P 0 ,%765 11 d
Fou rt h subpeIrl oq I
Tot a I...,.... .i o ~~o ~ .H I 6.A ~I2 ~ ~ 125 1(27 2

En t ire, pIre serva t i o vr":
Total 11 .. .. 1 170 1 .S ,'( 1 1 11~O I 0'A l I. .1],I~ 22 ~ '
Averge ~ 5 iii5 153;,1 61.1 52

A/ter Ileriod.,

First snhp-rlud:F
Tota.... I,1 % ) :10 1 117 371 ~#7 I L) Ilb

S-,econjd -outwilnti:;:oI11%7 1 111 ,
Av ra e 0 if 1 41 1 0-. I.417 1 ..i~

En t ire atr 14.d
TotalI ...... I,(6 08 5 A' 1 C39 1 ()_III 7~4 122 I 01A1N 1 534
Average. 'N il51 ,41 0 ~ 1~j5.








1110 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VII.-Urine deten iinations-Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series
VIII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 4. No. 5. No.6.

Specif- Total Specif- Total Total
Period. Vol- ic gray- solids Vol- ic grav- solids Vol- ie gray. solids
0 it at t at lid a t
ume. (actor unie. )o (actor une. (fa tor
C. 0.245). 0.245). 0.245).

Fore period.
First subperiod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total ................... 4,640 1.0230 261.5 3,885 1.0177 168.5 4,310 1.0274 289.3
Average ............... 028 ........ 52.3 777 ....... 33.7 862 ....... 57.9
Second subperiod:
Total .................. 4,885 1.0224 268.1 4,260 1.0196 204.6 4,240 1.0263 273.2
Average ............... 977 ........ 53.6 8 52 ........ 40.9 848 ........ 54.6

Entire fore period:
Total.................. 9,525 1.0227 529.6 8,145 1.0187 373.1 8,550 1.0268 562.5
Average ................ 953 ........ 53.0 815 ........ 37.3 855 ........ 56.3

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total .................. 4,645 1.0224 254.9 3,935 1.0228 219.8 4,115 1.0280 282.3
Average ................ 929........ 51.0 787........ 43.9 823 ........ 56.5
Second subperiod:
Total .................. 4,290 1.0248 260.7 3,885 1.0207 197.0 4, 300 1.0274 288.7
Average ............... 858 ....... 52.1 777 ........ 39.4 860 ........ 57.7
Third subperiod:
Total .................. 4,030 1.0263 259.7 4,200 1.0234 240.8 4,410 1.0261 281.9
Average................ 806 ........ 51.9 840 ........ 48.2 882 ........ 56.4
Fourth subperiod:
Total .................. 3,885 1.0271 257.9 2,570 1.0257 161 8 4,000 1.0272 272.6
Average................ 777 ........ 51.6 514 ........ 32.4 818 ........ 54.5

Entire preservative period:
Total .................. 16,850 1.0252 1,033.2 14,590 1.0232 819.4 16,915 1.0272 1,125.5
Average ............... 843 ........ 51.7 730 ........ 41.0 8,6 ........ 56.3
After period.

First subperiod:
Total .................. 4,425 1.0266 288.4 3,105 1.0234 178.0 4,215 1.0270 278.8
Average ................ 88 ........ 57.7 621 ........ 35. 6 843 ........ 55.8
Scond subperiod:
Total .................. 3,730 1.0263 240.3 4,160 1.0198 201.8 4,034 1.0258 2,4.9
Average................ 716 ........ 48.1 832 ........ 40.4 807 ........ .51.0

Entire after period:
Total ................... 8,155 1.0265 528.7 7,265 1.0216 37 9.8 8,249 1.0264 533.7
Average ................ 816 ........ 52.9 727 ....... 38.0 825 ....... i .4








BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1111


TABLE VII.-Urine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Sies
VIII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 7. No. 8. No. 9.

Spe- Spe- SpeScific Total cific Total cific Total
Period. Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids
ume. at (factor ume. at (factor use. at (factor
250 250 0.245). 250 ,25 0.245). 250 250 0.245).
C. C. C.

Fore period.
First subperiod: cC. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Gra m<.
Total................... 5,705 1.0194 271.2 8,290 1.0143 290.4 4,475 1.0246 2619.7
Average................ 1,141 ........ 54.2 1,658 .......... .1 895 ........ 53.9
Second subperiod:
Total.................. 5,820 1.0198 282.3 9,930 1.0115 279.8 5,060 1.0248 307.4
Average............. .. 1,164 ........ 56.5 1,986 ........ 56.0 1,012 ........ I61.5
Entire fore period:
Total.................. 11,525 1.0196 553.5 18, 20 1.0129 570.2 9,535 1.0247 577.1
Average............... 1,153 ........ 55.4 1,822 ........ 57.0 954 ........ 57.7
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total ................... 4,470 1.0247 270.5 8,030 1.0154 302.9 4,2x0 1.0250 26t2.2
Average ................ 894 ....... 54.1 1, 0 ........ (16 856 ........ .. 52.4
Second subperiod:
Total.................. 6,170 1.0182 275.1 7,395 1.0135 244.6 5,2 0 1.0237 305.4
Average ............... 1,234 ........ 35.0 1,479 ........- 48.9 1,052 ........ 61.1
Third subperiod:
Total ................... 5,300 1.0202 262.3 7,820 1.0161 308.5 t6, 100 1.0237 354.2
Average ................ 1,000 ........ 52.5 1,564 ........ 61.7 1,220 ........ 70.8
Fourth subperiod:
Total................. 4.660 1.0243 277.4 7,160 1.0171 299.9 ....................
Average............... 932 ........ 55.5 1,432 ........ .0 .. 0
First, second, and third subperiods:
Total................... ............................... ........ 1,140 1.0241 921.
Average................... ................... ................... 1,04 ....... 1.5
Entire preservative period:
Total................... 20,C00 1.0219 1,085.3 30,405 1.015 1,155i ....
Average............ ... 1,030 ........ 54.3 1,520 ........ 57,8 .............. ........
After period.
First subperiod:
Total................... 4,125 1.0235 237.5 8,555 1.0145 303.9 5,570 1.0247 337.1
Average ................ 82.5 ........ 47.5 1,711 ........ IA). 1,114 7.4
Second subperiod:
Total..... ............. 4,575 1.0213 238.7 8,775 1.0128 275.2 5.(, ) 1.r24, 341.5
Average ................ 915 ........ 47.7 1,75'5 .. ... ~.0 1, 1:_ )3
Entire after period:
Total................. 8,700 1.0224 476.2 17,33 1.0137 ,79. i 11,2m 1.I R24 7s.61
Ave rage............... 870 ........ 47.6 1,7 33 .... 57.9 1, 121 67.9








1112 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VII.- Ul'rine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series
VIII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

N o. 10. No. 11. No. 12.

Spe- Spe- pecific Total cific Total ele Total
Period. Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids
umine. at (factor umnie. at (factor ume. at (factor
250/250 0.245). 250/250 0.245). 2501250 0.245).
C. C. C.

For pe riod.

First subperiod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cC. Grams.
Total................... 4,980 1.0202 246.5 6,970 1.0195 332.9 6,385 1.0199 311.3
Average ................ 996 ........ 49.3 1,394 ........ 66.6 1,277 ....... 62.3
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 5,200 1.0196 249.7 6,060 1.0200 296.9 6,020 1.0214 315.6
Average............... 1,040 ........ 49.9 1,212 ........ 59.4 1,204 ........ 63.1

Entire fore period:
Total................... 10,180 1.0199 496.2 13,030 1.0198 629.8 12,405 1.0207 626.9
Average ............... 1,018 ........ 49.6 1,303 ........ 63.0 1,241 ........ 62.7

Presrlatire period.

First subperiod:
Total.................. 5,210 1.0222 283.4 6,080 1.0238 354.5 7,070 1.0210 363.8
Average............. 1,042 ........ 56.7 1,216 ........ 70.9 1,414 ........ 72.8
Second subperiod:
Total................... 4,490 1.0205 225.5 6,010 1.0225 331.3 6,870 1.0214 360.2
Average................ 898 ........ 45.1 1,202 ........ 66.3 1,374 ........ 72.0
Third subperiod: .24 8 ,2
Total ....... 5,085 1.0193 240.4 6,355 1.0242 376.8 6,520 1.0223 356.2
Average...............1,017 ........ 48.1 1,271 ........ 75.4 1,304 ........ 71.2
Fourth subperiod:
Total.................. 3,525 1.0201 173.6 5,330 1.0258 336.9 5,890 1.0211 304.5
Average................ 705 ........ 34.7 1,066 ........ 67.4 1,178 ........ 60.9
Entire js, "" Entire pr ervatlive period:
Total .................. 18,310 1.0205 922.9 23,775 1.0241 1,399.5 26,350 1.0212 1,384.7
Average................. 916 ........ 46.1 1,189 ........ 70.0 1,318 ....... 69.2

After period.

First subnlriod:
Total .................. 6,370 1.0176 274.7 4,720 1.0275 318.0 6,795 1.0196 326.3
Average. .............. 1,274 ........ 54.9 944 ........ 63.6 1,359 ........ 65.3
Second subilpriod:
Total........... 5,015 1.0200 245.7 5,030 1.0248 305.6 7,050 1.0162 279.8
Average............... 1,003 ........ 49.1 1, (00 ........ 6(1.1 1,410 ........ 56.0

Entire after period:
Total.................. 11, 51.015 520.4 9, 750 1.0262 623.6 13,845 1.0179 0. 1
Averng ......... ..... 139 ........ 52.0 97 5 ........ 62.4 1.3 5 ........ W0.6








BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1113


TABLE VII.-Urine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Scrics
VIll-Continued.

SUMMARIES.
[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 1 and 4. Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6.

Period. Specific Total Specific 'Total
Volume. gravity solids polinne gravity solids
Ca (factor at (factor
250,250 ('. 0.245). 250 PC. 0.245).

Fore perid.

First subperiod: O. Grams. Total................................. 8,740 1.0264 55,.- 23,i75 1.1235 1,344.5
Average.................................... 56.0 947 501...... Si.
Second subperiod:
Total....- ...- .....- ..............- ... 10,320 1.0229 579.7 2t,17 1.225 1.432.3
Average.............................. 1,032 .......... 5,.0 1,047 ........ .

Entire fore period:
Total .................................. 19,00 1.0247 1,139:.5 49,850 1.0230 2, 77.
Average .............................. 90 ......... 5m.0 -U .. ..5..n .5

Prescreatire rfriod.

First subperiod:
Total. .................... I,15 1.0252 51.2 '4,245 1.024- 1.411.1
Average......................o .. 910......... 56.0 970. ..........7.2
Second subperiod:
Total................................. 8,730 1.021ot 59.fi 2.4 1.1239 1440.1
Average........................................7.0 o.tt. .......... .37.6
Third subperiod:
Total................................ 8,020 1. 02xth 51.8 24,550 1.0233 1,466.8
A verage............ ....... 802 .......... 2 ...........7
First, second, and third subperiods:
Total................................. 74,4 3 1.0246 4.31 .0
Average. ............................. ......... .......... ..... .
Fourth subperiod:
Total .. ............................ 8,075 1.0289 572.0
Average.............................. 80. .......... 57.2

Entire preservative period:
Total.. .. .. .. .. . .. 33, 920 1 1. 0274 228 .6 . . . .. .
A veragi .............. ................ S48 .......... .... ..

Affrr period.
First subperiod:
Total ................................. S.4i 1. 0271 577.4 2-2,12 1.01 4 1.:91i. 2
A verage.............................. s47 . .. -7. -1 -. 3-- -I
Second subperiod:
Total............................. 7,750 1.main 51om ga me 10.21 P 1.0.. 3
A verage .................... ......... n7.7 .... .... 51.0 e 0.

entire after period:
Total ................ .. ... 16,21 .52 1.1.087,6 (1 1124 1. o"7' 2s .
Average ............4 2







1114 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VII.-Urine determinations-Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series VIII-Continued.

SUMMARIES-Continued.
[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 7 to 12. Nos. 1 to 12 (omitting No. 3).

Period. Specific Total Specific Total
Volume. gravity solids Volume. gravity solids
at (factor at (factor
250/250 C. 0.245). 250250 C. 0.245).

Fore period.
First subperiod: Ce. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total................................ 36,805 1.0197 1,722.0 60,480 1.0213 3, 06.5
Average ............................. 1,227 .......... 57.4 1,100 .......... 55.8
Second subperiod:
Total................................ 38,090 1.0195 1,731.7 64,265 1.0 209 3,1 4.0
Average ............................. 1,270 .......... 57.7 1,168 .... 57.5
Entire fore period:
Total ................................. 74,895 1.0196 3,453.7 124,745 1.0211 6,230.5
Average............................. 1,248 ......... 57.6 1,134 ......... 56.6
Preserrative period.
First subperiod:
Total................................ 35,140 1.0220 1,837.3 59,385 1.0231 3, 268. 4
Average.............................. 1,171 .......... 61.2 1,080 .......... 59.4
Second subperiod:
Total................................ 36,195 1.0200 1,742.1 61,835 1.0217 3,182.2
Average.............................. 1,207.......... 58.1 1,124 .......... 57.9
Third subperiod:
Total................................. 37,180 1.0210 1,898.4 61,730 1.0229 3,365.2
Average.............................. 1,239 .......... 63. 3 1,122 .......... 61.2
First, second, and third subperiods:
Total................................ 108,515 1.0210 5,477.8 182,950 1.0226 9,815.8
Average .............................. 1,206 ......... 60.9 1,109 .......... 59.5
After period.
First subperiod:
Total................................ 36,135 1.0212 1,797.5 58,960 1.0231 3,188.7
Average.............................. 1,205 .......... 59.9 1,072 .......... 58.0
Second subperiod:
Total................................ 36,135 1.0199 1,686.5 59,434 1.0216 3,004.8
Average.............................. 1,205 .......... 56.2 1,081 .......... 54.6
Entire after period:
Total................................ 72,270 1.0206 3,484.0 118,394 1.0 224 ti6,193.5
Average .............................. 1,205 .......... 58.1 1,076 .......... 66.3


RATIO OF SULPHUR, SULPHATES, AND PHOSPHATES TO NITROGEN EXCRETED IN THE URINE.

INDIVIDUAL DATA.

In Table VIII are given the data relating to the comparative quantities of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates excreted in the urine to
t hlie nitrogen therein. The object of this study was to determine
whether the administration of the preservative in the form either of
benzoic acid or sodium benzoate disturbs in any notable degree the proteid metabolism as shown by the relation existing between the sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates excreted in the urine and the nitrogen therein. The data show that the total nitrogen in the urinein the case
of No. 1 is almost thie same in the fore period and the preservative
period but is diminished considerably in the after period. The ratio






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1115

of the sulphates as SO3 is slightly decreased in the preservative period and is the same in the after period as in the fore period. The ratio of phosphoric acid is increased in the preservative period and slightly increased in the after period.
In the case of No. 2 the quantity of nitrogen excreted in the urine is markedly increased in the preservative period while it is almost the same in the fore and after periods. The ratio of the total sulphur to the nitrogen is slightly increased in the preservative period and again in the after period. The ratio of sulphates as SO, is the same in the fore and preservative periods and is slightly diminished in the after period. The phosphoric acid ratio is slightly increased( in the preservative period and remains the same in the after period as in the preservative period.
The quantity of nitrogen excreted in the urine in the case of No. 3 in all the three periods is almost the same, being slightly less in the after period. The total sulphur ratio is the same in the fore and preservative periods and is notably increased in the after period. The ratio of sulphates as SO3 to nitrogen is practically the same throughout the observation. The phosphoric acid ratio is slightly less in the preservative period and is practically the same in the after period.
In the case of No. 4 there is slightly less nitrogen in the urine in the preservative period than in either the fore or after periods. The ratio of total sulphur is slightly increased in the preservative and after periods. The sulphate ratio is practically the same throughout the observation. The phosphoric acid ratio is decidedly increased in the preservative period and again increased to even a greater extent in the after period.
The total quantity of nitrogen in the urine in the case of No. 5 is notably larger in the preservative period than in tihe fore or aftlir period. The ratio of total sulphur is increased( in the l)reservative and after periods. The sulphate ratio is dliminished in tihe preservative perriodl while ill the after period it rises almost to the sane agnitude as in the fore period. The phosphoric acid ratio is imreased in the preservative perioml alnd in the after period falls again b)y al)out half the quantity of the increase. In the case of No. 6 t ile (jltantity of nitrogen is decrease(l in the )reservative period. The ratio of the sulphur is t1he same inll tie fore iani preservativee )efriotls and is decidedly increased in the after period. The ratio of the sulphates as 8() is almost the same in all the periods. The ratio of phoslhori acid is diminished( inll the preservative and after p)eriod)s.
In the case of No. 7 the total quantity of nitrogen is less in the preservative period anml decidedly less in the after period. The ratio )of sulphur rellmainlls tie silamel in all the periolis. The ratio of sil plates is slightly diminishedI (11111111 in the l )rIvlative )eriod while there is a Ver






1116 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

slight increase in the after period. The ratio of the phosphoric acid is notably increased in both the preservative and after periods.
No. S shows a slightly increased excretion of the nitrogen in the preservative anmd after periods. The ratio of the total sulphur is markedly increased both in the preservative and after periods. The ratio of the sullphates remains nearly constant throughout, while the ratio of phosphoric acid increases both in the preservative and after periods.
No. 9 shows a slight increase in the nitrogen excreted both in the preservative and after periods. The sulphur ratio is increased both in the preservative and after periods, while the sulphate ratio is very slightly increased in the preservative period and falls again in the after period to almost the same magnitude as the fore period. The phosphoric acid ratio is notably increased both in the preservative and after periods.
In the case of No. 10 there is but little change in the amount of nitrogen excreted, though there is a larger quantity in the preservative period and a slightly larger quantity in the after period than in the fore period. The ratio of the total sulphur is notably increased both in the preservative and after periods. The ratio of the sulphates remains almost constant throughout. The ratio of phosphoric acid is notably increased in the preservative period and to a less extent in the after period.
In the case of No. 11 there is a notable increase in the quantity of nitrogen excreted in the preservative period. The ratio of the sulphur is largely increased in the preservative period. The sulphate ratio is almost the same throughout, while the phosphoric acid ratio is notably increased in both the preservative and after periods.
No. 12 shows an increase of the nitrogen excreted in the preservative period. The sulphur ratio is slightly larger in the preservative period, the sulphates ratio remains unchanged throughout, and there is hut little change in the phlosphloric acid ratio, which is slightly larger in thle preservative period.

SUMMARIES.
A summary of Nos. 1 and 4 is made for tihe whole period. This summary shows very little variation in the excretion of nitrogen, an inTrease in the sulphur ratio both in the Ireservative and after periods, no) clnge in the sull)hate ratio, ant( a otab)le increase in the plhosphoric-acid ratio in the preservative period and a greater increase in the after period.
TheI summary for Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6i shows a slight increase in the (uflitity of nitrogen excreted in thlle I)preselrvative period and a (lefrlase of slightly gr (eater magnitudle i thati excreted inll the after Period. The ratio of the sulpl)hur to the nitrogen is increased in both






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1117

the preservative and after periods. The ratio of the sulphates is almost the same in all the periods, while the ratio of phosphoric acid to th nitrogen is increased in both the preservative period and the after period.
The sumary for those who received benzoic acid shows a tendency on the part of this preservative to decrease the relative quantities of sulphur and phosphoric acid excreted in the preservative period as compared with the total nitrogen excreted, and there is no change in the relative quantity of sulphates expressed as SO3.
The summary for Nos. 7 to 12, inclusive, shows a slight increase in the quantity of nitrogen excreted in the preservative period. There is also an increase in the ratio of the sulphur both in the preservative and after periods. The ratio of the sulphates remains the same in all the periods, but there is an increase in the ratio of phosphoric acid both in the preservative and in the after period. These data for the subjects using sodium benzoate indicate the same tendency, though less pronounced, as was shown for Nos. 1 to 6 receiving benzoic acid, namely, a relative decrease in the amounts of P205 and sulphur excreted, as compared with the nitrogen.
The final summary includes all the men except No. 3 and all the periods except the fourth preservative period. These data show a slight increase in the quantity of nitrogen in the urine in the preservative period and a decrease of somewhat greater magnitude in the after period. The sulphur ratio is slightly increased in the preservative period and still further increased in the after period. The sulphate ratio remains the same in all the periods. The phosphoric acid ratio is increased in the preservative period and again increased in the after period. This summary of necessity confirms the uniform tendency manifested in the preceding cases to decrease the excretion of sulphur and of phosphoric acid in relation to the quantity of nitrogen excreted, while no effect is produced upon the excretion of the sulphates in the urine in relation to the quantity of nitrogen.












INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


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1120 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.



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.4 . 4 .4 .................. ......

T7 c1-4 ;
I' -q:


in :f 1C v- C


... .... ...


1-4 _4 4









r4 1-4





wT


o~1 Z* _I







7:: -r
z C'!7









444 4oz






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 112 7

CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE QUANTMES OF SULPHUR COXPOUNDS EXCRETED IN THE URINE.
The sulphur and the sulphur compounds, as in the 1)revious experiments, were determined as follows: Total st.ilphur, ivhich is entei-ed as S and as S03 in the table (Table 1-K), was deteiiiiiiied hy fti .;1011 with sodium peroxi(l. The total sulphates, which are littered III the table as SO,, were determined by acidif\_1110' .1 Isallilfle of 111,11le with hvdrochloric acid, boiling and precil)ititHig vitli 1),tntim ihe ethereal sulphates were determinedd 1) y pi-ecilWatilitr the 111olgaltle sulphates with a baritun lipirate-baritim cillond -,ohlt.ion, filtel,111(r and detern-iinin(r the ethereal stilphates Ili tlie filtrate. 'Flie nelttlll sulphur was calculated froin the differencee betweell tit(' total ,1111)11tll.
and the total sulpliates. The Mor(raiiic still)liates repi (- eiit t Ile difference between the ethereal stillAiates lind tit(, total slill)IIate.". The ratio of the ethereal to the inorganic stilphatc--; wa,-; obttilled I,)y dividing the latter by the foriiier. Tiie ai.c exi)i-essea ill
percentaoreof total ,;ulpliurfotiii(lintli(,itriii(, ill tennis ()f,-;O,.

IND1171TWAL DATA.

'For No. I it is seen that 0.930 gram of stilplitir i,-; elij)iiiiated Ili the fore period, 0.946 grain in the I)i'eservatIN-c pei-imlalld ().,'-,2S (ri-aill Ill the after perio(I. riie in(rest*oll of
shown in the balance sheets (7',able XIV), i!_ Iff"ICt i(IIIIIIN- c(m,'t,111t, 1)(,Ill(r very liale less in the l)re,-;ervative perio(I thaii lit Hie I't)l.e Iwl'it)(1 alid continuing to diiiiiiiisli slightk- In the "Iftel. I)enoll. It 1 4, 11WIVI'(We
.seen that there is all ilici-eased c-11111111"ition (d total tit(l)reserN-ati,\-e period NN-Iiicli is not I till iteticed ill (1111 V WIl V 1) v the 1111)1111t. ill the food. Tile lieut-l-al slill)IIIII. is (111111111she"! ill the j)iv--wl.\-,Itive perio(l and coi-itiiiiies t( ) (IM 11111sil Ht the aftel, l)cI'1()(1, alid the I)cf-rellfatre excretion of iietitnal stilldiiii- 1., 3.1 lw l. celit lc- ., Ili III(, I'Va 11, Vc period thaii ill the f()i-c Iwi-Im l. "I'll(, am otiiit ()I* h0,11 isliglitly increased lit the I)n-,ci-va1I\-v 1)(111,H)d .11141 (IM) M 1 ,Ilcl I III ille after 1)et-iod. "I'livetheival stilldiatesaiv rml ,tmlt
Iw iliti, le"s ill t It(' aftel. I 111,111 1!1 the jwc ,crvll I I\'(, t W l'i We
period. It is, thci-v1'()i-c, sceii that the clillillit-111(m
is (Ille t() iliol-trallic stilldiates alld this alll()11111- 141 0.1 12 -railt daily ill tit(' I)I-esel-vative jwnm l, decrea."Illir:- I It(, Ilk(II, PTI(Itl
alll()tlllt e\,ell le"', 1111111 Ill the fm v lwrim l. T hO F;11111 ill' III(, (1111ck"il sull)II11tes to t1le illm -1,11111c stilldlatv-, 1 111)(ilit 11"I'l 11411 111 11 le I'm -11 P(T I1 Id beiii(r I :W 7 1 1111( 1 is s I i", I It I i I I( n Zlsc( I Ill ( Ill, lWc.-(1IV',l I IVO 8 lit I n 1*1 c[. 1)eriods, reacliliig I : I I 7 m id I I I s. rt-,I)vri I\ cI v,
F()r N o. 2 t It(, vxcivt [;)it (if ()14,11 slilphill, 1 ,l rflittv IlIC111111-cd
tlIe I)I-esel-vative lwnm i, \\.lilt a vel-\ decklit-c Ill fill, :1111"11111 4 sull).11111, ill the food The t4)till rellil-li, 141 ahw it the






1128 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

magnitud(le in the after period as in the fore period, with a considerable re(Iduction of the sulphur ingested in the food. An inspection of the data for No. 2 in regard to the other forms of sulphur shows a decrease in the neutral sulphur throughout; an increase in the total sulphates in the preservative period and a slight decrease in the after period; a very slight increase in the ethereal sulphates throughout; and, as is to be expected, an increase in the amount of inorganic sulpihates, which again shows the increased sulphur elimination to be in an inorg(ranic form. The ratio of ethereal to inorganic sulphur is practically normal in the fore period, being 1:10.7, and is slightly increased in the preservative period, being 1:11; in the after period it returns to normal, namely, 1:10.4. The percentage figures show a diminution in the amount of neutral sulphur, the ethereal sulphates remaining the same, while there is an increase in the inorganic sulphliates.
For No. 3 the elimination of total sulphur is practically the same in the fore and preservative periods with a diminution of 0.097 gram per day during the after period as compared with the fore period. The sulphur ingested in the food, on the other hand, is 0.102 gram per (lay less in the preservative period and rises to practically the same amount in the after period as in the fore period. Thediminution, then, in the elimination of sulphur is partly offset by the decreased ingestion of sulphur in the food, but it is to be noted that the decrease in sulphur elimination does not accompany the decrease in the amount of sulphur ingested. The amount of neutral sulphur shows a gradually decreased(l elimination throughout the observation, falling to 0.156 grain per (lay in the after period, which is 0.168 gram less than the amount eliminated in the fore period. There is an increased amount of total sulphiates eliminated in the preservative period. The ethereal sulphates remain constant throughout, and there is only a very slight change in the amount of inorganic sulphates eliminated. It is thus seen in the case of No. 3 that the change in the relation of the sulphur compounds is not so marked as in the cases of Nos. 1 and 2.
In the case of No. 4 there is a diminution of 0.057 gram per day of sulphur in the )preservative period, which is slightly overcome in the aftr l)e-ri)(I. 11The ingestion of sulphur in the food is practically constalt (luring the entire period(I of observation, though slightly less in the after )period(l than in either of the other two. The neutral sulphur again shows a gradual diminution throughout, but not so marked asin the case of No 3. The total sulphates are quite constant, being reduced oiiy 0.092 gram per (lay in the preservative period and rising again in the after period to nearly the same magnitude as in the fore perio(l. The ethereal sulphates are practically constant throughout. Tile aImiount of inolrganic sulpha11 tes shows a diminution of 0.089 grami in the preservative period, rising in the after period to practically the






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1129

same amount as in the fore period. The ratio of ethereal sulphates to inorganic sulphates is 1:10.7 in the fore period, 1:10.4 iil the preservative period, rising to 1:11.2 in the after period. There is a percentage diminution in the neutral sulphur and a corresponding increase in the total sulphates both in the preservative and after periods. The amount of ethereal sulphates, though smaller in actual amount, shows an increased percentage elimination in the preservative period of 0.3 per cent over that of the fore and after periods. The inorganic sulphates, expressed in percentage of the total sulplhur eliminated, show an increase of 1 per cent and of 3 per cent in the preservative and after periods over the fore period.
There is very little change in the metabolism of sulphur for this subject, a slight tendency being shown to diminish the amount of total sulphur eliminated in the urine. Very little relative variation is shown in the different forms in which this sulphur is eliminated, the most marked change being again in the neutral sulphur, which is diminished throughout the observations.
There is an increased elimination of total sulphur in the case of No. 5 in the preservative period of 0.076 gram per (lay, returning in the after period to practically the same amount as in the fore period(. There is an increased ingestion of food sulphur of 0.024 grain daily during the preservative period. Again it is seen that the amount of neutral sulphur gradually decreases throughout the period of observation; there is a marked increase in the quantity of total sulphates, and the ethereal sulphates remain practically constant throughout. As is plainly shown, the increased elimination of sulphur is due to the formation of inorganic sulphates. The ratio of ethereal sulphates to inorganic sulphates in the fore period is just a little below normal, being 1 : 9.2, and rising in the preservative period to 1 : 11. In the after period the ratio is 1 :10.6. There is a decrease of 3.4 per cent in the neutral sulphur eliminated in the preservative period and a correspoI ling( increase in the amount of total sulphates. The ethereal sulphates decrease 1 per cent in the preservative period, although the actual amount excreted is the same as in the fore period. There is an increased excretion of 4.4 per cent of inorganic sul)hates over the fore period.
In the case of No. 6 there is a diminution of 0.047 granl Per day of sulphur in the preservative period but a decrease of 0.066 grand Per day in the amount of sulphur ingested in the food. In the after l)eri)I the elimination is 0.111 grain per day less than in the fore period and the amount ingested 0.137 less. The amount of neutral sulphur gradually decreases throughout the observation; there is a diminution in the amount of total sulphates throughout, and also) in the amount of ethereal sulphates which, however, is very slight. The inorganic sulphates also show a decreased elimination throughout, corresponding,






1130 INFL-L-ENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON- HEALTH.

of cotirse, to the chan(re in total and ethereal sulpliates. The ratio of ethereal to inor(ranic sulphates is 1 :14.7 in the fore period, 1 : 15 in the I)reservative jwrio(l, and 1 : 15.6 in the after period. Considering tlie-,e lio-tires alone, there is shown in this case a, decreased elimination of ,- idi)httr. The decrease in the aniount of sulphur interested in the foo(I 11ONN-eN-er is e-\-eii greaterr than the decrease in the amount excreted. The percentage aniount of neutral sulphur excreted is sliglitly decreased flirotio-hout while the ethereal sulphates eliminated are practically constaiit.r The percentage of total and inorganic sulphates is sli(rht1v increased throughout the observation.
There is a decreased elimination of total sulphur in the case of No. 7 throtiophout the o1h.-wrvation aniountin(r to 0.009 grain per day in the preserve a tive period and 0. 140 gram per day in the af ter period as coinI)ared with the fore period. There is also a decrease throughout in the alliottlit of siilpliur interested of about the same magnitude. A(Yain th(,re is shoNN-ii a diniini: ;hed quantity of neutral sulphur excreted throughout the observation, and a decreased amotint, of ethereal sulpliates which'.111 tlll' Case, is quite inarked. The total sulphates show a 4rr,,j(jjI.,jl fllllll(r otr tjjj-0U(rjjoUt the ol)servation as do also the inort7 r- zrl Y
cranic stillAiates. The ratio of ethereal to inor(ranic sulphates is I : 14 in flie fore 1wriod, 1 : 14.6 in flie preservatl-\-e period, and I : 15.1 in tlwaftcrj)crIo(,L The neutral sulphurin tbe preservative period is 2.4 per cviit Icss than in flie fore period. The percentage of ethereal sulI)Iiatcs rcinain.s practically tlle s'alne throlighollt although the aettial (411alltity is solliewhat les's in the two other periods than in the fore period. Tlivre, is a corresponding incre-ase to these aniounts iii the total sitIlAiatcs and the itiorgaiiiG sulphates. It is seen in tlie case of No, 7 t1int 11wre is a diiiiiiiislic(I elhiiiiiation of sulphur in the itrine, bio OIL-; is Intrik-offset bytlie(liiiiiiii,,Iie(taiiiotiiitof sulphur ii-Igested (IIII-IlIg t )I(, observalloll.
'I'lie (lata, 1'()r No. s sliow a slio-lit (rain of 0.012 gram I)er day iii the tot'll siIII)IIIII. c,11111111ate(i iii t1w I)r(,serN-atiN-(, 1wriod. Tlie amount eliIIIIII"Itc(I III t1w "Ifter iwrio(l Is aliiiost exactly y flie same as in tlie, fore 111(reste(I III 111c food SlIoNN's t1l. radiall diiiiiinition till'MilrIlOut 411c IwIllo- 0.030 (),raill 1)(,,r (lay less in fliv 1)re(gaill I)cr (Ia\- less III t1w aftcr 1wriod flia-ii ill the fore 'I'lle lIcIltral sulj)litir Is (Ittitc inarke(ili, decreased in
-11)otit olle-liall't1le, (11111-litih- ill dic after perlml t I]at it Is III t Ile 1)(1110(l. Tlie total still)Iia-tcs sliow at gradtial
tll(. (Allelval s1lII)II'IteS a, (lecreasc. Coll'sc(Itlelitly it, is ill tlie ,1111()Ill)t ()f illorgallic "'tIII)IIntes, *I, t1w casc (d No. s, diat flic, ii-Icrease-11 fj(rtIr( ,,, ( ,xj)r( ssill(r i ( I io of t1i
excrelloll (J S, r- 11 -at
etherval 1() t1le stiII)Iiatcs are I : (S.2, I rvsPICtivelY, 1,()I. tll(. t1irce Iwrio(k. of flj( total
'-IIIj)IIlIr el"Illillatc(l, flie figIll-( -, a inarkcd decrease iii the pre-






BENZOIC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1131

servative period in the neutral sulphur eliminated, and a reduction in the ethereal sulphates of one per cent, while an increase occurs in the inorganic sulphates. There is evidence in this case of an increase in the sulphur excretion with marked changes in the forms in which it is eliminated in the urine.
In the case of No. 9 there is a slight increase throughout in the total sulphur eliminated, though the sulphur ingested in the food slightly decreases. The neutral sulphur is greater in the preservative period by 0.037 gram and less by 0.029 gram in the after period than in the fore period. The total sulphates show a slight diminution in the p)reservative period but are increased in the after period. The ethereal sulphates are practically the same throughout. The inorganic sulphates show very little change, being slightly less in the preservative period and increasing in the after period. The ratio of ethereal to inorganic sulphates is 1:13.2 in the fore period, 1: 12.6 in the preservative period, and 1:13.0 in the after period. There is shown in this case a slight increase in the amount of sulphur eliminated, which differs from the previous data in that it is excreted in the neutral and organically combined form, whereas heretofore when there has been an increase, it is in the oxidized and inorganice form.
In the case of No. 10 there is practically no change in the amount of total sulphur excreted in the fore and preservative periods, while in the after period there is a decrease of 0.037 gram as compared with the amount in the fore period. There is a decrease of 0.037 grami in the amount of neutral sulphur in the preservative leriod and a still greater decrease in the after period. The ethereal sulphates are nearly constant in amount, while the inorganic sulphates show an increase in the preservative period, returning to )ractically the original figure in the after period. The ratios for the three periods are 1: 11.0, 1: 11.0, and 1: 10.41, respectively. The percentage figures as well as those expressing actual amounts show that. considering the diminished amount of sulphur in the food, there is a small increase in the excretion of inorganic sulphur.
No. 11 shows an increase( elimination of 0).05 grami per day of total sulplhur (luring the preservative period and 0.049 grain during the after period as compared with the fore period. The sulpihur ingested in the food gradually decreases throughout the ol)servation. In this case there is a marked increase in the katab)olic activities, at least, as regards the sulphur, which is even more 111 pronouncedd when it, is considered that the sulphur content of the food is diminished in about th le saille m11111 tude 111(is t he excretion is incrlleellsed. The increase in sulplihur, as inll the majority of cases, is in the inorgallnic suliphates, wlich are increased 0.220 graIm during the 1I)reserItive period ; in thie after period there is a strong tenden(lcy swn t ) return t( norma111111 conditions. The ethereal sulphates in the case of No. 11 show an






1132 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

increase during the preservative period of 0.016 gram and return to normal in the after period. The amount of neutral sulphur shows quite a decrease in the preservative period, rising to practically the same amount in the after period as in the fore period. The ratio of ethereal sulphates to inorganic sulphates is nearly twice the magnitude of the normal ratio and shows very little change, being 1: 18.7, 1: 18.1, and 1: 19.7, respectively, for the three periods. The percentage figures, showing relative amounts in terms of the total sulphur excreted, are in harmony with the figures showing the actual amounts present.
The data for No. 12 show an increased excretion of total sulphur of 0.051 gram per day during the preservative period with a decreased ingestion of 0.105 gram per day in the food. The amount of sulphur eliminated in the after period is less than in the fore period with a corresponding decrease in the amount of sulphur in the food. The neutral sulphur is diminished throughout as are the ethereal sulphates, the increase being entirely in the quantity of inorganic sulphates which show 0.152 gram more in the preservative period than in the fore period, but there is a decrease of 0.080 gram in the after period from the fore period. The results expressed in percentage show the same relative increase and decrease of the various forms as do the actual amounts.
SUMMARIES.

The summary for Nos. 1 and 4 is complete for the whole observation. This summary shows a decrease in the quantity of sulphur excreted in the preservative period and a still further decrease in the after period. The ratio of the ethereal to the inorganic sulphates is higher in the preservative period and still further increased in the after period. The ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur decrease throughout the observation both in percentage and actual amount.
The summary for Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6, omitting the fourth preservative subperiod, shows a slight increase in the amount of total sulphur eliminated during the preservative period and a decrease (during the after period. The sulphur ingested in the food slightly decreases throughout the observation.
In regard to the various forms in which this sulphur is eliminated, it is seen that there is quite a diminution in the neutral sulphur throughout, falling from 0.327 grai in tie fore period to 0.289 gram in the preservative period and 0.238 gramin in the after period. The ethereal sulphates are practically of the same magnitude (0.158 and 0.156 gram, respectively) in the fore and preservative periods, but fall to 0.148 gram in the after period. The increased excretion is due to time inorganic sulphates which amount to 1.762 grams in the fore period, 1.840 in the preservative period, and 1.729 in the after period.






BENZOTC ACID AND BENZOATES. 1133

The ratio is about normal and is 1: 11.1 in t lie fore perio(l, 1: 1 I.s III the preservative period, and 1: 11.7 in the after perio(I. The same changes are shown by the figures expressing the relative pereemage amounts of the different forms of sulphur for each period.
Taking the decrease in the amount of sulphur in the food ii)to consideration it is seen that there is a (reiieral teii(lemw ()n the pzirt of the preservative, benzoic. acid, to increase the excretwit. of Illet.1bolized sulphur; individu ally this is showit in 1, 2, tmd 5 ', X ().s.
and 6 showing a decrease duriiig the preserv--itive perl(KI. The
decrease in food sulphur, however, in the case of No. 4 1.- practicitil y the same as the decreased excretion, while for N(). G the (Iecrczt O I'll food sulphur is greater. Attention is called to the reductlim (4 t I)e neutral sulphur throughout the observati0ii, v.-hich L, milforlilly shown for all the Hidividuals of this sumniarv. Aii0ther iwliit L, t IW remarkable constancy of tile, ethereal sulphates. Tlie HIC111111-41(i
excretion of the sulphur is completely oxidized aiid e. crctcd 111 (1111 inorganic form. which naturalk- st](ditiv ilicreases the rallo M, t1le ethereal to the inorgi1iiie sulphates.
The next summary I's for Nos. 7 to 12, NN-ho received beilz().tte 4 soda. There is a sli(rhtlv lar(rer 111CITZ111-411 ill t1le (,X(.I-Otl()Il (d for those taking the preservative iii this form thaii t'()r No I to (i
(omittiii(r No. 3), and there is .-Aso a, decrei-tsed flio-estWit, (d throu(Y-hout the entire observatioii. 'Flie iieuti-:11 "till)h1ir 1, (Iccreased tlirou(rllotlt and the ethere.-il sulp] itit es reillitill CMIstant durill(r Hie fore Iiiid preservative periods N\-Ith ,I declvt -c
durill(r tile after period. I'l I (, Ilj()r(r,jjjIC -qlIpIIzIte.-, *I1(Tc,1 -(1(1 ().(mo gram durilitr tile preservative pel-iod', ,is comptired with 0.07,s lri-,mi ificrease HI the StIllilliar v for N(),-;. ly 2 4, 51 ,111d G (tIld 1'etil"'ll to practictally the St-Illie 11111wilit ill tile after perlml as Ill tile The 1-11tio i, sli(.rlltlN- htqr( r thall Ill tile I)ellz()I(. "Ichl sillillilal-N- 111(1 i lar(.7rest. M the -Ifter periwl.
The s1mie treiid Ili flic I)ercelihip, excl-eltion Is ill 1)()tll >11111m aries \\-Ith the except( ii (d tile ethere'll 1111)11,ttes Ill t1w "ll'tel. perio(l N\-Ilicli to be declv,I-,( d Ill t1le sm ilillil belizi),ite >1111 I1111*111 V (Nos. 7 to) 12) zm (l is I-ettil-lied to) ill Ole 'W IJ L- lWil[O'Cillk
111111W Ill gellel.11, 11 Is (Illitc t1lat t1lel-c I
It" dilrel'(111C(I Ill tile effect pl- )(Illccd 1) beliz()Ic acid 111(1 >()dltll1l 114-11ZOO (, ()It tile eX(-IvtI()l1 4 sillphill. ill tile ill-Ilie. 1 hil-111t.l. sllowl) b\- ill,,I)ectl4)ll 4 t.iie d2itti Ili the simmini'Y t*,)i- No-,- I t(i 12, ilic di-Ita beill(r cm ilbilled 111 M le exl)1'0 "Nk)ll. 'I'Ile ,e
the gellelll effect ()I* thl, Ili Its t\\4) 1*()1-111 (ill Ille
tioll a sillpill1r.
It IS q jlIt(- 11111t th(q-e is 11 11.rllj llllilllfv ,Ictl 1''
hicreii:- e flie 11 -ntztlm llc w -h\'Oles, iis b\. Ille illclen.mld CXCl*Ctjj:,.
O's -7






1134 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

of metabolized sulphur, which is more pronounced when the diminution in the amount of sulphur in the food is taken into consideration. There is a reduction in the amount of neutral sulphur eliminated under the influence of the preservatives and this diminution is increased in the after period.
The average increased excretion of total sulphates during the preservative period is 0.082 gram per day, which is entirely in the form of inorganic sulphates, as the ethereal sulphates are practically of the same magnitude in the fore and preservative periods. From this it is quite evident that there is a marked tendency, as is shown by the sulphur and sulphate excretion, to increase katabolic activities, at least during the administration of the preservative. Considered in connection with the decrease in body weight, this point becomes more significant.
Another point worthy of mention in this discussion is the constancy of the ethereal sulphates. These organically combined sulphates are regarded as an index to putrefactive changes in the intestines due to proteid decomposition. The average elimination for the 11 men is as follows: Fore period, 0.157; preservative period, 0.154, and after period, 0.143.
It is evident, therefore, that the administration of benzoic acid and benzoates has practically no effect on the excretion of the ethereal sulphates. This condition may be accounted for in two ways. The preservative may be broken up or absorbed, the aromatic nucleus being taken up by the glycocoll in the body, and therefore it does not reach that part of the intestinal canal where the ethereal sulphates are formed, or it may in part reach the lower intestines where the reduction in these sulphates caused by the antiseptic action of the preservative is offset by the increase due to the combination with the benzene nucleus. From the uniform manner in which these aromatic sulphates are excreted, it would seem that the first explanation is more plausible and that the excretion of ethereal suilphates is, therefore, maintained under nearly normal conditions.